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Abstract

Anecdotal reports as well as behavioral studies have suggested that creative performance benefits from unconscious processes. So far, however, little is known about how creative ideas arise from the brain. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the neural correlates of creativity by means of structural MRI research. Given that unconscious and less controlled processes are important in creative thinking, structural brain research may find a positive correlation between well-established creativity measures and cortical thickness in brain structures of the default mode network (i.e., the counterpart of the cognitive control network). Individuals performed the Alternative Uses task by which an individual's cognitive flexibility and the average uniqueness and average creativity of a participant's ideas were assessed. We computed optimized voxel-based-morphometry (VBM) to explore the correlation between inter-individual differences in creativity and inter-individual differences in gray matter volume. For all creativity measures, a positive correlation was found between creative performance and gray matter volume of the default mode network. These findings support the idea that the default mode network is important in creativity, and provide neurostructural support for the idea that unconscious forms of information processing are important in creativity. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

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... Moreover, the strictly controlled creativity experiment ignores the effects of spontaneous processes on creative thinking. For instance, incubation and mind-wandering, which are less controlled processes, have positive effects on creative thinking [37][38][39][40] . Furthermore, strict control of response time, such as 15 s, might inhibit the search for originality 27 . ...
... It is obvious from both the experimental and theoretical observations described above that flexibility/freedom is a fundamental need to incubate creativity through sufficient duration and open-ended tasks. The sufficient duration might induce a period of incubation and mind wondering that could facilitate creative problem solving through relaxation, overcoming fixation, and mental set-shifting [37][38][39][40] . Open-ended tasks offer unlimited potential for participants to explore solutions without predefined solutions or strategies. ...
... In contrast, microstate F has been primarily associated with activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), which is more active during the cognitive control tasks 50,97 . These findings support that the default mode network and cognitive control network play central roles in creativity 40,69,98 . The more active DMN indicated that idea evolution might be more associated with irrational cognitive process, such as relaxation or incubation. ...
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Article
Many neurocognitive studies endeavor to understand neural mechanisms of basic creative activities in strictly controlled experiments. However, little evidence is available regarding the neural mechanisms of interactions between basic activities underlying creativity in such experiments. Moreover, strictly controlled experiments might limit flexibility/freedom needed for creative exploration. Thus, this study investigated the whole-brain neuronal networks’ interactions between three modes of thinking: idea generation, idea evolution, and evaluation in a loosely controlled creativity experiment. The loosely controlled creativity experiment will provide a degree of flexibility/freedom for participants to incubate creative ideas through extending response time from a few seconds to 3 min. In the experiment, participants accomplished a modified figural Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT-F) while their EEG signals were recorded. During idea generation, a participant was instructed to complete a sketch that was immediately triggered by a sketch stimulus at first sight. During idea evolution, a participant was instructed to complete a sketch that is radically distinctive from what was immediately triggered by the sketch stimulus. During the evaluation, a participant was instructed to evaluate difficulties of thinking and drawing during idea generation and evolution. It is expected that participants would use their experience to intuitively complete a sketch during idea generation while they could use more divergent and imaginative thinking to complete a possible creative sketch during idea evolution. Such an experimental design is named as a loosely controlled creativity experiment, which offers an approach to studying creativity in an ecologically valid manner. The validity of the loosely controlled creativity experiment could be verified through comparing its findings on phenomena that have been effectively studied by validated experimental research. It was found from our experiment that alpha power decreased significantly from rest to the three modes of thinking. These findings are consistent with that from visual creativity research based on event related (de)synchronization (ERD/ERS) and task-related power changes (TRP). Specifically, in the lower alpha band (8–10 Hz), the decreases of alpha power were significantly lower over almost the entire scalp during idea evolution compared to the other modes of thinking. This finding indicated that idea evolution requires less general attention demands than the other two modes of thinking since the lower alpha ERD has been reported as being more likely to reflect general task demands such as attentional processes. In the upper alpha band (10–12 Hz), the decreases of alpha power were significantly higher over central sites during the evaluation compared to idea evolution. This finding indicated that evaluation involves more task-specific demands since the upper alpha ERD has been found as being more likely to reflect task-specific demands such as memory and intelligence, as was defined in the literature. In addition, new findings were obtained since the loosely controlled creativity experiment could activate multiple brain networks to accomplish the tasks involving the three modes of thinking. EEG microstate analysis was used to structure the unstructured EEG data to detect the activation of multiple brain networks. Combined EEG-fMRI and EEG source localization studies have indicated that EEG microstate classes are closely associated with the resting-state network as identified using fMRI. It was found that the default mode network was more active during idea evolution compared to the other two modes of thinking, while the cognitive control network was more active during the evaluation compared to the other two modes of thinking. This finding indicated that idea evolution might be more associated with unconscious and internal directed attention processes. Taken together, the loosely controlled creativity experiment with the support of EEG microstate analysis appears to offer an effective approach to investigating the real-world complex creativity activity.
... Creativity on the other hand, is the ability to create an output which is novel and somehow useful or appropriate at the same time [62]. Literature repeatedly demonstrated the relationship between mind wandering and creativity as well as mind wandering and divergent thinking [10,18,36]. ...
... While mentally shifting from topic to topic, individuals mostly process autobiographical information [63] regarding future or past events [11]. During mind-wandering episodes, we find a deviation of external information towards internal notions, which triggers divergent thinking and thus creativity [36]. ...
... Creativity is a process of creating innovative solutions and novelties [36]. To describe creativity, two essential elements are commonly used. ...
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Conference Paper
With the advancement of information technologies, routine tasks are increasingly supported by information systems, which is why ideation and creativity is becoming more and more important. We know from many anecdotes that creative ideas emerge when our mind is wandering instead of being focused on the task at hand. Yet, most information systems that are used for work-related purposes offer only little opportunities for task-unrelated thoughts. In contrast, current literature shows that most information technology is designed to keep our attention. In order to better understand the value of mind wandering, we propose an experimental design that incorporates interruptions that vary in their length with the objective to stimulate episodes of mind wandering and thus positively impact creativity. We provide initial insights on how the experiment should designed and discuss implications for future research.
... Creative states known to often occur during the SO transition, which have been credited throughout history by many scientists, artists and other creative achievers (indeed, the frequency of this phenomenon is greater among creative individuals) (Jimenovaldes andJimenobulnes, 1993, Watanabe, 1996), could also be partially explained by our effective connectivity results. In this way, transmission at low frequencies (mostly in the theta range) from the PCC (a key region for fluency of idea generation, positively correlated with amount of gray matter in this region) and the disengagement of the MPFC (an area that reduces BOLD activity during musical improvisation and flow states) are common to SO and flow states (Kuhn et al., 2014, Ulrich et al., 2014, Jauk et al., 2015. A possible interpretation to these shared Chapter 4: Assessing intracortical causal information flow of oscillatory activity at the sleep onset transition with the isolated effective coherence (iCOH) 135 neurobiological aspects could be the sense of "vanishing self" that is subjectively described both during flow states and SO, as selfawareness might be critically supported by the major hubs of the DMN (i.e., MPFC and PCC) (Brewer et al., 2013, Ulrich et al., 2014. ...
... Consequently, causality is addressed in the context of computational neuroscience by the introduction of effective connectivity techniques (Friston, 2011, Liu and Aviyente, 2012, Kuhn et al., 2014, Stam et al., 2016. In general, effective connectivity methods do not absolutely solve the issue of latent variables, but the most popular among them (when performing an overall analysis of all channels simultaneously, most commonly linear, as explained later) may be extremely powerful in its detection, offering an excellent reliability (Korzeniewska et al., 2003, Khadem and Hossein-Zadeh, 2014, Huang et al., 2015. ...
... The authors argue that inhibitory top-down control benefits creativity, which is connected to the external disengagement (that is, at the neuronal level, a form of inhibition, as the environment becomes a "task-irrelevant process", so to speak) happening during sleep onset, while there remains still certain conscious awareness (Esser et al., 2009). Furthermore, during the SO transition, norepinephrine and cortisol levels are known to undergo an overall reduction, and it has been experimentally shown that lower concentration of these hormones benefit creativity, possibly due to a modulating effect on cognitive control and cortical arousal in prefrontal regions (Kuhn et al., 2014). ...
... Creative states known to often occur during the SO transition, which have been credited throughout history by many scientists, artists and other creative achievers (indeed, the frequency of this phenomenon is greater among creative individuals) (Jimenovaldes andJimenobulnes, 1993, Watanabe, 1996), could also be partially explained by our effective connectivity results. In this way, transmission at low frequencies (mostly in the theta range) from the PCC (a key region for fluency of idea generation, positively correlated with amount of gray matter in this region) and the disengagement of the MPFC (an area that reduces BOLD activity during musical improvisation and flow states) are common to SO and flow states (Kuhn et al., 2014, Ulrich et al., 2014, Jauk et al., 2015. A possible interpretation to these shared Chapter 4: Assessing intracortical causal information flow of oscillatory activity at the sleep onset transition with the isolated effective coherence (iCOH) 135 neurobiological aspects could be the sense of "vanishing self" that is subjectively described both during flow states and SO, as selfawareness might be critically supported by the major hubs of the DMN (i.e., MPFC and PCC) (Brewer et al., 2013, Ulrich et al., 2014. ...
... Consequently, causality is addressed in the context of computational neuroscience by the introduction of effective connectivity techniques (Friston, 2011, Liu and Aviyente, 2012, Kuhn et al., 2014, Stam et al., 2016. In general, effective connectivity methods do not absolutely solve the issue of latent variables, but the most popular among them (when performing an overall analysis of all channels simultaneously, most commonly linear, as explained later) may be extremely powerful in its detection, offering an excellent reliability (Korzeniewska et al., 2003, Khadem and Hossein-Zadeh, 2014, Huang et al., 2015. ...
... The authors argue that inhibitory top-down control benefits creativity, which is connected to the external disengagement (that is, at the neuronal level, a form of inhibition, as the environment becomes a "task-irrelevant process", so to speak) happening during sleep onset, while there remains still certain conscious awareness (Esser et al., 2009). Furthermore, during the SO transition, norepinephrine and cortisol levels are known to undergo an overall reduction, and it has been experimentally shown that lower concentration of these hormones benefit creativity, possibly due to a modulating effect on cognitive control and cortical arousal in prefrontal regions (Kuhn et al., 2014). ...
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Thesis
Rigorous study of effective connectivity and current source density underlying the sleep onset transition through a source localization tool (LORETA). It involves two conditions (baseline and recovery), which are also compared, showing the effects of increased sleep homeostatic load. The process is tracked as a function of time with all relevant statistical analysis. The study shows the prominent role of the default mode network and a causal mechanism located in the posteromedial cortex (posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus).
... For example, a link might be realized via the default mode network. Blinks activate the default mode network (Nakano et al., 2013), which has been shown to play a role in creativity (Beaty et al., 2014;Kühn et al., 2014) as well as to be linked to dopamine (Dang et al., 2012;Nagano-Saito et al., 2009). ...
... However, Ueda et al. (2016) explain the linear effect of task-related eye blinks through the activation of the default mode network. As mentioned in the introduction, the default mode network has been proposed to be involved during creativity (Beaty et al., 2014;Kühn et al., 2014). We can add, as the level of blink rate within a subject did not correlate with the scores (see Supplementary Fig. S3) a temporally fine-grained marker of dopamine is not likely. ...
