Article

In the Spotlight: Brightness Increases Self-Awareness and Reflective Self-Regulation

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Abstract

Impulse and reflection jointly drive people’s behavior. However, the impact of the physical environment, especially light and brightness, on reflective and impulsive behavior and the underlying processes have not been understood. We expected that light and brightness would increase self-awareness and, in turn, lead to a reflective and controlled self-regulation. Five studies confirmed our assumptions. Particularly, participants in a brightly lit room reported a higher public self-awareness than those in a dim room. Moreover, brightness triggers more controlled and reflective forms of self-regulation independent of whether lighting conditions (Study 2) or priming methods (Study 3) were used to manipulate brightness. Finally, two additional studies revealed that brightness facilitates the suppression of desires and socially undesirable impulses which signals high self-control. Overall, these results contribute to the understanding of automatic effects of light and brightness and effortless self-control. Limitations as well as practical implications for lighting design in therapeutical settings and retail spaces and are discussed.

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... Brightness is also commonly associated with morality. People's perception of light and shade has become one way for researchers to learn about moral concepts (Steidle & Werth, 2014;Zhong et al., 2010). The perception of light affects moral judgment; using the response-time matching paradigm, the researchers found that when white was matched with a moral word, the participants' response time was shorter and faster. ...
... These findings have implications for exploring whether the brightness metaphor affects the memory process. Specifically, researchers in the past have tended to assume that brightness does not change in memory (Cooper et al., 2019), and explore only the effect of metaphor on brightness perception, requiring participants to respond immediately (Banerjee et al., 2012;Steidle & Werth, 2014;Zhong et al., 2010). However, the study of Cooper et al. broke this view and observed a new phenomenon from the perspective of brightness memory research. ...
... So the choice of the moral (positive) titer of the strongest words, a 2 × 2 ANOVA analysis was performed. Although such choices that using categorical variables is very common in the study of metaphor types, future studies can use additional paradigms that provide more sensitive methods of making more elaborate models (Banerjee et al., 2012;Chasteen et al., 2010;Lakens et al., 2012;Meier et al., 2004Meier et al., , 2007Steidle & Werth, 2014;Zhong et al., 2010). Secondly, as this is the first study to explore the effects of metaphor on memory, the results are preliminary and should be further explored in two aspects. ...
Article
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Brightness-based metaphor effects on perception have been widely documented. For example, moral content makes perception brighter. But does moral content make a bright memory brighter? We tested the effect of the moral brightness metaphor on different cognitive processes (perception, working memory, and long-term memory), and extended evidence of the relationship between brightness and moral concepts to the relationship between brightness and positive concepts. Different samples of college students participated in five experiments. In all experiments, moral (immoral) and positive (negative) pictures of varying levels of brightness were presented, and then participants reconstructed the brightness of each picture using a keyboard to adjust the brightness of an picture. Together, the results of ANOVAs across experiments showed that the metaphorical effect of brightness played no role in perception or working memory, but there was a significant increase in brightness in long-term memory. These results support the non-unidirectionality of metaphor, and extend the conceptual metaphor theory and simulating sensorimotor metaphors theory by enhancing the effect of metaphor through the cognitive mechanism of long-term memory.
... Hirsh et al. (2011) indicated that disinhibition is a state in which the relative salience of any competing response is decreased, thus allowing participants to exhibit the most salient action, regardless of whether it is ethical or unethical. Darkness may provide participants with a sense of anonymity and reduce social desirability concerns, thereby decreasing the activity of the BIS and producing a state of disinhibition (Hirsh et al., 2011;Steidle & Werth, 2014). ...
... Previous literature on the relationship between darkness and ethical behaviors revealed confusing results (e.g., Chiou & Cheng, 2013;Kombeiz et al., 2017;Steidle et al., 2013;Zhong et al., 2010), which may be explained by the view of disinhibition; that is, darkness can produce a state of disinhibition in participants, thus increasing the correspondence between situation-specific norms and behavior and the correspondence between individuals' traits and behaviors (Hirsh et al., 2011;Steidle & Werth, 2014). Accordingly, this study suggested that gender would moderate the effect of darkness on ethical behaviors. ...
... Darkness was found to decrease men's trustworthiness but not women's trustworthiness. Because trustworthiness is a socially expected behavior but trusting is not a socially expected behavior (Bicchieri et al., 2011), the results support the suggestion that disinhibition in darkness can be reached by reducing socially desirable concerns (Hirsh et al., 2011;Steidle & Werth, 2014). Although this study suggested that darkness did not affect trust, we do not think that trust is unaffected by darkness. ...
Article
The relationship between darkness and ethical behaviors is confusing. The mixed findings may be explained by the general process of disinhibition. In this view, gender may moderate the effect of darkness on ethical behaviors. The results of two experiments support this prediction. In Experiment 1, male participants in dimly lit streets exhibited lower levels of prosocial behaviors than those in well-lit streets, whereas women in dimly lit streets exhibited significantly higher levels of prosocial behaviors than those in well-lit streets. In Experiment 2, male college students in a dimly lit room exhibited significantly lower levels of trustworthiness in a trust game than those in a well-lit room, whereas there was no significant difference between the trustworthiness levels of women in rooms with varying levels of illumination; Experiment 2 also revealed that darkness did not affect participants' trust. In summary, gender moderates the effect of darkness on ethical and prosocial behaviors.
