Article

The Impact of Uniform Color on Judging Tackles in Association Football

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Abstract

Objectives The aim of the study was to question whether uniform color had any impact on judging tackles in football. Design Fifty-two videos showing the tackles of an achromatic and a chromatic team were individually presented in random order. The chromatic team’s uniform color was changed to blue, green, red and yellow. Method Football referees and participants with a high and minor level of understanding of the rules of football judged the roughness of each tackle. Results By analyzing all four colors, results did not reveal any impact of uniform color. Restricting analysis to blue and red showed that referees and participants with a high level of understanding of the rules judged tackles from behind more harshly for players wearing red. Conclusions The study found some empirical support for associating red with aggression and emphasized a differential impact of blue versus red uniforms for tackles committed from behind.

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... Since the 1980s, researchers have been increasingly interested in examining the influence that colors have on sport performance. These studies have shown a broad scope of potential color effects, mostly focusing on the influence of the color red, ranging from a higher win percentage (Allen & Jones, 2014;Attrill et al., 2008;Hill & Barton, 2005), an increase in force production (Dreiskaemper et al., 2013;Elliot & Aarts, 2011;Green et al., 1982;Hasson et al., 1989), an increase in foul percentage and severity (Hagemann et al., 2008;Krenn, 2014), and higher values for perceived dominance and aggression (Akers et al., 2012;Briki & Hue, 2016;Feltman & Elliot, 2011;Krenn, 2015;Wiedemann et al., 2015). Many of these studies argue that red is implicitly linked to dominance and aggression, which might lead to a benefit in athletic performance (Elliot, 2015;Feltman & Elliot, 2011;Hill & Barton, 2005). ...
... In addition, most color research in sports has focused mostly on combat sports, with a few exceptions of examining (ball-oriented) sports (Attrill et al., 2008;García-Rubio et al., 2011). Furthermore, most of these studies implemented a retroactive (Attrill et al., 2008;Hill & Barton, 2005) or video rating tasks design (Krenn, 2014(Krenn, , 2017. These methodologies are often not capable of systematically examining color effects in a stepwise manner (Elliot, 2015). ...
... These null findings should not be overlooked and weighed in the overall conversation if colors truly play a role in the context of sport. The relevance of this question is supported by the various studies that showed mixed (Krenn, 2014) or (partially) contradicting results (Matsumoto et al., 2007). Furthermore, the significant findings of this study are not directly in line with the color in context theory (Elliot & Maier, 2012), for example, the shown beneficial effect for both maximum heart rate and (estimated) VO 2 max when competing against an opponent in blue, while wearing blue themselves. ...
Article
This study examines the influence of wearing and perceiving colors in a cycling setting while also examining cortisol, heart rate, estimated maximum oxygen consumption, and subjective performance ratings. A total of 99 individuals completed the study, consisting of cortisol measurements, which compared baseline values to those after changing into a red or blue outfit, and a maximum cycling task performed wearing the same outfit while competing against a video opponent in red or blue. Each participant completed the protocol twice on separate days. Wearing a colored outfit showed no influence on cortisol levels. Regarding the cycling task, the participants wearing red had higher maximum heart rate values than when wearing blue. In addition, the results revealed increased maximum heart rate and maximum oxygen consumption values when perceiving an opponent in blue, especially when the participant also wore blue. No differences were found for the median heart rate or performance ratings.
... The factors that affect the performance include not only the players and opponents but also the referee (Plessner and Haar, 2006). Some studies explored the advantages of red uniform from the perspective of referee and found that red is more dominant and aggressive Krenn, 2014Krenn, , 2015. ...
... Results from the above two experiments supported the hypothesis that there is an implicit link between red (or blue) and aggressiveness (or agreeableness), which is in line with the findings of previous studies using relatively straightforward methodologies (e.g., Krenn, 2014Krenn, , 2015. Implicit measures were applied in this study to explore the advantage of red. ...
... In Experiment 2, the athletes were not in the same level; this may also have an impact on the results. Additionally, Krenn (2014) found that red uniform may affect the referee's penalty. However, only college students and athletes are selected as participants in the present study. ...
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The aim of the current compendium on the psychology of sport, performance, and ethics was to assemble both theoretical and applied research from experts within the field of sport psychology, sociology, performance, and exercise. Twelve articles, written by researchers from Brazil, China, Germany, Israel, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Taiwan, and the United States, were divided into four chapters. The first chapter, “Decision-Making Challenges in Dynamic Sporting Environments” holds four articles: Gershgoren et al. introduce the chapter Perceived Performance in Team Sports Questionnaire to capture the team members’ perception of their team’s performance. Samuel et al.’s case study adopted an intrinsic mixed-methods methodology to investigate the implementation of the video assistant (soccer) referee system within the Israeli Premier League context. Johansen and Erikstad investigated elite referees’ positioning in the field of play (distance, angle, and insight) when making correct and erroneous decisions in potential penalty situations. Finally, Del Campo and Martin assessed the effects of manipulating video speeds on visual behavior and decision accuracy of 10 amateur football assistant referees when watching video sequences of 24 possible offside actions.
... The factors that affect the performance include not only the players and opponents but also the referee (Plessner and Haar, 2006). Some studies explored the advantages of red uniform from the perspective of referee and found that red is more dominant and aggressive (Hagemann et al., 2008;Krenn, 2014Krenn, , 2015. ...
... Results from the above two experiments supported the hypothesis that there is an implicit link between red (or blue) and aggressiveness (or agreeableness), which is in line with the findings of previous studies using relatively straightforward methodologies (e.g., Krenn, 2014Krenn, , 2015. Implicit measures were applied in this study to explore the advantage of red. ...
... In Experiment 2, the athletes were not in the same level; this may also have an impact on the results. Additionally, Krenn (2014) found that red uniform may affect the referee's penalty. However, only college students and athletes are selected as participants in the present study. ...
Article
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Previous studies have found a link between red and aggressive behavior. For example, athletes who wear red uniforms in sports are considered to have a competitive advantage. So far, most previous studies have adopted self-report methods, which have low face validity and were easily influenced by the social expectations. Therefore, the study used two implicit methods to further explore the association between red and aggressiveness. A modified Stroop task was used in Experiment 1 to probe college students’ differences between “congruent” tasks (i.e., red–aggressiveness and blue–agreeableness) and “incongruent” tasks (i.e., red–agreeableness and blue–aggressiveness). Result showed that participants responded more quickly to the congruent tasks than the incongruent tasks. Then, in order to adapt to the competitive context, Experiment 2 used an implicit association test with photos of athletes as the stimulus to college students and athletes to evaluate “congruent” tasks (i.e., red uniform photo-aggressiveness and blue uniform photo-agreeableness) as well as “incongruent” tasks (i.e., red uniform photo-agreeableness and blue uniform photo-aggressiveness), respectively. According to the results, both college students and athletes respond faster to congruent tasks than to incongruent tasks. Besides, athletes’ reactions to the red–aggressiveness association are faster than college students, which may relate to the athletes’ professional experience. The athletes may be more aggressive and impulsive. Overall, the study has attempted to examine the association between red and aggressiveness through implicit methods, but in the future, researches are need to find a deep association from brain mechanism aspect.
... The remaining studies (n = 9) investigated decision-making differences of interactor officials to individuals who do not complete 'central' officiating tasks. Comparisons were made against assistant referees (Catteeuw et al., 2009;Spitz et al., 2017), soccer players (MacMahon, Helsen, et al., 2007;Plessner & Betsch, 2001), wheelchair-bound fans, players and novices (Renden et al., 2014), players and fans (Wagner-Egger, Gygax, & Ribordy, 2012), official's assessors, official's coaches, touch judges (Mascarenhas et al., 2005a), university students with high football knowledge and low football knowledge (Krenn, 2014), and finally individuals with soccer refereeing, coaching and playing experience but did not distinguish between groups (Balmer, Nevill, Lane, & Ward, 2007). ...
