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The effects of operating a touch screen smartphone and other common activities performed while bicycling on cycling behaviour

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... However, a Swedish field experiment where an eye-tracker was used, found no change in visual behaviour among cyclists who were listening to music (Ahlstrom et al., 2016). Similarly, Dutch field experiments showed that a number of objects (printed traffic signs and a clock) noticed by cyclists was not influenced by listening to music (De Waard, Edlinger & Brookhuis, 2011;De Waard et al., 2014). However, in these two latter studies visual behaviour was not directly measured. ...
... In total 12 studies, both field studies and naturalistic cycling studies were analysed. Four studies report obtaining ethical approval (De Waard, Edlinger & Brookhuis, 2011;De Waard et al., 2014;De Waard et al., 2010;Vansteenkiste, 2015). In the other eight studies (Ahlstrom et al., 2016;Dozza, Bianchi Piccinini & Werneke, 2016;Dozza & Werneke, 2014;Kircher et al., 2015;Langford, Chen & Cherry, 2015;Salmon, Young & Cornelissen, 2013;Schleinitz et al., 2017;Schleinitz et al., 2015) it is not clear whether ethical considerations were addressed: ethical approval is not reported, however, this does not necessarily mean that no ethical scrutiny was carried out. ...
... Field experiments investigating visual detection among cyclists on the phone show mixed results. De Waard,Lewis-Evans, Jelijs, Tucha, and Brookhuis (2014) andDe Waard et al. (2010) found that a phone conversationespecially a difficult one -negatively affected the number of noticed objects. However, De Waard et al. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
The impact of quiet electric cars, listening to music and conversing on the phone on cyclists' auditory perception and cycling safety.
... likely to use their smartphones while in motion, removing their hand from the handlebars and thus increasing the probability of an accident as single-handed cycling significantly reduces lateral control [45]. ...
... Overall, past research offers little consensus on what the effective and safe ways of providing input during cycling are. As past work in traffic studies provide empirical evidence of what behaviours are unsafe [45], the challenge for HCI is to design input methods that discourage those unsafe behaviours. Our work explores and compares in-ride input methods and examines their potential for safety and performance. ...
... Here, we provide an account of how we reached the final designs of our prototypes. Research in traffic safety shows that cyclists use mobile phones regularly [18,43] and that this usage constitutes a risk to traffic safety [45], but does not establish what functions of the phone are most commonly used. Consequently, we started designing a new control device for the smartphone by investigating what should be controlled. ...
Preprint
The more people commute by bicycle, the higher is the number of cyclists using their smartphones while cycling and compromising traffic safety. We have designed, implemented and evaluated two prototypes for smartphone control devices that do not require the cyclists to remove their hands from the handlebars - the three-button device Tribike and the rotation-controlled Brotate. The devices were the result of a user-centred design process where we identified the key features needed for a on-bike smartphone control device. We evaluated the devices in a biking exercise with 19 participants, where users completed a series of common smartphone tasks. The study showed that Brotate allowed for significantly more lateral control of the bicycle and both devices reduced the cognitive load required to use the smartphone. Our work contributes insights into designing interfaces for cycling.
... This matter has not received much attention (1)(2)(3)(4)(5) because most studies have concentrated on the effects of listening to music while driving a vehicle or a motorcycle, (6)(7)(8)(9)(10)(11)(12) and very few studies have investigated the effects of listening to music or operating a cellphone on cycling behavior. (13)(14)(15)(16)(17) In countries such as the Netherlands, the use of a smartphone and other MP3 players while riding a bicycle is very common and not forbidden; however, listening to music while cycling is illegal in Germany and New Zealand. (17) De Waard et al. observed that 7.7% of the cyclists were listening to an MP3 player while cycling in Groningen. ...
... (13)(14)(15)(16)(17) In countries such as the Netherlands, the use of a smartphone and other MP3 players while riding a bicycle is very common and not forbidden; however, listening to music while cycling is illegal in Germany and New Zealand. (17) De Waard et al. observed that 7.7% of the cyclists were listening to an MP3 player while cycling in Groningen. (13) On the basis of an internet survey of 2500 cyclists, Goldenbeld and Ehlers reported that 40% of cyclists between 12 and 17 and 15% of those between 18 and 34 years of age always listened to music while they rode. ...
... To choose a suitable eigenfunction for the DWT components for the classification of the attention level, the eigenvalues of D 3 , D 4 , and D 5 were obtained using the eigenfunctions shown in Eqs. (12)- (17). To understand the effect of the cycling-related activity on the attention level, the SVMs and GRNNs were both employed to classify the brainwaves of the subjects from the EEG data collected during the riding experiments. ...
... Controlled experiments have shown that in general, mobile phone use while cycling is associated with reduced speed, reduced peripheral vision performance, increased mental effort ratings and reduced lateral control (de Waard et al. 2010(de Waard et al. , 2011(de Waard et al. , 2014. The effects are larger when handling the phone, such as when writing a text message, and especially so when using a touch screen (de Waard et al. 2014). ...
... Controlled experiments have shown that in general, mobile phone use while cycling is associated with reduced speed, reduced peripheral vision performance, increased mental effort ratings and reduced lateral control (de Waard et al. 2010(de Waard et al. , 2011(de Waard et al. , 2014. The effects are larger when handling the phone, such as when writing a text message, and especially so when using a touch screen (de Waard et al. 2014). When it comes to listening to music with earbuds while cycling, only limited effects on bicyclists' behaviour have been found (de Waard et al. 2011(de Waard et al. , 2014Kircher et al. 2015), except for worsened auditory perception (de Waard et al. 2011(de Waard et al. , 2014. ...
... The effects are larger when handling the phone, such as when writing a text message, and especially so when using a touch screen (de Waard et al. 2014). When it comes to listening to music with earbuds while cycling, only limited effects on bicyclists' behaviour have been found (de Waard et al. 2011(de Waard et al. , 2014Kircher et al. 2015), except for worsened auditory perception (de Waard et al. 2011(de Waard et al. , 2014. A limitation with most of these studies is that the participants were not allowed to choose how to integrate the mobile phone task with the cycling task. ...
Article
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Cyclists’ use of mobile phones in traffic has typically been studied in controlled experiments. How cyclists adapt their behaviour when they are not limited to a certain set of behaviours has not been investigated to any large extent. The aims of this study are to explore how cyclists adapt when texting and listening to music in a complex urban environment, and if they compensate sufficiently to maintain safe traffic behaviour. Forty-one cyclists participated in a semi-controlled study, using their own bike and smartphone in real traffic. They were equipped with eye tracking glasses and travelled two laps completing a total of 6 km divided into six segments. For one of the laps, the cyclists were requested to listen to music. On three occasions, they received a text message to their phone, which they were supposed to handle as they normally would when cycling. Static minimum required attention measures were used to examine the influence on attention. The results show that listening to music while cycling did not affect workload, speed, SMS interaction or attention. Seven different adaptation behaviours were identified when the cyclists dealt with received text messages. One-fourth of the text messages were replied to while cycling. In general, the cyclists manage to integrate SMS interactions with their cycling behaviour. Nevertheless, there were two occasions when basic attention criteria were violated while texting, which motivate further studies.
... Today, a large number of road accidents are related to distractions caused by simultaneously using external devices, such as smartphones, while cycling on the road [29]. Distractions through touch input by looking at the smartphone [13,14] represent a large proportion of cycling accidents [66]. Especially notifications tempt to draw cyclists' attention [22], incentivizing them to interact immediately and making the interaction process a major side activity [51]. ...
... The stop-to-interact paradigm may increase the safety and interaction efficiency but is scarcely practiced by cyclists resulting in detrimental on-the-go interaction losing track of the road traffic [15,52,67]. current interaction devices are either handheld devices occupying one hand of the cyclist, effectively reducing the cycling performance [65], or compromise the road traffic attention through touch interaction when the device is mounted on the handlebar [13,14]. A higher risk of accidents is the result, where cyclists are at a higher risk of injuring themselves than others compared to other road users, including car drivers and pedestrians. ...
... Their results show that interacting with a physical button on the handlebar resulted in less physical workload, less frustration, and improved task completion time compared to the other interaction modalities. Consequently, touchscreen and wristband interaction was rated higher in perceived workload than button-based interaction, especially since the touchscreen requires looking at the phone screen, lowering the overall cycling performance [13]. Also, the wristband interaction needs participants to memorize the gestures. ...
Article
Full-text available
Cyclists' attention is often compromised when interacting with notifications in traffic, hence increasing the likelihood of road accidents. To address this issue, we evaluate three notification interaction modalities and investigate their impact on the interaction performance while cycling: gaze-based Dwell Time, Gestures, and Manual And Gaze Input Cascaded (MAGIC) Pointing. In a user study (N=18), participants confirmed notifications in Augmented Reality (AR) using the three interaction modalities in a simulated biking scenario. We assessed the efficiency regarding reaction times, error rates, and perceived task load. Our results show significantly faster response times for MAGIC Pointing compared to Dwell Time and Gestures, while Dwell Time led to a significantly lower error rate compared to Gestures. Participants favored the MAGIC Pointing approach, supporting cyclists in AR selection tasks. Our research sets the boundaries for more comfortable and easier interaction with notifications and discusses implications for target selections in AR while cycling.
... These experiments found effects of phone use on lane control, lane position, speed, and object detection performance in peripheral field tests. Specifically, in terms of lane position, when operating a mobile phone, in particular when texting, and even more so when using a touch screen telephone (De Waard et al., 2014), users increased the distance they kept from the curb compared to conditions in which they did not use a phone. This could be risky in situations where cyclists shift position in the direction of other larger vehicles that they may be sharing the road with. ...
... Specifically, they are more often looking down at their screens and operating their phones rather than calling. Secondly, it was observed that in line to earlier experimental findings (De Waard et al., 2014) bicyclists kept more distance from the curb when operating a telephone under these real world conditions. These results indicate that bicyclists operating a mobile phone may increase their safety margins (Summala, 2005) in terms of keeping more distance from the curb, which is a more immediate and constant threat. ...
Article
Operating a mobile telephone while riding a bicycle is fairly common practice in the Netherlands, yet it is unknown if this use is stable or increasing. As such, whether the prevalence of mobile phone use while cycling has changed over the past five years was studied via on-road observation. In addition the impact of mobile phone use on lateral position, i.e. distance from the front wheel to the curb, was also examined to see if it compared to the results seen in previous experimental studies. Bicyclists were observed at six different locations and their behaviour was scored. It was found that compared to five years ago the use of mobile phones while cycling has changed, not in frequency, but in how cyclists were operating their phones. As found in 2008, three percent of the bicyclists were observed to be operating a phone, but a shift from calling (0.7% of cyclists observed) to operating (typing, texting, 2.3% of cyclists) was found. In 2008 nearly the complete opposite usage was observed: 2.2% of the cyclists were calling and 0.6% was texting. Another finding was that effects on lateral position were similar to those seen in experimental studies in that cyclists using a phone maintained a cycling position which was further away from the curb. It was also found that when at an intersection, cyclist's operating their phone made less head movements to the right than cyclists who were just cycling. This shift from calling to screen operation, when combined with the finding related to reduced head movements at intersections, is worrying and potentially dangerous.