... Diese Studie zeigte also, dass die kognitive Leistung steigt, wenn die künstliche Beleuchtung einen passenden Informationsverarbeitungsstil hervorruft. Tabelle 1 bietet einen Überblick über bisher untersuchte Passungseff ekte für unterschiedliche Beleuchtungsstärken. Im Vergleich zu einer horizontalen Beleuchtungsstärke von 1500 lux fördert eine Beleuchtungsstärke von 150 lux einen Fokus auf abstrakten Zusammenhängen statt Details, eine höhere Kooperationsbereitschaft, höhere kreative, aber geringere analytische Leistungen und ein impulsiveres und weniger kontrolliertes Verhalten [24], [25], [26], was insbesondere bei komplexen und neuen Aufgaben sowie hoher Eigenverantwortung der Arbeitnehmer oder hohen Anforderungen an die Zusammenarbeit entscheidend für die erfolgreiche Bearbeitung ist [18], [19]. ...
... Abschließend lässt sich also festhalten, dass der Raum als Ganzes und insbesondere die Beleuchtung im Raum auf drei Wegen Wohlbefi nden und Leistungsfähigkeit der Nutzer beeinfl ussen: [24], [25], [26], [27] [24], [25], [26], [27] * Lichtbedingung wurde nicht untersucht. ...
... Abschließend lässt sich also festhalten, dass der Raum als Ganzes und insbesondere die Beleuchtung im Raum auf drei Wegen Wohlbefi nden und Leistungsfähigkeit der Nutzer beeinfl ussen: [24], [25], [26], [27] [24], [25], [26], [27] * Lichtbedingung wurde nicht untersucht. ...
Article
Im Zeitalter der Wissensarbeit steigt die Bedeutung mentaler und psychologischer Faktoren wie Konzentrationsfähigkeit, Stimmung und Motivation für eine hohe Leistungsfähigkeit. Die physikalischen Bedingungen an Büroarbeitsplätzen können einerseits einen Stressor darstellen, der die Konzentration erschöpft und den Nutzer ermüdet, oder eine räumliche Ressource, die Arbeitstätigkeiten erleichtert oder Nutzerbedürfnisse befriedigt und dadurch Engagement und Stimmung bei der Arbeit steigert. Inwiefern bestimmte räumliche Bedingungen am Arbeitsplatz eine Ressource oder einen Stressor darstellen, lässt sich anhand der drei Ebenen des Komforts abschätzen: physischer, funktionaler und psychischer Komfort. Ein solcher Ansatz soll helfen, “psychisch nachhaltige“ physikalische Raumbedingungen zu schaffen, die die psychischen Ressourcen der Nutzer schonen. Im vorliegenden Beitrag wird dieses neue Verständnis von Komfort mithilfe der zugrunde liegenden psychologischen Prozesse erklärt und am Beispiel der bauphysikalischen Variablen “Beleuchtung“ illustriert.
... Regarding lighting, a bright lighting has increasing effects on peoples' mood and performance in problem-solving tasks [10] and on the time spent in a shop [2]. Moreover, it leads to a controlled and reflected way of self-awareness [16] and self-regulation [16], which are two important skills for, e.g., job interview situations. In this study, we vary between a green, bright room and a red, dim room in which a job interview takes place. ...
... Regarding lighting, a bright lighting has increasing effects on peoples' mood and performance in problem-solving tasks [10] and on the time spent in a shop [2]. Moreover, it leads to a controlled and reflected way of self-awareness [16] and self-regulation [16], which are two important skills for, e.g., job interview situations. In this study, we vary between a green, bright room and a red, dim room in which a job interview takes place. ...
... Also, we could find that in the green room participants had the impression that they are better presenting themselves than those in the dim red condition (cf. [16]). With our data, showing that participants rated the red room as the most influencing one, we can support that a red office was rated to be distracting [11]. ...
Conference Paper
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Virtual agents usually come in a virtual environment that can be designed in various ways which might affect users. This paper presents a study that examines whether the design of the virtual environment has an impact on the assessment of the virtual agent and the interaction. In a virtual job interview training, participants interacted with a virtual interviewer that behaved exactly the same, but the background and lighting conditions were manipulated. Our results indicate that the environmental design affects the assessment of the interviewer as well as the interview process.
... Research finds that individuals use the physical environment as a cue to determine what they can or should do (Steidle and Werth 2014). Research in gambling has confirmed that elements of the servicescape, such as ambience (including lighting, along with other elements such as noise, music, scent, and temperature), can positively influence a gaming customer's cognitive satisfaction (Lam et al. 2011). ...
... Whilst there has been no research examining the influence of ambient lighting on risk-taking directly, research in environmental psychology has examined the effect of ambient lighting on self-regulation (i.e., the ability to control, modify, and adapt one's emotions, impulses, or desires; Murtagh and Todd 2004). Steidle and Werth (2014) find that bright, compared to dim, lighting strengthens controlled and reflective, rather than autonomous and impulsive, self-regulation. Controlled regulation is behavior that is in line with social norms and rules, whereas autonomous regulation results in behavior that follows desires or impulses (Steidle and Werth 2014). ...
... Steidle and Werth (2014) find that bright, compared to dim, lighting strengthens controlled and reflective, rather than autonomous and impulsive, self-regulation. Controlled regulation is behavior that is in line with social norms and rules, whereas autonomous regulation results in behavior that follows desires or impulses (Steidle and Werth 2014). Research on the effect of lighting on self-regulation finds that bright lighting, as compared to dim lighting, reduces disinhibition (a controlled behavioral regulation). ...