... There was a range of decision-making footage in the testing protocols. Most commonly, individual video clips of match play from a broadcast perspective (i.e., third person) were presented in 21 studies (Brand et al., 2006;Catteeuw et al., 2009;Ghasemi et al., 2011;Jones et al., 2002;Krenn, 2014;Larkin et al., 2011;Larkin, O'Brien, et al., 2014;Lex et al., 2015;MacMahon, Helsen, et al., 2007;MacMahon, Starkes, et al., 2007;MacMahon & Ste-Marie, 2002;Mascarenhas et al., 2005a;Nevill et al., 2002;Paradis et al., 2016;Plessner & Betsch, 2001;Poolton et al., 2011;Renden et al., 2014;Souchon et al., 2004;Souchon et al., 2013;Spitz et al., 2017;Wilson & Mock, 2013). Two studies investigated the decision-making of referees while watching one soccer game from a broadcast (i.e., third person) perspective in a single sitting (i.e., watching a full football game at once) (Balmer et al., 2007;Nevill et al., 2017). ...
... The influence of slow motion on decision-making accuracy was assessed in one study (Spitz et al., 2017). Biases were examined as an influence on decision-making in five studies encompassing player gender (Souchon et al., 2004;Souchon et al., 2013), player skin colour (Wagner-Egger et al., 2012), aggressive team reputation (Jones et al., 2002), and uniform colour (Krenn, 2014). There were 11 studies which did not investigate any additional influences on decision-making ...
Article
Objectives: Decision-making is the most important skill for sporting officials, consequently, assessment of this skill is becoming increasingly popular in the literature. There is considerable interest in the use of video-based methods to assess decision-making of officials in controlled, off-field environments. Design: Systematic review of the literature examining video-based testing in sporting officials. Methods: Using the keywords “umpire” “referee” “sport officials” “decision making” and “judgement” a comprehensive search was conducted in February 2018 on electronic databases (SPORTDiscus, Medline, PsycInfo, Google Scholar). Inclusion criteria included full text articles from January 2000 to January 2018 published in peer-reviewed journals. Only ‘central’ or ‘field’ officials were included in this review (i.e., assistant referees, touch judges were excluded). Results: The search yielded 27 studies. The majority of articles were specific to soccer officials. Overall, video-based testing appears to be a valid measure of decision-making differentiating between performance levels. This review highlighted a high degree of variability among the methods applied, with varied participation groups, clip type used, and influences on decision-making. The reporting of reliability and implementation of transfer tests was rarely incorporated in the research. Conclusions: Video-based testing appears to be a valid measure of decision-making of officials in an off-field, controlled environment. This research area would be advanced through further investigation into sports other than soccer, examination of transfer to match performance testing, reporting the reliability of the test, reporting decisional accuracy rather than solely number of decisions, and investigation of additional video modes.
... On the other hand, several studies reported null results refuting any beneficial impact of red uniforms in combat sports (Carazo-Vargas and Moncada-Jiménez, 2014;Pollet and Peperkoorn, 2013) and football (García-Rubio et al., 2011;Kocher and Sutter, 2008) or rather reported negative outcomes (e.g. harsher tackle judgements in football; Krenn, 2014). Most notably, Allen and Jones (2014) found in an exploratory analysis, that teams wearing red at home games succeeded more often in their away games, where they mostly did not wear red: Thus, Attrill et al.'s (2008) reported benefit might be independent of red uniforms and rather be due to specific team characteristics (cf. ...
... Our results were consistent within the context of football and handball penalties, neglecting any impact of uniform color. Thus, the current study seems to be in line with past research, which also failed to reveal any potential benefit of red uniforms in sports (Allen and Jones, 2014;García-Rubio et al., 2011;Kocher and Sutter, 2008;Krenn, 2014;Pollet and Peperkoorn, 2013). ...
... Future research has to overcome this restriction by focusing more comprehensively on the impact of wearing versus viewing uniform color in sport. In addition, research suggesting a benefit of the color red in football was conducted in England solely, whereas research denying such an impact was conducted in Austria, Germany or Spain (Allen and Jones, 2014;Attrill et al., 2008;Furley et al., 2012;García-Rubio et al., 2011;Kocher and Sutter, 2008;Krenn 2014). Thus, the assumption raised by Greenlees et al. (2008;Furley et al., 2012), that a culturally-based social learning process may have generated this benefit of the color red in England, represents an additional option for explaining the contradictory findings. ...
Article
Past research has revealed ambiguous results on the impact of red uniforms in sports competition. The current study was aimed at analyzing the role of red and blue uniforms in football and handball penalties. Two experiments were conducted using a within subjects design, where participants rated uniform color-manipulated video clips. In the first study, participants (n = 39) watched footage of football players kicking a penalty, whereas in the second study (n = 118) videos of handball penalty takers, handball goalkeepers and football goalkeepers preparing themselves to score/save a penalty were shown. Participants rated player's/goalkeeper's level of confidence and the expected position of the ball crossing the goal line in the first experiment and additionally the probability of scoring the penalty against the goalkeepers in the second experiment. The videos stopped at the point where the ball was leaving the foot and hand respectively. Results did not show any beneficial impact of red uniforms. Rather, football players wearing blue were rated to kick the ball higher. The study contradicts any positive effect of red versus blue uniforms in the context of football and handball penalties, which emphasizes the need of searching for potential moderators of color's impact on human behavior.
... There is limited research available which examines any relationship between yellow and sport psychology. For instance, in trying to tie different colors of soccer uniform to referees' decisions, Krenn (2014) found no significant effects for yellow. Yet, in the last decade or so, sport psychologists have shown a growing interest for studying the behavioral impact of color (see Elliot & Maier, 2014, for a review). ...
... But he reported congruent red effects for boxing (see also Sorokowski, Szmajke, Hamamura, Jiang, & Sorokowska, 2014) and wrestling. Similar effects were also found for rugby (Piatti, Savage, & Torgler, 2012) and soccer (Attrill, Gresty, Hill, & Barton, 2008;Krenn, 2014; although see also Furley, Dicks, & Memmert, 2012;García-Rubio, Picazo-Tadeo, & González-Gómez, 2011;Kocher & Sutter, 2008;Szmajke & Sorokowski, 2006). ...
... With its yellow jersey, the Tour de France seemed ideally suited for that purpose. A second avenue was to base our work on the color-incontext theory , 2014. ...
Article
The authors demonstrate in three experiments (N = 241) that yellow impacts on social perceptions when associated with competitive cycling. In Experiment 1, the image of a syringe evocated competitive cycling and doping more strongly when presented on yellow as compared with gray. In Experiment 2, a performance improvement scenario yielded more discredit of a depicted racer and higher suspicions of doping when ending on a yellow frame, as opposed to a gray one. In Experiment 3, the image of a racer wearing a yellow jersey (instead of a gray or a white one) yielded the lowest scores on measures of suitability as a role model and attractiveness of sport participation. Moreover, no significant differences emerged for gender, thereby suggesting equivalent effects for female and male participants. Finally, the authors discuss conceptual and practical implications as well as limitations before proposing a number of avenues for future research.
... Closer inspection of the methodology used in these studies (Goldschmied and Lucena, 2018), shows that various of those studies did not differentiate between wearing red [Feltmann and Elliot, 2011;Ten Velden et al., 2012;Dreiskaemper et al., 2013; see also Furley et al. (2012) and Lam et al. (2017)], perceiving a colored environment (Payen et al., 2011), viewing red on an opponent (Krenn, 2014), or some combination of all these factors. In this sense, examining the combination of wearing and perceiving colored equipment, Feltmann and Elliot (2011) found that participants imagining themselves wearing red in a taekwondo match had enhanced self-perception of their own dominance and threat, whereas perceiving an opponent in red enhanced the perception of their dominance and threat. ...
... Discussion about wearing and perceiving effects of colors has been biased by not taking into account the impact on the judgments or decision-making of referees (Hagemann et al., 2008;Carazo-Vargas and Moncada-Jiménez, 2014;Krenn, 2014;Sorokowski et al., 2014). Those studies found that referees systematically favored or gave more points to the athlete competing in red than the one competing in blue. ...