... Pedestrians' walking behaviors were evaluated in a laboratory experiment by Hyong (2015) who reported that playing smartphone games most significantly decreased cognitive ability, causing the greatest decrease in dynamic balance, which was followed by texting message, Web surfing, and listening to music. In a field experiment study where 24 cyclists' cycling behaviors were observed, De Waard, Lewis-Evans, Jelijs, Tucha, and Brookhuis (2014) concluded that smartphone gaming, compared with calling or listening to music, caused cyclists to have the most variation in the cyclists' lateral position (i.e., to swerve the most on a public cycle track). ...
... While past studies (e.g., Li & Fernie, 2010) have demonstrated that pedestrian's head-turning performance is crucial to navigating streets safely, little research thus far has attempted to investigate the effects of smartphone gaming on pedestrians' headturning behaviors before crossing the street. Relevant studies discussing the effects of smartphone gaming on pedestrians/bicyclist safety (e.g., De Waard et al., 2014;Haga et al., 2015;Hyong, 2015) concluded that smartphone gamers had the worst gait performance (i.e., ability to walk and balance), the greatest decrease in dynamic balance, and worst lateral control. For those studies investigating the effects of other smartphone activities such as texting and surfing the Internet (e.g., Byington & Schwebal, 2013), main findings include that texting messages or browsing the Internet on a smartphone compromised pedestrian's safety such that pedestrians waited longer to cross the street, missed more safe opportunities to cross, looked left and right less often, and spent more time looking away from the road. ...
Article
Since the launch of the smartphone game “Pokemon Go”, the worldwide craze has led to numerous traffic crashes and injuries resulting from falling or tripping. This paper investigates the effects of several smartphone distracting activities (gaming, talking, texting, Web surfing, and listening to music) on the street-crossing behaviours of pedestrians in Taipei City, Taiwan. A field study using video cameras was conducted to observe pedestrian crossing behaviours (e.g., crossing time, sudden movements, running a red light, and walking outside the crosswalk) at a selected signalised intersection. Data such as phone features, distracting activities, and personal attributes of the pedestrians were obtained in interviews conducted after pedestrians had completed crossing the street. In total, 1995 pedestrians engaging in various smartphone activities were observed. Results indicate that unsafe crossing behaviours were more prevalent among those playing “Pokemon Go”. Texting via instant-message apps appeared to be the second-most risk distracting activity. Results of the logistic models reveal that contributing factors to unsafe behaviours include being a student, phone screen of 5 in. or larger, and having an unrestricted 4G Internet data allowance. Two interaction terms (gaming × students, and gaming × unlimited 4G data allowance) in the models appear to be important determinants of unsafe crossing behaviours. The current research suggests that to prevent potential crashes and injuries, smartphone gaming while crossing the street should be prohibited.
... Terzano (2013) found differences in unsafe behaviours while performing secondary tasks and cycling in comparison to those only riding a bicycle. In addition, several authors (De Waard, Edlinger, & Brookhuis, 2011;De Waard et al., 2014;De Waard, Schepers, Ormel, & Brookhuis, 2010) have found that operating a smartphone led to reduced cyclists' visual detection and perception, posing a risk for cyclists. Therefore, such findings imply that this type of violations might have an effect on other sort of unsafe behaviours that rely on information processing, that is, they might be leading to increased error occurrence. ...
... Errors. To measure errors, we administered a 7-item scale based on those featured in the Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ) (Sakashita et al., 2014) and the Adolescent Cycling Behaviour Questionnaire (ACBQ) (De Waard et al., 2014), adapting the former ones to the context of cycling. This scale had been previously used by Puchades, Pietrantoni, Fraboni, De Angelis, and Prati (2018). ...
Article
High percentages of cyclists admit using smartphone devices while cycling. Moreover, such use has been found to be associated with near crashes and crashes, representing a risk factor for cyclists. This study examines the relationship between such type of behaviours, comprising calling and manipulating the screen, and the frequency of near crashes and actual crashes among Italian cyclists. We administered an online survey measuring smartphone-specific violation, errors, near crash and crash to Italian cyclists (N = 298; age range: 19–72). We hypothesised that the relationship between smartphone use and near crashes would be explained by an increase in the number of errors committed, thus increasing the likelihood of being involved in near crashes. Moreover, we hypothesised that near crashes will predict actual crashes. Results of path analysis showed that smartphone-specific violations predicted crashes throughout their consecutive effects on errors and near crashes only in the subsample of men. These findings offer an explanation of how smartphone use contributes to incrementing the likelihood of getting involved in near crashes and actual crashes. To our knowledge, the present study is the first in building a path model explaining how smartphone-specific violations lead to more near crashes among cyclists. Keywords: smartphone-specific violations, errors, near crashes, cycling safety
... It has been explicitly demonstrated that interactions with electronic devices such as mobile phones and portable music players impair cycling performance (Ahlstrom et al., 2016;De Waard et al., 2010;De Waard et al., 2011;De Waard et al., 2014;Goldenbeld et al., 2012;Stavrinos et al., 2018;Terzano, 2013). Cyclists engaged in secondary tasks are found to exhibit delayed response times and less head movement than cyclists not engaged in secondary tasks (De Waard et al., 2015). ...
... Overall, these results indicate that the major secondary tasks while cycling are being acoustically impaired by wearing headphones or earphones and interacting with others. As using headphones or earphones impairs cycling performance (Ahlstrom et al., 2016;De Waard et al., 2010;De Waard et al., 2011;De Waard et al., 2014;Goldenbeld et al., 2012;Stavrinos et al., 2018;Terzano, 2013), and as acoustic cues are especially relevant for cyclists, as these may give early warnings concerning the presence of motor vehicles, these tasks may be more safety critical for this population than for car drivers. ...
Article
Bicycling in traffic requires continuous attention to be paid to one's environment. In addition, motor coordination is needed to safely handle a bicycle. Accordingly, distracted cycling has been demonstrated to impair cycling performance (De Waard et al., 2015). We conducted an observational study of cycling behavior in Braunschweig, Germany, in which we observed 2187 cyclists. Overall, 22.7% (95% CI: 20.9-24.4%) of all cyclists were engaged in any secondary task, with wearing headphones or earphones being the most frequent behavior (13.1%, 95% CI: 11.7-14.5%), followed by interactions with other cyclists (7.0%, 95% CI: 5.9-8.0%). Mobile phones were used by 2.0% of all cyclists (95% CI: 1.4-2.6%), with most of them (1.5%, 95% CI: 1.0-2.0%) conversing on their phones. Secondary tasks were more frequent in the morning, and mobile phone use was less frequent in bad weather. Females and young cyclists were more frequently engaged in a secondary task than males and older cyclists. Being engaged in a secondary task was also shown to correlate with less frequent helmet use. Engagement in secondary tasks, especially using the smartphone and wearing headphones or earphones was more often found in cyclists riding hands-free. Overall, these frequencies are in accordance with the findings of the limited number of studies that have been conducted. When riding a bike, acoustic impairment from wearing headphones or earphones seems to be the major problem. The correlation with other safety precautions like not wearing a helmet indicates that this might be due to a lack of awareness concerning the possible dangers of these behaviors.
... On one hand moving their eyes and attention away from the road to check the screen and to perform a secondary activity is unsafe and can increase the probability of an accident [12]. Research on this topic and some tests showed the impact of using a smartphone while biking [2]. It was found that the speed was reduced and the lateral position on the lane suffered variations [2]. ...
... Research on this topic and some tests showed the impact of using a smartphone while biking [2]. It was found that the speed was reduced and the lateral position on the lane suffered variations [2]. On the other hand, the use of audio cues for spoken indications can also be problematic. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Since cyclists do not have their auditory and visual channels completely available while riding a bicycle, it is unsafe for them to use the GPS navigation tool provided by smartphones, which is based on audio and visual cues. In such situations, the haptic channel can be suitable to deliver information. Therefore, a research developing a system that uses haptic cues to give bicycle riders turn-by-turn information was carried out. The proposed solution uses two vibrotactile motors, each one located on each wrist. The motors are controlled by an Arduino board connected via Bluetooth to an Android App which oversees the GPS navigation and provides real-time turn-by-turn instructions. The cyclist is informed on the direction by the vibration of the motors: if the motor vibrating is located on the left wrist then s/he would have to turn left, and the same applies to the other side. We used two types of buzzes: a single buzz indicates a distance of approximately 60 m, and a double buzz points out that the turn is imminent. When both motors are activated at the same time the system communicates to the user the arrival to the destination. The system was initially tested with few users giving positive feedback. The haptic signal was considered intuitive and easy to understand, efficiently providing turn-by-turn navigation instructions.
... All rights reserved. Wickens, 2006;Kircher, Ahlstrom, & Patten, 2011;Regan, Lee, & Victor, 2013), the research in the field of bicycling is rather limited (e.g. de Waard, Edlinger, & Brookhuis, 2011;de Waard, Lewis-Evans, Jelijs, Tucha, & Brookhuis, 2014;de Waard, Schepers, Ormel, & Brookhuis, 2010;Terzano, 2013). The findings from vehicle traffic cannot uncritically be applied to cycling as there are many differences between the two modes of transportation. ...
... The visual behaviour of cyclists is so far largely undocumented, as cyclist studies that make use of eye tracking are rare. In two studies (de Waard et al., 2010(de Waard et al., , 2014 cyclists were asked to report objects that they might have noticed on the track while cycling and performing a phone task. However, as the reporting was not done in real time, it is not clear whether unreported objects had not been detected or just not been processed enough to be stored in memory. ...
Article
The increasing prevalence of mobile phone usage while cycling has raised concerns, even though the number of cyclists involved in accidents does not increase at a comparable rate. A reason for this may be how cyclists adapt travelling speed and task execution to the current traffic situation. The aim of this study is to investigate speed adaptation among cyclists when conducting self-paced (initiated by the cyclist) vs. system-paced (initiated by somebody else) smartphone tasks in real traffic.
... Pedestrians' walking behaviors were evaluated in a laboratory experiment by Hyong (2015) who reported that playing smartphone games most significantly decreased cognitive ability, causing the greatest decrease in dynamic balance, which was followed by texting message, Web surfing, and listening to music. In a field experiment study where 24 cyclists' cycling behaviors were observed, De Waard, Lewis-Evans, Jelijs, Tucha, and Brookhuis (2014) concluded that smartphone gaming, compared with calling or listening to music, caused cyclists to have the most variation in the cyclists' lateral position (i.e., to swerve the most on a public cycle track). ...