Article
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It has been suggested that much like commercial environments (e.g., retailing), the situational characteristics of gambling environments form an important determinant of gambling behavior. However, no research has examined whether ambient lighting in gaming venues can have unintended consequences in terms of gambling behavior. The results of three experimental laboratory studies show that game play duration and total spend increase when ambient lighting is dim (vs. bright). Process evidence suggests that this phenomenon occurs as ambient lighting influences risk-taking, which in turn increases game play duration and total spend. Further, evidence is provided that the effect of dim (vs. bright) ambient lighting reduces risk-taking and subsequent game play duration and total spend when an individual’s self-awareness is facilitated (i.e., screening between gaming machines is removed). This research has implications in terms of public policy regarding the determination of minimum lighting levels in venues as a means to decrease gambling-related harm. Moreover, while gaming venues can use these insights and their ambient lighting switches to nudge individuals toward reducing their game play duration and total spend, gambling-afflicted consumers can opt for gambling venues with bright ambient lighting and those without screened gaming machines.
... However, the dynamics behind the effect of lighting conditions on selfdisclosure may not be that straightforward. For instance, Steidle and Werth (2014) have reported that people tend to have greater self-awareness and tend to exert greater extent of reflective selfcontrol when exposed to bright compared to dim environments and did not find effects of lighting on perceived anonymity. Thus, there seem to be multiple possible explanations for the observed effect of different lighting conditions on self-disclosure. ...
... Another important concern is the dependent measure that ranged from sentences spoken to ratings. Additionally, several mechanisms have been suggested like positive mood (Miwa and Hanyu, 2006), perceived spaciousness (Okken et al., 2013), self-awareness, self-control (Steidle and Werth, 2014), and perceived anonymity (Zhong et al., 2010) which make it complicated to predict effects in future studies. ...
... n 1 = n 2 = 28, and p = 0.88, two tailed). Even though this finding was at odds with that reported by Zhong et al. (2010), it was in line with that reported by Steidle and Werth (2014). Also, participants in the bright condition (M = 2.3 and SD = 1.26) reported significantly lesser (Mann-Whitney U = 255.5, ...
Article
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With the advent of social networks where people disclose a lot of their information and opinions publicly, this research attempted to re-look at the effect of environmental lighting on willingness and actual disclosure of personal information. Previous literatures mostly addressed counseling setups and the findings were mixed. In order to clarify the effect of lighting on self-disclosure, two experiments were conducted with reported willingness to disclose (Experiment 1) as well as actual disclosure (Experiment 2) on a range of topics like social issues, body, money, work, and personality. While quite a handful of studies have reported differences in disclosure from very subtle environmental lighting manipulations, in both experiments we could not find any effect of ambient room lighting conditions on self-disclosure. These results call for caution both in over-interpreting subtle environmental effects and in increased generalization of perceptual metaphors to actual behavior.
... Based on these existing experiments, Govern and Marsch established the Situational Self-Awareness Scale (SSAS) in 2001, which is used to quantify public and private self-awareness [13], and this scale was later adapted and translated into Chinese version (SSAS-C) in 2006. Using a 7-point Likert-type self-report scale ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree, the scale has proved its reliability and validity in the Chinese environment [14]. In the original version, an item assigned in the private self-awareness category (Right now, I am reflective about my life) showed a high correlation with public self-awareness in the Chinese context; therefore, this item was transferred to the public self-awareness category in SSAS-C due to the divergent understanding of the word 'life' in two cultures [14]. ...
... Using a 7-point Likert-type self-report scale ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree, the scale has proved its reliability and validity in the Chinese environment [14]. In the original version, an item assigned in the private self-awareness category (Right now, I am reflective about my life) showed a high correlation with public self-awareness in the Chinese context; therefore, this item was transferred to the public self-awareness category in SSAS-C due to the divergent understanding of the word 'life' in two cultures [14]. With the only aforementioned exception, the remaining items all demonstrated high correlation and objective structural validity, with coefficients ranging from 0.7 to 0.72. ...
Conference Paper
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This study aims to explore the influence and induction of five-factor personality traits on self-awareness. 90 participants were recruited as the research subjects and were divided into three groups in this experiment. The results revealed that students’ public and private self-awareness was considerably improved after the personality traits testing. Among the five personality traits, conscientiousness had the strongest inducing ability, followed by extroversion and agreeableness. Personality traits play an essential role in improving self-awareness and evaluating its level. Therefore, this experiment aims to provide suggestions for future studies of social and emotional learning in higher education.
... Also, prior research examining the use of abstract shapes in physical workspaces shows they too can trigger associations in memory 1 (Chapman and Chapman 1982). Bright colored objects in workspaces, as well as illuminance and spectral distribution, have been shown to lead to a more positive mood and emotional arousal (Knez andKers 2000, Steidle andWerth 2014). In addition, high visual complexity (i.e., the presence of many and different objects) can motivate attention and stimulate emotional arousal (Ceylan et al. 2008, De Dreu et al. 2008. ...
... In this section, we discuss the implications for future research based on our findings and research contributions. First, VEs offer the ability to enact insights from the design of physical workspaces, including the use of light, colors, and textures, as well as the shape and organization of objects (Ceylan et al. 2008, McCoy 2005, Steidle and Werth 2014. Yet, there is limited existing research that examines whether or how VE design affects outcomes. ...
Article
Three-dimensional (3D) virtual environments (VEs) are collaboration platforms where group members are represented as avatars and interact in a customizable simulated world. Research from cognitive psychology has shown that it is possible to manipulate nonconscious cognition and behavior through "priming," a well-known phenomenon in which words and images are used to activate desired concepts in participants' minds. Our goal in this was to investigate whether priming during the task execution (called contextual priming) using 3D objects in the VE can improve brainstorming performance. To investigate this, we conducted two studies. The first used priming objects specifically related to the task topic and the second used priming objects related to creativity, in general. Compared to VEs without 3D priming objects, our results showthat when groups brainstormed in the VEs designed with 3D priming objects, they generated better quality ideas as well as a greater breadth and depth of ideas. Thus, the 3D priming stimuli incorporated in a VE enhances brainstorming, which indicates that the design of VE has a direct effect on team brainstorming performance. Our results also showthat target concept activation and task absorption act as the underlying mechanisms, partially mediating the relationship between the design of the VE (i.e., the presence or absence of priming objects) and performance outcomes.