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Article
Creativity, specifically divergent thinking, has been shown to benefit from unrestrained walking. Despite these findings, it is not clear if it is the lack of restriction that leads to the improvement. Our goal was to explore the effects of motor restrictions on divergent thinking for different movement states. In addition, we assessed whether spontaneous eye blinks, which are linked to motor execution, also predict performance. In experiment 1, we compared the performance in Guilford’s alternate uses task (AUT) during walking vs. sitting, and analysed eye blink rates during both conditions. We found that AUT scores were higher during walking than sitting. Albeit eye blinks differed significantly between movement conditions (walking vs. sitting) and task phase (baseline vs. thinking vs. responding), they did not correlate with task performance. In experiment 2 and 3, participants either walked freely or in a restricted path, or sat freely or fixated on a screen. When the factor restriction was explicitly modulated, the effect of walking was reduced, while restriction showed a significant influence on the fluency scores. Importantly, we found a significant correlation between the rate of eye blinks and creativity scores between subjects, depending on the restriction condition. Our study shows a movement state-independent effect of restriction on divergent thinking. In other words, similar to unrestrained walking, unrestrained sitting also improves divergent thinking. Importantly, we discuss a mechanistic explanation of the effect of restriction on divergent thinking based on the increased size of the focus of attention and the consequent bias towards flexibility.
... Numerous theories and studies aim to identify personal and organizational predictors of employees' creativity at work (see Hammond et al., 2011, for a meta-analytical review). Yet the association between recovery and creativity has received scant research attention, although several theories and studies imply that there may be a connection between recovery and the generation of creative solutions (Fink et al., 2010;Kühn et al., 2014). A first study by De Bloom et al. (2014b) showed that employees' cognitive flexibility increased after vacation. ...
... The DMN allows us introspections and to experience daydreams, and is important for mental imagination and creativity. Kühn et al. (2014) found a positive association between creative performance (operationalized with the Alternative Uses Task) and the grey matter volume of the DMN, which implies that the DMN plays a crucial role in generating creative ideas. Employees often associate vacations with activities enhancing relaxation (De Bloom et al., 2013). ...
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Article
The aim of this study was to investigate employees' self-reported creativity before and after vacation and to examine the impact of recovery experiences (detachment, relaxation, mastery, meaning, autonomy, affiliation) on changes in creativity. The DRAMMA model of Newman et al. provides the theoretical background of our approach. Longitudinal data was assessed with four repeated measurements. The study encompassed data from 274 white-collar workers. Analyses showed that employees subjectively perceive their creativity to benefit not immediately after their vacation but 2 weeks later. Detachment was significantly related to lower creativity within persons, while mastery experiences explained differences in creativity between persons. This study provides a detailed picture of changes in creativity around vacations.
... Here we used a mixed approach. First, the default mode network (DMN) centers, which, according to existing data [29,30], take part in cognitive processes related to the search for creative solutions, were chosen: medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC: −1, 49, −2), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC: −5, −53, 41), and left (LPC: −45, −71, 35) and right (RPC: 45, −71, 35) parietal cortex [31]. In addition, the centers of seven clusters were used, in which the data analysis revealed significant differences in the current source density when comparing insight and analytical solutions (see the Results section). ...
... The earliest effect when comparing insight and non-insight decisions is an increase in delta activity in the PCC, which is one of the DMN hubs and according to existing data is involved in cognitive processes related to the search for creative solutions [29,30,38]. In the same period, a reduced (compared to analytical decisions) connectivity between the left insula and the left STG in theta frequency range was revealed. ...
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Article
Insight is described as the sudden solution of a problem and is contrasted with an analytical, step-by-step approach. Traditionally, insight is thought to be associated with activity of the right hemisphere, whereas analytical solutions are thought to be associated with activity of the left hemisphere. However, empirical evidence as to the localization of insight-related brain activity is mixed and inconclusive. Some studies seem to confirm the traditional view, whereas others do not. Moreover, results of EEG and fMRI studies frequently contradict each other. In this study, EEG and fMRI data were recorded while subjects performed the remote association test and for each solved problem were asked to report whether the solution was reached analytically or insightfully. The data were analyzed in a 16-second fragment preceding the subject’s response. Source localization techniques were used in the analysis of EEG data. Based on EEG data, insightful as compared to analytical problem solving was accompanied by high-frequency synchronization in semantic cortical areas of the left hemisphere 10–12 s before the subject’s response. Based on fMRI data, however, insightful solutions were accompanied by increased activity in frontal and temporal regions of the right hemisphere. The results are interpreted in terms of different cognitive processes involved in insightful problem solving, which could be differently reflected in EEG and fMRI data.
... The alternative uses task (AUT) task (Guilford et al., 1960), as previously described, is a widely used and well validated measure of divergent thinking Fink et al., 2010;Jung et al., 2010;Kühn et al., 2014). Fluency, flexibility and originality are all measured. ...
... Fluency, flexibility and originality are all measured. This task is commonly applied alongside control tasks, such as the object characteristics task, in which participants are instructed to generate features for the object presented, or object uses task where participants are instructed to name the use of the object presented (Kühn et al., 2014). ...
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Article
There are conflicting findings regarding brain regions and networks underpinning creativity, with divergent thinking tasks commonly used to study this. A handful of meta-analyses have attempted to synthesise findings on neural mechanisms of divergent thinking. With the rapid proliferation of research and recent developments in fMRI meta-analysis approaches, it is timely to reassess the regions activated during divergent thinking creativity tasks. Of particular interest is examining the evidence regarding large-scale brain networks proposed to be key in divergent thinking and extending this work to consider the role of the semantic control network. Studies utilising fMRI with healthy participants completing divergent thinking tasks were systematically identified, with twenty studies meeting the criteria. Activation Likelihood Estimation was then used to integrate the neuroimaging results across studies. This revealed four clusters: the left inferior parietal lobe; the left inferior frontal and precentral gyrus; the superior and medial frontal gyrus and the right cerebellum. These regions are key in the semantic network, important for flexible retrieval of stored knowledge, highlighting the role of this network in divergent thinking.
... The right hemisphere findings revealed several negative correlations in the superior frontal gyrus, which has also been found with higher divergent thinking performance anticorrelated within the superior frontal regions. However, other studies have found increased volume in right superior frontal gyrus to be correlated with creativity and cognitive flexibility (Kühn et al., 2014). Scientific creative achievement is hypothesized to rely more heavily on convergent thinking processes in the pursuit of solving one specific goal. ...
... However, as currently comprised, the literature regarding structural correlates of the CAQ now shows both increased and decreased volume in relation to higher creative achievement (Chen et al., 2014;Jung et al., 2010;Shi et al., 2017). Previous studies in creativity neuroscience have implicated broad regions overlapping significantly with the DMN (Bashwiner et al., 2016;Beaty et al., 2015;Kühn et al., 2014) and the CCN (Chrysikou et al., 2014;Li et al., 2016). The current findings appear to conform with the hypothesis regarding dynamic interplay between DMN and CCN (mediated by the SN) as our results implicated several areas across these broad networks. ...
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Article
Very few studies have investigated neuroanatomical correlates of "everyday" creative achievement in cohorts of normal subjects. In previous research, we first showed that scores on the Creative Achievement Questionnaire (CAQ) were associated with lower cortical thickness within the left lateral orbitofrontal gyrus (LOFG), and increased thickness of the right angular gyrus (AG) (Jung et al., 2010). Newer studies found the CAQ to be associated with decreased volume of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) (Chen, et al., 2014), and that artistic and scientific creativity was associated with increased and decreased volumes within the executive control network and salience network (Shi et al., 2017). We desired to replicate and extend our previous study in a larger cohort (N = 248), comprised of subjects studying and working in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). Subjects were youn (Range = 16-32; Mean age = 21.8; s.d. = 3.5) all of whom were administered the CAQ from which we derived artistic and scientific creativity factors. All subjects underwent structural MRI on a 3 T scanner from which cortical thickness, area, and volume measures were obtained using FreeSurfer. Our results showed mostly cortical thinning in relation to total, scientific, and artistic creative achievement encompassing many regions involved in the cognitive control network (CCN) and default mode network (DMN).
... The default mode network (DMN), known for being more active during rest than during tasks, is frequently associated with creativity (e.g., Beaty et al., 2014;Kühn et al., 2014). The DMN has been associated with spontaneous mental processes and mind-wandering (Mason et al., 2007;Christoff et al., 2009), but has also been linked to goal-directed tasks, such as future thinking and episodic memory retrieval (Spreng et al., 2009). ...
... For example, greater fractional anisotropy (FA) values (corresponding to greater white matter integrity) predicted greater divergent thinking in the bilateral subgyral frontal lobe, right medial frontal gyrus (MFG), temporal-parietal junction (TPJ) and right IPL (Takeuchi et al., 2010b). Similarly, grey matter volume (GMV) correlates have included the MFG (Takeuchi et al., 2010a) and TPJ, as well as ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC; Kühn et al., 2014). Creative achievement, in turn, has been linked to lower cortical thickness in left vmPFC and higher thickness in right angular gyrus (Jung et al., 2010); as well as to greater GMV and left superior frontal gyrus within the right vmPFC (Chen et al., 2014). ...
Article
Neuroimaging has revealed numerous neural predictors of individual differences in creativity; however, with most of these identified in only one study, sometimes involving very small samples, their reliability is uncertain. To contribute to a convergent cognitive neuroscience of creativity, we conducted a pre-registered conceptual replication and extension study in which we assessed previously reported predictors of creativity using a multimodal approach, incorporating volumetric, white matter, and functional connectivity neuroimaging data. We assessed sets of pre-registered predictors against prevailing measures of creativity, including visual and verbal tests of divergent thinking, everyday creative behaviour, and creative achievement. We then conducted whole-brain exploratory analyses. Greater creativity was broadly predicted by features of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and inferior parietal lobe (IPL), including both local grey matter and white matter predictors in the IFG, the superior longitudinal fasciculus that connects them, and IFG-IPL functional connectivity. As IFG and IPL are important nodes within executive control and default mode networks (DMN), respectively, this result supports the view that executive modulation of DMN activity optimizes creative ideation. Furthermore, white matter integrity of the basal ganglia was also a generalizable creativity predictor, and exploratory analyses revealed the anterior lobe of the cerebellum and the parahippocampal gyrus to both be reliable predictors of creativity across neuroimaging modalities. This pattern aligns with proposals ascribing roles of working and long-term memory to problem-solving and imagination. Overall, our findings help to consolidate some, but not all neural correlates of individual differences that have been discussed in the cognitive neuroimaging of creativity, yielding a subset that appear particularly promising for focused future investigation.
... Previous fMRI studies investigating the neural mechanisms that underpin musical creativity often report activation of the ECN (Bengtsson et al., 2007). The ECN is located in the frontal lobe and comprises the DLPFC, ACC, and AIC (Kuhn et al., 2013). The ECN mediates three distinct cognitive mechanisms associated with creativity: inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility (Diamond, 2013;Sowden et al., 2015;Bendetowicz et al., 2017;Kenett et al., 2018). ...
... The DMN is another neural network that underpins creative cognition in a musical context, yet operates in direct contrast to the ECN (Limb and Braun, 2008). The DMN is a combination of brain areas that include the vMPFC, the PCC, and the medial and lateral temporal lobes (Kuhn et al., 2013;Zhu et al., 2017). The vMPFC is of particular importance since it mediates mind wandering, future imagination, and is activated during tasks requiring musical creativity (Limb and Braun, 2008;Bashwiner et al., 2016;Kenett et al., 2018). ...