... While past studies (e.g., Li & Fernie, 2010) have demonstrated that pedestrian's head-turning performance is crucial to navigating streets safely, little research thus far has attempted to investigate the effects of smartphone gaming on pedestrians' headturning behaviors before crossing the street. Relevant studies discussing the effects of smartphone gaming on pedestrians/bicyclist safety (e.g., De Waard et al., 2014;Haga et al., 2015;Hyong, 2015) concluded that smartphone gamers had the worst gait performance (i.e., ability to walk and balance), the greatest decrease in dynamic balance, and worst lateral control. For those studies investigating the effects of other smartphone activities such as texting and surfing the Internet (e.g., Byington & Schwebal, 2013), main findings include that texting messages or browsing the Internet on a smartphone compromised pedestrian's safety such that pedestrians waited longer to cross the street, missed more safe opportunities to cross, looked left and right less often, and spent more time looking away from the road. ...
Article
Pedestrians’ head-turning behaviours are crucial to navigating streets safely. This research investigates the effects of phone use on pedestrians’ street-crossing behaviours at an uncontrolled intersection where head-turning performances are important to identify a gap among the oncoming traffic. A field study using video cameras was conducted for evaluating pedestrians’ head-turning behaviours (e.g., head-turning frequency, not looking at traffic before crossing, looking at the wrong traffic side), crossing time, and sudden movement while they were engaging in various smartphone activities (e.g., calling, texting, gaming, and listening to music). Data such as phone features, distraction types, and personal attributes of the pedestrians were obtained in the interviews conducted after pedestrians had completed crossing the street. The results indicate that the unsafe crossing behaviours (e.g., sudden movement, fewer head-turning frequencies, not looking at traffic before crossing, not looking at left side of traffic first) were more prevalent among those gaming with “Pokemon Go.” Web surfing appears to be the 2nd risky distraction event following gaming with “Pokemon Go.” Logistic regression models reveal several important correlates of unsafe crossing behaviours: being a student, large phone screen (5 in. or larger), and having un-restricted 4G Internet data allowance. The current research recommends that “Pokemon Go” gaming be prohibited while crossing the street.
... Pedestrians' walking behaviors were evaluated in a laboratory experiment by Hyong (2015) who reported that playing smartphone games most significantly decreased cognitive ability, causing the greatest decrease in dynamic balance, which was followed by texting message, Web surfing, and listening to music. In a field experiment study where 24 cyclists' cycling behaviors were observed, De Waard, Lewis-Evans, Jelijs, Tucha, and Brookhuis (2014) concluded that smartphone gaming, compared with calling or listening to music, caused cyclists to have the most variation in the cyclists' lateral position (i.e., to swerve the most on a public cycle track). ...
... While past studies (e.g., Li & Fernie, 2010) have demonstrated that pedestrian's head-turning performance is crucial to navigating streets safely, little research thus far has attempted to investigate the effects of smartphone gaming on pedestrians' headturning behaviors before crossing the street. Relevant studies discussing the effects of smartphone gaming on pedestrians/bicyclist safety (e.g., De Waard et al., 2014;Haga et al., 2015;Hyong, 2015) concluded that smartphone gamers had the worst gait performance (i.e., ability to walk and balance), the greatest decrease in dynamic balance, and worst lateral control. For those studies investigating the effects of other smartphone activities such as texting and surfing the Internet (e.g., Byington & Schwebal, 2013), main findings include that texting messages or browsing the Internet on a smartphone compromised pedestrian's safety such that pedestrians waited longer to cross the street, missed more safe opportunities to cross, looked left and right less often, and spent more time looking away from the road. ...
Article
The paper investigates the effects of phone use (talking, texting, and listening to music) on the street-crossing behaviours of pedestrians and their inattentional blindness in Taiwan. Recent handsets with touchscreens, as well as more advanced features including multimedia, and mobile applications (apps), exacerbate problems relating to cognitive distraction and reduced situation awareness. A controlled field study using video cameras was conducted for observing pedestrians’ crossing behaviours (e.g. crossing time, sudden stops, looking both ways before crossing, and disobeying traffic signals). Pedestrians were classified into two groups: experimental group (talking, texting, and listening to music) and control group (no phone use). Pedestrians’ inattentional blindness was examined by evaluating whether they saw and heard an unusual object (i.e. a clown) nearby. The results indicate that the proportions of unsafe crossing behaviours (e.g. sudden stops, disobeying traffic signals, and not looking both ways before crossing) were higher among distracted individuals and more pronounced among those using instant-messaging apps. These instant-message app users were the least likely to see the clown, and music listeners were the least likely to hear the horn that the clown was honking. Contributing factors to unsafe behaviours include being a student, having a phone screen of 5 inches or larger, and having unlimited 3G Internet access. Texting message via apps was the leading factor on unsafe crossing behaviours of pedestrians and their inattentional blindness.
... Dois estudos de delineamento experimental foram conduzidos em uma cidade holandesa a fim de investigar os efeitos de escutar músicas no comportamento do ciclista (de Waard et al., 2011) e os efeitos de operar um aparelho touch screen durante a pedalada (de Waard et al., 2014). No primeiro estudo, verificou-se que a velocidade da pedalada não varia sob influência do volume e da batida da música, ainda que a percepção auditiva do entorno seja negativamente afetada. ...
... No segundo estudo (de Waard et al., 2014), o uso de aparelho touch screen foi avaliado em situações de enviar mensagem, falar ao telefone e jogar. Em consonância com o estudo anterior, identificou--se que a percepção de estímulos periféricos diminui com o manuseio do aparelho, aliada à diminuição da velocidade de circulação e à variação do posiciona-mento na pista. ...
Article
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Diante do desafio da mobilidade urbana nas grandes cidades, formuladores de políticas públicas e pesquisadores têm sugerido a bicicleta como alternativa à questão. Assim, este artigo busca verificar como os estudos pessoa-ambiente enfocam a temática do uso de bicicletas como meio de transporte. Realizou-se revisão sistemática da literatura com estudos nacionais e internacionais publicados entre 2009 e 2014, buscando identificar o enfoque dado ao uso de bicicleta, a natureza dos estudos e os instrumentos utilizados. 33 artigos corresponderam às buscas e foram subdivididos em três categorias: hábitos e atitudes, ambiente e comportamento, e percepção. Aponta-se para a primazia de estudos internacionais de natureza quantitativa, com uso de questionários e escalas. Os resultados se aproximam ao atrelarem o uso da bicicleta ao bem-estar e divergem ao relacionarem o nível socioeducacional à escolha por esse modal. Aponta-se para a necessidade de compreender o fenômeno de maneira multideterminada, levando em consideração aspectos individuais, perceptivos, socioculturais e ambientais referentes ao tema.
... It has been shown that engagement in secondary tasks may contribute to cyclists crash risk (e.g., Boele-Vos et al., 2017;De Geus et al., 2012;Goldenbeld et al., 2012;Ichikawa & Nakahara, 2008;Ren et al., 2021;Vanparijs et al., 2016¸ von Below, 2016, meditated by cycling errors or risky behaviors (De Angelis et al., 2020;Puchades et al., 2018;Useche et al., 2018a;. It has also been explicitly demonstrated that interactions with electronic devices such as mobile phones and portable music players impair cyclists' performance regarding safety-related behavior (Ahlstrom et al., 2016;De Waard et al., 2010;De Waard et al., 2011;De Waard et al., 2014;Goldenbeld et al., 2012;Stavrinos et al., 2018;Terzano, 2013). Cyclists engaged in secondary tasks exhibit delayed response times and less head movement than cyclists not engaged in secondary tasks (De Waard et al., 2015) and less visual scanning of their surroundings (Ahlstrom et al., 2016). ...
... Behavioral adaptation to secondary tasks in cycling has been found by Kircher et al. (2015), who demonstrated that cyclists both slow down before starting self-paced secondary tasks and adapt to technologypaced tasks while doing them. De Waard et al. (2014) found distracted cyclists to keep a greater distance to the curb. In demanding situations, the older the participant, the more likely that he or she was to refrain from listening to music (Stelling-Kończak et al., 2017). ...
Article
https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1e%7Egu_27lWXEv The behavioral safety of e-bike and e-scooter riders is a significant concern in traffic safety. In an observational study in Braunschweig, Germany, 4,514 bicycle and e-scooter riders were observed concerning their used vehicles type, secondary task engagement, use of additional safety equipment, and traffic rule violation. Overall, 13.4% of all riders were engaged in any secondary task, wearing headphones or earphones being the most frequent behavior (6.7%), followed by conversations with other cyclists (3.7%). Banned mobile phone use was low (0.8%). Secondary task engagement was positively correlated with traffic rule violations and at-fault conflicts and negatively with the use of additional safety equipment. Cluster analysis on vehicle types and behaviors revealed five groups of riders, two with relatively high numbers of risky behaviors: young and middle-aged, predominantly male riders of conventional bicycles, and a group of demographically similar users of electric bikes and e-scooters. Campaigns targeted at these specific groups may help reduce risky behaviors.
... In [17], the authors analyze the impact of the most common activities performed with a mobile phone while driving a bicycle. Among them, it includes playing mobile games. ...
Conference Paper
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The use of smartphones while driving is a growing phenomenon that has reached alarming proportions. Playing games is a particular type of activity performed by drivers on their smartphones and is the subject of this paper. The study that was con-ducted aimed at investigating the influence of playing games on a smartphone while driving in a virtual reality simulator. The driver’s eye glance behavior has been analyzed for twelve subjects while driving in two environments, city and country (national) road. A reference set of data obtained by driving without the gaming distraction has been used for performing a comparison and drawing conclusions. The results have indicated increased accident risks when playing games, especially caused by loss of control of the vehicle and improper lane positioning due to the driver being distracted by the game played.
... Faster interactions with other road users translate to shorter time for anticipation (decision-making such as route planning) and reaction (bicycle control in response to unexpected events), requiring more continuous attention by cyclists on e-bikes. As distraction from cell phones is already a concern for traditional bicycles [17], regulations and education about the use of handheld devices should take into account the likelihood that for ebikes this activity can be particularly dangerous. Interestingly, manual tasks like SMS writing and more cognitively demanding tasks such as talking on the phone may be equally risky for bicyclists. ...