... A study reinforced this, showing evidence of these behaviors, such as dishonesty actions associated with dark environments [31]. In contrast, a bright environment may induce self-regulation and self-awareness when performing impulsive actions [32]. It was also observed that a bright environment reinforces the ethical and altruism attitude of participants in an experiment, who were playing a game in different lighting environments [33]. ...
... The synergy of lighting and socialization is complex due to high dependency from other factors that should be taken into account, such as local culture and activities performed. However, a bright environment with cool light can be associated with empathy stimulus [32], feeling that is associated with socialization actions. In contrast, a poorly lightened environment with warm light can lead to antisocial behaviors due to the concealment and anonymity [30,38]. ...
Article
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The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) aim at providing a healthier planet for present and future generations. At the most recent SDG summit held in 2019, Member States recognized that the achievements accomplished to date have been insufficient to achieve this mission. This paper presents a comprehensive literature review of 227 documents contextualizing outdoor lighting with SDGs, showing its potential to resolve some existing issues related to the SDG targets. From a list of 17 goals, six SDGs were identified to have relevant synergies with outdoor lighting in smart cities, including SDG 3 (Good health and well-being), SDG 11 (Sustainable cities and communities), SDG 14 (Life below water) and SDG 15 (Life on land). This review also links efficient lighting roles partially with SDG 7 (Affordable and clean energy) and SDG 13 (Climate action) through Target 7.3 and Target 13.2, respectively. This paper identifies outdoor lighting as a vector directly impacting 16 of the 50 targets in the six SDGs involved. Each section in this review discusses the main aspects of outdoor lighting by a human-centric, energy efficiency and environmental impacts. Each aspect addresses the most recent studies contributing to lighting solutions in the literature, helping us to understand the positive and negative impacts of artificial lighting on living beings. In addition, the work summarizes the proposed solutions and results tackling specific topics impacting SDG demands.
... However, it also provides us with environmental cues that can trigger a host of other, more subjective psychological mechanisms. These include affective responses such as appraisals of the lighting or the physical space, changes in mood and motivation, and cognitive associations with the environment [3][4][5]. ...
... This was done on the basis of state (e.g. sleepy, score 6-9, or alert, score [1][2][3][4] using the values at the end of the session. The results indicate that there was a significant difference (p = 0.02) between the number of participants who transitioned from alert in the low wall luminance condition, to sleepy in the high wall luminance condition (1 participant) compared to the number of participants who were sleepy in the low wall luminance condition but alert in the high wall luminance condition (10 participants). ...
Article
Creating the right environment is considered essential in today's office designs to foster collaboration, concentration and creativity. Much, however, is still unknown with regard to how lighting affects the office knowledge worker. In this study, we have explored the effects of a single, carefully isolated lighting design parameter, namely wall luminance, on the appraisal of an office space, the affective state of the occupants, their subjective alertness and their performance on a key knowledge worker task: problem solving. Room appraisal increased significantly with higher wall luminance, both on attractiveness and illumination. No effects were found on the pleasure, arousal or dominance dimensions of emotion ratings by the participants, nor were effects found on the performance of divergent and convergent problem-solving tasks. Unexpectedly, wall luminance did affect the subjective alertness of the participants, as participants were able to maintain their level of subjective alertness in the highest wall luminance condition, whereas subjective alertness decreased significantly over time in the lowest and medium wall luminance conditions. As this effect is commonly found in studies where light exposure on the human eye is manipulated (and often attributed to non-visual effects) the finding from this study provides a first indication that next to the amount of light on the eye, wall luminance and room appearance might also play a role.
... It also enhanced aggression toward others (Page & Moss, 1976) and cheating behaviors (Zhong, Bohns, & Gino, 2010). On the other hand, in the study by Steidle and Werth (2014), light and brightness were shown to increase the public self-awareness, and brightness triggered more controlled and reflective forms of self-regulation when compared with darkness. ...
... The effect of lighting condition on thinking process we have found is consistent with the previous research findings (Grillon et al., 1997;Moyes et al., 2017;Schwarz & Huapaya, 1964;Steidle & Werth, 2014). However, it was only significant among participants who had a higher level of fear of the dark. ...
Article
Although darkness alters physical reactivity, perceptions, and behavior, no previous research has investigated its impact on primary and secondary process thinking. This study examined the effect of lighting on young adults’ thinking contents, related to their fear of the dark. Seventy-eight participants (41 females, 21.44 ± 2.15 years of age on average) wrote stories in a well-lit or semidark room and completed the Intensity of Fear of the Dark Questionnaire. Stories were analyzed via the Regressive Imagery Dictionary. Results showed that individuals with high levels of fear of the dark produce longer stories with higher relative frequency of primary content words in the semidark condition than in the well-lit condition, while others produce similar stories in both conditions. In addition, fearful individuals used significantly less secondary content words relative to primary content words in the semidark condition than in the well-lit condition. Results have been discussed from a regulatory perspective.
... Several studies within the field of social psychology have indicated that lighting is an environmental factor that may affect social behaviour. Brighter environments have been connected with less selfish behaviour and higher volunteerism, reflective self-regulation and honesty than dimmer environments [112]- [114]. It has been suggested that darkness may induce a psychological feeling of illusory anonymity that may further disinhibit dishonest and self-interested behaviour [114]. ...