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Article
Neuroscientific research has revealed interconnected brain networks implicated in musical creativity, such as the executive control network, the default mode network, and premotor cortices. The present study employed brain stimulation to evaluate the role of the primary motor cortex (M1) in creative and technically fluent jazz piano improvisations. We implemented transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to alter the neural activation patterns of the left hemispheric M1 whilst pianists performed improvisations with their right hand. Two groups of expert jazz pianists (n = 8 per group) performed five improvisations in each of two blocks. In Block 1, they improvised in the absence of brain stimulation. In Block 2, one group received inhibitory tDCS and the second group received excitatory tDCS while performing five new improvisations. Three independent expert-musicians judged the 160 performances on creativity and technical fluency using a 10-point Likert scale. As the M1 is involved in the acquisition and consolidation of motor skills and the control of hand orientation and velocity, we predicted that excitatory tDCS would increase the quality of improvisations relative to inhibitory tDCS. Indeed, improvisations under conditions of excitatory tDCS were rated as significantly more creative than those under conditions of inhibitory tDCS. A music analysis indicated that excitatory tDCS elicited improvisations with greater pitch range and number/variety of notes. Ratings of technical fluency did not differ significantly between tDCS groups. We discuss plausible mechanisms by which the M1 region contributes to musical creativity.
... The DMN is a network of brain regions originally identified in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies during task-free trials [16]. It consists of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) [17,18]. Activity in the DMN is frequently associated with spontaneous cognitions and self-generated thought, including mind wandering, future thinking, memory retrieval, and divergent thinking [19][20][21][22]. ...
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Article
Conflicts between groups are difficult to resolve, partly because humans tend to be biased in judging outgroup members. The aim of the current article is to review findings on the link between creativity and conflict-related biases and to offer a model that views creative cognition as an ability that may contribute to overcoming conflict-related biases. Our proposed model conforms to the twofold model of creativity. According to this model, creativity involves a generation phase and an evaluation phase, and these phases correspond to the neural mechanisms that underlie conflict-related biases. Specifically, we contend that the generation phase of creativity affects conflict-related biases by exerting an influence on stereotypes and prejudice, outgroup-targeted emotions, and ingroup empathy biases, all of which rely on the default mode network. Conversely, the evaluation phase of creativity, which is usually associated with activation in the executive control network and action-observation system, may be related to herding behaviors. Building on the shared mechanisms of creativity and conflicts, we propose that studies examining creativity-based interventions may be effective in promoting reconciliation.
... Pored spontane mentalne aktivnosti van zadatka, DMN je povezana sa introspekcijom, ruminacijom i kreativnim uvidima (Svrakic & Divac-Jovanovic, 2018). Jak FC unutar mreža sa fleksibilnošću alterniranja između spontane aktivnosti i mreža za zadatak olakšava kreativnost (Beaty et al., 2014(Beaty et al., , 2015Feng et al., 2019;Kühn et al., 2014), a suprotnost, diskonektivnost ili zaključavanje imaju vezu sa psihozom (Friston et al., 2016;Stephan et al., 2009). ...
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Thesis
Personality and environment interact to influence attitudes formation. Group processes, reasoning, traits, and brain activity have been used to explain political attitudes and behavior. Social phenomena have been associated with clinical indicators, albeit with inconclusive results. Psychobiological model of personality measures temperament dispositions in interaction with character, i.e., with mental health and success of social adaptation. They overcome a need for separate measurements of adaptive and maladaptive trait correlates. Such an efficient approach integrates traits measurement along the dimension of normalcy-pathology. We set out to investigate associations between the model and Right-Wing Authoritarianism, Conspiracy Mentality, and Manichean Worldview in a non-representative community sample. The model accounted for 24% of variance in RWA and negligible percentages in the rest. The strongest predictor was found to be Self-Transcendence, followed by Impulsiveness and Persistence, with Exploratory Excitability and Reward Dependence as negative predictors. There were no correlations between mental health and socio-political constructs. Implications are discussed.
... Also, activating the DMN, letting the mind wander, and, thus, withstanding external stimuli lead to benefits in another field: creativity (Beaty et al., 2014a(Beaty et al., , b, 2016Dijksterhuis & Meurs, 2006;Jung, 2013;Kühn et al., 2014;Sunavsky & Poppenk, 2019). Most advantages can be found in divergent thinking, meaning the process of exploring as many ideas as possible. ...
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Chapter
While the initial research on the wandering mind usually saw it as a problem, recent research tends to have a more positive view of its adaptive functions. This has also influenced our understanding of meditative practice. While mindfulness techniques have often been argued to reduce mind wandering, it has been suggested that nondirective meditation facilitates mind wandering and default mode network activity. This chapter explores the implications of this for emotional processing. It is based on an fMRI study suggesting that nondirective meditation activates the default mode network and in particular brain areas associated with emotional processing.KeywordsMind-wanderingEmotional processingNondirective meditationDefault mode network
... Also, activating the DMN, letting the mind wander, and, thus, withstanding external stimuli lead to benefits in another field: creativity (Beaty et al., 2014a(Beaty et al., , b, 2016Dijksterhuis & Meurs, 2006;Jung, 2013;Kühn et al., 2014;Sunavsky & Poppenk, 2019). Most advantages can be found in divergent thinking, meaning the process of exploring as many ideas as possible. ...
Chapter
We provide an overview of the “lines” and “circles” of knowledge that represent the key to reading this collective volume. The two sections of the book are described, introducing the content of each chapter and their connections, resonances and dialectics. The goal of the book is to present an overview of the many interesting emerging perspectives on mind wandering in human development and education. Through it we recreate a dance of interacting parts: scrolling through the different contributions, one can grasp the rhythm of convergences and interconnections that animates them. The gaze is generative-systemic because we are attentive both to the emergency processes and to the interactions between parts(zigzag).KeywordsMind-wanderingNeurosciencesCultural-historical psychologyGenerativityHigher mental functions
... The DMN has been linked to semantic and episodic memory retrieval (Buckner et al., 2008;Raichle, 2015), which has been shown to underpin creative thinking Madore, Thakral, Beaty, Addis, & Schacter, 2019). Moreover, increased gray matter density within regions associated with the DMN has been linked to higher creative abilities (Kuhn et al., 2014). In contrast, the FPCN encompasses lateral prefrontal and anterior inferior parietal brain areas and is associated with primary executive abilities such as goal maintenance, inhibition, and attentional control (Niendam et al., 2012). ...
Article
Evidence from fMRI research indicates that individual creative thinking ability – defined as performance on divergent thinking tasks, subjectively assessed by human raters – can be predicted based on the strength of functional connectivity (FC) between the brain’s default mode network (DMN) and frontoparietal control network (FPCN). Here, we sought to replicate and extend these findings in two ways: 1) using a natural language processing method to objectively quantify creative performance (instead of subjective human ratings), and 2) employing functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), a neuroimaging method that allows measuring brain activity in more naturalistic settings (compared to fMRI). By applying elastic-net regression to resting-state functional connectivity data, we constructed two separate prediction models to predict participants’ creative performance based on static FC and dynamic FC respectively. Results from the static network analysis indicated that fNIRS-functional connectivity between the DMN and FPCN can reliably predict creative ability (assessed objectively via natural language processing; R² = .38). Moreover, we show that dynamic DMN-FPCN functional connectivity predicts creative ability nearly twice as strong as static connectivity (R² = .67). Our work demonstrates that objective measures of creativity can be predicted from resting-state functional connectivity and that the procedure can be efficiently implemented within highly naturalistic settings with fNIRS.
... According to neuroscientifi c theories, the default mode network (DMN) is a network of brain regions that are active when the individual is not focused on the outside world and the brain is at wakeful rest: that's precisely the state that describes the 'dreaming pupil'. Modern creativity theories (Kühn et al., 2014;Beaty et al., 2014) underscore the crucial importance of the default mode network to creative processes. ...
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Creativity was the theme of the EAS-congress 2016 and is a core matter both in music education and in music therapy. Involving neuropsychological notions and concepts such as neuroplasti-city, divergent and convergent thinking and functions of the 'default mode network', the paper tries to elucidate underlying principles of creativity. Scientific findings point out how creativity it relevant to personal growth, problem-solving and vital energy. Particularly pupils with medical conditions such as affective or psychotic disorders may benefit from creative expression and production which is, in artistic contexts, not necessarily seen as a pathological symptom. Well-developed creativity enhances life-quality and social inclusion across the lifespan .
... The AUT has been strongly linked with the DMN in both functional-connectivity analyses (Beaty et al., 2015(Beaty et al., , 2014 and structural analyses of DT Kühn et al., 2014;Wertz, Chohan, Ramey, Flores, & Jung, 2020), although far less so in standard functional-activation studies. While neither of the two previous DT meta-analyses reported DMN components in their results (Cogdell-Brooke et al., 2020;Wu et al., 2015), we observed a PCC cluster in the AUT analysis in left BA 23/31 close to where Beaty et al. (2015) reported their most extensive cluster in a multivoxel pattern analysis of the AUT. ...
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Article
One of the central questions about the cognitive neuroscience of creativity is the extent to which creativity depends on either domain-specific or domain-general mechanisms. To address this question, we carried out two parallel activation likelihood estimation meta-analyses of creativity: 1) a motoric analysis that combined studies across five domains of creative production (verbalizing, music, movement, writing, and drawing), and 2) an analysis of the standard ideational task used to study divergent thinking, the Alternate Uses task. All experiments contained a contrast between a creative task and a matched non-creative or less-creative task that controlled for the sensorimotor demands of task performance. The activation profiles of the two meta-analyses were non-overlapping, but both pointed to a domain-specific interpretation in which creative production is, at least in part, an enhancement of sensorimotor brain areas involved in non-creative production. The most concordant areas of activation in the motoric meta-analysis were high-level motor areas such as the pre-supplementary motor area and inferior frontal gyrus that interface motor planning and executive control, suggesting a means of uniting domain-specificity and -generality in creative production.
... 25). These three circumstances, have one thing in common, namely, that they are situations in which a person is most likely to engage in mind wandering, the state that I have described as producing combinations in which the parameters p, u, and v all approach zero (Simonton, 2018b): just random thoughts that merely reveal that the brain is idling, or what has been more technically called in the neurosciences the activation of the "default mode network" (Kühn et al., 2014). Yet this mental state has also been linked to creative insights (Gable et al., 2019; see also Gilhooly, this volume). ...
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Chapter
This chapter examines the notion of the ‘prepared mind’, popular in serendipity and creativity studies, in ways that defend and advance the ontological position that mind and context are co-constitutive or interdependent. From this standpoint, it makes little sense to ask what is ‘inside’ the mind but, rather, what happens in-between mind and world in moments of creative serendipity. Three forms of relating to the world are proposed as essential for serendipity and, more broadly, for creativity: surprise, curiosity and wonder. The ways in which surprise, curiosity and wonder shape our experience of serendipity are discussed with a view towards expanding the prepared mind into a system of open and dynamic relations between self and other, mind and culture, person and world.
... Less activation in the prefrontal cortex could reduce cognitive control, which may help participants overcome fixation or associate objects that are semantically less similar to reinterpret the design problem 101 . In the same lines, neuroimaging studies indicated that creative idea generation is associated with activation of the DMN resulting from reduced cognitive control 10,102 . However, a recent study reported interactions between the DMN and the cognitive control network underlying creativity 12 , suggesting that the balance between the DMN and cognitive control network may benefit flexible regulation for creative performance 103,104 . ...