Conference Paper
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Cycling is a healthy, environmentally-friendly and enjoyable activity, which unfortunately also claims more than 2000 lives every year in Europe. Many municipalities across Europe are waging successful campaigns to increase cycling and, as a consequence, reduce pollution and congestion. However, at least in the short term, a surge in cycling is also challenging existing infrastructure, regulations, and the interaction among different road users. Further, the nature of cycling is chang-ing as new electrified bicycles (e-bikes) become more prevalent, since they are able to maintain a constant 25km/h speed independent of road gradient or wind. The extent to which e-bikes preva-lence impacts safety is currently unknown and very hard to simulate with statistical models. In 2012, the BikeSAFE project collected 1474 km of naturalistic cycling data from traditional bicy-cles. Similarly, in 2013, the e-BikeSAFE project collected 1549 km of naturalistic data from e-bikes. All studies took place in the urban area of Göteborg in the same period of the year, and involved the same participants as much as possible. While these naturalistic data sets are limited and pos-sibly not representative of the cycling situation in all of Europe, they are also the most advanced data available today for comparing how traditional and electrical bicycles behave in traffic, thus offering a promising test bed for developing data analysis methodologies. Five random video clips of 30 seconds duration were extracted for each participant from the data collected in BikeSAFE and e-BikeSAFE, forming an overall analysis database of 140 full HD video clips. Video reduction identified which road users were involved in interactions with the bikes (tra-ditional or electric). During the analysis, potential influencing factors (e.g. width, gradient, and cur-vature of the cycle path) were also taken into account. Information from the video reduction of e-bikes and traditional-bikes was compared by means of odds ratios and combined with subjective data from questionnaires, to determine the extent to which safety concerns about e-bikes are le-gitimate. Results show that e-bikes and traditional bicycles are ridden differently: cyclists riding e-bikes ex-perience different, more frequent interactions with other road users, and prefer different riding conditions, possibly because of their higher speed. Further, infrastructure (such as crossings) and secondary tasks (such as using a phone) may be particularly dangerous for e-bikers. The results presented in this paper provide new ideas for the design of safer cycle paths and more conspicu-ous e-bikes.
... An additional study published after our systematic review inclusion date was derived from the same data set and showed that cyclists use visual compensatory strategies when interacting with mobile phones while cycling ( Ahlstrom, Kircher, Thorslund, & Adell, 2016). Among adults, research generally suggests distracted bicyclists use compensatory strategies (e.g., reduced speed) to handle tasks perceived as difficult ( Adell, Nilsson, & Kircher, 2014), especially when visually distracted ( de Waard, Lewis-Evans, Jelijs, Tucha, & Brookhuis, 2014;de Waard, Schepers, Ormel, & Brookhuis, 2010). Distracted adult bicyclists also exhibit delayed response times ( de Waard, Edlinger, & Brookhuis, 2011) and less head movement ( de Waard, Westerhuis, & Lewis-Evans, 2015), but the adult literature is mixed regarding whether distracted bicyclists have increased crash risk ( de Waard et al., 2010;Terzano, 2013). ...
Article
This article examined the impact of mobile technology on young pedestrians, bicyclists, and drivers. A systematic search yielded 41 articles meeting inclusion criteria: peer-reviewed, published before February 1, 2016, behavioral outcome related to pedestrian, bicycling, or driving in the presence of mobile technology use, youth sample. Eleven studies were meta-analyzed to evaluate increased risk for crash/near-crash while distracted. Risk of bias and quality of research were assessed. Across methodologies, developmental stages, and type of distracting task, mobile technology use impairs youth safety on the road. Quality of evidence was low (pedestrian) to moderate (driving). Findings are discussed from the perspective of cognitive and visual distractions. Policy and behavioral efforts should continue to reduce mobile technology use in transportation settings.
... Terzano (2013) found differences in unsafe behaviours while performing secondary-tasks and cycling in comparison to those only riding a bicycle. In addition, several authors (DeWaard, Edlinger, & Brookhuis, 2011; DeWaard, Lewis-Ewans, Jelijs, Tucha, & Brookhuis, 2014;DeWaard, Schepers, Ormel, & Brookhuis, 2010) have found that operating a smartphone led to reduced cyclist's visual detection and perception, posing a risk for cyclists. Therefore, such findings imply that this type of violation might have an effect on other sort of unsafe behaviours that rely on information processing, that is, they might be leading to increased error occurrence. ...
Article
This study investigates the direct and indirect effect of three types of unsafe behaviours (i.e. errors, generic violations and smartphone-specific violations) on the likelihood of near crashes and actual crashes among Italian cyclists. We considered smartphone-specific violations as a different unsafe behaviour subtype that enhances the probability of committing errors, thus increasing the likelihood of being involved in near crashes. Furthermore, we hypothesized that near crashes will predict actual crashes. Results revealed that errors predicted near crashes, whereas generic and smartphone-specific violations did not. Near crashes mediated the effect of errors on crashes. Moreover, smartphone-specific violations predicted crashes throughout its consecutive effects on errors and near crashes. These findings contribute to deepen our understanding of the relationship between cyclists’ unsafe behaviours, near crashes and actual crashes. To our knowledge, the present study is the first that links errors to near crashes among cyclists.
... In total 12 studies, both field studies and naturalistic cycling studies were analysed. Four studies report obtaining ethical approval (de Waard, Lewis-Evans, Jelijs, Tucha, et al., 2014;de Waard et al., 2010de Waard et al., , 2011Vansteenkiste, 2015). In the other eight studies (e.g. ...
Article
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Listening to music while cycling impairs cyclists’ auditory perception and may decrease their awareness of approaching vehicles. If the impaired auditory perception is not compensated by the cyclist himself or other road users involved, crashes may occur. The first aim of this study was to investigate in real traffic whether teenage cyclists (aged 16–18) compensate for listening to music by increasing their visual performance. Research in real traffic may pose a risk for participants. Although no standard ethical codes exist for road safety research, we took a number of ethical considerations into account to protect participants. Our second aim was to present this study as a case study demonstrating ethical dilemmas related to performing research in real traffic. The third aim was to examine to what extent the applied experimental set-up is suitable to examine bicyclists’ visual behaviour in situations crucial for their safety. Semi-naturalistic data was gathered. Participants’ eye movements were recorded by a head-mounted eye-tracker during two of their regular trips in urban environments. During one of the trips, cyclists were listening to music (music condition); during the other trip they were ‘just’ cycling (the baseline condition). As for cyclists’ visual behaviour, overall results show that it was not affected by listening to music. Descriptive statistics showed that 21–36% of participants increased their visual performance in the music condition, while 43–64% decreased their visual performance while listening to music. Due to ethical considerations, the study was therefore terminated after fourteen cyclists had participated. Potential implications of these results for cycling safety and cycling safety research are discussed. The methodology used in this study did not allow us to investigate cyclists’ behaviour in demanding traffic environment. However, for now, no other research method seems suitable to address this research gap.
... The use of a smartphone with touchscreen while cycling appears to be more dangerous than the use of a phone with push buttons (De Waard et al., 2014): cyclists tend to cycle even further from the curb when using a touchscreen. This increases the risk of conflicts with cars. ...
... Driving tasks involving texting and have been found to be associated with significant impairment in driving performance [33]. Texting, calling, or playing a game on a touch screen mobile phone impacted on cycling performance and increased the risk of collision with vehicles or other traffic participants [34]. Similarly, mobile phones may change the way we walk, and the use of mobile phones by pedestrians causes increased cognitive distraction, reduces awareness of the situation, and increases unsafe behaviors [35]. ...
Article
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Background: Unintentional injuries are a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in adolescents. Mobile phone use in certain circumstances (e.g., driving, cycling, walking) and mental health conditions are risk factors for unintentional injury. However, research on the interactions between problematic mobile phone use (PMPU) and psychopathological symptoms in unintentional injuries is limited. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of unintentional injuries (road traffic injuries, pedestrian collisions, and falls) and examined interactions of PMPU and psychopathological symptoms with unintentional injuries in a school-based sample of Chinese adolescents. Methods: A total of 14,221 students (6915 middle school students and 7306 high school students) were randomly selected from 32 schools in four cities in China in 2012. The sample comprised 6712 boys and 7509 girls with a mean age of 15.12 years (standard deviation 1.89 years). PMPU, psychopathological symptoms, and unintentional injuries were measured with validated instruments. Chi-square tests and multivariable logistic regression were used to analyze the rates of unintentional injuries, the relationship with PMPU and psychopathological symptoms, and the interactions of PMPU and psychopathological symptoms with unintentional injuries. Results: The prevalence of road traffic injuries, pedestrian collisions, and falls were 4.9, 16.2, and 10.1 %, respectively. The rates of unintentional injuries were higher among students with PMPU and psychopathological symptoms. Interaction analysis indicated that psychopathological symptoms were associated with a greater increase in the likelihood of unintentional injuries for adolescents with PMPU than for those without PMPU. Conclusions: The findings indicate that unintentional injuries in adolescents are an important public health issue in China that merit further research. Intervention programs must consider the adolescents' behavioral and psychological health.
... A growing number of people interact with their smartphones on the move. This behavior leads to distraction and safety risks [9,10,27]. While walking and using a smartphone is primarily a safety issue in crossing situations, cyclists who stare at their smartphones or interact with it are at risk anytime. ...
Conference Paper
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Current apps for cyclists follow the "stop-to-interact" paradigm, neglecting that people interact with their smartphones in motion. We conducted two studies to explore paradigms for interaction that can be applied while cycling. In an enactment study, participants freely explored movements suitable for interaction while using a bicycle trainer and discussed respective requirements and constraints. The analysis of the interaction movements and the group discussion showed that users preferred to keep their hands on the handlebars while performing subtle gestures with their fingers. Based on this we performed an outdoor study focused on interacting with a smartphone game while riding a bicycle, using three interaction options: buttons on the handlebars, the phone's touchscreen, and a wristband activated by flipping the wrist. Using buttons resulted in a significantly lower physical demand and significantly lower frustration compared to the other alternatives, as well as better task performance compared to interacting using the wristband.
... Siegel and White (1975) (see also Huang, Schmidt, and Gartner 2012;and Löchteveld 2014) distinguish three levels of spatial knowledge: 1. Landmark knowledge, 2. Route knowledge and 3. Survey knowledge. Landmark mentally demanding (De Waard et al. 2014) and often the increased demands of a secondary (telephone) task are met by slowing down (e.g. De Waard et al. 2010). ...
Article
Cycling with a classic paper map was compared with navigating with a moving map displayed on a smartphone, and with auditory, and visual turn-by-turn route guidance. Spatial skills were found to be related to navigation performance, however only when navigating from a paper or electronic map, not with turn-by-turn (instruction based) navigation. While navigating, 25% of the time cyclists fixated at the devices that present visual information. Navigating from a paper map required most mental effort and both young and older cyclists preferred electronic over paper map navigation. In particular a turn-by-turn dedicated guidance device was favoured. Visual maps are in particular useful for cyclists with higher spatial skills. Turn-by-turn information is used by all cyclists, and it is useful to make these directions available in all devices. Practitioner Summary Electronic navigation devices are preferred over a paper map. People with lower spatial skills benefit most from turn-by-turn guidance information, presented either auditory or on a dedicated device. People with higher spatial skills perform well with all devices. It is advised to keep in mind that all users benefit from turn-by-turn information when developing a navigation device for cyclists.