Article
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Previous studies in taekwondo have considered the use of the manual scoring system or the electronic system with only the use of the electronic body protector. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between the color protectors and success in 1,327 taekwondo matches from six World Grand Prix Series of two 4-year Olympic periods when electronic body and head protectors are used. In the total sample, the results did not show a relationship between the match outcome and the color of the protectors ( p = 0.97, C = 0.001). For the individual six editions, the results showed a positive and strong relationship between wearing blue protectors and winning matches and one between wearing red protectors and winning matches ( p = 0.001, C = 0.19; p = 0.001; C = 0.19). Regarding the weight categories, 8 and 5 of 48 showed higher percentages of blue and red winners, respectively. Regarding sex, male competitors showed a positive relationship between blue color and winning the match in 6 of 24 weight categories, and wearing red and winning the match was shown in 2 of 24 weight categories. Female competitors showed a positive relationship between blue color and winning the match in 2 of 24 weight categories, and wearing red and winning the match was shown in 3 of 24 weight categories. When it comes to the influence of being a seeded athlete, the results did show a significant confounding effect on the color of the protectors worn by the winner of the match in 2 of 13 weight categories in which a color effect was observed ( p = 0.02, C = 0.28; p = 0.02, C = 0.28). In conclusion, wearing red does not provide a higher chance of winning the match. It seems that seeing red has a stronger effect than wearing red, especially in male contenders. Moreover, being a seeded athlete does not explain the result of the match. It seems that the introduction of the electronic helmet protector, in addition to the electronic body protector, made the scoring system more objective, decreasing the advantage of wearing red in winning matches.
... To bring clarity to the results, we have reviewed this research from a unifying theoretical perspective (i.e. color-in-context framework; 2014) while highlighting methodological and theoretical shortcomings with the goal of advancing research practices and knowledge accumulation within this field. ...
... Also in soccer, Krenn (2014) studied whether uniform color (achromatic and chromatic) had an influence on judging the severity of tackles by both referees and non-referees utilizing digitally manipulated video clips. No differences arose when comparing blue, green, red, and yellow uniforms. ...
Article
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Groundbreaking research linking uniform colors and performance in sport has gained momentum in recent years demonstrating a superiority effect associated with certain colors, especially red, and an increase in aggression when in black. However, the findings are not uniform and some studies find no association. Our objective was to identify, compare, and disseminate a comprehensive list of studies associated with uniform colors and performance. This critical review identified 33 studies in sport, which explored the phenomenon and met the criteria for inclusion. We used the color-in-context theory (Elliot & Maier, 2007; 2014) as the foundation for our analysis of the findings and, in turn, exposed some incoherence of some constructs and boundary conditions set by this framework. In the current work, we specifically distinguish between performance research and perception-only work and illuminate the differences as they pertain to theoretical underpinning. Based on present findings, we conclude that the evidence for uniform colors to influence the outcome of athletic competitions is weak and that more investigation is required to substantiate the effect, if it does exist. We conclude by proposing future avenues of research both as they pertain to features of the sports studied but also for the methodology utilized.
... Various studies focused on examining specific match factors that might influence referees' DM. These included, among others, home advantage, as manifested by crowd noise (Goumas, 2014;Lovell et al., 2014;Nevill et al., 2017;Picazo-Tadeo et al., 2017), a team's reputation for aggressiveness (Jones et al., 2002), the referee's positioning in the field of play (Mallo et al., 2012), players' vocalisation following foul incidents (Lex et al., 2015), the players' uniform colour in judging tackle incidents from behind (Krenn, 2014), foul offenders' height (van Quaquebeke & Giessner, 2010), and extreme weather conditions (Gaoua et al., 2017). In addition, the opponent level (i.e., ranking home teamranking visiting team) and the score might influence the referee's decision concerning the addition of extra time (Lago-Peñas & Gómez-López, 2016). ...
... Castillo et al. (2018),Coleclough (2013),Gaoua et al. (2017),Krenn (2014), Lago-Peñas and Gómez-López(2016), Lex et al. (2015), Lovell et al. (2014), Nevill et al. (2002, 2017), Picazo-Tadeo et al. (2017), Plessner and Betsch (2001), Schwarz (2011), Unkelbach and Memmert (2008), van Quaquebeke and Giessner (2010) Referee team shared mental model and communication A shared understanding of the match tactical approach ('speaking the same language'). A unified calibration of various match decisions. ...
Article
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Decision-making (DM) is a critical aspect of soccer refereeing. Referees make numerous repetitive decisions, many of which are dependent on appropriate field location and effective interaction with their assistants. Most extant research has focused on the underlying mechanism of the DM process as well as on various influential factors. Much of the research has aimed to uncover refereeing bias, but has revealed that the refereeing task is highly context-dependent. Less attention has been given to models that consider the range of influential factors that affect the DM process. This article presents a new conceptual framework of sequential DM for skilled soccer referees that relies on Tenenbaum’s (2003) conceptual framework and the existing literature. We start by reviewing research on DM in soccer refereeing and then discuss conceptual considerations. We then present the new conceptual framework, including illustrations of the different decisions along the sequential process. This model incorporates a range of factors, including physical fitness and fatigue, field positioning, visual attention, contextual factors, game management, expertise and cognitive processing, psychological factors, and team factors (including video assistant referees). Preliminary data obtained from a sample of 20 elite referees and assistants demonstrated the face validity of the new model. Considering the complexity of the sequential DM process, it is not surprising that referees exhibit high decision error rates. Thus, we introduce implications for training referees’ DM skills and highlight avenues for future research and conceptual developments in this area.
... implying defeat) (e.g. Hill & Barton, 2005;Krenn, 2014;Recours & Briki, 2015;Ten Velden, Baas, Shalvi, Preenen & De Dreu, 2012). Taken together, these findings therefore argue in favour of the colour red being negatively valenced, conveying the notions of threat, dominance and danger. ...
... The results yielded by the card-sorting task suggest that the children in our study associated the colour red with negative valence, for when the faces were displayed against a red background rather a green or grey one, they were more often categorized as expressing negative feeling. This effect is consistent with the findings of a growing body of research with adults (Elliot & Maier, 2012, 2014. The present study, featuring an adaptation for children of the task used by Gil and Le Bigot (2015), is thus the first one to reveal a similarity between adults and children with regard to the red-meaning association. ...
Article
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The association of colour with emotion constitutes a growing field of research, as it can affect how humans process their environment. Although there has been increasing interest in the association of red with negative valence in adults, little is known about how it develops. We therefore tested the red-negative association in children for the first time. Children aged 5-10 years performed a face categorization task in the form of a card-sorting task. They had to judge whether ambiguous faces shown against three different colour backgrounds (red, grey, green) seemed to 'feel good' or 'feel bad'. Results of logistic mixed models showed that - as previously demonstrated in adults - children across the age range provided significantly more 'feel bad' responses when the faces were given a red background. This finding is discussed in relation to colour-emotion association theories.
... However, this study failed to clarify whether the red uniform reduced the performance of the opponents or improved the performance of the wearers. Later studies confirmed the association between red and aggressiveness (Geng et al., 2021), and found that the red-aggressiveness link affects observers' subjective judgments (e.g., that of referees) (Hagemann et al., 2008;Krenn, 2014Krenn, , 2015. Based on the redaggressiveness link, it seem to suggest that red affect observers' (referees) judgment of competitive performance, but it not answer the question of how red affect opponents' motor behavior. ...
Article
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Previous studies have shown that the color red can affect basic motor functioning. However, these studies utilized simple gross motor tasks rather than those assessing complex fine motor skills. Moreover, these empirical studies were theoretically based on the threat–behavior link in human and non-human animals, and neglected the relationship between arousal and motor performance. According to the Yerkes–Dodson law and the inverted-U hypothesis in sport psychology, for simple motor tasks, high arousal (associated with the color red) is more advantageous than low arousal (associated with the color blue); for complex motor tasks, low arousal (blue color) is more advantageous than high arousal (red color). The current research examined the effect of color on different kinds of motor skills (fine motor and gross motor) based on the inverted U-hypothesis. In Experiment 1, we examined the effect of red and blue on dart-throwing performance, whereas in Experiment 2, we examined the effect of red and blue on grip strength performance. The results showed that performance of fine motor skill (dart-throwing) in the blue condition was better than in the red condition, and performance of gross motor skill (handgrip) in the red context was better than in the blue context. These results indicate that the type of motor skill assessed moderates the influence of red and blue on motor performance.
... In addition, penalty takers scored fewer penalties when facing goalkeepers wearing red compared to those wearing blue and green (Greenlees, Eynon, & Thelwell, 2013). Even viewers appear to be affected, as referees and spectators with high understanding of football rules reportedly judged tackles from behind more harshly when players were wearing red (Hagemann, Strauss, & Leissing, 2008;Krenn, 2014). More recently, viewers perceived treadmill runners to be faster when wearing red compared to when wearing blue (Mentzel, Schücker, Hagemann, & Strauss, 2019). ...