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Article
Design is a ubiquitous, complex, and open-ended creation behaviour that triggers creativity. The brain dynamics underlying design is unclear, since a design process consists of many basic cognitive behaviours, such as problem understanding, idea generation, idea analysis, idea evaluation, and idea evolution. In this present study, we simulated the design process in a loosely controlled setting, aiming to quantify the design-related cognitive workload and control, identify EEG-defined large-scale brain networks, and uncover their temporal dynamics. The effectiveness of this loosely controlled setting was tested through comparing the results with validated findings available in the literature. Task-related power (TRP) analysis of delta, theta, alpha and beta frequency bands revealed that idea generation was associated with the highest cognitive workload and lowest cognitive control, compared to other design activities in the experiment, including problem understanding, idea evaluation, and self-rating. EEG microstate analysis supported this finding as microstate class C, being negatively associated with the cognitive control network, was the most prevalent in idea generation. Furthermore, EEG microstate sequence analysis demonstrated that idea generation was consistently associated with the shortest temporal correlation times concerning finite entropy rate, autoinformation function, and Hurst exponent. This finding suggests that during idea generation the interplay of functional brain networks is less restricted and the brain has more degrees of freedom in choosing the next network configuration than during other design activities. Taken together, the TRP and EEG microstate results lead to the conclusion that idea generation is associated with the highest cognitive workload and lowest cognitive control during open-ended creation task.
... would connect this observation with the phenomenon of mind wandering (Gable et al., 2019). At the neuroscientific level, this phenomenon may entail the Default Mode Network in which the brain momentarily ceases to process external stimuli (Kühn et al., 2014). The main point is that this circumstance is ideal for generating low probability combinations with corresponding low prior knowledge values of the utilities. ...
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Article
Although scientific creativity has often been described as combinatorial, the description is usually insufficiently formulated to count as a precise scientific explanation. Therefore, the current article is devoted to elaborating a formalization defined by three combinatorial parameters: the initial probability p , the final utility u , and the scientist’s prior knowledge of that utility v . These parameters then lead logically to an 8-fold typology involving two forms of expertise, two irrational combinations, and four “blind” combinations. One of the latter provides the basis for the definition of personal creativity as c =(1− p ) u (1− v ), that is, the multiplicative product of originality, utility, and surprise. This three-criterion definition then has six critical implications. Those implications lead to a discussion of various combinatorial processes and procedures that include a treatment of the No Free Lunch Theorems regarding optimization algorithms as well as the creativity-maximizing phenomena of mind wandering and serendipity. The article closes with a discussion of how scientific creativity differs from artistic creativity. Besides the obvious contrasts in the ideas entering the combinatorial processes and procedures, scientific combinations, products, and communities strikingly differ from those typical of the arts. These differences also imply contrasts in developmental experiences and personality characteristics. In sum, the formal combinatorial analysis enhances our understanding of scientific creativity.
... This could be indicative of processes related to early memory retrieval, that are engaged more intensively the more training the musicians have received irrespective of discipline. Greater connectivity within network for classically trained musicians aligns with previous findings of greater local efficiency for classically trained musicians ( Belden et al., 2020 ), while greater gamma power for improvisers could be a result of greater cortical thickness in areas of the default mode network which has been found for musical improvisers ( Kühn et al., 2014 ). ...
Article
Musical improvisers are trained to categorize certain musical structures into functional classes, which is thought to facilitate improvisation. Using a novel auditory oddball paradigm (Goldman et al., 2020) which enables us to disassociate a deviant (i.e. musical chord inversion) from a consistent functional class, we recorded scalp EEG from a group of musicians who spanned a range of improvisational and classically trained experience. Using a spatiospectral based inter and intra network connectivity analysis, we found that improvisers showed a variety of differences in connectivity within and between large-scale cortical networks compared to classically trained musicians, as a function of deviant type. Inter-network connectivity in the alpha band, for a time window leading up to the behavioural response, was strongly linked to improvisation experience, with the default mode network acting as a hub. Spatiospectral networks post response were substantially different between improvisers and classically trained musicians, with greater inter-network connectivity (specific to the alpha and beta bands) seen in improvisers whereas those with more classical training had largely reduced inter-network activity (mostly in the gamma band). More generally, we interpret our findings in the context of network-level correlates of expectation violation as a function of subject expertise, and we discuss how these may generalize to other and more ecologically valid scenarios.
... Current research focuses on how creativity is related to design, and which measures the best capture the creative cognitive processes that contribute to the cognitive profile of a successful designer. Creativity is a multidimensional construct that engages many cognitive processes (Kühn et al., 2014). In the present study, we measure divergent thinking, which allows the designer to engage in idea generation. ...
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Article
There are three approaches to studying designers – through their cognitive profile, design behaviors, and design artifacts (e.g., quality). However, past work has rarely considered all three data domains together. Here we introduce and describe a framework for a comprehensive approach to engineering design, and discuss how the insights may benefit engineering design research and education. To demonstrate the proposed framework, we conducted an empirical study with a solar energy system design problem. Forty-six engineering students engaged in a week-long computer-aided design challenge that assessed their design behavior and artifacts, and completed a set of psychological tests to measure cognitive competencies. Using a machine learning approach consisting of k-means, hierarchical, and spectral clustering, designers were grouped by similarities on the psychological tests. Significant differences were revealed between designer groups in their sequential design behavior, suggesting that a designer's cognitive profile is related to how they engage in the design process.
... The AUT has been strongly linked with the DMN in both functional-connectivity analyses (Beaty et al., , 2015(Beaty et al., , 2014 and structural analyses of DT Kühn et al., 2014;Wertz et al., 2020), although far less so in standard functional-activation studies. While neither of the two previous DT meta-analyses reported DMN components in their results (Cogdell-Brooke et al., 2020;Wu et al., 2015), we observed a PCC cluster in the AUT analysis in left BA 23/31 close to where Beaty et al. (2015) reported their most extensive cluster in a multivoxel pattern analysis of the AUT. ...
Preprint
One of the central questions about the cognitive neuroscience of creativity is the extent to which creativity depends on either domain-specific or domain-general mechanisms. To address this question, we carried out two parallel activation likelihood estimation meta-analyses of creativity: 1) a motoric analysis that combined studies across five domains of creative production (verbalizing, music, movement, writing, and drawing), and 2) an analysis of the Alternate Uses divergent-thinking task. All experiments contained a contrast between a creative task and a matched non-creative or less-creative task that controlled for the sensorimotor demands of task performance. The activation profiles of the two meta-analyses were non-overlapping, but both pointed to a domain-specific interpretation in which creative production is, at least in part, an enhancement of sensorimotor brain areas involved in non-creative production. The most concordant areas of activation in the motoric meta-analysis were high-level motor areas such as the pre-supplementary motor area and inferior frontal gyrus that interface motor planning and executive control, suggesting a means of uniting domain-specificity and -generality in creative production.
... This could be indicative of processes related to early memory retrieval, that are engaged more intensively the more training the musicians have received irrespective of discipline. Greater connectivity within network for classically trained musicians aligns with previous findings of greater local efficiency for classically trained musicians ( Belden et al., 2020 ), while greater gamma power for improvisers could be a result of greater cortical thickness in areas of the default mode network which has been found for musical improvisers ( Kühn et al., 2014 ). ...
Preprint
Musical improvisers are trained to categorize certain musical structures into functional classes, which is thought to facilitate improvisation. Using a novel auditory oddball paradigm (Goldman et al., 2020) which enables us to disassociate a deviant (i.e. musical cord inversion) from a consistent functional class, we recorded scalp EEG from a group of musicians who spanned a range of improvisational and classically trained experience. Using a spatiospectral based inter and intra network connectivity analysis, we found that improvisers showed a variety of differences in connectivity within and between large-scale cortical networks compared to classically trained musicians, as a function of deviant type. Inter-network connectivity in the alpha band, for a time window leading up to the behavioural response, was strongly linked to improvisation experience, with the default mode network acting as a hub. Spatiospectral networks post response were substantially different between improvisers and classically trained musicians, with greater inter-network connectivity (specific to the alpha and beta bands) seen in improvisers whereas those with more classical training had largely reduced inter-network activity (mostly in the gamma band). More generally, we interpret our findings in the context of network-level correlates of expectation violation as a function of subject expertise, and we discuss how these may generalize to other and more ecologically valid scenarios.
... Since we observed a significant increase in RSA during the intervention phase (Meier et al., 2020), we can speculate that we induced a decrease in norepinephrine levels that resulted in the observed increase in HR variability. Apart from that, researchers have discussed that creativity might be associated with the default mode network (DMN) (Beaty et al., 2014;Kühn et al., 2014;Raichle, 2015). This complex neural network comprises structures that are active in the resting state and whose activity decreases as soon as attention-intensive tasks are being solved or as soon as an activity has to be performed (Raichle, 2015). ...
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Article
Cognition is affected by psychophysiological states. While the influence of stress on cognition has been investigated intensively, less studies have addressed how the opposite of stress, a state of relaxation, affects cognition. We investigated whether the extent of parasympathetic activation is positively related to divergent thinking. Sixty healthy female participants were randomly allocated to a standardized vagus nerve massage ( n = 19), a standardized soft shoulder massage ( n = 22), or a resting control group ( n = 19). Subsequently, participants completed the Alternative Uses Test (AUT), a measure of divergent thinking. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a vagally mediated heart rate variability component, was monitored throughout the experiment. The area under the curve with respect to the increase was calculated for RSA trajectories as an indicator of vagal tone during the relaxing intervention. Regressions tested the effect of vagal tone on AUT outcomes. We found an association between vagal tone and subsequent AUT outcomes. Yet, this association was no longer significant when controlling for the effect of the creative potential of an individual, which was strongly related to AUT outcomes. Being exploratory, we found a positive association between creative potential and vagal tone. These results imply that creative potential might be related to the capacity to relax.
... Particularly, the disconnection of the right cingulate fasciculus, as well as the DMN, impairs the ability to generate distant associations. Both the DMN's structures and the cingulate fasciculus are known to be involved in creative tasks Kühn et al., 2014;. Alternatively, the ability to combine remote ideas seems to require different structures in the left hemisphere, such as the anterior thalamic radiations, the fronto-marginal tract, and to rely on the integrity of the frontoparietal control network . ...
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Thesis
The new brain imaging techniques, notably the different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modalities, allow the study of the human brain in vivo for the first time in neuroscience's history. These technologies now make possible to study the symptoms caused by brain lesions in living patients. However, it requires the development of new analyses adapted for this new kind of data which was not available a few decades ago. Most of the classical lesion--symptom analyses are focused on the lesioned area, often neglecting the affected structural and functional connections. In this thesis, we begin by presenting a set of methods, implemented in our software the BCBtoolkit, enabling the study of both structural and functional disconnections and their effect on the behaviour. We applied these analyses to map the impact of focal brain lesions on the performance in category fluency. We then present two studies using this approach to investigate the underlying mechanisms of several cognitive functions associated with creativity. We finally discuss the possible interaction between the different brain structures, which generate human behaviours. Our studies unveil numerous networks, both structural or functional, participating in the different high-level cognitive functions. Ultimately, we propose a theoretical model for these interactions.