... Furthermore, it has to be pointed out that the studies by Steidle and Werth [112], Chiou and Cheng [113], and Zhong et al. [114] have been conducted in laboratory conditions that differ considerably from public outdoor spaces after dark. It also has to be acknowledged that e.g. ...
Article
It is becoming widely understood that besides affecting visual, social and psychological environment, outdoor lighting is also biological environment. This review combines lighting related research efforts of various fields and provides insights for outdoor lighting supporting well-being. The review focuses on the well-being of humans but it is acknowledged that the well-being of humans is largely based on the well-being of the whole ecosystem. The review also briefly discusses the effects of artificial light at night on various organisms and biological systems. Finally, the review summarizes the research results on the possible effects on well-being caused by the changes in intensity, spectrum, spatial distribution and temporal distribution of light. The focus is on the mesopic lighting conditions, as the outdoor environments typically represent such light levels. The results are targeted to affect the design choices of outdoor lighting practices.
... We propose that self-construal may be a dispositional moderator of the social behavioral effects of illumination that may, to some extent, help explain the literature's seeming discrepancy. Research shows that bright lighting activates the Behavioral Inhibition System (Hirsh et al., 2011;Steidle & Werth, 2014), thus increasing self-awareness, self-reflection, and public self-consciousness (Baumeister & Vohs, 2003;Diener, 1979;Scheier & Carver, 1988). Prior work defines public self-consciousness as the tendency to be aware of oneself as part of a social context (Fenigstein, Scheier, & Buss, 1975). ...
... Conversely, for individuals with chronically independent self-construals, bright lighting may lead to more egoistic and less other-oriented (i.e., less prosocial) behaviors. Our hypothesis is consistent with previous studies showing that illumination amplifies self-awareness (Steidle & Werth, 2014), affective responses (Xu & Labroo, 2014) and product perceptions (Gal, Wheeler, & Shiv, 2007). This idea also echoes research that shows how the same primed construct may have reverse effects on subsequent choices by different groups of people (Wheeler & Berger, 2007) and work that shows that this reversal may be a function of changes in the active self-concept and self-reflectiveness (Wheeler, DeMarree, & Petty, 2007;Wheeler, Morrison, DeMarree, & Petty, 2008). ...
Article
A growing body of literature shows that lighting can affect social behaviors. Some research suggests that exposure to bright (vs. dim) light facilitates prosocial behavior; other studies record the opposite. Motivated by this seeming discrepancy, the current paper explores how and when illumination, or the intensity of light, affects such behaviors. Using ambient lighting, we demonstrate that increased illumination can both facilitate and hamper prosocial behaviors such as charitability and volunteerism; and that the direction of this effect depends on one’s self-construal. Further, our process evidence suggests that public self-consciousness mediates the effect of illumination on such behaviors. We find that bright light leads to heightened public self-consciousness. For those predisposed to act with others (vs. self) in mind (i.e., people with interdependent vs. independent self-construal), this results in acting in a more prosocial (vs. egoistic) manner. Drawing from our findings, we develop a unified explanation for the social behavioral consequences of the ubiquitous yet often subtle environmental factor of illumination.
... bright) surroundings on human behavior. Past research investigating the effects of ambient lighting has focused on the effects of darkness on visual acuity (Areni & Kim, 1994;Scheibehenne et al., 2010), perceived arousal ( Markin et al., 1976), cheating behavior ( Zhong et al., 2010), perceived prospects for future ( Dong et al., 2015), or self-regulation (Steidle & Werth, 2014). Building on previous research showing that darkness (a) reduces emotional reactions towards external stimuli (Xu & Labroo, 2014) and (b) reduced emotional intensity corresponds with a greater perceived psychological distance from others (Van Boven et al., 2010), we derived a novel hypothesis regarding the effect of ambient darkness on perceived disconnectedness from others and self-authenticity. ...
Article
This research documents a novel effect of ambient lighting on consumer choice. We propose and find that ambient darkness (vs. brightness) can result in consumers feeling disconnected from others. As a result, consumers become more authentic in their choices and they choose hedonic over utilitarian options because these choices reflect what they truly want (Study 1). Past research had suggested darkness increases hedonic choice by making choice less observable, but we find this effect emerges even when the choice is already anonymous and darkness cannot further increase anonymity. Rather, feeling disconnected from others and less weight to social norms heightened self-authenticity in darker (vs. brighter) surroundings (Study 2). When consumers are reminded of social connection, this difference is attenuated (Study 3). Thus, consumers making hedonic choices regulate their choices when reminded of their social connections. Implications of these findings and possible extensions are discussed.
... Several studies within the field of social psychology have indicated that lighting is an environmental factor that may affect social behavior. Brighter environments have been connected with less selfish behavior and higher volunteerism, reflective self-regulation and honesty than dimmer environments [91][92][93]. It has been suggested that darkness may induce a psychological feeling of illusory anonymity that may further disinhibit dishonest and self-interested behavior [93]. ...
... For example, natural light has been identified as the preferred source of light over artificial lighting [29], and the impact of natural daylight over artificial light on behaviour, such as cognitive performance, has been explored [30]. On the brightness of light, dim environments have been found to increase creativity [31] and even reduce calorie intake [32], whereas bright environments have been shown to improve alertness and reported happiness [33], enhance concentration [34], improve adjustment to night shift work [35] and increase public self-awareness [36]. Furthermore, in a study of light and behaviour, Chiou and Cheng [37] conducted a series of experiments to examine the impact of lighting on ethical behaviour. ...
