New approach to the neurobiological mechanisms of addiction
Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica: a Magyar Pszichofarmakológiai Egyesület lapja = official journal of the Hungarian Association of Psychopharmacology 12/2013; 15(4):189-205.
Much progress has been made in the last decade in the understanding the neural substrates of drug addiction, transmitters involved, epigenetic background and their relation to learning and memory but much remains to be elucidated and strong effort is necessary to integrate the rich information at the molecular, cellular systems, and behavioral levels to further clarify the mechanisms and therapy of this complex disease. The aim of this review is to collect and interpret the latest opinions in the development, the underlying mechanisms and therapy of addiction as a disease of central nervous system. The neurocircuitry, the transmitters and the epigenetics of addiction are discussed.
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ABSTRACT: Familial inheritance of drug abuse is composed of both genetic and environmental factors. Additionally, epigenetic transgenerational inheritance may provide a means by which parental drug use can influence several generations of offspring. Recent evidence suggests that parental drug exposure produces behavioral, biochemical, and neuroanatomical changes in future generations. The focus of this review is to discuss these multigenerational and transgenerational phenotypes in the offspring of animals exposed to drugs of abuse. Specifically, changes found following the administration of alcohol, opioids, cocaine, marijuana, and nicotine will be discussed. In addition, epigenetic modifications to the genome following administration of these drugs will be detailed as well as their potential for transmission to the next generation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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