Article
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The effect of colour on different aspects of performance has been the subject of substantial research interest, and red had been shown to have varying effects on not only performance, but perceptions as well. This study examined the effect of apparel colour on self-predicted and actual motor performance. Thirty-six young adults (18 females, 18 males; 20.4 SD 1.32 years old), who had no experience in football, performed a task consisting of an agility ladder drill and football shooting, in each of three bib colours (red, blue, black). Self-predicted and actual performances were measured on the dimensions of shooting accuracy and kicking power. A significant effect of colour on self-predicted shooting accuracy was found. Participants expected themselves to shoot less accurately when they were wearing a red bib, compared to when wearing blue and black bibs. No effect of colour on actual performance was found and no significant interaction was found between colour and sex. The findings suggest that wearing red could reduce users' expectations of their performance in a novel motor task; there is no effect on actual performance.
... Thus, by investigating the consequences of coaches' substitutions decisions, it contributes to the extensive literature on judgement and decision making in (professional) sports (Raab, Bar-Eli, Plessner, & Araújo, 2019). Moreover, we contribute to the broad and interdisciplinary literature on determinants of game outcomes in professional soccer such as (i) shirt colour (Attril, Gresty, Hill, & Barton, 2008;Krenn, 2014), (ii) experiencing a player dismissal (Bar-Eli, Tenenbaum, & Geister, 2006;Mechtel, Bäker, Brändle, & Vetter, 2011), (iii) playing at the home venue (Carron, Loughead, & Bray, 2005;Courneya & Carron, 1992;Van Damme & Baert, 2019), and (iv) referee bias (Dohmen, 2008;Nevill, Balmer, & Williams, 2002). ...
Article
We investigate how the goal-scoring probability in international club soccer evolves after player substitutions. To this end, we analyse rich data concerning 2,025 recent soccer games played in the two most prestigious club soccer competitions, i.e. the UEFA Champions League and the UEFA Europa League. As first in the literature, we control for within-game dynamics by applying a minute-by-minute bivariate probit approach. We find that teams experience increased goal-scoring probabilities after their first and second substitution and a decreased probability of scoring after the three substitutions made by their opponent. This association is less distinct during the first three minutes after the substitution, which is consistent with difficulties to adapt to (i) the game intensity by the substitute player or (ii) tactical changes by the entire team. Furthermore, we find that the change in the goal-scoring probability is substantially bigger if the team is losing at the moment of the substitution.
... The previous literature has analysed several determinants of referee bias such as social pressure from the crowd and the media (e.g. [18]), cultural closeness of the referee to the team [19,20], players' height [21], uniform colour [22], and ethnicity [23]. In this section, we provide some examples of papers analysing favouritism for home and "big" teams and the factors that may influence it. ...
Article
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This study is the first to investigate whether the introduction of additional assistant referees in the UEFA Europa League (2009–2010 season) and the UEFA Champions League (2010–2011 season) was associated with lower referee bias in terms of home and “big” team favouritism. To this end, we analyse a unique database with pre- and within-game characteristics of all games in seven recent seasons in these leagues by means of bivariate probit regression models. We find evidence for substantial referee bias before the introduction of additional referees, while no such evidence is found after the introduction. Furthermore, additional assistants go hand in hand with more yellow cards for both home and away teams. We show that these findings are robust to multiple operationalisations of referee bias and that they are not just picking up a general time evolution towards less referee bias or the effect of parallel reforms.
... Red. Previous studies addressing the effect of colour on psychological functioning have mainly focused on the colour red, showing that red heightens attention (Diaz-Roman et al., 2015;Pravossoudovitch, Cury, Young, & Elliot, 2014), undermines performance (Shi, Zhang, & Jiang, 2014), increases aggressiveness and dominance (Bagchi & Cheema, 2013;Fetterman, Liu, & Robinson, 2015;Krenn, 2014), and enhances attraction (Elliot & Niesta, 2008) dependent on its context (see Elliot & Maier, 2014, for a review). It has been suggested that many of these effects are the result of learned colour associations. ...
Article
Associations with colors are a rich source of meaning, and there has been considerable interest in understanding the capacity of color to shape our functioning and behavior as a result of color associations. However, abstract conceptual color associations have not been comprehensively investigated, and many of the effects of color on psychological functioning reported in the literature are therefore reliant on ad hoc rationalizations of conceptual associations with color (e.g., blue = openness) to explain effects. In the present work we conduct a systematic, cross-cultural, mapping of conceptual color associations using the full set of hues from the World Color Survey (WCS). In Experiments 1a and 1b we explored the conceptual associations that English monolingual, Chinese bilingual, and Chinese monolingual speaking adults have with each of the 11 Basic English Color Terms (black, white, red, yellow, green, blue, brown, purple, pink, orange, gray). In Experiment 2 we determined which specific physical WCS colors are associated with which concepts in these three language groups. The findings reveal conceptual color associations that appear to be universal across all cultures (e.g., white - purity; blue - water/skyrelated; green - health; purple - regal; pink - "female" traits) as well as culture specific (e.g., red and orange - enthusiastic in Chinese; red - attraction in English). Importantly, the findings provide a crucial constraint on, and resource for, future work that seeks to understand the effect of color on cognition and behavior, enabling stronger a priori predictions about universal as well as culturally relative effects of conceptual color associations on cognition and behavior to be systematically tested. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
... The sample size for a paired sample t test was calculated a priori using G*Power and set to 27 participants based on a target power of 0.80 with an expected Cohen's d of 0.5 (medium effect size), as has been reported in previous color studies. 2,9 Exclusion criteria were language impairments, (uncorrected) visual impairments, and any type of selfreported color blindness. A total of 32 participants (15 female, M age = 23.81, ...
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This study focuses on examining color effects of perceived speed in an individual noncompetitive sport context, treadmill running. In addition, the presence of individual trends for color effects are inspected by observing the connection of color effects in a sport‐specific video rating task with those found in an individual color association task. For this, 32 participants rated the perceived running speed of 48 videos depicting runners on a treadmill at seven different speed settings. Furthermore, participants rated a range of additional sport‐specific performance parameters. The runners in the video were shown wearing either a red, blue, or gray jersey, gray being used to strengthen the cover story. As a secondary task, the participants performed a modified Stroop task to assess implicit color associations. The results showed a significant color effect for speed; runners depicted in red were perceived as running at higher speeds compared to blue. No significant color effects were found for the other sport‐specific parameters. Finally, there was no significant covariate effect of the modified Stroop task for the speed perception color effect. These findings indicate that, in situations in which speed must be judged, red might be perceived as going faster.
... Krenn (19) focused on color and aggressiveness in his study and reported viewing red on self or others increases appraisals of aggression and dominance. Results of Krenn's (19) study were consistent with the results of the present study. ...
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Background: Color is one of the most important physical features of the environment that affects the architectural quality of space, behavior, and human feelings. Objectives: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of classroom red walls on the aggression of female high school students. Methods: The sample size in this study included 70 female high school students studying in Shiraz, Iran, during the academic year of 2017 to 2018. The research sample was obtained using cluster random sampling. In this way, one area was selected randomly from four educational districts of Shiraz. Then, one school was selected randomly from all female high schools in a selected district. Classes were randomly divided to two groups of 35 students, control and intervention group, among all the school classrooms. At first, a pre-test including Buss and Perry aggression questionnaire was performed. Then, the classroom walls of the intervention group were painted red. While the classroom walls of the control group were white. After 12 weeks, aggression tests were performed for each group. The means and standard deviations were used at descriptive level and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used at inferential level. Results: Pre-test and post-test score of aggression in the intervention group was 76.89 ± 25.494 and 101.00 ± 25.121. In the control group, the mean of pre-test and post-test were 79.54 ± 19.655 and 76.60 ± 19.820. The results of ANCOVA analysis showed that the classroom with red walls could significantly increase the level of aggression in general (P < 0.001) and its subscales, including verbal aggression (P < 0.001), physical aggression (P < 0.001), anger (P < 0.001), and hostility (P < 0.001). Conclusions: According to the results, red color of the classroom walls increased the aggression and its dimensions, including verbal aggression, physical aggression, anger, and hostility among female high school students.