Article
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In recent years, behavioural science has emerged as an additional tool to explore the impact of built environments on behaviour and wellbeing. Recognising the potential for further research in this field, we have sought to better understand how built environments affect what we do, as well as how they make us feel. We began this process through a review of the behavioural science literature, and have brought together evidence to develop a checklist for design with wellbeing in mind. In this paper, we present Sound, Air, Light, Image, Ergonomics and Tint as the mnemonic SALIENT, which forms a checklist. We outline an example where elements of the checklist have been applied in a real-world setting to examine subjective wellbeing (SWB).We present this example to illustrate how the SALIENT checklist could potentially be applied more extensively to measure the impact of built environments on wellbeing.
... With greater vitality, more resources can be directed to higherlevel functions, such as exercising self-control. Steidle and Werth (2014) not only managed to replicate the above-mentioned results with different manipulation methods (e.g. changing the physical luminance of the room, wearing clear glasses and sunglasses), but also found that priming 5 participants with words related to light and brightness was successful in bringing out the effect of increased awareness and reflection. ...
Article
With growing population in urban areas, the problem of lacking space is becoming more prominent. Thus, the development of underground space has increasingly gained attention as a viable solution. Social aspects, such as social behavior and attitudes toward underground spaces could act as both facilitators and inhibitors toward the adoption of underground spaces. Here we review, present and discuss the major social parameters associated with working in underground spaces. Our research overview identified three major themes that pervade existing literature: attitudes and perception; social behavior; and the impact of environmental attributes of underground spaces. Yet, we also notice that the social and cultural elements associated with underground spaces have remained largely unexplored, with previous research being of more of a qualitative character and, to some extent, outdated. We thus subsequently identified the major unexplored themes and present an organized, systematic research program for a more holistic and quantifiable understanding of the interaction between social behavior and underground spaces. We end by discussing how this research program can be integrated with other disciplines, including engineering, design and health.
... Gergen et al., Page and Moss, and Zhong and colleagues all refer to this effect of bright versus dark settings in explaining their findings. Anna Steidle, our friend and colleague in Germany (Steidle & Werth, 2014) was the first to explicitly demonstrate that light indeed does raise self-awareness and individuals in brighter circumstances are more likely to employ self-regulation and exert selfcontrol more automatically and effortlessly. ...
Research
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The ties between our social context, our spatial, physical and technological environment and human experience are many and this web of relationships does not easily lend itself to a comprehensive discussion, nor to all-inclusive investigation. In this inaugural lecture I make a case for a contextual perspective in human-technology interaction by illustrating how the investigation and innovation of technical products and services requires a thorough understanding of the contextualized nature of human experience. Light is one of those crucial, but generally ignored aspects of context with varied and profound effects on affect, cognition, behavior, and health. But at the same time, light’s effects cannot be understood outside of their physical, social and temporal context. Light research, therefore, nicely illustrates why we need a combination of fundamental, translational and applied research efforts, and close collaboration with experts in myriad other domains to make meaningful progress. Inaugural lecture 13 November 2015
... On the other hand, when work environments and lighting is considered, designers of creative environments should also be aware that brightly illuminated environment increases selfawareness whereas darkness and dim environment increases creativity. Furthermore, the direction of light appears to play a role on how light mediated visual messages effect on creativity (Steidle & Werth 2013a, Steidle & Werth 2013b. ...
Conference Paper
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Learning and research environments in academic campus context are undergoing fast changes. The changes are occurring both on the level of technology implemented to the environment and the space itself as the traditional cellular offices are increasingly being replaced by open work environments. Knowledge workers, such as the researchers, are at the core of creativity and innovation. The ideal working and learning environments support both creative thinking and collaborative interaction. This article explores the current understanding of the requirements of high quality research and learning environments, and it aims to examine the link between creativity and space. In doing so, I wish to highlight how the architecture of the workspace can respond to the requirements of a successful working environment and how immaterial elements, such as lighting for instance, can induce creative thought, achievement, and innovation and importantly enhance the well-being of the occupants of the space. Furthermore, I will look into how the architecture and technology of the space affect the dissemination of tacit and explicit knowledge amongst individuals and within groups. As part of my research project, aimed to provide new scientific information of the real user needs in academic working and learning environments and create concepts of hybrid multi-spaces, I will discuss in this paper how architecture and lighting design can support knowledge sharing, peer-to-peer interactions, creativity and innovation, which are imperative for success in knowledge work. Hence, the findings could inform the design of new learning and working environments suitable for both user expectations and knowledge production.
... Research in office environments has demonstrated acute activating effects of bright light exposure on subjective and objective indicators of alertness and arousal such as melatonin secretion, physiological arousal, subjective alertness, and sustained attention and cognitive task performance [20,21]. Bright light was also found to increase self-awareness and, in turn, lead to a reflective and controlled self-regulation [22]. ...
... The idea that ambient lighting fosters approach motivation is supported by several lines of research. First, on a cognitive level, ambient light improves cognitive task performance (Boyce, Beckstead, Eklund, Strobel, & Rea, 1997;Huiberts, Smolders, & de Kort, 2015;Smolders, et al., 2012) and reflective self-regulation (Steidle, & Werth, 2014). ...
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The present research examined the influence of ambient lighting on approach-oriented motivation and emotion. Because darkness is associated with inactivity, the authors hypothesized that dark (vs. bright) environments would lower approach motivation. Consistent with this, participants in Experiment 1 (N = 80) reported less approach motivation in a dark (vs. bright) room. In Experiment 2 (N = 112), state anger –an approach-oriented emotion-was reduced among participants high (vs. low) on trait anger when participants were interviewed in a dark (vs. bright) environment. Subtle variations in ambient lighting may thus moderate approach-oriented motivations and emotions. These findings could have broad implications for understanding how environmental conditions may regulate human motivation and emotion.