... A positive correlation was found between creative performance and grey matter volume of the default mode network. These findings support the idea that the default mode network is important in creativity and provide neurostructural support for the idea that unconscious forms of information processing are important in creativity [25]. ...
Chapter
Creativity is the act of turning new and imaginative ideas into reality. It involves two processes: thinking and producing. Thinking about creativity as the talent has intrigued the modern neuroscience to investigate the whole process, from the idea to the artistic performance or art. New scientific techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging give us the answers about the function of some brain regions, but also make a lot more questions about the harmony of neural pathways. Despite advances in the neuroscience of creativity, the field still lacks clarity on whether a specific neural architecture distinguishes the highly creative brain. On the other side, neuroscientist and psychologists are trying to make a connection between the lifestyle and social characteristics with the creative people. They explain why creative people are risk-takers and novelty seekers, and why they often do more physical activities in comparison with those who are not creative. In literature also has been identified four different types of creativity with corresponding brain activities. Creativity can either be emotionally or cognitively based and can also be spontaneous or deliberate. Although intelligence and creativity are usually studied as two separate cognitive faculties, the new research studies suggest their complementary roles. In the future, we will know more and more information about creativity, we will have a lot of recorded data, we will make mathematical models, but the magic of creativity will never be discovered because it has already been discovered with the human being, a long time ago.
... Imaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) (Beaty et al., 2014;Gold et al., 2012;Green et al., 2012;Jung--Beeman et al., 2004;Zhao et al., 2014), structural MRI (Jung, 2013;Jung et al., 2010;Kühn et al., 2014) and focal cortical stimulation techniques (Green et al., 2017) have helped to better understand the neural basis of creative thinking as well as potential factors that influence an individual's ability to engage in creative thinking (Kenett et al., 2018). Limb and Braun (2008) showed that spontaneous improvisation during a jazz piano performance was accompanied by decreases in activity in frontal regions involved in conscious control. ...
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Article
Aim: Our purpose was to examine how stress affects functional connectivity (FC) in language processing regions of the brain during a verbal problem solving task associated with creativity. We additionally explored how gender and the presence of the stress-susceptible short allele of the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism influenced this effect. Methods: Forty-five healthy participants (Mean age: 19.6 ± 1.6 years; 28 females) were recruited to be a part of this study and genotyped to determine the presence or absence of at least one copy of the short (S) allele of the serotonin transporter gene, which is associated with greater susceptibility to stress. The participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging in two separate sessions (stress and no stress control). One session utilized a modified version of the Montreal Imaging Stress Test (MIST) to induce stress while the other session consisted of a no stress control task. The MIST and control tasks were interleaved with task blocks during which the participants performed the compound remote associates task, a convergent task that engages divergent thinking, which is a critical component of creativity. We examined the relationship between stress effects on performance and effects on connectivity of language processing regions activated during this task. Results: There was no main effect of stress on functional connectivity for individual ROI pairs. However, in the examination of whether stress effects on performance related to effects on connectivity, changes in middle temporal gyrus connectivity with stress correlated positively with changes in solution latency for individuals with the S allele, but anti-correlated for those with only the L allele. A trend towards a gene × stress interaction on solution latency was also observed. Discussion: Results from the study suggest that genetic susceptibility to stress, such as the presence of the S allele, affects neural correlates of performance on tasks related to verbal problem solving, as indicated by connectivity of the middle temporal gyrus. Future work will need to determine whether connectivity of the middle temporal gyrus serves as a marker for the effect of stress susceptibility on cognition, extending into stress susceptible patient populations.
... Connecting social and emotional capacities with cognitive ones, the Default Mode Network is also important for conceptual understanding, reading comprehension, creativity, nonlinear and "out-of-the-box" thinking (Beaty et al., 2015;Immordino-Yang et al., 2012;K€ uhn et al., 2014), feelings of inspiration and intrinsic motivation, cognitively complex social emotions like admiration and compassion (Immordino- Yang, McColl, Damasio, & Damasio, 2009), identity development (Molnar-Szakacs & Uddin, 2013), and for "looking in" or thinking about abstract ideas or things that aren't in the physical "here and now" (Immordino- Yang et al., 2012;Tamir, Bricker, Dodell-Feder, & Mitchell, 2015). ...
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Article
New advances in neurobiology are revealing that brain development and the learning it enables are directly dependent on social-emotional experience. Growing bodies of research reveal the importance of socially triggered epigenetic contributions to brain development and brain network configuration, with implications for social-emotional functioning, cognition, motivation, and learning. Brain development is also impacted by health-related and physical developmental factors, such as sleep, toxin exposure, and puberty, which in turn influence social-emotional functioning and cognition. An appreciation of the dynamic interdependencies of social-emotional experience, health-related factors, brain development and learning underscores the importance of a “whole child” approach to education reform and leads to important insights for research on social-emotional learning. To facilitate these interdisciplinary conversations, here we conceptualize within a developmental framework current evidence on the fundamental and ubiquitous biological constraints and affordances undergirding social-emotional learning–related constructs and learning more broadly. Learning indeed depends on how nature is nurtured.
... The AUT is often a tool in the literature on creativity and divergent think-7 ing (K. Gilhooly, Fioratou, Anthony, & Wynn, 2007;Kühn et al., 2014;Wise- 8 man, Watt, Gilhooly, & Georgiou, 2011; K. J. Gilhooly, Georgiou, Garrison, 9 Reston, & Sirota, 2012). However, upon attempting to use it, you would dis-10 cover that it does not benefit from a normative dataset, unlike another clas-11 sical tool for creativity researchers, the Remote Associates Test. ...
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Preprint
The Alternative Uses Test (AUT) is a classical test which has long been used in the investigation of creativity and divergent thinking. Performance rating on this test is usually done using ad hoc manual assessments on a subset of certain established metrics-like Fluency, Flexibility and Originality. Ad hoc performance rating brings however multiple disadvantages, besides a high manual work requirement: (a) not all metrics used by a study may be used by another, thus meta-analyses are hard to perform and (b) the rating on certain metric types may be biased by the creativity of each group-in this category is the Originality metric, which is rated as a percentage of how often an answer was produced by group participants. The measurement of the AUT performance would gain in scientific rigour if it could rely on a set of normative data, and a computational treatment of at least part of the core metrics. In this paper, we report gathering normative data on uses human participants come up with for a large set of 420 household objects. A computational treatment of these answers is developed, and core metrics for this data set are extracted. A new computational metric-Order Rank-is developed, to provide further precision in understanding and analysing creative answers. The resulting dataset and metrics are made available via an interface for other researchers.
... The relaxed environment means that the brain functions in a "mind wandering" way, stimulating the default mode network and taking the creative problem to an unconscious level, in which the automatic and spontaneous cognitive mechanisms take place [8]. In a computational plane this means that there must be a stage of mass generation of solutions in parallel, including bottom-up, top-down and random mechanisms. ...
... The DMN is involved in daydreaming (Buckner, Andrews-Hanna & Schacter, 2008), nighttime dreaming (Domhoff & Fox, 2015), creativity (Kühn et al., 2014), "autobiographical thinking" (Barron & Yarnell, 2015), and has a core role for the narrative self (Davey & Harrison, 2018). The DMN represents global meaning of passages: as Barthes (1975) puts it, narrative is moving along, "limping" (p.270), in a running interpretation as each new element continuously changes the meaning of the total from which the elements contextually derive and develop meaning. ...
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Research Proposal
This research proposal aims to shed light on a specific slice of ELT: the role and benefits mythic language could have in materials design for teaching narrative and developing L2 identity. Two camps, separated by ideological differences: storytelling and then narrative inquiry, exist in TESOL, but are connected by the common root of narrative. Narrative and self-identity, and L2 identity, are recognized as closely connected. Neurology and speech language pathology have helped to discover the dimensions of narrative faculty with MRI locating the ability in the brain’s Default Mode Network (DMN). Brian science limits and also suggests approaches for TESOL. Materials for teaching and assessing narrative have been developed by influential organizations, but word-of-mouth trade knowledge, and the Internet have parts too. Narrative has not typically been viewed as a skill in its own right by materials designers despite having been essential to language teaching since ancient times. To understand the materials design process, and narrative itself, an (auto)ethnographic narrative inquiry of material developer identity frames this whole project. A test of the archetypal memory advantages discovered by Jungian researchers with potential TESOL applications, and analysis of L2 production, text-types and teaching materials for regressive imagery informs what tasks, skills and functions might be coupled with or support archetypally enriched narrative teaching materials. Trial of a textbook, together with detailed assessment of learning progress and learner narrative faculties, and classroom observation and teacher feedback, supplies data on actual use and effectiveness. As THC has been found to boost regressive imagery in language production, regressive imagery is associated with better narrative production, and THC activates the DMN, the seat of narrative (and identity), it could be hypothesized that strategic administration could improve L2 narrative learning. As concept of self figures throughout this research, a model that reconciles ideological differences in TESOL draws on an expanded background of philosophy.
... Recent neuroimaging and lesion studies link creativity to multiple neural regions within the DMN, which is associated with spontaneous cognition and self-generated thought Beaty, Benedek, Silvia, & Schacter, 2016;Jung, Mead, Carrasco, & Flores, 2013;Kühn et al., 2014;Mayseless, Eran, & Shamay-Tsoory, 2015). These regions include the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the bilateral inferior parietal lobes (IPL; Fox et al., 2005;Gusnard & Raichle, 2001). ...
Article
Whereas Western individualistic cultures emphasize uniqueness, collectivistic East‐Asian cultures discourage it. Here we examined whether cross‐cultural differences in creativity as measured by a task of divergent thinking (DT) are explained by enhanced activity in brain regions that mediate inhibitory control (e.g., the left inferior frontal gyrus [L‐IFG]). We therefore predicted that the L‐IFG would be “hyperactive” among individuals from East‐Asian cultures compared to Western ones. In Study 1, Israeli and South Korean participants were compared on a classic DT task (AUT; “Alternate uses: Manual of instructions and interpretation”). Israelis generated more original ideas compared to South Koreans. In Study 2, Israeli participants and South Korean participants currently living in Israel were scanned while performing the AUT. In line with previous studies, the results indicate that generation of original ideas across cultures is associated with activation of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), which is part of the default mode network (DMN). As hypothesized, South Koreans showed enhanced activation of the L‐IFG compared to Israelis. This enhanced activation was associated with lower originality scores. The cultural dimension of traditionalism, being higher in the South Korean sample than in the Israeli Sample, was related to enhance L‐IFG activity, further supporting our hypothesis regarding cultural influences on inhibitory control. Furthermore, functional connectivity analysis indicated that activation of the L‐IFG was positively coupled with PCC activity among Israelis and with preSMA activity among South Koreans. The results suggest that cross‐cultural differences in creativity might be explained by variations in inhibitory control.