... On the other hand, there are an even higher and increasing number of studies that simply demonstrate potential biasing influences of certain factors on JDM in sport without any attempt to assess underlying cognitive processes and/or to differentiate between alternative theoretical explanations. For example, several (unwanted) factors have been shown to supposedly influence decisions of referees in association football: Colour of players' jersey (Krenn, 2014), teams' reputation (Jones, Paull, & Erskine, 2002), crowd noise (Nevill, Balmer & Williams 2002), minute of play (De Oliveira, Orbetelli, & de Barros Neto, 2011), players' skin colour (Wagner-Egger, Gygax, & Ribordy, 2012), players' size (Van Quaquebeke and Giessner, 2010), players' direction of motion (Kranjec, Lehet, Bromberger & Chatterjee, 2010). Only few of these and similar studies match the demands for social cognition applications in sport as described above (for a notable exception see for example Unkelbach & Memmert, 2010). ...
Article
Objectives: The study of judgment and decision-making in sports is at least as old as the anniversary of FEPSAC we celebrate with this special issue. It seems therefore appropriate to look into the past, present and future of this topic. Design: For the past, a focus of the review is relating the European perspective of the co-authors into a larger frame of areas in judgment and decision making within the last 50 years and beyond. Method/Results/Conclusions: For the present, scientific current developments will be structured as judgments from the most influential perspectives such as the economical, social cognition, ecological dynamics or cognitive approaches illustrating some milestones in research on judgment and decision-making in sports of today. For the future, potentials of the field will be structured based on theory, methodology and practical applications showcasing challenges for the next decades of research ahead of us.
... The literature on signals used in sports has discussed 'cheap talk' type of signals as well as signals linked to physiological traits. An example of the first is the literature focusing on the display of certain colors (Attrill, Gresty, Hill, & Barton, 2008;Hill & Barton, 2005;Ioan et al., 2007;Krenn, 2014). However, no robust empirical evidence for an advantage of displaying for example the color red has been observed (Fortunato & Clauset, 2016). ...
Article
Emotion display serves as incentives or deterrents for others’ in many social interactions. We study the portrayal of anger and happiness, two emotions associated with dominance, and its relationship to team performance in a high stake environment. We analyze 4318 pictures of players from 304 participating teams in twelve editions (1970–2014) of the FIFA Soccer World Cup, and use automated face-reading (FaceReader 6) to evaluate the display of anger and happiness. We observe that the display of both anger and happiness is positively correlated with team performance in the World Cup. Teams whose players display more anger, an emotion associated with competitiveness, concede fewer goals. Teams whose players display more happiness, an emotion associated with confidence, score more goals. We show that this result is driven by less than half the players in a team.
... There is no doubt that it is relevant to know what is biasing the referees' judgments (e.g., Dohmen & Sauermann, 2015) in order to better deal with this problem and improve performance. Interestingly, even though the topic of referee bias is popular (e.g., Krenn, 2013;Wagner-Egger, Gygax, & Ribordy, 2012;van de Ven, 2011), few authors make any proposals on how to solve this problem (e.g., Boyko, Boyko, & Boyko, 2007;Nevill et al., 2013;van Quaquebeke & Giessner, 2010). ...
Article
Objective The number of football-related studies has increased considerably in recent years, in part due to the worldwide popularity of this sport. However, in what concerns football refereeing, literature is still very scattered. Thus, the purpose of this study was to provide an updated integrative review of studies addressing refereeing within football. Design Our study is an integrative review of the football referee literature. Method Using the keywords “Soccer Referee”, “Football Referee” and “Football Association Referee,” a review was conducted through September 2016, using the Web of Knowledge and Scopus databases. Results Literature search resulted in 267 full text articles which were grouped into seven themes and 54 sub-themes. Themes and sub-themes were generated through an inductive and deductive process of data analysis. Conclusion In addition to summarising the current state of the literature, we also outline possible paths for future research on the topic of football refereeing. In fact, the results of our review suggest that there is a need to extend the scope of empirical research in refereeing to include various other topics, as well as a need to further develop theoretical models regarding the performance of football referees, which could be used in their training and development.
... On the other hand, there are an even higher and increasing number of studies that simply demonstrate potential biasing influences of certain factors on JDM in sport without any attempt to assess underlying cognitive processes and/or to differentiate between alternative theoretical explanations. For example, several (unwanted) factors have been shown to supposedly influence decisions of referees in association football: Colour of players' jersey (Krenn, 2014), teams' reputation (Jones, Paull, & Erskine, 2002), crowd noise (Nevill, Balmer & Williams 2002), minute of play (De Oliveira, Orbetelli, & de Barros Neto, 2011), players' skin colour (Wagner-Egger, Gygax, & Ribordy, 2012), players' size (Van Quaquebeke and Giessner, 2010), players' direction of motion (Kranjec, Lehet, Bromberger & Chatterjee, 2010). Only few of these and similar studies match the demands for social cognition applications in sport as described above (for a notable exception see for example Unkelbach & Memmert, 2010). ...
Chapter
Subjective expected utility theoryProspect theoryDecisional field theorySimple heuristic approachSummary
... On the other hand, there are an even higher and increasing number of studies that simply demonstrate potential biasing influences of certain factors on JDM in sport without any attempt to assess underlying cognitive processes and/or to differentiate between alternative theoretical explanations. For example, several (unwanted) factors have been shown to supposedly influence decisions of referees in association football: Colour of players' jersey (Krenn, 2014), teams' reputation (Jones, Paull, & Erskine, 2002), crowd noise (Nevill, Balmer & Williams 2002), minute of play (De Oliveira, Orbetelli, & de Barros Neto, 2011), players' skin colour (Wagner-Egger, Gygax, & Ribordy, 2012), players' size (Van Quaquebeke and Giessner, 2010), players' direction of motion (Kranjec, Lehet, Bromberger & Chatterjee, 2010). Only few of these and similar studies match the demands for social cognition applications in sport as described above (for a notable exception see for example Unkelbach & Memmert, 2010). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Maximization and optimization in sportJDM historyThe development of JDM research in sportRationale and structure of this book
... Hagemann et al. [138], using video compositing software, reversed the colour of 347 the head guards and torso protectors worn by taekwondo fighters, and found that judges who viewed 348 the videos awarded significantly more points to a competitor in red than blue, even though the content 349 of the fight was identical across conditions. Krenn [139] digitally manipulated the colour of soccer kits 350 and found that professional referees judged tackles committed by a player wearing red rather than blue 351 as more harsh. Likewise, in the National Hockey League (NHL) and the National Football League (NFL), 352 teams that wore black uniforms were penalised significantly more than teams in other coloured 353 ...
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The colour of our skin and clothing affects how others perceive us and how we behave. Human skin colour varies conspicuously with genetic ancestry, but even subtle changes in skin colour due to diet, blood oxygenation and hormone levels influence social perceptions. In this review, we describe the theoretical and empirical frameworks in which human colour is researched. We explore how subtle skin colour differences relate to judgements of health and attractiveness. Also, because humans are one of the few organisms able to manipulate their apparent colour, we review how cosmetics and clothing are implicated in courtship and competition, both inside the laboratory and in the real world. Research on human colour is in its infancy compared with human psychophysics and colour research in non-human animals, and hence we present best-practice guidelines for methods and reporting, which we hope will improve the validity and reproducibility of studies on human coloration. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Animal coloration: production, perception, function and application’.
... Moreover, in the lucrative professional soccer arena, in home games the team that wears red jerseys is more likely to win [55]. While some of these effects may be due to differential treatment of red-clad competitors by referees [56], the discovery that red goalkeepers save more penalties suggest players' own perceptions are involved [57]. ...
Article
While basic research on animal coloration is the theme of this special edition, here we highlight its applied significance for industry, innovation and society. Both the nanophotonic structures producing stunning optical effects and the colour perception mechanisms in animals are extremely diverse, having been honed over millions of years of evolution for many different purposes. Consequently, there is a wealth of opportunity for biomimetic and bioinspired applications of animal coloration research, spanning colour production, perception and function. Fundamental research on the production and perception of animal coloration is contributing to breakthroughs in the design of new materials (cosmetics, textiles, paints, optical coatings, security labels) and new technologies (cameras, sensors, optical devices, robots, biomedical implants). In addition, discoveries about the function of animal colour are influencing sport, fashion, the military and conservation. Understanding and applying knowledge of animal coloration is now a multidisciplinary exercise. Our goal here is to provide a catalyst for new ideas and collaborations between biologists studying animal coloration and researchers in other disciplines. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Animal coloration: production, perception, function and application’.