... Quartier, Vanrie, and Van Cleempoel (2014) investigate whether and how three different but realistic light settings influence atmosphere perception, emotions and behaviour respectively, in a realistic mock-up of a supermarket. Steidle and Werth (2014) describe an impressive set of five studies exploring whether bright environments, through self-awareness processes, might promote reflective versus impulsive behaviour. In a series of experiments, Haans (2014) investigates whether appraisals of light produced by different light sources can be partly understood as being grounded in preferences for naturalness. ...
... Lighting can also negatively affect the impression of anonymity: dark or dim lighting conditions can enhance self-interested and dishonest behaviours (Zhong, Bohns and Gino, 2010) because people feel unobserved. Brightness (being under the spotlight) instead reveals behaviours to others leading to more self-controlled behaviours (Steidle and Werth, 2014). ...
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The studies about the social effects of lighting describe lighting as an important social means and an agent that can influence people emotional, behavioural and social experiences despite cultural, social and individual differences. A cross–cultural analysis of studies about lighting report that higher lighting levels induce greater arousal, activating louder conversations or a more general communication meanwhile a domestic environment with low lighting levels influences more relaxed and intimate disclosure. Certain lighting atmospheres are appraised as more hospitable for people, while some patterns of lighting distributions can affect people proxemics. In this paper, we investigate the active role of lighting in setting the social relationships between people by providing a theoretical framework based on an extensive literature review and by presenting the results of several designed lighting probes. From the user confrontation through qualitative and quantitative analysis, we reflect on the sociality of lighting that act for social intimacy/inclusion or social exclusion, with a subtle agency on people.
... But light also guides and directs attention and awareness (Steidle and Werth 2014;Veitch 2001) and has meaning even to the point where it induces cognitive associations (e.g., Elliot and Maier 2014;Schietecat et al. 2018aSchietecat et al. , 2018b. For instance, quite strong associations exist between brightness and goodness (morality) but also activity and liveliness, in contrast to how darkness is generally associated with immorality and, to a lesser extent, inactivity (Schietecat et al. 2018a). ...
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Research on human functioning is notoriously difficult. This particularly holds for the study of light effects, at least if one wants to go beyond establishing that changes in light “have an effect” and understand why this effect occurs—in other words, if one wants to make causal inferences about the mechanism behind it. The latter is, of course, crucial for generalizing insights and being able to use them effectively in other contexts. The culmination of many decades of research has taught us that light affects psychological functioning in numerous ways and through various pathways. This implies that, regardless of the investigator’s particular interests in either of those mechanisms, generally all will be at play, simultaneously, for participants in any lighting study. The present tutorial aims to address this complexity and how to deal with it by concisely describing the most important pathways that we currently are aware of. Such awareness is important both in contemplating the design and methodology of a study and in interpreting results from other studies and generalizing them to a particular application or light design. © 2019, © 2019 The Author. Published with license by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
... Danger approaches. In Kelly's day photoproduced in lighting conditions often associated with a greater tendency toward morality (Steidle & Werth, 2014;Zhong et al., 2010)-the danger, a car that seemingly came from nowhere, has arrived and departed, leaving mayhem in its wake. ...
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This article critically analyzes a pair of photographs from the Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville, Virginia, in August 2017: Samuel Corum’s nighttime image of torch-bearing protesters on the University of Virginia campus and Ryan Kelly’s Pulitzer Prize-winning daytime image of counterprotesters falling through the air as James A. Fields Jr. rammed his car into them, killing Heather Heyer. Using a close reading of the images as texts—considering their production, contrasts, and resonances—we argue that the photographs form a temporal, technical, and theoretical diptych of anger, hate, fear, confusion, and sorrow.
... Additionally, dim, warm lighting has been shown to promote an interdependent self-construal, which triggers a collaborative orientation. Conversely, brightness can increase public self-awareness (Steidle and Werth, 2014), thus promoting a more independent orientation (Kombeiz et al., 2017). ...
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For many hospitality businesses, environmental lighting design can be a powerful tool to be leveraged to stage the servicescape when creating marketing collateral to attract customers. Addressing this underexplored topic, the current research examines how and why focal and general lighting designs, as presented in the restaurant's ambient images, influence consumers' approach intentions: namely, the perceptions of attractiveness of the restaurant and their visit intention. Our findings demonstrate that images that present focal lighting (e.g., table lighting) against a generally dimmed dining ambience can effectively boost the restaurant's perceived attractiveness and visit intention among diners who are of high (vs. low) relational intimacy. Moderated-moderated mediation analysis (Hayes, 2018) further reveals that it is ambient intimacy that explains such effects. Theoretical and managerial implications of this research are presented before discussing limitations and future research opportunities.
... Stimuli in the physical environment inform students about what they could or should do and thus influence the way in which they regulate their own behavior in different learning spaces (Steidle and Werth 2014). The physical environment is important to learning partly because of its influence on psychological processes such as perception, cognitive fatigue, distraction, motivation, affect, and anxiety (Maxwell and Evans 2014). ...
