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Replaying History: Learning World History through playing Civilization III

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... These studies showcase the ways in which people actively construct personal narratives using historical media and texts, and then share these narratives in online communities. Other scholars studying everyday practices focus on the ways in which people engage in historical content through historically themed video games, like Civilization, Assassin's Creed, or Call of Duty (Squire, 2004). Researchers have shown that players can meaningfully engage with historical content through playing historically situated games (Squire, 2004;Bogost, 2007;Chapman, 2013). ...
... Other scholars studying everyday practices focus on the ways in which people engage in historical content through historically themed video games, like Civilization, Assassin's Creed, or Call of Duty (Squire, 2004). Researchers have shown that players can meaningfully engage with historical content through playing historically situated games (Squire, 2004;Bogost, 2007;Chapman, 2013). Ultimately, both threads suggest that historically themed new media content can provide a means of creating shared artifacts that allow people to build and share their own understanding, and thereby supporting collaborative development of historical understanding. ...
... Research has shown that "children's best learning experiences occur when they are engaged in designing and creating things, especially things that are meaningful to themselves or others around us (Papert, 1991). We leverage previous successes within new media and games research that suggests the affective and educational benefits of situating experiences within new media (Matthews, 2016;Squire, 2004;Bogust, 2007;De Freitas, 2006;Chapman, 2013;Spring, 2015). ...
... Husøys opplegg er inspirert av Kurt Squires pionerstudie fra 2004, hvor han bruker Civilization III til å undervise i verdenshistorie blant elever i en amerikansk storby, både i og utenfor skolen (Squire, 2004). Squire beskriver hvordan noen av elevene etter hvert ble veldig engasjerte, på en måte som genererte en ny og produktiv form for faglig samtale og refleksjon. ...
... Som hos Egenfeldt-Nielsen (2005) og Squire (Squire, 2004), viser studien hvordan bruk av autentiske dataspill i skolen kan vaere et tveegget sverd. Jo mer tydelig et spill er som populaerkulturell nisjesjanger, og jo større krav til spilling og mestring hver enkelt elev møter, jo større blir den potensielle avstanden mellom fortrolighet og fremmedgjøring i klasserommet. ...
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Studien tar for seg et 3-ukers undervisningsopplegg med strategispillet Civilization IV i samfunnsfag i videregående skole. Spillet krever en systemorientert håndtering av komplekse samfunnsforhold, noe som er utfordrende og uvant for elevene. Jeg undersøker hvordan elevenes forhold til spill og spillkultur virker inn på hvordan de møter denne utfordringen, med et særlig blikk på kjønnsskiller. Studien har en sjangerteoretisk innfallsvinkel, med søkelys på sammenhengen mellom sjangerfelleskap, selvforståelse og mestring. Funnene viser at en gruppe av dataspill-entusiaster, nesten alle gutter, ble svært engasjert i spillingen, og brukte personlige erfaringer fra spillet til å reflektere over internasjonale forhold. For disse elevene fungerte læreren som en brobygger, en modell for hvordan gamer-identitet og skole-identitet kan fungere sammen. En gruppe av 5-6 jenter markerte derimot tydelig avstand til gamer-kulturen og sjangerfelleskapet, blant annet gjennom å overdrive og parodiere sin egen mangel på mestring i spillet. Her peker funnene også mot at kulturelle føringer om kjønn og teknologi spiller inn, delvis uavhengig av elevenes forhold til spillkultur og sjangerfelleskap. De spill-fremmede jentene var positive til ideen om spillbasert læring, men savnet skolens gjenkjennelige krav og arbeidsmåter.
... Furthermore, it lends weight to arguments put forward by , Shaffer (2005Shaffer ( , 2006aShaffer ( , 2006b and Squire ( , 2005Squire ( , 2006 about the potential of virtual role play as a pedagogical resource. In particular it suggests that virtual role-play allows students to develop 'embodied empathy' for complex social systems. ...
... In contrast, games are generally constructed by experts trying to communicate ideas to novices. Educational games seek to teach the player the model's rules and emergent properties through playing them Squire, 2005). ...
... Redd et al., 1987;Turkle, 1994;Vasterling, Jenkins, Tope, & Burish, 1993). The use of video games has been shown to increase youth creativity and curiosity, help with patients' engagement and pain management in hospitals, increase clients' cooperation and enthusiasm in some mental health settings, and enhance students' grades, learning, reading, and ability to work with abstract ideas (Gee, 2007;Koster, 2005;Squire & Barab, 2004). ...
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This work shows a systematic literature review carried out within Scopus database to identify educational projects where games have been used to teach geography and history in secondary education. Following most of PRISMA methodology procedures, while adapting some of its protocols, we identified 255 works. After the first data cleaning, we applied our inclusion and exclusion criteria to end up with 125 relevant results which were refined in later stages. Within our final sample, we applied descriptive statistics to confirm that most projects appear in conference proceedings and that they use mainly educational games created ad hoc instead of commercial games. Many times, these projects have not been implemented and even in these cases, their educational impact is rarely measured rigorously.
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Integration of new technologies into the learning process lies among the objectives of the contemporary educational approach related to historical periods. Thus, students familiar with the use of technology approach the traditional history lesson by participating in modern educational games of historical content. To intrigue them more into deepening their knowledge in history, we propose a historybased video game, so that they can familiarize themselves with Byzantine era and interact with aspects of its everyday life, such as military organization and actual public administration. The latter will be achieved through digitized copies of artifacts, so as to endorse and resemble a regular Byzantine life, e.g., as a commoner, a soldier, a high-level official, or even an emperor. By participating in these educational scenarios the students will have the opportunity to acquire direct knowledge about artifacts placed in Byzantine museums or the architecture of buildings, e.g., a Byzantine church, a palace or a house. The motivation behind this educational video game that is based on real cultural data/metadata is the development of students’ historical thinking and social awareness, and the production of a valuable teaching tool to make the learning process as appealing as possible.
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In this chapter we propose a new approach for designing virtual environments (VEs) that has the potential to make important contributions to teaching and learning history. We briefly outline the history of VR and define key terms and concepts. We describe three types of history-focused VEs, digital historical games, 3D historical reconstructions, and interactive storytelling, and discuss the opportunities and challenges they offer for history teaching and learning in terms of learning, accessibility, historical thinking, and historical empathy. In the final section, we describe the Digital Oral History for Reconciliation (DOHR) curriculum and virtual learning environment (VLE) that was created to promote relationality and historical empathy. We describe a new approach to designing curriculum-specific VLEs that offers several potential benefits for teaching and learning history and the design of interactive storytelling VLEs.
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