... Red has a subtle but important influence on psychological and basic motor functions, increasing one's motivation and altering one's perception of performance (Feltman & Elliot, 2011). In sports, previous research has shown that wearing red enhanced one's perception of rela- tive dominance and threat, while viewing an opponent in red heightened the perception of the opponent's domi- nance and threat (Greenless, Leyland, Thelwell, & Filby, 2008;Greenless, Eynon, & Thelwell, 2013;Krenn, 2014). ...
... In research on color and intellectual performance, viewing red prior to a challenging cognitive task has been shown to undermine performance (see Shi et al., 2015, for a review). Research focused on color and aggressiveness/dominance evaluation has shown that viewing red on self or other increases appraisals of aggressiveness and dominance (see Krenn, 2014, for a review). Empirical work on color and avoidance motivation has linked viewing red in achievement contexts to increased caution and avoidance (see Elliot and Maier, 2014, for a review). ...
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In the past decade there has been increased interest in research on color and psychological functioning. Important advances have been made in theoretical work and empirical work, but there are also important weaknesses in both areas that must be addressed for the literature to continue to develop apace. In this article, I provide brief theoretical and empirical reviews of research in this area, in each instance beginning with a historical background and recent advancements, and proceeding to an evaluation focused on weaknesses that provide guidelines for future research. I conclude by reiterating that the literature on color and psychological functioning is at a nascent stage of development, and by recommending patience and prudence regarding conclusions about theory, findings, and real-world application.
... Indeed, in everyday life, blue (red) is often associated with openness (danger) (e.g., Smeesters & Liu, 2011), pleasant (unpleasant) feelings (Moller, Elliot, & Maier, 2009) and sensations (Michael & Rolhion, 2008). Color effects on affect (Elliot, Maier, Moller, Friedman, & Meinhardt, 2007), cognition (Smeesters & Liu, 2011), social judgment (Krenn, 2014), motivation (Elliot et al., 2007), physiology (Elliot, Payen, Brisswalter, Cury, & Thayer, 2011), and performance (e.g., Elliot & Aarts, 2011;Elliot et al., 2007Elliot et al., , 2009Hill & Barton, 2005) have recently elicited scientists' interest. However, most of the studies were focused on the stressful effect of red (e.g., see Elliot et al., 2007Elliot et al., , 2009, while the effect of blue received little attention (Smeesters & Liu, 2011). ...
Article
The present study aimed to examine the effect of blue and red colors of opponent’s dress on competitive anxiety and self-confidence in virtual sport competitions. We hypothesized that blue is related to higher levels of self-confidence (a feeling related to the approach motivational system), whereas red is related to higher levels of anxiety (a feeling related to the avoidance motivational system). Participants were confronted with an opponent dressed either in blue or in red. Results revealed that participants who were exposed to blue reported a higher level of self-confidence, while those who were exposed to red reported a higher level of cognitive anxiety, supporting the view that blue (red) is related to the approach (avoidance) motivational system. Our findings incite to pursue the examination of the relationship between blue, red, competitive anxiety, and self-confidence in sport competitions.
... Arabzad et al. (2014) proposed a novel approach based on Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and TOPSIS techniques to team seeding in sports tournaments with the case of Euro 2012 football tournament. Krenn (2014) dealt to a question whether uniform color had any impact on judging tackles in football. Jelineket al. (2014) investigated the effectiveness of using computerbased machine learning regression algorithms and meta-regression methods to predict performance data for Australian football players based on parameters collected during daily physiological tests. ...
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Predicting the results of sports matches is interesting to many, from fans to punters. It is also interesting as a research problem, in part due to its difficulty, because the result of a sports match is dependent on many factors, such as the morale of a team (or a player), skills, current score, etc. So even for sports experts, it is very hard to predict the exact results of sports matches. This research discusses using a machine learning approach, Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), to predict the outcomes of one week, specifically applied to the Iran Pro League (IPL) 2013-2014 football matches. The data obtained from the past matches in the seven last leagues are used to make better predictions for the future matches. Results showed that neural networks have a remarkable ability to predict the results of football match results.
... For other interesting facts about the football game the reader may look also [7][8] and [10]. ...
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Football (soccer) is the most popular game now, in terms of spectators. In this paper, a new approach point distribution in a soccer match is introduced. This new point distribution method can be applied to league matches in any football league. Also a format of big tournament like world cup is represented by our point distribution technique.
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This study conducted a meta-analysis to explore the influence of colour on human behaviour in the context of sport and to scrutinise potential moderators affecting this impact. P-curve analysis was used to test whether a set of findings in the published literature contains an evidential value. To analyse the methodological standard of included studies two quality assessment tools were applied: the QATSDD and guidelines recommended by Elliot [2019. A historically based review of empirical work on color and psychological functioning: Content, methods, and recommendations for future research. Review of General Psychology, 23(2), 177–200]. The PRISMA protocol was employed for data identification and selection. Sixty-nine articles met the inclusion criteria and were deemed eligible for analysis. The results of the p-curve analysis suggested that cumulatively the studies contained evidential value (p < .001). The meta-analysis with random effects models indicated a medium significant effect (θ^ = 0.56, 95%-CI [0.40, 0.72], p < .001) with substantial heterogeneity (I² = 96.97%, t² = 0.34, pQ < .001). Several moderators (i.e., age, study design, sport type, physical outcome measures, perceiving coloured environment, perceiving others in coloured equipment, red colour, blue colour) showed a significant impact on the relationship between colour and human behaviour in sports. Closer inspection of the quality of included studies, however, implied that carefully controlled empirical work on colour in the context of sport is scarce.
Article
Past research has documented an impact of sportswear color on performance and referees' judgments in combat and team sports. Amongst other things, it was argued that these effects may arise from differences in visibility. In this regard, the current study was aimed at questioning the impact of uniform color on offside judgments in association football. We analyzed the number of offside judgments for 1530 matches from the first and second division of the football league in Germany and recorded the color of shirts, shorts and stockings for both teams. Data analyses revealed that attacking teams wearing black shirts and black stockings were accompanied by fewer offside decisions. In contrast, defending teams wearing black or green kits were accompanied by increased offside judgments against the opposing teams. Thus, it seems that black and green kits yielded favourable offside judgments. Regarding the low color contrast with green uniforms on a green lawn and the lower detection rate of dark colors the results suggest that green and black kits are less visible, which may impede players' visual detection. The results emphasise the importance of analyzing the role of uniform color in the context of offside decisions to ensure fair play and equal opportunities of winning.
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate which biomechanical footwear properties are related to shoe quality judgement by runners. Methods Four shoe surveys with an identical testing protocol were selected for our analysis. Experienced runners (20–25) ran in each shoe model a distance of 10 km on a specified course with varying terrain. Subjects filled out a questionnaire with 15-point perception score Results and Discussion Correlation analyses revealed a high match of the overall liking of shoes with all other field test questionnaire items. Reductions in peak tibial accelerations and maximum vertical Ground Reaction Force rates showed the highest correlation values (p < 0.01) with better shoe liking (lower values). The pronation variables show very little and the peak plantar pressures indicate a medium relationship with better shoe likings.Performing stepwise regression analyses, peak tibial acceleration (prime factor) was complemented by peak forefoot pressure as a second-step variable. Because heel pressures have a strong relationship with the peak tibial acceleration, forefoot pressure information seems to add valuable information in predicting, how much footwear is liked by runners. Conclusion The company name has a big influence on consumer judgement of product quality (Hennig & Schulz, 2011). Therefore, it is surprising to find the high probability of approximately 60% for predicting overall quality rating of footwear by runners. Independent of footwear type (cushioning, motion control), runners prefer shoes with good shock absorption properties and low plantar pressures. This was consistently found in four studies between 2005 and 2015.
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Black and white have been shown to be representations of moral concepts. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether colours other than black and white have similar effects on words related to morality and to determine the time course of these effects. We presented moral and immoral words in three colours (red, green and blue) in a Moral Stroop task and used the event-related potential (ERP) technique to identify the temporal dynamics of the impact of colours on moral judgement. The behavioural results showed that it took longer for people to judge immoral words than moral words when the words were coloured green than when they were red or blue. The ERP results revealed the time course of these effects. Three stages were identified in the significant effects of P200, N300 and LPC. These findings suggest a metaphorical association between the colour green and moral information.