... The GPS is provided for the convenience of the tourists, but operating a touch screen and looking at the GPS are tasks that, similarly to the use of smartphones, are cognitively demanding. A recent study found that the use of touch screen smartphones could affect the lateral position of the cyclists, impede object detection, and deteriorate the cycling abilities even when experienced cyclists are concerned ( de Waard, Lewis-Evans, Jelijs, Tucha, & Brookhuis, 2014). Therefore, the perceived difficulty associated with using a GPS touch screen and the tablet on the bicycle while cycling was also investigated in the current study. ...
... The increasing prevalence of smartphones has likely contributed to the observed shift over time towards more handheld screen operation (e.g., De Waard, Westerhuis, & Lewis-Evans, 2015). This is critical as smartphone use appears to be more dangerous than the use of push-button phones (De Waard, Lewis-Evans, Jelijs, Tucha, & Brookhuis, 2014). A range of factors has been connected to cyclists' phone use. ...
Article
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Phone use is likely to distract cyclists and possibly increase crash risk. Therefore, handheld phone use among cyclists is forbidden by law in some countries, even though cyclists use compensatory strategies to attempt to mitigate distractions and related effects. Both demographic, environmental, and psychological factors have been associated with cyclists’ phone use. This study extends the existing literature by including traffic rule beliefs as an explanatory measure in predicting cyclists’ handheld phone use and additionally explores how well cyclists know these rules in different legislative contexts. Online questionnaire responses were collected in 2019 among 1055 cyclists living in Denmark (N = 568), where handheld phone use for cyclists was forbidden, and in the Netherlands (N = 487), where it was legal. Responses on phone use, traffic rule knowledge, cycling behaviour, demographic, and psychological measures were used to identify factors contributing to the likelihood of handheld phone use in three regression models; one for all respondents and one for each country. In the combined model, believing there are no rules on handheld phone use increased the likelihood of handheld phone use while cycling. Other significant factors were subjective norm, perceived behavioural difficulty, self-identity as a safe cyclist as well as demographic factors. The country-specific models found that male gender was only associated with more handheld phone use in the Netherlands, while believing there was no ban was only connected to an increase in the likelihood of using handheld phone in Denmark. Correct traffic rule knowledge was almost three times higher in Denmark, where handheld phone use was forbidden. The results identify subjective norms, potential overconfidence, and traffic rule awareness (when there is a ban) as relevant factors in reducing the likelihood of cyclists’ handheld phone use. Findings from country-specific models possibly point to a connection between culture and traffic rules. Future research should focus on underlying mechanisms and awareness of traffic rules.
... A similar laboratory study was employed by Lin and Huang [8], who concluded that while walking, reading on an app reduced situational awareness and increased perceived workload more than a picture-dragging task. De Waard [13] evaluated the detrimental effects of simultaneous smartphone gaming and biking on a public cycling path and found a correlation with swerving. ...
Article
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Background Smartphone addiction has become a crucial social issue. Past studies have indicated that phone use such as talking or texting while walking constitutes a dual task that may cause pedestrians inattentional blindness and impair their awareness of surroundings. Methods This study investigated the influence of various smartphone tasks (calling, music listening, texting, playing games, and web surfing) on the smartphone overuse and inattentional blindness of pedestrians in Taipei, Taiwan. Pedestrian smartphone overuse was observed and recorded via WiFi cameras to determine whether pedestrians were using their smartphones when crossing a street with a signal. After crossing the street, pedestrians were interviewed to obtain additional information regarding demographics, smartphone tasks, data plan, and screen size. Pedestrians were classified into the case (distracted) and control (undistracted) groups. By determining whether pedestrians saw something unusual—a clown walking the opposite direction—and heard the national anthem played by the clown, inattentional blindness and deafness were examined. Pedestrians’ situational awareness was assessed by ascertaining whether they remembered how many seconds remained before the crossing signal upon arriving at the curb. Results In total, 2556 pedestrians crossed the street and underwent the interview. Smartphone overuse and inattentional deafness were the commonest among music listeners. Playing Pokémon Go gaming was the task most associated with inattentional blindness. Logistic regression models revealed that contributing factors to smartphone overuse and inattentional blindness were a large smartphone screen (≥5 in), unlimited mobile Internet data, and being a student. The interactions of gaming with being a student and with unlimited data were significantly associated with smartphone overuse, inattentional blindness and deafness, and situational awareness. Conclusions Listening to music was the smartphone task most associated with pedestrian smartphone overuse and inattentional deafness. Pokémon Go was the most associated task with inattentional blindness and reduced situational awareness.
... The estimated approach speeds of the cyclists differed between the 10 intersection situations, ranging from 20 km/h in Situation 1 to 42 km/h in Situation 7 (Table 2). These speeds are generally higher than the cruising speeds observed among conventional bicycle users (e.g., De Waard, Lewis-Evans, Jelijs, Tucha, & Brookhuis, 2014;Kircher, Ihlström, Nygårdhs, & Ahlstrom, 2018). However, the speeds are in line with cruising speeds collected during naturalistic cycling studies among e-bike users (e.g., Rotthier et al., 2017;Stelling-Konczak et al., 2017) and with average speeds reported by users of racing bicycles (Hendriksen et al., 2008). ...
Article
Introduction: Many bicycle–car crashes are caused by the fact that the driver fails to give right of way to the cyclist. Although the car driver is to blame, the cyclist may have been able to prevent the crash by anticipating the safety-critical event and slowing-down. This study aimed to understand how accurate cyclists are in predicting a driver's right-of-way violation, which cues contribute to cyclists' predictions, and which factors contribute to their self-reported slowing-down behavior as a function of the temporal proximity to the conflict. Method: 1030 participants were presented with video clips of nine safety-critical intersection situations, with five different video freezing moments in a between-subjects design. After each video clip, participants completed a questionnaire to indicate what the car driver will do next, which bottom-up and top-down cues they think they used, as well as their intended slowing-down behavior and perceived risk. Results and conclusions: The results showed that participants' predictions of the driver's behavior develop over time, with more accurate predictions (i.e., reporting that the driver will not let the cyclist cross first) at later freezing moments. A regression analysis showed that perceived high speed and acceleration of the car were associated with correctly predicting that the driver will not let the cyclist cross first. Incorrect predictions were associated with believing that the car has a low speed or is decelerating, and with reporting that the cyclist has right of way. Correctly predicting that the driver will not let the cyclist cross first and perceived risk were significant predictors of intending to slow down in safety-critical intersection situations. Practical applications: Our findings add to the existing knowledge on cyclists' hazard anticipation and could be used for the development of training programs as well as for cycling support systems.
... Although other modalities of communication may increase mental workload as well, visual cues could be particularly distracting because they prompt cyclists to place their attention elsewhere than on the road. For instance, the use of a touch screen negatively affected cycling behaviour and resulted in worse visual detection performance (De Waard et al., 2014). In another study, the use of mobile phones while cycling negatively affected cycling performance, and visuotactile tasks like texting were more distracting than listening to music (Jiang et al., 2021). ...
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Interaction with vulnerable road users in complex urban traffic environments poses a significant challenge for automated vehicles. Solutions to facilitate safe and acceptable interactions in future automated traffic include equipping automated vehicles and vulnerable road users, such as cyclists, with awareness or notification systems, as well as connecting road users to a network of vehicles and infrastructure. This paper provides a synthesis of the current literature on communication technologies, systems, and devices available to cyclists and discusses the outlook of technology-driven solutions in future automated traffic. The objective is to identify, classify, and count the technologies, systems, and devices and extrapolate the potential of these systems for aiding cyclists in traffic with automated vehicles. We analysed and coded 92 support systems using a taxonomy of 13 variables based on the physical, communicational, and functional attributes of the systems. The discussion frames the systems in four categories: cyclist wearables, on-bike devices, vehicle systems, and infrastructural systems, and highlights the implications of the visual, auditory, motion-based, and wireless modes of communication of the devices. The most common system was cyclist wearables (39%), closely followed by on-bike devices (38%), and vehicle systems (33%), and most of them communicated visually (77%). We suggest that on-vehicle interfaces accommodate cyclists with visibility all around the vehicle and incorporate two-way communication. The type of system and the effect of communication modality on performance and safety needs further research, preferably in complex and representative test scenarios with automated vehicles. Finally, our study highlights the ethical implications of connected road users and suggests that the future outlook of transport systems may benefit from a more inclusive and less car-centred approach, shifting the burden of safety away from vulnerable road users and promoting more cyclist-friendly solutions.
... It will also allow cyclists to switch pedaling and steering off and stretch without stopping. However, from the safety perspective, it also implies that there might be situations when cyclists can unintentionally drop their tablet or book caused by additional distractions during texting [9,20], which can put them or other road users into danger. Therefore, the future designers of self-driving bicycles should account for these safety measures by, for example, creating integrated dashboards or smartphone holders. ...
Conference Paper
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We envision a future where self-driving bicycles can take us to our destinations. This allows cyclists to use their time on the bike efficiently for work or relaxation without having to focus their attention on traffic. In the related field of self-driving cars, research has shown that communicating the planned route to passengers plays an important role in building trust in automation and situational awareness. For self-driving bicycles, this information transfer will be even more important, as riders will need to actively compensate for the movement of a self-driving bicycle to maintain balance. In this paper, we investigate maneuver indications for self-driving bicycles: (1) ambient light in a helmet, (2) head-up display indications, (3) speech feedback, (4) vibration on the handlebar, and (5) no assistance. To evaluate these indications, we conducted an outdoor experiment (N = 25) in a proposed tandem simulator consisting of a tandem bicycle with a steering and braking control on the back seat and a rider in full control of it. Our results indicate that riders respond faster to visual cues and focus comparably on the reading task while riding with and without maneuver indications. Additionally, we found that the tandem simulator is realistic, safe, and creates an awareness of a human cyclist controlling the tandem.
... Por fim, relacionam-se os estudos referentes à percepção dos ciclistas durante a pedalada, que tomam como foco os sentidos como a audição e a visão (Waard, Lewis-Evans, Jelijs, Tucha, & Brookhuis, 2014), bem como a percepção de barreiras para o uso da bicicleta entre adultos (Kienteka, Rech, Fermino, & Reis, 2012). Esses dados reforçam que percepção, comportamento e cognição estão inter-relacionados e devem ser analisados em sua conjunção com o ambiente. ...