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Chapter
Mind wandering is often considered as disadvantageous and obstructive within the classroom. However, recent research has discovered that one important resting state network in the human brain, the default mode network, is in charge of this cognitive process and actually entails various advantages, especially in the field of language acquisition, processing, and performance. Mind wandering also augments creativity, particularly divergent thinking, and fosters productive language use. With the help of the latest technological progress, it has additionally become possible to locate this particular neural network and verify its underestimated potentials. Therefore, this chapter not only provides basic knowledge about the language related neurobiological basis but also presents recently collected data of language acquisition-related neuroscientific studies in contrast to existing findings of language acquisition, as well as implications for efficient language didactical implementations. Keywords: Resting state network, Default mode network, Mind wandering, Language acquisition, Language teaching, Creativity
Article
Purpose An organization’s competitive advantage can be strengthened if they are able to identify highly creative individuals. In fact, organizational success in the 21st century may depend upon a firm’s ability to identify highly creative individuals who are able to develop novel and useful ideas, which are the outcome of creativity. The authors posit that Information Technology (IT) plays a significant role in creativity. Design/methodology/approach Applying the componential view of creativity, the authors propose the theoretically-derived concept of Individual IT Creativity (IITC). Utilizing a 5-phase methodology, the authors provide a theoretically-derived and rigorously-validated measure of IITC. Findings This study demonstrates that IITC is manifested in individuals who (1) possess IT expertise; (2) are motivated by IT tasks and (3) exhibit IT creativity-relevant processes. The authors then develop a scale to measure IITC and examine IITC within a broader nomological network. Originality/value This study facilitates the investigation of new streams of research into IITC, including new possible outcomes in addition to IT acceptance.
Chapter
The phenomenon of serendipity is integrated with the broader conception of creativity as combinatorial, where a large number of processes and procedures are potentially responsible for the generation of such combinations. To define what it means to identify any given combination as creative, the standard two-criterion definition is replaced with a three-criterion definition where creativity becomes the multiplicative function of originality, utility, and surprise. This definition is then applied to serendipity, showing that such discoveries inadvertently maximise originality and surprise, without necessarily ensuring the highest utility. This formal treatment is then applied to the following three contrasts: true serendipity versus pseudo-serendipity, internal versus external serendipity, and serendipity in the sciences versus serendipity in the arts.
Article
Creativity assessments should be valid, reliable, and scalable to support various stakeholders (e.g., policy-makers, educators, corporations, and the general public) in their decision-making processes. Established initiatives toward scalable creativity assessments have relied on well-studied standardized tests. Although robust in many ways, most of these tests adopt unnatural and unmotivating environments for expression of creativity, mainly observe coarse-grained snippets of the creative process, and rely on subjective, resource-intensive, human-expert evaluations. This article presents a literature review of game-based creativity assessment and discusses how digital games can potentially address the limitations of traditional testing. Based on an original sample of 127 papers, this article contributes an in-depth review of 16 papers on 11 digital creativity assessment games. Despite the relatively small sample, a wide variety of design decisions are covered. Major findings and recommendations include identifying (1) a disconnect between the potential of scaling up assessment of creativity with the use of digital games, and the actual reach achieved in the examined studies (2) the need for complementary methods such as stealth assessment, algorithmic support and crowdsourcing when designing creativity assessment games, and (3) a need for interdisciplinary dialogs to produce, validate and implement creativity assessment games at scale.
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Article
A tanulmány a tehetséghez kapcsolódó két terület, a kreativitás és a matematikai tehetség idegtudományi kutatásait foglalja össze. Mind a két területen az első megközelítések a két agyfélteke feltételezett eltérő működését hangsúlyozták, és alapvető módszerként az elektroenkefalogram frekvencia-összetevőinek változását elemezték az éppen előtérben lévő elméleti általánosítások függvényében. Fokozatosan dominálóvá váltak a hálózati elemzéseken alapuló munkák, melyek egyaránt támaszkodtak elektrofiziológiai és képalkotási eredményekre. A kreativitás témakörében a legnagyobb problémát az idegtudományi kutatásokban is a kreativitást körülvevő bizonytalanság jellemzi. A matematikai tehetség esetében a résztvevők teljesítménye könnyebben hozzáférhető, azonban a kiemelkedő tehetségek sajátságait vizsgáló kutatások ezen a területen is a kezdeteknél tartanak. Közös a két területben, hogy alapvetőnek tartja a frontális területek, a parietális és esetenként a szenzoros területek hatékony kapcsolatát. Ugyanakkor naivitásnak tűnik, hogy akár a kreativitás, akár a matematikai tehetség esetében specifikus strukturális elrendezéseket vagy mechanizmusokat találjunk. We reviewed neuroscience-oriented research on two subfields of giftedness: creativity and mathematical giftedness. In both fields the early studies focused on hemisphere differences, using methods of frequency analysis of electroencephalography. However, gradually the analysis of network activity became the main issue of research. These investigations applied various methods of electrophysiology and brain imaging. A central theoretical problem of the field is the ill-defined concept of creativity. In the field of mathematical giftedness performance measurement is available, but studies using highly gifted participants are rather rare.
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This study aims to disclose how the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) neuroimaging approach has been applied in education studies, and what kind of learning themes has been investigated in the reviewed MRI neuroimaging research. Based on the keywords “brain or neuroimaging or neuroscience” and “MRI or diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) or white matter or gray matter or resting-state,” a total of 25 papers were selected from the subject areas “Educational Psychology” and “Education and Educational Research” from the Web of Science and Scopus from 2000 to 2019. Content analysis showed that MRI neuroimaging and learning were studied under the following three major topics and nine subtopics: cognitive function (language, creativity, music, physical activity), science education (mathematical learning, biology learning, physics learning), and brain development (parenting, personality development). As for the type of MRI neuroimaging research, the most frequently used approaches were functional MRI, followed by structural MRI and DTI, although the choice of approach was often motivated by the specific research question. Research development trends show that the neural plasticity theme has become more prominent recently. This study concludes that in educational research, the MRI neuroimaging approach provides objective and empirical evidence to connect learning processes, outcomes, and brain mechanisms.
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For many decades in psychology and the history of science the phenomenon of incubation has been known but not fully understood; this is the preparation of a solution to a problem during a period of relative rest. The aim of the present work was to use EEG data to seek patterns of resting state network connectivity during incubation associated with successful postincubation solution of tasks. Subjects carried out a remote associations tests in three stages: a fi rst attempt, incubation (listening to an audio recording irrelevant to solving the task), and a second attempt to solve the unsolved tasks. Subjects who after incubation solved at least one additional task showed a more marked association of the left sensorimotor cortex with the insula and a less marked association with the left dorsolateral frontal cortex during the period of incubation. These data are consistent with the view that at the stage of seeking a solution, the optimum situation is a combination of decreased activity in the executive control network, leading to defocusing of attention, and increased activity in the motivational salience network.
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My project combines (cognitive) neuroscience (stress response in the face of cortisol levels and receptor sensitivity), behavioral correlational psychology (creativity, flow experience and Freudian psychodynamic metapsychology) and phenomenological philosophy (Karl Jaspers' doctrine of Existenzphilosophie: Existenzerhellung (Existential Illumination) and Grenzsituation (Boundary Situation/Event), a fact which makes it neurophilosophical par excellence and which allows for empirical genuine neuroscientific, psychological and even statistical testing in field of phenomenological philosophy. Due to limited space, I will use a schematic method (small description of notions and doctrines) followed by a brief presentation of the major hypothesis to present my project and all methods planned and involved.
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A common brain-related feature of addictions is the altered function of higher-order brain networks. Growing evidence suggests that Internet-related addictions are also associated with breakdown of functional brain networks. Taking into consideration the limited number of studies used in previous studies in Internet addiction (IA), our aim was to investigate the functional correlates of IA in the default mode network (DMN) and in the inhibitory control network (ICN). To observe these relationships, task-related fMRI responses to verbal Stroop and non-verbal Stroop-like tasks were measured in 60 healthy university students. The Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire (PIUQ) was used to assess IA. We found significant deactivations in areas related to the DMN (precuneus, posterior cingulate gyrus) and these areas were negatively correlated with PIUQ during incongruent stimuli. In Stroop task the incongruent_minus_congruent contrast showed positive correlation with PIUQ in areas related to the ICN (left inferior frontal gyrus, left frontal pole, left central opercular, left frontal opercular, left frontal orbital and left insular cortex). Altered DMN might explain some comorbid symptoms and might predict treatment outcomes, while altered ICN may be the reason for having difficulties in stopping and controlling overuse.
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Creativity is one of the areas which continuously attracts attention. In an interdisciplinary spirit, this article focuses on the dynamics of creativity with respect to Freudian psychoanalytical thought processes and Jaspers’ conception of a boundary situation. This effort is correlated with the newest research findings in cognitive neuroscience and neurocognitive psychology of creativity. Philosophical research is also brought in to explain the activity of creative thought and a new conception of creativity is offered, with a third thought process used, along with a miniature boundary situation. This represents a development and extension of the original ideas of Sigmund Freud and Karl Jaspers. The current article thus constitutes an examination of the intersection of creativity research, the metapsychology of Sigmund Freud, and the existential philosophy of Karl Jaspers. It makes it a neuro-philosophical discussion par excellence and represents both a theoretical project and translation. Subsequently, a novel conception is offered, namely that creativity as unique human experience is illuminated in the miniature of boundary situation as controlled disinhibition of the intellect or regression in the name of the ego and as controlled spiral movement via dialectical “jumps” or “leaps.”
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The general conclusion from recent research on the Big Two dimensions of human personality — Plasticity (extraversion and openness) and Stability (neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) — show that Plasticity has a more robust and stronger association with creativity than Stability. More specifically, people who are high in plasticity and low in stability may be most likely to exhibit creative thought and behavior. Moreover, current research in neuroscience, genetics and neurochemistry of behavior each suggest biological mechanisms for how these personality qualities lower thresholds for creative thought and behavior.
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1. Характеристики на креативността 2. Когнитивна невропсихология на креативността 3. Когнитивна невронаука на креативността: фокус върху допаминергичните мозъчни системи 4. Large-scale brain networks 5. Граничната ситуация у Карл Ясперс 6. Третичен мисловен процес 7. Ролята на психеделиците при креативността: психофармакология 8. Любопитство и креативност 9. Миниатюра на гранична ситуация 10. Динамика на третичния мисловен процес в миниатюрата на граничната ситауция: Континуум от преживявания
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Individual creativity, defined as the ability to achieve a production that is both original and appropriate, results in part from mental operations that may be related to the functioning of the brain. The challenge in this field of research is to understand what these operations are, and what cerebral networks underlie them. Although these questions are not fully elucidated, advances in the neuroscience of creativity have identified different brain networks that support distinct mechanisms of creativity. Recent data from cognitive and functional neuroimaging studies indicate that creativity is based on the interaction between associative thinking likely underpinned by the default mode network and cognitive control processes supported by control-related networks, including fronto-parietal networks. The study of brain-damaged patients made it possible to test this model and to establish a more causal link between the creative processes and these brain networks. The lesion approach has indeed shown the critical role of the default mode network and the left frontoparietal control network in the associative and control processes, respectively, and has identified crucial nodes in these networks. The few lesion studies carried out also suggest functional specialization of the prefrontal cortex for distinct creative processes. In this review, we integrate the results of lesion studies and noninvasive brain stimulation studies with the findings of recent functional imaging studies in healthy subjects to clarify our understanding of the brain mechanisms of creativity.
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Does the structure of an adult human brain alter in response to environmental demands? Here we use whole-brain magnetic-resonance imaging to visualize learning-induced plasticity in the brains of volunteers who have learned to juggle. We find that these individuals show a transient and selective structural change in brain areas that are associated with the processing and storage of complex visual motion. This discovery of a stimulus-dependent alteration in the brain's macroscopic structure contradicts the traditionally held view that cortical plasticity is associated with functional rather than anatomical changes.