Article
Through inter-contextual designs, the present set of experiments sought to explore whether the colour yellow would impact on social perceptions of sportspersonship exclusively in relation to competitive cycling. In Experiment 1 (N = 149), a silhouette image of a cyclist on a yellow background yielded lower perceptions of sportspersonship in comparison to grey or to the context of motocross, regardless of the colour. That interaction was conceptually replicated in Experiment 2 (N = 146) while changing measures (i.e., adaptation of the World Anti-Doping Code) and the context of comparison to sprinting. Furthermore, female and male observers' scores did not differ significantly thereby suggesting that yellow impacted on perceived sportspersonship similarly across gender. On the whole, those findings suggest that yellow can generate negative impressions of racing cyclists because, with years, this colour took on a meaning of opportunism from frequent pairings with doping. We close with discussing a number of limitations and future research avenues.
Article
In the current study we questioned the impact of uniform color in boxing, taekwondo and wrestling. On 18 photos showing two athletes competing, the hue of each uniform was modified to blue, green or red. For each photo, six color conditions were generated (blue-red, blue-green, green-red and vice versa). In three experiments these 108 photos were randomly presented. Participants (N = 210) had to select the athlete that seemed to be more aggressive, fairer or more likely to win the fight. Results revealed that athletes wearing red in boxing and wrestling were judged more aggressive and more likely to win than athletes wearing blue or green uniforms. In addition, athletes wearing green were judged fairer in boxing and wrestling than athletes wearing red. In taekwondo we did not find any significant impact of uniform color. Results suggest that uniform color in combat sports carries specific meanings that affect others' judgments.
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Colors carry meaningful psychological signals. We hypothesized that the color red serves as a powerful cue in competition, affecting both actors and perceivers. Using simplified poker games we investigated the psychological meaning of color in competitive interaction, by examining how the color of chips (red vs. blue or white) used by participants or their competitors affected behavior. Although chip color was objectively unrelated to the chips' value or competitors' strength, perceiving competitors using red chips renders competitors more intimidating, which leads perceivers to withdraw. Furthermore, actors who used red chips felt more dominant, which led them to enhanced competitive approach. Displaying red thus makes actors feel stronger and increases competitive approach; perceivers of displays of red in competitors feel intimidated and withdraw from competing.
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Past research suggests that wearing either a black or a red uniform leads to increased aggression or an increase in perceived aggression during professional sports. However, this research suffers from a number of limitations, including an inability to manipulate the independent variable. A recent change in the National Hockey League’s uniform policy created the possibility of a naturally occurring experiment that allowed the authors to examine whether aggression levels were higher when teams wore black or red jerseys. The authors compared games against the same opponent in which home teams wore red or black jerseys for one game and their usual color for another game on several measures of aggression. They found no evidence that either black or red uniforms were related to higher levels of aggression in professional hockey games.
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Recent research has linked red shirts to sporting success. In this article, we analyse the relationship between the colour red and sporting performance in the Spanish Professional Football League. Our foremost conclusion is that once the effect of the different endowments of resources and the ability of managers have been discounted, teams with red shirts do not show greater performance than teams wearing shirts of other colours.
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Conspicuous colored patches on animals often serve as sexually selected signals that advertise male quality. Such colored traits facilitate assessment of risks associated with a specific contest or benefits associated with a specific mate choice. Here, we investigate whether a colored patch of skin on the chests of male geladas (Theropithecus gelada) is a sexually selected signal. Specifically, we examine the relationship between color (redness), social status (a proxy for reproductive success), and age. We use observational data from known individuals from a population of wild geladas living in Ethiopia. We digitally quantified chest color using a previously-validated method for measuring color under field conditions. Results from this study are consistent with the hypothesis that redness is a quality signal in males. Baseline color correlates with status even when controlling for age. Indeed, males with redder chests were members of “better” groups: 1) leader males—the only males with reproductive access to females—had the reddest chests, and 2) within leader males, males with large units (>6 females) had redder chests than males with small units. At present, we are unable to address whether male chest color is directed at potential rivals or mates. Nevertheless, our data support the hypothesis that quality signals should prevail in large, fluid groups, where it is unlikely that individuals recognize all other group members. If individual recognition is limited in gelada society, this would favor the evolution of alternative means of assessment for making reproductive decisions.
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Existing research reports inconsistent findings with regard to the effect of color on cognitive task performances. Some research suggests that blue or green leads to better performances than red; other studies record the opposite. Current work reconciles this discrepancy. We demonstrate that red (versus blue) color induces primarily an avoidance (versus approach) motivation (study 1, n = 69) and that red enhances performance on a detail-oriented task, whereas blue enhances performance on a creative task (studies 2 and 3, n = 208 and 118). Further, we replicate these results in the domains of product design (study 4, n = 42) and persuasive message evaluation (study 5, n = 161) and show that these effects occur outside of individuals' consciousness (study 6, n = 68). We also provide process evidence suggesting that the activation of alternative motivations mediates the effect of color on cognitive task performances.
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Black is viewed as the color of evil and death in virtually all cultures. With this association in mind, we were interested in whether a cue as subtle as the color of a person's clothing might have a significant impact on his or her behavior. To test this possibility, we examined whether professional football and ice hockey teams that wear black uniforms are more aggressive than those that wear nonblack uniforms. An analysis of the penalty records of the National Football League and the National Hockey League indicate that teams with black uniforms in both sports ranked near the top of their leagues in penalties throughout the period of study. On those occasions when a team switched from nonblack to black uniforms, the switch was accompanied by an immediate increase in penalties. The results of two laboratory experiments indicate that this finding can be attributed to both social perception and self-perception processes--that is, to the biased judgments of referees and to the increased aggressiveness of the players themselves. Our discussion focuses on the theoretical implications of these data for an understanding of the variable, or "situated," nature of the self.
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Red coloration is a sexually selected, testosterone-dependent signal of male quality in a variety of animals, and in some non-human species a male's dominance can be experimentally increased by attaching artificial red stimuli. Here we show that a similar effect can influence the outcome of physical contests in humans--across a range of sports, we find that wearing red is consistently associated with a higher probability of winning. These results indicate not only that sexual selection may have influenced the evolution of human response to colours, but also that the colour of sportswear needs to be taken into account to ensure a level playing field in sport.
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The colour of sportswear has been shown to influence the outcome of bouts for several different combat sports. The generality of these effects, and whether they extend to collaborative forms of contests (team sports), is uncertain. Since 1947, English football teams wearing red shirts have been champions more often than expected on the basis of the proportion of clubs playing in red. To investigate whether this indicates an enhancement of long-term performance in red-wearing teams, we analysed the relative league positions of teams wearing different hues. Across all league divisions, red teams had the best home record, with significant differences in both percentage of maximum points achieved and mean position in the home league table. The effects were not due simply to a difference between teams playing in a colour and those playing in a predominantly white uniform, as the latter performed better than teams in yellow hues. No significant differences were found for performance in matches away from home, when teams commonly do not wear their "home" colours. A matched-pairs analysis of red and non-red wearing teams in eight English cities shows significantly better performance of red teams over a 55-year period. These effects on long-term success have consequences for colour selection in team sports, confirm that wearing red enhances performance in a variety of competitive contexts, and provide further impetus for studies of the mechanisms underlying these effects.
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In this study, we examined the impact of soccer players' uniform colour and gaze behaviour on the impressions that are formed of them by opposing goalkeepers. Twelve soccer goalkeepers observed video footage, filmed from between the goalposts to simulate their usual viewpoint, of four players preparing to take a penalty kick. Each of the four players displayed a different combination of gaze (either 90% or 10% with gaze operationalized as looking directly at the camera) and uniform colour (red or white). Goalkeepers rated each player on a series of descriptors (e.g. confidence, composure, assertiveness) and rated their expectancies for successfully saving penalty kicks from that player. Analysis revealed that those penalty takers displaying 90% gaze were perceived to possess positive characteristics to a greater extent than penalty takers displaying 10% gaze. Results also revealed penalty takers wearing red were perceived to possess positive characteristics to a greater extent than those wearing white. Goalkeepers reported higher expectancies of saving penalties from penalty takers displaying 10% gaze and wearing white uniforms than any of the other combinations. Our results therefore support the potential importance of gaze and uniform colour in the formation of impressions and expectancies in sport.