Article
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Trata-se de um estudo de natureza qualitativa que teve por objetivo analisar as cognições ambientais de ciclistas na cidade de Florianópolis (SC). Na perspectiva da psicologia ambiental e dos estudos pessoa-ambiente, entende-se por cognição ambiental a capacidade humana de conhecer, extrair e armazenar informações a respeito do ambiente, produzindo conhecimentos que auxiliam na resolução de problemas cotidianos. O estudo foi conduzido em duas etapas, sendo uma exploratória e centrada no ambiente e outra descritiva e centrada na pessoa. Nesta, 18 pessoas que utilizavam a bicicleta como meio de transporte responderam uma entrevista semiestruturada e um questionário orientados por questões a respeito das barreiras e facilitadores para o uso da bicicleta, as motivações e dificuldades para tal, bem como os aspectos que chamavam a atenção no trânsito. Os resultados indicaram que pedalar na cidade é um modo de conhecer seu terreno e pode mediar a construção de uma imagem a partir da experimentação.
... Finally, it is related to the studies on the perception of cyclists when cycling, focusing on the senses such as hearing and vision (Waard, Lewis-Evans, Jelijs, Tucha, & Brookhuis, 2014), as well as the perception of barriers to cycling among adults (Kienteka, Rech, Fermino, & Reis, 2012). These data reinforce that perception, behavior, and cognition are interrelated and should be analyzed in conjunction with the environment, which makes urban mobility through bicycles a multi-determined phenomenon and an interdisciplinary field in knowledge production . ...
Article
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This is a qualitative research that aimed to analyze environmental cognitions among bicycle commuters in the city of Florianópolis, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Under perspectives of environmental psychology and people-environment studies, environmental cognitions refer to the human capacity to know, extract, and store information on the environment, producing knowledge that helps people asolve daily problems. This study was conducted in twosteps, one of them exploratory and centered on the environment, and the other descriptive and centered on the person. In the last one, 18 commuters answered a semi-structured interview and a questionnaire, both oriented to identify the barriers and facilitators to bicycle commuting, their motivations and difficulties to ride their bicycles, as well as other aspects that draw attention in traffic. The results suggest that commuting by bicycle is a way to know the city and can mediate the construction of an image of the city by its experimentation.
... Cyclists can also compensate for inexperience or difficulties on other levels. For example, cyclists that perform secondary tasks such as operating a mobile phone slow down and keep more distance to the kerb to create more time and allow for steering errors (De Waard, Lewis-Evans, Jelijs, Tucha, & Brookhuis, 2014;Kircher, Ahlstrom, Palmqvist, & Adell, 2015). It is possible that non-Dutch cyclist compensate in a similar way and cycle slower, or have a different lateral displacement and displacement variability. ...
Article
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Thirty-seven young adult participants completed a bicycle ride through the city of Groningen. Behaviour of Dutch and non-Dutch cyclists was compared in three conditions: on a control track (i.e. a one-way bicycle path), on a complex intersection, and on a roundabout. Basic bicycle control of the two groups did not differ, neither did reported invested mental effort. However, non-Dutch participants made more serious errors in the experiment and reported to have had more crashes previous to the experiment. It is concluded that the performance of non-Dutch cyclists who continue cycling upon arrival in a new country, does not differ on the control level, but at the higher manoeuvre level more performance errors were observed in the non-Dutch group.
... Cyclists can compensate for difficulties at one of the levels of Michon's (1971Michon's ( , 1979Michon's ( , 1985 model by optimising decisions at the other levels. Similar to cyclists who perform dual tasks (De Waard, Lewis-Evans, Jelijs, Tucha, & Brookhuis, 2014;Kircher, Ahlstrom, Palmqvist, & Adell, 2015), cyclists with difficulties overviewing the traffic situation (operational) may compensate by slowing down (tactical) to create more time to acquire a clear view of the situation (Connor, 1992). Similarly, they could maintain a lane position more towards the centre (tactical) to decrease the likelihood to veer off the road and hit the kerb or end up in the verge. ...
Article
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The present study investigates whether visually impaired cyclists compensate for their vision limitations by maintaining a lower speed or a larger distance to the kerb than normally sighted cyclists when riding a regular bicycle or pedal electric bicycle (pedelec). A normally sighted control group (n = 10), a peripheral visual field loss group (n = 9), and a low visual acuity group (n = 12) rode a fixed route (7.5 km) in the Netherlands on a regular bicycle and on a pedelec. Speed and lateral position were measured when participants cycled a (I) one-way cycle path, (II) two-way cycle path, (III) residential area, and (IV) shared space zone. With regard to both the regular bicycle and the pedelec, no significant speed or lateral position differences were found between the three groups. In conclusion, for some people with severe and permanent visual impairments, and under certain circumstances, regular bicycle and pedelec riding may be possible without noticeable speed reduction or adapted lane position to compensate for their functional impairment. The present findings may further optimise the cycling advice provided by mobility trainers of vision rehabilitation centres and the independent mobility of visually impaired people.
Article
Cyclists’ phone use can cause distractions and impose risks towards traffic safety. To prevent phone-related distractions, the Netherlands introduced a ban on handheld (HH) phone use for cyclists in July 2019. The effects of traffic rules on phone use and their underlying mechanisms are, however, uncertain. Comparing survey results from the Netherlands before (N = 553) and after (N = 484) the ban, using Denmark (before N = 568, after N = 519) as comparison group, this study explores whether introducing a ban is associated with changes in phone use, traffic rule beliefs, perceived risk, sense of guilt, and perceived annoyance. Comparison of phone function use before and after the Dutch ban revealed a significant decrease in the proportion using HH phone for conversation, while there was no change for other functions. In Denmark, proportions remained stable for all functions. Changes in the Netherlands possibly correspond to specific phone functions characteristics, e.g., how effortless one can pause and resume the function. The results additionally identified an increase in correct traffic rule identification, sense of guilt for HH phone use, and perceived annoyance, while there was no significant change in perceived risk of HH phone use. The study found that banning HH phone use was associated with increase in correct rule identification, but only to limited changes in HH phone use. Banning HH phone use might have greater effects in changing behaviours over time as a result of social mechanisms related to changes in sense of guilt and perceived annoyance.
Article
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The growing popularity of electric devices and the increasing number of hybrid and electric cars have recently raised concerns about the use of auditory signals by vulnerable road users. This paper consolidates current knowledge about the two trends in relation to cycling safety. Both a literature review and a crash data analysis were carried out. Based on a proposed conceptual model, knowledge gaps are identified that need to be addressed for a better understanding of the relation between limitations on auditory information while cycling. Results suggest that the concerns regarding the use of electronic devices while cycling and the advent of hybrid and electric vehicles are justified. Listening to music and conversing on the phone negatively influence cyclists’ auditory perception, self-reported crash risk and cycling performance. With regard to electric cars, a recurring problem is their quietness at low speeds. Implications of these findings in terms of cycling safety are discussed. http://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/6ezCvUNMpmQ2qXvZWEGQ/full
Article
Research in cycling safety seeks to better understand bicycle-related crashes and injuries. The present naturalistic cycling study contributes to this research by collecting data about bicyclists' behavior and impressions of safety-critical situations, information unavailable in traditional data sources (e.g., accident databases, observational studies). Naturalistic data were collected from 16 bicyclists (8 female; M = 39.1 years, SD = 11.4 years) who rode instrumented bicycles for two weeks. Bicyclists were instructed to report all episodes in which they felt uncomfortable while riding (subjective risk perception), even if they didn't fall. After data collection, the bicyclists were interviewed in detail regarding their self-reported safety-critical events. Environmental conditions were also recorded via video (e.g., road surface, weather). In total, 63 safety-critical events (56 non-crashes, 7 crashes) were reported by the bicyclists, mainly due to interactions with other road users - but also due to poorly maintained infrastructure. In low-visibility conditions, vehicle-bicycle and bicycle-bicycle events were the most uncomfortable for the bicyclists. Self-reported pedestrian-bicycle events primarily consisted of pedestrians starting to cross the bicycle path without looking. With one exception, all crashes found in the study belonged to poorly maintained road and infrastructure. In particular, construction work or obstacles in the bicycle path were reported as uncomfortable and annoying by the bicyclists. This study shows how naturalistic data and bicyclists' interviews together can provide a more informative picture of safety-critical situations experienced by the bicyclist than traditional data sources can.
Article
This paper presents a novel approach to modelling visual distraction of bicyclists. A unique bicycle simulator equipped with sensors capable of capturing the behaviour of the bicyclist is presented. While cycling two similar scenario routes, once while simultaneously interacting with an electronic device and once without any electronic device, statistics of the measured speed, head movements, steering angle and bicycle road position along with questionnaire data are captured. These variables are used to model the self-assessed distraction level of the bicyclist. Data mining techniques based on random forests, support vector machines and neural networks are evaluated for the modelling task. Out of the total 71 measured variables a variable selection procedure based on random forests is able to select a fraction of those and consequently improving the modelling performance. By combining the random forest-based variable selection and support vector machine-based modelling technique the best overall performance is achieved. The method shows that with a few observable variables it is possible to use machine learning to model, and thus predict, the distraction level of a bicyclist.
Article
Whereas it has been shown that listening to music impairs the detection of auditory and visual signals, it is unclear to what extent music affects a cyclist’s ability to detect and interpret hazardous traffic situations. In the current experiment, thirty-seven participants carried out a hazard perception test for cyclists. Participants were divided into three groups: control, passive, or active. The control group did the test without hearing music. The passive and active group did hear music, yet the passive group was asked to ignore the music, while the active group was asked to pay attention to the lyrics. Results showed no differences in reaction rate, reaction time, or gaze behaviour between any of the groups. These findings temper the existing safety concerns about the negative effect of music on traffic safety. Nevertheless, music might still have consequences under certain conditions or in certain risk-groups such as children. Practitioner summary: It is unclear how music affects traffic safety. The current experiment tested to what extent hazard perception was affected by listening actively or passively to music. Under the current experimental conditions, listening to music was found to have no effect on hazard perception.
Article
Bicycles have become one of the major modes of urban public travel. Moreover, the high number of bicycle accidents has created challenges for road traffic safety. In addition, a relationship exists between single-handed use of handlebars and the use of mobile phones while cycling, which increases the risk of cycling. The current study considers not only the impact of mobile phone use while cycling on the safety of cyclists but also the impact of the mental load of a distracting task on cycling safety. Thirty-two college students were recruited to participate in a cycling experiment with distractions that was carried out on both campus and off-campus roads. A paired t-test was used to analyze cyclists' performance under different distraction states. The results show that when performing distracting tasks, the speed of cycling is significantly reduced, the acceleration and rate of change in the deflection angle are significantly increased, and the saccade frequency is significantly reduced. In addition, texting while cycling has a greater negative impact on cycling performance than does calling or listening to music. This study reveals the harm of mobile phone use while cycling by analyzing the effects and characteristics of manipulation performance and visual strategy. The study results can contribute to improving cyclist awareness regarding distraction safety and reducing the occurrence of mobile phone distraction issues. Furthermore, this approach provides a theoretical research basis for scientific and effective intervention and improvement measures in the future.