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The connection between mental health and creativity has traditionally been studied in terms of outstanding aesthetic‐professional creativity and mental illness. More interesting however, is the possible connection between “everyday “ creativity and mental health. Everyday creativity involves attacking day to day activities in a divergent way: It derives from a complex of cognitive, affective, personal, motivational, and social factors, and is characterized by openness, flexibility, autonomy, playfulness, humor willingness to take risks, and perseverance. These characteristics are also consistently emphasized in models of “normal”; personality growth, so that the possibility of promoting mental health arises by fostering creativity in day to day life. Several small studies described in this article give examples of how this might be done and the kinds of benefits which can result.
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Disciplines that study science are relatively well established in philosophy, history, and sociology. Psychology of science, by comparison, is a late bloomer but has recently shown signs of codification. The authors further this codification by integrating and reviewing the growing literature in the developmental, cognitive, personality, and social psychology of science. Only by integrating the findings from each of these perspective can the basic questions in the study of scientific behavior be answered: Who becomes a scientist and what role do biology, family, school, and gender play? Are productivity, scientific reasoning, and theory acceptance influenced by age? What thought processes and heuristics lead to successful discovery? What personality characteristics distinguish scientists from nonscientists and eminent from less eminent scientists? Finally, how do intergroup relations and social forces influence scientific behavior? A model that integrates the consensual empirical findings from the psychology of science is proposed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In this article the authors argue that a new category of creativity, called "mini-c" creativity, is needed to advance creativity theory and research. Mini-c creativity differs from little-c (everyday) or Big-C (eminent) creativity as it refers to the creative processes involved in the construction of personal knowledge and understanding. The authors discuss how the category of mini-c creativity addresses gaps in current conceptions of creativity, offers researchers a new and important unit of analysis, and helps to better frame the domain question in creativity research. Implications for creativity research are also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Although anecdotes that creative thoughts often arise when one is engaged in an unrelated train of thought date back thousands of years, empirical research has not yet investigated this potentially critical source of inspiration. We used an incubation paradigm to assess whether performance on validated creativity problems (the Unusual Uses Task, or UUT) can be facilitated by engaging in either a demanding task or an undemanding task that maximizes mind wandering. Compared with engaging in a demanding task, rest, or no break, engaging in an undemanding task during an incubation period led to substantial improvements in performance on previously encountered problems. Critically, the context that improved performance after the incubation period was associated with higher levels of mind wandering but not with a greater number of explicitly directed thoughts about the UUT. These data suggest that engaging in simple external tasks that allow the mind to wander may facilitate creative problem solving.
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Substantial differences exist in the cognitive styles of liberals and conservatives on psychological measures. Variability in political attitudes reflects genetic influences and their interaction with environmental factors. Recent work has shown a correlation between liberalism and conflict-related activity measured by event-related potentials originating in the anterior cingulate cortex. Here we show that this functional correlate of political attitudes has a counterpart in brain structure. In a large sample of young adults, we related self-reported political attitudes to gray matter volume using structural MRI. We found that greater liberalism was associated with increased gray matter volume in the anterior cingulate cortex, whereas greater conservatism was associated with increased volume of the right amygdala. These results were replicated in an independent sample of additional participants. Our findings extend previous observations that political attitudes reflect differences in self-regulatory conflict monitoring and recognition of emotional faces by showing that such attitudes are reflected in human brain structure. Although our data do not determine whether these regions play a causal role in the formation of political attitudes, they converge with previous work to suggest a possible link between brain structure and psychological mechanisms that mediate political attitudes.
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Although mind wandering occupies a large proportion of our waking life, its neural basis and relation to ongoing behavior remain controversial. We report an fMRI study that used experience sampling to provide an online measure of mind wandering during a concurrent task. Analyses focused on the interval of time immediately preceding experience sampling probes demonstrate activation of default network regions during mind wandering, a finding consistent with theoretical accounts of default network functions. Activation in medial prefrontal default network regions was observed both in association with subjective self-reports of mind wandering and an independent behavioral measure (performance errors on the concurrent task). In addition to default network activation, mind wandering was associated with executive network recruitment, a finding predicted by behavioral theories of off-task thought and its relation to executive resources. Finally, neural recruitment in both default and executive network regions was strongest when subjects were unaware of their own mind wandering, suggesting that mind wandering is most pronounced when it lacks meta-awareness. The observed parallel recruitment of executive and default network regions--two brain systems that so far have been assumed to work in opposition--suggests that mind wandering may evoke a unique mental state that may allow otherwise opposing networks to work in cooperation. The ability of this study to reveal a number of crucial aspects of the neural recruitment associated with mind wandering underscores the value of combining subjective self-reports with online measures of brain function for advancing our understanding of the neurophenomenology of subjective experience.
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Data from nine previous studies of human visual information processing using positron emission tomography were reanalyzed to contrast blood flow responses during passive viewing and active discriminations of the same stimulus array. The analysis examined whether active visual processing (i) increases blood flow in medial visual regions early in the visual hierarchy and (ii) decreases blood flow in auditory and somatosensory cortex. Significant modulation of medial visual regions was observed in six of nine studies, indicating that top-down processes can affect early visual cortex. Modulations showed several task dependencies, suggesting that in some cases the underlying mechanism was selective (e.g. analysis-or feature-specific) rather than non-selective. Replicable decreases at or near auditory Brodmann area (BA) left 41/42 were observed in two of five studies, but in different locations. Analyses that combined data across studies yielded modest but significant decreases. Replicable decreases were not found in primary somatosensory cortex but were observed in an insular region that may be a somatosensory association area. Decreases were also noted in the parietal operculum (perhaps SII) and BA 40. These results are inconsistent with a model in which the precortical input to task-irrelevant sensory cortical areas is broadly suppressed.
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Localized, task-induced decreases in cerebral blood flow are a frequent finding in functional brain imaging research but remain poorly understood. One account of these phenomena postulates processes ongoing during conscious, resting states that are interrupted or inhibited by task performance. Psychological evidence suggests that conscious humans are engaged almost continuously in adaptive processes involving semantic knowledge retrieval, representation in awareness, and directed manipulation of represented knowledge for organization, problem-solving, and planning. If interruption of such “conceptual” processes accounts for task-induced deactivation, tasks that also engage these conceptual processes should not cause deactivation. Furthermore, comparisons between conceptual and nonconceptual tasks should show activation during conceptual tasks of the same brain areas that are “deactivated” relative to rest. To test this model, functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired during a resting state, a perceptual task, and a semantic retrieval task. A network of left-hemisphere poly-modal cortical regions showed higher signal values during the resting state than during the perceptual task but equal values during the resting and semantic conditions. This result is consistent with the proposal that perceptual tasks interrupt processes ongoing during rest that involve many of the same brain areas engaged during semantic retrieval. As further evidence for this model, the same network of brain areas was activated in two direct comparisons between semantic and perceptual processing tasks. This same “conceptual processing” network was also identified in several previous studies that contrasted semantic and perceptual tasks or resting and active states. The model proposed here offers a unified account of these findings and may help to explain several unanticipated results from prior studies of semantic processing.
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Structural MRIs of the brains of humans with extensive navigation experience, licensed London taxi drivers, were analyzed and compared with those of control subjects who did not drive taxis. The posterior hippocampi of taxi drivers were significantly larger relative to those of control subjects. A more anterior hippocampal region was larger in control subjects than in taxi drivers. Hippocampal volume correlated with the amount of time spent as a taxi driver (positively in the posterior and negatively in the anterior hippocampus). These data are in accordance with the idea that the posterior hippocampus stores a spatial representation of the environment and can expand regionally to accommodate elaboration of this representation in people with a high dependence on navigational skills. It seems that there is a capacity for local plastic change in the structure of the healthy adult human brain in response to environmental demands.
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A baseline or control state is fundamental to the understanding of most complex systems. Defining a baseline state in the human brain, arguably our most complex system, poses a particular challenge. Many suspect that left unconstrained, its activity will vary unpredictably. Despite this prediction we identify a baseline state of the normal adult human brain in terms of the brain oxygen extraction fraction or OEF. The OEF is defined as the ratio of oxygen used by the brain to oxygen delivered by flowing blood and is remarkably uniform in the awake but resting state (e.g., lying quietly with eyes closed). Local deviations in the OEF represent the physiological basis of signals of changes in neuronal activity obtained with functional MRI during a wide variety of human behaviors. We used quantitative metabolic and circulatory measurements from positron-emission tomography to obtain the OEF regionally throughout the brain. Areas of activation were conspicuous by their absence. All significant deviations from the mean hemisphere OEF were increases, signifying deactivations, and resided almost exclusively in the visual system. Defining the baseline state of an area in this manner attaches meaning to a group of areas that consistently exhibit decreases from this baseline, during a wide variety of goal-directed behaviors monitored with positron-emission tomography and functional MRI. These decreases suggest the existence of an organized, baseline default mode of brain function that is suspended during specific goal-directed behaviors.
Book
Explaining Creativity is an accessible introduction to the latest scientific research on creativity. In the last 50 yearss, psychologists, anthropologists, and sociologists have increasingly studied creativity, and we now know more about creativity that at any point in history. Explaining Creativity considers not only arts like painting and writing, but also science, stage performance, and business innovation. Until about a decade ago, creativity researchers tended to focus on highly valued activities like fine art painting and Nobel prize winning science. Sawyer brings this research up to date by including movies, music videos, cartoons, videogames, hypertext fiction, and computer technology. For example, this is the first book on creativity to include studies of performance and improvisation. Sawyer draws on the latest research findings to show the importance of collaboration and context in all of these creative activities. Today's science of creativity is interdisciplinary; in addition to psychological studies of creativity, Explaining Creativity includes research by anthropologists on creativity in non-Western cultures, and research by sociologists about the situations, contexts, and networks of creative activity. Explaining Creativity brings these approaches together within the sociocultural approach to creativity pioneered by Howard Becker, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi and Howard Gardner. The sociocultural approach moves beyond the individual to consider the social and cultural contexts of creativity, emphasizing the role of collaboration and context in the creative process.
Article
Conceptual maps of occupational interests and environments, traits, and psychosocial motives were used in a search for general features of creative personality. Creative individuals seem to be concentrated in artistic and investigative occupations. In the samples surveyed, individuals in different arts and investigative fields differed considerably in personality traits, and the more creative did not differ from the less creative in the same ways across samples. The power motive generally may be important, but research to show this is lacking. Nevertheless, creative individuals were found to share strong symbolic interests, independence, and high aspirations. Viewing them as self-oriented rather than other-oriented is consistent with the above findings and with their love of work and difficulty in relationships; it points to transcendence of the self as a common moral problem. Implications for research on the creative personality include the importance of attention to the development of symbolic interests and to our projections of power on the creative individual.
Article
The ideas presented in this book have been incubating for over 25 years. I was in the first grade, I believe, when the ideas that eventually developed into this social psychology of creativity first began to germinate. The occasion was art class, a weekly Friday afternoon event during which we were given small reproductions of the great masterworks and asked to copy them on notepaper using the standard set of eight Crayola® crayons. I had left kindergarten the year before with encour­ agement from the teacher about developing my potential for artistic creativity. During these Friday afternoon exercises, however, I developed nothing but frus­ tration. Somehow, Da Vinci's "Adoration of the Magi" looked wrong after I'd fin­ ished with it. I wondered where that promised creativity had gone. I began to believe then that the restrictions placed on my artistic endeavors contributed to my loss of interest and spontaneity in art. When, as a social psy­ chologist, I began to study intrinsic motivation, it seemed to me that this moti­ vation to do something for its own sake was the ingredient that had been missing in those strictly regimented art classes. It seemed that intrinsic motivation, as defined by social psychologists, might be essential to creativity. My research pro­ gram since then has given considerable support to that notion. As a result, the social psychology of creativity presented in this book gives prominence to social variables that affect motivational orientation.