Chapter
Color is a ubiquitous perceptual stimulus, yet relatively little empirical and even less theoretical work exists on color and psychological functioning. The research that has been conducted has tended to lack the scientific precision and rigor evident in other areas of inquiry in psychology. In response, we have set out to develop a general model of color and psychological functioning-color-in-context theory-which we present herein. We also overview several lines of empirical work that have emerged from this theoretical framework, starting with research on red in achievement contexts, moving on to research on red in affiliation contexts, and concluding with research on other colors in other contexts. In addition, we articulate the need to carefully attend to the fact that color comprises three attributes-hue, lightness, and chroma-in creating color manipulations in experimental work. We close by highlighting the conceptual, empirical, and practical implications of viewing color as a functional, as well as aesthetic, stimulus, and by sounding the call for more research in this important yet overlooked area.
Article
Is uniform color related to aggressive behavior? Prior research has produced mixed results comparing the effects of black (vs. colored) uniforms on aggressive penalties in the National Hockey League (NHL), and the effect of white (vs. colored) uniforms remains unexamined. Luckily, the NHL has conducted multiple quasi-experiments with uniform (jersey) color over time. To examine the color–aggression link, the authors analyzed the last 25 seasons of NHL penalty-minute data (649 seasons from 30 teams collapsed across 52,098 games). When teams wore black jerseys, they were penalized more than when they did not (d = 1.19; Study 1). When teams switched to wearing colored jerseys at home games, they were penalized more than when they wore white jerseys at home games (d = 0.83; Study 2). Collectively, these quasi-experimental findings suggest that black jerseys are associated with more aggression and that white jerseys are associated with less. The authors discuss possible causes for these color-aggression effects.
Article
Color is a ubiquitous perceptual stimulus that is often considered in terms of aesthetics. Here we review theoretical and empirical work that looks beyond color aesthetics to the link between color and psychological functioning in humans. We begin by setting a historical context for research in this area, particularly highlighting methodological issues that hampered earlier empirical work. We proceed to overview theoretical and methodological advances during the past decade and conduct a review of emerging empirical findings. Our empirical review focuses especially on color in achievement and affiliation/attraction contexts, but it also covers work on consumer behavior as well as food and beverage evaluation and consumption. The review clearly shows that color can carry important meaning and can have an important impact on people's affect, cognition, and behavior. The literature remains at a nascent stage of development, however, and we note that considerable work on boundary conditions, moderators, and real-world generalizability is needed before strong conceptual statements and recommendations for application are warranted. We provide suggestions for future research and conclude by emphasizing the broad promise of research in this area. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology Volume 65 is January 03, 2014. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
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Hill and Barton (2005) showed that fighters in tae kwon do, boxing, and wrestling who wore red jerseys during the 2004 Olympic Games won more often than those wearing blue jerseys. Regarding these results, this study investigated the effects of jersey color during a combat situation on fighters' physical parameters of strength and heart rate. An artificial, experimental combat situation was created in which the color of sport attire was assigned randomly. Fourteen pairs of male athletes matched for weight, height, and age had to fight each other: once in a red jersey and once in a blue. Heart rate (before, during, and after the fight) and strength (before the fight) were tested wearing the blue and the red jerseys. Participants wearing red jerseys had significantly higher heart rates and significantly higher pre-contest values on the strength test. Results showed that participants' body functions are influenced by wearing red equipment.
Article
Recent research has revealed that a person or team wearing red is more likely to win a physical contest than a person or team wearing another color. In the present research, we examined whether red influences perceptions of relative dominance and threat in an imagined same-sex competitive context, and did so attending to the distinction between wearing red oneself and viewing red on an opponent. Results revealed a bidirectional effect: wearing red enhanced perceptions of one's relative dominance and threat, and viewing an opponent in red enhanced perceptions of the opponent's relative dominance and threat. These effects were observed across sex, and participants seemed unaware of the influence of red on their responses. Our findings lead to practical suggestions regarding the use of colored attire in sport contexts, and add to an emerging, provocative literature indicating that red has a subtle but important influence on psychological functioning.
Article
The present research was designed to examine whether viewing a subtle threat cue, the color red, prior to a simple motor task influences strength output. Thirty-nine participants performed a maximal voluntary contraction of the thigh, viewed red or a chromatic or achromatic control color, and then repeated the maximal voluntary contraction. Participants also reported their general arousal and mood, and were asked to guess the purpose of the experiment. Results indicated that viewing red (relative to a control color) inhibited the rate of force development, but did not influence the peak amplitude of force production. Null findings for general arousal and mood indicated that the observed effect on rate of force development could not be accounted for by these self-report variables; no participant correctly guessed the purpose of the experiment. This research, in conjunction with recent work by Elliot and Aarts (in press) [19] clearly establishes a link between red and basic motor output, and highlights the importance of attending to the functional, as well as aesthetic, value of color.
Article
Hill and Barton (2005) showed that wearing red sports attire has a positive impact on one's outcome in a combat sport (e.g., tae kwon do or wrestling). They suggested that this effect is due to an evolutionary or cultural association of the color red with domi- nance and aggression, proposing that this association triggers a psychological effect in an athlete who wears red (or in his or her opponent; e.g., Cuthill, Hunt, Cleary, & Clark, 1997; Milinski & Bakker, 1990; Setchell & Wickings, 2005). Rowe, Harris, and Roberts (2005) criticized this argument and instead attributed the bias evident in these and other data (judo) to differences in opponents' visibility. We disagree with both interpretations (see also Barton & Hill, 2005), arguing that this phenomenon is actually due to a per- ceptual bias in the referee. That is, we propose that the per- ception of colors triggers a psychological effect in referees that can lead to bias in evaluating identical performances. Referees and umpires exert a major influence on the outcome of sports competitions (Plessner & Haar, 2006). Athletes frequently make very rapid movements, and referees have to view sports com- petitions from a very disadvantageous perspective, so it is ex- tremely difficult for them to make objective judgments (Oude- jans et al., 2000). As a result, their judgments may show biases like those found in other social judgments (Frank & Gilovich, 1988; Plessner & Haar, 2006; Ste-Marie & Valiquette, 1996). Therefore, we believe that it is the referees who are the actual cause of the advantage competitors have when they wear red. Because the effect of red clothing on performance and on the decisions of referees may well have been confounded in the original data, we conducted a new experiment and found that referees assign more points to tae kwon do competitors dressed in red than to those dressed in blue, even when the performance of the competitors is identical.
Article
Frank and Gilovich (1988) found that teams with black uniforms were penalized by referees more than other teams that did not wear black uniforms in the U.S. National Football League (NFL), and the U.S. National Hockey League (NHL). This finding was examined for the referees in the Turkish Premier Soccer League (TPSL) for the soccer teams wearing or not wearing black uniforms during actual games. 30 male referees' (ages 22-45 years, M = 34.8) decisions were analyzed in a total of 2142 Turkish premier soccer league games played in 7 seasons. Using the number of red and yellow cards and penalty kicks teams drew as a penalty decision criteria, no significant differences were found between Turkish soccer teams wearing black uniforms or those not and the number of penalty kicks. This result, which was different from that of Frank and Gilovich's work, was discussed in relation to the social psychological point of view of different cultures and societies.
The dark side of self-and social perception: black uniforms and aggression in professional sports Does a red shirt improve sporting performance? Evidence from Spanish football Soccer penalty takers
  • M G Frank
  • T Gilovich
  • M A García-Rubio
  • A J Picazo-Tadeo
  • F Gómez
Frank, M. G., & Gilovich, T. (1988). The dark side of self-and social perception: black uniforms and aggression in professional sports. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 74e85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.54.1.74. García-Rubio, M. A., Picazo-Tadeo, A. J., & González-Gómez, F. (2011). Does a red shirt improve sporting performance? Evidence from Spanish football. Applied Economics Letters, 18, 1001e1004. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13504851.2010.520666. Greenlees, I., Leyland, A., Thelwell, R., & Filby, W. (2008). Soccer penalty takers' http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/ 1948550611418535. B. Krenn / Psychology of Sport and Exercise 15 (2014) 222e225