Article
Introduction In France the number of injuries involving cyclists has risen over the last 10 years. With the widespread use of ICT devices, secondary tasks have become a major focus for transport safety research. They have also been identified as a predictor of collision. Although still scarce, this literature on cyclists’ secondary tasks identifies a recurrent profile. Young cyclists are in the spotlight as they often use earbuds or headphones and combine such use with taking other major risks on the road. Despite their vulnerability, their group accounts for only 12% of severe fatalities, which is proportional to their share of the urban cyclist population. This paper explores other cyclist profiles in an attempt to understand the discrepancy between the perception of risk-prone behaviour and transport safety statistics. Methods We seek to establish more nuanced profiles, i.e. cyclists who balance risk-taking and safety. In order to detect these profiles, we conducted 1746 observations at 14 locations in the city of Besançon (France). For each observation we considered 30 variables that provide information on the cyclist's profile, secondary tasks, risks taken, and safety equipment. Results These observed situations show that the two well-documented profiles (i.e. ‘risk-prone’ or ‘risk-averse’) together represent only 53.84% of our observations. We identify more mitigated profiles. Primarily a large group (37.29%) consists of middle-aged and elderly cyclists who are poorly equipped, who are rarely engaged in any secondary tasks, but who take occasional risks on the road. Conclusions Policies that aim to reduce the use of ICT devices on bike for all are necessary but not sufficient for reducing collisions. In addition to providing dedicated infrastructure, more targeted responses need to be provided to these different groups, such as focused actions on safety equipment and compliance with the traffic regulations for elderly cyclists.
Article
Although many studies have been conducted on the human factors and ergonomics (HFE) of touchscreens, no comprehensive review has summarized the findings of these studies. Based on a schema (three dimensions of understanding critical for successful display selection) presented by Wickens et al. (2004), we identified three dimensions of analysis for touchscreen implementations: touchscreen technology, setting and environment of implementation, and user population. We conducted a systematic review based on the PRISMA protocol (Moher et al., 2009), searching five article databases for relevant quantitative literature on touchscreens. We found that all three dimensions of analysis have a significant effect on the HFE of touchscreens, and that a selection for or against touchscreens must take into consideration the specific context of system interaction in order to maximize safety, performance, and user satisfaction. Our report concludes with a set of specific recommendations for systems designers considering touchscreens as input/output devices, and suggestions for future study into the HFE of touchscreens.
Article
Introduction Distraction is an emerging risk factor for cycling safety. Research from Europe, the United States and Japan indicate that the use of electronic devices is prevalent among cyclists in these countries. However, there is little known about the prevalence of Australian cyclists’ engagement in potentially distracting tasks and in non-technology based tasks in particular. This study examined the prevalence of secondary task engagement among Australian cyclists to determine if characteristics, such as age, gender, cycling exposure and personality, predict the frequency of engagement in secondary tasks while riding. Methods A sample of 646 regular cyclists (defined as cycling at least once per week) completed an online survey assessing the frequency with which they reportedly engage in a range of potentially distracting tasks. Results Reported engagement in secondary tasks among Australian cyclists was low, particularly for technology-based tasks, with the average reported engagement for many tasks sitting between ‘never’ and ‘hardly ever’. In addition, engagement in secondary tasks while riding was predicted by a number of cyclist characteristics including age, cycling frequency and impulsive/sensation seeking personality traits. Conclusions Cyclist engagement in any form of distracted cycling may be particularly risky in the Australian context due to a lack of safe cycling infrastructure making the road network less tolerant of distraction-related errors. Findings from this study can inform the design and targeting of policies aimed at reducing distracted cycling in Australia and overseas.
Article
To examine the factors that influence mobile phone use while cycling, mobile phone addiction and perceptions of distraction were included in the theory of planned behavior (TPB) model to explore the relationship between the psychological factors of mobile phone use and cycling from the perspective of social psychology. This study tested the reliability and validity of an extended TPB questionnaire (with 603 eligible responses), explored the correlation between personality factors and other psychological factors, and constructed a structural equation model of mobile phone use behavior while cycling based on the improved TPB model. Consequently, the relationship path between various influencing factors was obtained. The results indicate that neuroticism, conscientiousness, and agreeableness are significantly associated with psychological factors. In addition, the TPB can effectively explain and predict mobile phone use behavior while cycling. Mobile phone addiction, distraction perception and behavioral intention are the most important influencing factors, followed by perceived behavioral control. The influence of attitude and subjective norms is weak. The research results may have positive effects on the prevention and reduction of bicycle accidents and improvements to the safety of cyclists. Additionally, the results provide strong evidence to support the policies of the road traffic safety management department.
Technical Report
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Die öffentliche Diskussion um die Nutzung von Mobiltelefonen im Strassenverkehr bezieht sich primär auf das Telefonieren am Steuer. Dabei wird ausser Acht gelassen, dass auch Fussgänger und Velofahrer durch den Handygebrauch im Strassenverkehr abgelenkt sein können und möglicherweise Gefahren zu spät oder gar nicht wahrnehmen. Diese Kurzanalyse beinhaltet eine Übersicht zu Daten und Literatur zum Thema. Des Weiteren werden eine Abschätzung zum Handlungsbedarf und mögliche Präventionsmassnahmen auf- gezeigt.
Article
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This study investigates the effect of vehicle motion on performance, usability and workload for a touch screen in-vehicle Battle Management System (BMS). Participants performed a series of battle management tasks while a vehicle was driven over sealed (characteristic of 'normal' vehicle motion) and unsealed (characteristic of 'high' vehicle motion) roads. The results indicate that unsealed road conditions impair the performance of information input tasks (tasks that require the user to enter information, e.g. text entry) but not information extraction tasks (tasks that require the user to retrieve information from the system, e.g. reading coordinates). Participants rated workload as higher and the system as less usable on the unsealed road. In closing, the implications for in-vehicle touch screen design and use in both military and civilian driving contexts are discussed. Practitioner Summary: The effect of motion on interacting with in-vehicle touch screen devices remains largely unexplored. This study examines the effect of different levels of vehicle motion on the use of a BMS. Using the system under off-road conditions had a detrimental impact on workload, performance and usability.
Article
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The underlying aim of HASTE, an EU FP5 project, is the development of a valid, cost-effective and reliable assessment protocol to evaluate the potential distraction of an in-vehicle information system on driving performance. As part of this development, the current study was performed to examine the systematic relationship between primary and secondary task complexity for a specific task modality in a particular driving environment. Two fundamentally distinct secondary tasks (or surrogate in-vehicle information systems, sIVIS) were developed: a visual search task, designed such that it only required visual processing/demand and an auditory continuous memory task, intended to cognitively load drivers without any visual stimulus. A high fidelity, fixed-base driving simulator was used to test 48 participants on a car following task. Virtual traffic scenarios varied in driving demand. Drivers compensated for both types of sIVIS by reducing their speed (this result was more prominent during interaction with the visual task). However, they seemed incapable of fully prioritising the primary driving task over either the visual or cognitive secondary tasks as an increase in sIVIS demand was associated with a reduction in driving performance: drivers showed reduced anticipation of braking requirements and shorter time-to-collision. These results are of potential interest to designers of in-vehicle systems.
Article
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The empirical basis for legislation to limit cell phones while driving is addressed. A comprehensive meta-analysis of the effects of cell phones on driving performance was performed. A total of 33 studies collected through 2007 that met inclusion criteria yielded 94 effect size estimates, with a total sample size of approximately 2000 participants. The dependent variables of reaction time, lateral vehicle control, headway and speed and the moderating variables of research setting (i.e., laboratory, simulator, on-road), conversation target (passenger, cell phone) and conversation type (cognitive task, naturalistic) were coded. Reaction time (RT) to events and stimuli while talking produced the largest performance decrements. Handheld and hands-free phones produced similar RT decrements. Overall, a mean increase in RT of .25s was found to all types of phone-related tasks. Observed performance decrements probably underestimate the true behavior of drivers with mobile phones in their own vehicles. In addition, drivers using either phone type do not appreciably compensate by giving greater headway or reducing speed. Tests for moderator effects on RT and speed found no statistically significant effect size differences across laboratory, driving simulation and on-road research settings. The implications of the results for legislation and future research are considered.
Article
Where an experiment can be carried out by applying different treatments in succession to the same unit of experimental material, accurate comparisons can be made between the effects of different treatments. To allow for the residual effect of previous treatments on the result obtained for any given treatment, it is desirable to adjust the results for such effects. Methods of constructing balanced designs for the estimation of these residual effects are described in this paper, and are summarized as follows. Designs balanced for effect of single preceding treatment: When n, the number of treatments, is even, a balanced design is possible with n replications ; when n is odd, 2n replications are required.Designs balanced for the effects of any number of preceding treatments, ignoring the interaction of residual effects: When n is a prime or a power of a prime, a balanced design is possible in n(n-1) replications, which may be set out as a set of n-1 mutually orthogonal Latin squares, with the same first columns. Designs which are not expressible as mutually orthogonal Latin squares are also possible. Designs balanced for the effect of the two preceding treatments and their interactions : A design can be developed from a set of n-l mutually orthogonal Latin squares obeying certain restrictions. The method of analysis of designs of this type is set out in detail, together with a numerical example. Direct effects of treatments are shown to be only slightly confounded, the maximum confounding being 4 per cent., when there are three treatments. These designs have wide applicability wherever successive treatments can be applied to the same unit of experimental material.
Article
The use of in-vehicle touch screen devices is currently common in both military and civilian vehicles; despite this, the effects of motion on touch screen device operation within vehicles remains largely unexplored. This article describes a study that examined, using driving simulation, the influences of motion on performance, workload and usability when using a touch screen in-vehicle battle management system. Acting in the role of battle management system operator, 20 participants undertook four simulated drives, two under high motion (representative of an unsealed road) and two under normal motion (representative of a sealed road), whilst performing various battle management tasks. In the high motion condition, lower accuracy and longer task completion times were found, along with greater levels of subjective and physiological workload and lower levels of perceived device usability, when compared to the normal motion condition. The findings indicate that, compared to normal motion, the high motion condition impaired key aspects of battle management system operation. In closing, the importance of considering motion and its effects during touch screen system design is discussed.
Article
The effects of listening to music on cycling behaviour were evaluated. Twenty-five participants completed a track on a bicycle while listening to music with two standard earbuds, with one earbud, and with two in-earbuds. Conditions with high tempo music and loud volume were also included in the experiment, as were two mobile phone conditions, one in which participants operated the phone hand held and one handsfree condition.Cycle speed was not affected by listening to music, but was reduced in the telephone conditions. In general the response to auditory signals worsened when participants listened to music, in particular when listening with in-earbuds loud auditory stop signals were missed in 68% of the cases. However, when listening with only one standard earbud performance was not affected. In the conditions when participants listened to high volume and to high tempo music, the auditory stop signal was also heard in significantly fewer cases. Completing a task on the mobile phone, using both handheld and handsfree sets, resulted in increased response time to an auditory stop signal and also reduced overall auditory perception. Furthermore, handsfree operation only had minor advantages opposed to hand held operation, with only response time to an auditory stop signal resulting in faster performance. This is likely to be related to the fact that both hands could be used for braking.It is concluded that listening to music worsens auditory perception, in particular if in-earbuds are used. Furthermore, both handheld and handsfree operation of mobile phones has a negative effect on perception, potentially forming a threat to cyclist traffic safety.