Article
Over the course of the last half century, numerous training programs intended to develop creativity capacities have been proposed. In this study, a quantitative meta-analysis of program evaluation efforts was conducted. Based on 70 prior studies, it was found that well-designed creativity training programs typically induce gaïns in performance with these effects generalizing across criteria, settings, and target populations. Moreover, these effects held when internal validity considerations were taken into account. An examination of the factors contributing to the relative effectiveness of these training programs indicated that more successful programs were likely to focus on development of cognitive skills and the heuristics involved in skill application, using realistic exercises appropriate to the domain at hand. The implications of these observations for the development of creativity through educational and training interventions are discussed along with directions for future research.
Article
This paper defines and describes entrepreneurial creativity, which is the generation and implementation of novel, appropriate ideas to establish a new venture. Entrepreneurial creativity can be exhibited in established organizations as well as in start-up firms. The central thesis of this paper is that entrepreneurial creativity requires a combination of intrinsic motivation and certain kinds of extrinsic motivation — a motivational synergy that results when strong levels of personal interest and involvement are combined with the promise of rewards that confirm competence, support skill development, and enable future achievement.
Book
An integrative introduction to the theories and themes in research on creativity, the second edition of Creativity is both a reference work and text for courses in this burgeoning area of research. The book begins with a discussion of the theories of creativity (Person, Product, Process, Place), the general question of whether creativity is influenced by nature or nurture, what research has indicated of the personality and style of creative individuals from a personality analysis standpoint, and how social context affects creativity. This wide-ranging work then proceeds to coverage of issues such as gender differences, whether creativity can be enhanced, if creativity is related to poor mental or physical health, and much more. The book contains boxes covering special interest items, including one-page biographies of famous creative individuals, and activities for a group or individual to test or encourage creativity, as well as references to Internet sites relating to creativity. Includes all major theories and perspectives on creativity. Consolidates recent research into a single source. Includes key terms defined and text boxes with interesting related material. Single authored for clarity and consistency of presentation.
Article
Although contentious, there is evidence to suggest that nonconscious processes contribute to creative output, particularly during refractory periods. However, no one has examined whether this break benefit differs as a function of creative ability. To address these issues, this investigation examined Wallas's (1926) seminal theoretical framework of creativity. More specifically, the most controversial stage postulated by Wallas, the incubation phase, was empirically tested. A regression analysis demonstrated that productivity is significantly increased when creative people activate nonconscious processes in off-task or incubation periods. There is ongoing debate about the cause(s) of this incubation effect. This research provides evidence that the incubation effect results, at least partially, from nonconscious processing and that it provides greater benefit to more creative individuals. This suggests that highly creative people should be exposed to focus problems/challenges well in advance of objective deadlines, and have freedom to generate solutions outside of structured evaluation times.
Article
This article assesses and extends Campbell's (1960) classic theory that creativity and discovery depend on blind variation and selective retention (BVSR), with special attention given to blind variations (BVs). The treatment begins by defining creativity and discovery, variant blindness versus sightedness, variant utility and selection, and ideational variants versus creative products. These definitions lead to BV identification criteria: (a) intended BV, which entails both systematic and stochastic combinatorial procedures; and (b) implied BV, which involves both variations with properties of blindness (variation superfluity and backtracking) and processes that should yield variant blindness (associative richness, defocused attention, behavioral tinkering, and heuristic search). These conceptual definitions and identification criteria then have implications for four persistent issues, namely, domain expertise, ideational randomness, analogical equivalence, and personal volition. Once BV is suitably conceptualized, Camp-bell's theory continues to provide a fruitful approach to the understanding of both creativity and discovery.
Article
What does it take to be a great creative writer? What components are important for analyzing and comparing writers? Research on creativity, in gen- eral, has increased over the past few decades, but there are still many questions to be answered about creative writing. A model of creativity proposed by Sternberg and Lubart (1995, 1996) was used as a theoretical framework to examine 6 variables: motivation, intelli- gence, personality, thinking styles, knowledge, and environment. Empirical research on each of these vari- ables was compared and discussed. After reviewing the literature on the creative individual, certain compo- nents stood out as being especially important. The pat- tern of internal variables (e.g., intrinsic motivation, instability, impulsivity) was more relevant than were the external variables (e.g., environment). Poetry indeed seems to me more physical than intellectual. A year or two ago, in common with others, I received from America a request that I would define poetry. I replied that I could no more define poetry than a terrier can define a rat, but that I thought we both recognized the object by the symptoms it provokes in us. —A. E. Housman, The Name and Nature of Poetry (1933)
Article
Cognitive neuroscience studies of creativity have appeared with increasing frequently in recent years. Yet to date, no comprehensive and critical review of these studies has yet been published. The first part of this article presents a quick overview of the 3 primary methodologies used by cognitive neuroscientists: electroencephalography (EEG), positron emission tomography (PET), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The second part provides a comprehensive review of cognitive neuroscience studies of creativity-related cognitive processes. The third part critically examines these studies; the goal is to be extremely clear about exactly what interpretations can appropriately be made of these studies. The conclusion provides recommendations for future research collaborations between creativity researchers and cognitive neuroscientists.
Article
Students of creativity have examined innovation in the arts, sciences, and engineering. Social innovation, the generation and implementation of new ideas about social relationships and social organization, has received less attention. This effort uses a case study approach, drawing from the historic record provided by Benjamin Franklin, to formulate some initial hypotheses about the strategies and tactics used to generate and implement social innovations. It was found that Franklin identified problems based on practical need, analyzed causes carefully, generated contextually appropriate low-cost implementation strategies, and built the support needed for demonstration projects. The implications of these strategies and tactics for innovation in modern organizations are discussed.
Article
Although psychologists have often used eminence measures as individual-difference variables, no researcher has investigated the differential eminence of individuals belonging to disadvantaged minority groups. Here a sample of 294 illustrious African Americans is scrutinized from the standpoint of the majority (White) culture and the minority (Black) subculture. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of 7 Black and 10 White eminence measures indicate that (a) these measures can be explained by two latent variables but that (b) the two dimensions correlate very highly. Multiple regression analyses then showed that the Black and White composite assessments, although concurring on the impact of most predictor variables (e.g., gender, famous firsts, and Spingarn Award), could nonetheless disagree on the consequences of achievements in certain domains (e.g., athletes, blues and jazz musicians, and civil rights activists). The results have implications for the development of causal models that explain individual differences in achievement within minority- and majority culture populations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study shows that divergent thinking, considered the general process underlying creative production, can be distinguished from convergent, analytical thought based on the dimensional complexity of ongoing electroencephalographic (EEG) activity. EEG complexity over the central and posterior cortex was higher while subjects solved tasks of divergent than convergent thinking, and also higher than during mental relaxation. Over the frontal cortex, EEG complexity was comparable during divergent thinking and mental relaxation, but reduced during convergent thinking. Results indicate that the basic process underlying the generation of novel ideas expresses itself in a strong increase in the EEG's complexity, reflecting higher degrees of freedom in the competitive interactions among cortical neuron assemblies. Frontocortical EEG complexity being comparable with that during mental relaxation, speaks for a loosened attentional control during creative thinking.
Article
Voxel-based-morphometry (VBM) is a whole-brain, unbiased technique for characterizing regional cerebral volume and tissue concentration differences in structural magnetic resonance images. We describe an optimized method of VBM to examine the effects of age on grey and white matter and CSF in 465 normal adults. Global grey matter volume decreased linearly with age, with a significantly steeper decline in males. Local areas of accelerated loss were observed bilaterally in the insula, superior parietal gyri, central sulci, and cingulate sulci. Areas exhibiting little or no age effect (relative preservation) were noted in the amygdala, hippocampi, and entorhinal cortex. Global white matter did not decline with age, but local areas of relative accelerated loss and preservation were seen. There was no interaction of age with sex for regionally specific effects. These results corroborate previous reports and indicate that VBM is a useful technique for studying structural brain correlates of ageing through life in humans.
Article
Over the course of the last half century, numerous training programs intended to develop creativity capacities have been proposed. In this study, a quantitative meta-analysis of program evaluation efforts was conducted. Based on 70 prior studies, it was found that well-designed creativity training programs typically induce gains in performance with these effects generalizing across criteria, settings, and target populations. Moreover these effects held when internal validity considerations were taken into account. An examination of the factors contributing to the relative effectiveness of these training programs indicated that more successful programs were likely to focus on development of cognitive skills and the heuristics involved in skill application, using realistic exercises appropriate to the domain at hand. The implications of these observations for the development of creativity through educational and training interventions are discussed along with directions for future research.
Article
Working memory (WM) is an essential component for human higher order cognitive activities. Creativity has been essential to the development of human civilization. Previous studies from different fields have suggested creativity and capacity of WM have opposing characteristics possibly in terms of diffuse attention. However, despite a number of functional imaging studies on creativity, how creativity relates to brain activity during WM has never been investigated. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we investigated this issue using an n-back WM paradigm and a psychometric measure of creativity (a divergent thinking test). A multiple regression analysis revealed that individual creativity was significantly and positively correlated with brain activity in the precuneus during the 2-back task (WM task), but not during the non-WM 0-back task. As the precuneus shows deactivation during cognitive tasks, our findings show that reduced task induced deactivation (TID) in the precuneus is associated with higher creativity measured by divergent thinking. The precuneus is included in the default mode network, which is deactivated during cognitive tasks. The magnitude of TID in the default mode network is considered to reflect the reallocation of cognitive resources from networks irrelevant to the performance of the task. Thus, our findings may indicate that individual creativity, as measured by the divergent thinking test, is related to the inefficient reallocation of attention, congruent with the idea that diffuse attention is associated with individual creativity.
Article
Tasks that demand externalized attention reliably suppress default network activity while activating the dorsal attention network. These networks have an intrinsic competitive relationship; activation of one suppresses activity of the other. Consequently, many assume that default network activity is suppressed during goal-directed cognition. We challenge this assumption in an fMRI study of planning. Recent studies link default network activity with internally focused cognition, such as imagining personal future events, suggesting a role in autobiographical planning. However, it is unclear how goal-directed cognition with an internal focus is mediated by these opposing networks. A third anatomically interposed 'frontoparietal control network' might mediate planning across domains, flexibly coupling with either the default or dorsal attention network in support of internally versus externally focused goal-directed cognition, respectively. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing brain activity during autobiographical versus visuospatial planning. Autobiographical planning engaged the default network, whereas visuospatial planning engaged the dorsal attention network, consistent with the anti-correlated domains of internalized and externalized cognition. Critically, both planning tasks engaged the frontoparietal control network. Task-related activation of these three networks was anatomically consistent with independently defined resting-state functional connectivity MRI maps. Task-related functional connectivity analyses demonstrate that the default network can be involved in goal-directed cognition when its activity is coupled with the frontoparietal control network. Additionally, the frontoparietal control network may flexibly couple with the default and dorsal attention networks according to task domain, serving as a cortical mediator linking the two networks in support of goal-directed cognitive processes.