Article
As planners and public health officials in many cities around the world seek to increase bicycle ridership, bicyclists who are performing a secondary task (such as listening to a portable music device) may pose a risk to public safety. This study examines bicycling safety and potentially distracted behavior in The Hague, the Netherlands, a place where bicycling is a common, everyday travel mode among all walks of life and where bicycling infrastructure is well developed. Based on 1360 observations of bicycling behavior, this study shows that bicyclists who were using a cell phone, listening to a portable music device, or talking with other bicyclists exhibited more unsafe behaviors than those bicyclists who were not performing a secondary task. Furthermore, bicyclists who were performing a secondary task also more frequently created situations where other people had to evade them to avoid an accident. As with distracted car driving, the performance of a secondary task while bicycling may be unsafe for the person engaging in the behavior as well as for other people around them.
Article
Driver distraction contributes to vehicle accidents, with estimates as high as one-half of crashes being distraction-related. The purpose of this experiment was to explore potential distractions by testing the effects of cellular telephone conversation and music listening on response time and its subcomponents of reaction time (RT) and movement time (MT) in a simulated braking task. Participants (N = 27) sat at a simulated driving station and released the accelerator and depressed the brake pedal as quickly as possible following activation of a simulated brake lamp. The braking task was performed under each of six conditions including: (a) the control (braking task only); (b) music playing at 66 dBA; (c) music playing at 78 dBA; (d) cellular telephone conversation; (e) cellular telephone conversation and music at 66 dBA; and (f) cellular telephone conversation and music at 78 dBA. Cellular telephone conversation slowed response time, yet music had no effect on response time. While the RT results generally mirrored those of response time (i.e., RT was also slowed by the telephone conversation), interestingly, MT was actually faster when the cellular telephone conversation was present compared to when it was not. Participants appear to have anticipated slower RT in the presence of the cellular telephone conversation, and attempted to compensate by executing a more rapid movement to the brake pedal.
Article
Increasingly, computing and communications-based technologies are being implemented within cars. There is a need for fundamental research and development to ensure that the control interfaces for future cars require minimal visual demands. The needs, abilities and preferences of drivers (in particular older drivers) are clearly a prime focus, as part of a user-centred design approach. In addition, it is argued that much can be learnt from the experience and strategies adopted by people who are blind or have low vision (a non-user group). The paper sets out a number of research questions regarding the inclusion of such people in the design process of future automobiles.
Article
In the Netherlands, a survey was set up to monitor the extent of the use of portable, electronic devices while cycling amongst different age groups of cyclists and to estimate the possible consequences for safety. The main research questions concerned age differences in the self-reported use of electronic devices while cycling, self-reported crash involvement and risk, and self-reported compensatory behaviour. Teen cyclists (12-17 years) and young adult cyclists (18-34 years) were more frequent users, and also more indiscriminate users of portable devices while cycling than middle-aged and older adult cyclists (35-49 years; 50+ years). After statistical correction for influences on crash risk of urbanization level, weekly time spent cycling, and cycling in more demanding traffic situations, the odds of being involved in a bicycle crash were estimated to be higher for teen cyclists and young adult cyclists who used electronic devices on every trip compared to same age groups cyclists who never used these devices. For middle-aged and older adult cyclists, the use of portable electronic devices was not a significant predictor of bicycle crashes, but frequency of cycling in demanding traffic situations was. Possible implications for education or legal measures are discussed. Results may inform researchers, policy makers, and cyclists themselves. Educational campaigns may use risk information to warn young cyclists about risk of device use while cycling.
Article
A driving simulator study was conducted to investigate the effects of carrying out a variety of tasks using two different types of contemporary in-car multifunctional interfaces: a touch screen interface and an interface manoeuvred by a rotary control. Participants drove on a curved rural road while performing tasks such as list scrolling, radio tuning, alphanumeric input and continuous adjustments. The results indicate that, in terms of task completion time and the number of glances made to the display, the optimal interface is dependent on the task being performed. The touch screen interface was better for alphanumeric input tasks and the interface manoeuvred by a rotary control was better for continuous adjustments and list scrolling. Alphanumeric input seems to be more demanding than other tasks, independent of the interface used. It was apparent in this simulator study that both interfaces affected the lateral control performance, but lateral control performance deteriorated to a greater extent when the touch screen interface was used, probably partially as a result of the lower display position.
Article
In-vehicle information systems (IVIS) can be controlled by the user via direct or indirect input devices. In order to develop the next generation of usable IVIS, designers need to be able to evaluate and understand the usability issues associated with these two input types. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a set of empirical usability evaluation methods for identifying important usability issues and distinguishing between the IVIS input devices. A number of usability issues were identified and their causal factors have been explored. These were related to the input type, the structure of the menu/tasks and hardware issues. In particular, the translation between inputs and on-screen actions and a lack of visual feedback for menu navigation resulted in lower levels of usability for the indirect device. This information will be useful in informing the design of new IVIS, with improved usability. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This paper examines the use of empirical methods for distinguishing between direct and indirect IVIS input devices and identifying usability issues. Results have shown that the characteristics of indirect input devices produce more serious usability issues, compared with direct devices and can have a negative effect on the driver-vehicle interaction.
Article
The first paper examined how the variables related to driving performance were impacted by the management of holding a phone conversation. However, the conditions under which this dual task is carried out are dependent upon a set of factors that may particularly influence the risk of crash. These conditions are defined by several independent variables, classified into five main categories: i) legislation; ii) phone type (hands-free or hand-held); iii) drivers' features regarding age, gender, personal individual profile and driving experience; iv) conversation content (casual or professional) and its context (held with passengers or with a cell (mobile) phone); v) driving conditions (actual or simulated driving, road type, traffic density and weather). These independent variables determine the general conditions. The way in which these factors are combined and interact one with another thus determines the risk that drivers undergo when a cell phone is used while driving. Finally, this review defined the general conditions of driving for which managing a phone conversation is likely to elicit a high risk of car crash or, conversely, may provide a situation of lower risk, with sufficient acceptance to ensure safety.
Article
The effects of mobile phone use on cycling behaviour were studied. In study 1, the prevalence of mobile phone use while cycling was assessed. In Groningen 2.2% of cyclists were observed talking on their phone and 0.6% were text messaging or entering a phone number. In study 2, accident-involved cyclists responded to a questionnaire. Only 0.5% stated that they were using their phone at the time of the accident. In study 3, participants used a phone while cycling. The content of the conversation was manipulated and participants also had to enter a text message. Data were compared with just cycling and cycling while listening to music. Telephoning coincided with reduced speed, reduced peripheral vision performance and increased risk and mental effort ratings. Text messaging had the largest negative impact on cycling performance. Higher mental workload and lower speed may account for the relatively low number of people calling involved in accidents. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Although perhaps mainly restricted to flat countries with a large proportion of cyclists, mobile phone use while cycling has increased and may be a threat to traffic safety, similar to phone use while driving a car. In this study, the extent of the problem was assessed by observing the proportion of cyclists using mobile phones, sending questionnaires to accident-involved cyclists and an experimental study was conducted on the effects of mobile phone use while cycling.
Article
A naturalistic experiment used an instrumented bicycle to gather proximity data from overtaking motorists. The relationship between rider position and overtaking proximity was the opposite to that generally believed, such that the further the rider was from the edge of the road, the closer vehicles passed. Additionally, wearing a bicycle helmet led to traffic getting significantly closer when overtaking. Professional drivers of large vehicles were particularly likely to leave narrow safety margins. Finally, when the (male) experimenter wore a long wig, so that he appeared female from behind, drivers left more space when passing. Overall, the results demonstrate that motorists exhibit behavioural sensitivity to aspects of a bicyclist's appearance during an encounter. In the light of previous research on drivers' attitudes to bicyclists, we suggest drivers approaching a bicyclist use physical appearance to judge the specific likelihood of the rider behaving predictably and alter their overtaking accordingly. However, the extent to which a bicyclist's moment-to-moment behaviour can be inferred from their appearance is questionable, and so the tendency for drivers to alter their passing proximity based on this appearance probably has implications for accident probability.
Article
There is evidence that mobile phone use while driving (including hands-free) is associated with motor vehicle crashes. However, whether the effects of mobile phone use differ from that of passengers in the vehicle remains unclear. The aim of this research was to estimate the risk of crash associated with passenger carriage and compare that with mobile phone use. A case-control study ('passenger study') was performed in Perth, Western Australia in 2003 and 2004. Cases were 274 drivers who attended hospital following a motor vehicle crash and controls were 1096 drivers (1:4 matching) recruited at service stations matched to the location and time and day of week of the crash. The results were compared with those of a case-crossover study ('mobile phone study') undertaken concurrently (n=456); 152 cases were common to both studies. Passenger carriage increased the likelihood of a crash (adjusted odds ratio (adj. OR), 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.6, 1.1-2.2). Drivers carrying two or more passengers were twice as likely to crash as unaccompanied drivers (adj. OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.3-3.8). By comparison, driver's use of a mobile phone within 5 min before a crash was associated with a fourfold increased likelihood of crashing (OR 4.1, 95% CI 2.2-7.7). Passenger carriage and increasing numbers of passengers are associated with an increased likelihood of crash, though not to the same extent as mobile phone use. Further research is needed to investigate the factors underlying the increased risks.
Article
To investigate the perception and actual use of mobile phones among Japanese high school students while riding their bicycles, and their experience of bicycle crash/near-crash. A questionnaire survey was carried out at high schools that were, at the time of the survey, commissioned by the National Agency for the Advancement of Sports and Health to conduct school safety research. In the survey, we found that mobile phone use while riding a bicycle was quite common among the students during their commute, but those who have a higher perception of danger in this practice, and those who perceived that this practice is prohibited, were less likely to engage in this practice. Male students and students commuting to school by bicycle only were more likely to have used phones while riding. There was a significant relationship between phone usage while riding a bicycle and the experience of bicycle crash/near-crash, although its causality was not established. Bicycle crash/near-crash experienced while using a phone was less prevalent among the students who had a higher perception of danger in phone usage while riding, students who perceived that this practice is prohibited, and students with a shorter travel time by bicycle during the commute. Since mobile phone use while riding a bicycle potentially increases crash risk among cyclists, student bicycle commuters should be made aware of this risk. Moreover, they should be informed that cyclists' phone usage while riding is prohibited according to the road traffic law.
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