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In recent years, considerable attention has been given to how the physical structure of active learning classrooms affects academic performance, but little is known about how these spaces influence learners’ personal capability beliefs. The purpose of this study was to investigate how students’ beliefs and performance varied in two physical learning environments. Students (N = 372) enrolled in an entry-level undergraduate statistics course at a large public university that was taught in either a technology-enhanced, group-configured classroom or a traditional, forward-facing lecture classroom. Using surveys administered during the first and last week of the semester, students evaluated the importance of the learning environment and their self-efficacy for regulating their learning (e.g. focus, motivation) and for doing statistics. Between-groups analyses revealed that students in the two settings rated the importance of the physical environment similarly. Self-efficacy for self-regulation decreased across the semester in both settings. Within-group analyses showed that statistics self-efficacy decreased in the technology-enhanced classroom but increased in the traditional classroom. Statistics self-efficacy significantly predicted course grades in both classroom types. The effect of classroom environment on self-efficacy was moderated by student gender. This research provides initial insights about how physical classroom environments are related to personal capability beliefs in undergraduate education.
... The light in the workplace is tested in accordance with the adopted testing and measuring methodology (British Standard BS 667:2005). The light is a very important parameter of the working environment and significantly influences the quality of operations and the workers' health (Steidle and Werth, 2014). ...
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The working conditions in the loading and the transport sectors in mines are quite difficult. Operators and drivers are exposed to both physical and chemical hazards. Accordingly, the ranking of the workplaces at loading and transport in the mine was conducted in order to determine the workplace characterized by the most difficult working conditions. Five workplaces in the Open Pit Mine "Veliki Krivelj" were analyzed on the basis of the regularly measured parameters of the working conditions there (measures have done in 2018 year). The AHP/PROMETHEE methods were used as the ranking method. The AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) method enables us to determine the criteria weight of coefficients and the PROMETHEE (Preference Ranking Organization Method for the Enrichment of Evaluations) method enables the final ranking of the workplaces. The three scenarios were considered, as follows: the ranking of the loading workplaces, the ranking of the transport workplaces and the ranking of all the workplaces. The results indicate that the workplace of the Marion Excavator Operator is the most difficult workplace at loading. The workplace of the Euclid R 170 Truck driver is the most difficult workplace at transport. Finally, a comprehensive analysis of all the workplaces generated the results indicative of the fact that the workplace of the Marion Excavator Operator is the most difficult workplace. The obtained results indicate a clear distinction between the old and the new equipment. The results clearly suggest the importance of having modern equipment, which is the key element in taking care of the workers' health.
... Regions that provide modern lifestyle, social ambitions, and economic capital are preferred (Forrest, 2004). Anonymity in a modern neighbourhood supports a sense of freedom and privacy that cause internal self-regulation, (opposed to controlled self-regulation), impulsive behaviour (opposed to reflective behaviour) (Steidle & Werth, 2014), the activation of internally created motives (Hirsh, Galinsky, & Zhong, 2011) and the explorative processing style in the environment (Steidle & Werth, 2013). Therefore, the neighbourhood can harm mental health and cause anxiety for people who try to imply a pretentious and transient positive self-image to maintain their social status (Baumeister & Leary, 1995;Hajcak, McDonald, & Simons, 2003;Johnson, 1999). ...
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In this paper, the neighbourhood’s morphology has been evaluated according to socio-behavioural aspects and sense of place. It seems that place attachment, social bonding, and total time residents spent in local spaces are highly determined by neighbourhood’s socio-behavioural dimensions, and in turn, neighbourhood’s morphological attributes have a great impact on socio-behavioural dimensions. To verify the hypothesis, 843 participants have been selected through Neyman allocation modelling from 5 morphologically representative neighbourhoods. The built-environment attributes were gathered through an objective method (GIS). Sense of place, meantime residents, spent in public spaces, socio-behavioural indicators, and a number of socio-demographic characteristics were collected by self-administered questionnaires. According to our analysis, high and middle-rise neighbourhoods, with low coverage massing, by providing plenty of wide, non-hierarchical, and inter-connected spaces, could ensure personal privacy, anonymity, and consequently autonomy, genuineness, and tendency to use neighbourhood spaces. In contrast, historic organic neighbourhoods with narrow hierarchical pathways and massing alongside them increase the level of social monitoring and conformity. Thus, policies that support mixed-use, connected street networks, plenty of shared open spaces, non- hierarchical network patterns, and smaller block sizes can be used by urban designers to promote neighbourhoods supporting residents’ psycho-social preferences. Highlights • Surveillance, conformity, and self-disclosure are neglected neighbourhood-based social issues. • Residents’ social behaviours are affected by the neighbourhood’s morphological attributes (Such as hierarchy, density, coverage, and interconnectivity). • Total time residents spend in local spaces, their place attachment, and social bonding are described by socio-behavioural phenomena. • Historic organic neighbourhoods could not guarantee residents’ personal privacy, anonymity autonomy, and genuineness
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Application of appropriate technological methods of production of certain products often causes the negative impact on the employees in the respective processes. The level of the negative impact of the application of certain technological processes on employees varies depending on where the industry is doing, and depending on the level of technological development for a company. In order to identify those negative impacts, it is necessary to perform a proper analysis of manufacturing jobs from the exposure to given influences. This study presents the results of the multi criteria ranking of sixteen different workplaces in textile factories producing and processing fibre in the area of the city of Leskovac in Republic of Serbia, based on six parameters that regularly measure and define the conditions of the working environment. There were analyzed the working environment conditions by measuring the parameters of the working environment: air temperature and comfort zone in winter (microclimate), by detemiining the presence of harmful chemical sources and hazards that occur while using working equipment, noise, the presence of vibration and the level of light at the workplace. When defining the criteria of a job difficulty it was taken into account the fact that all the parameters of the working environment are not of the equal significance, namely they all do not have the same impact on the health of the employees. The results indicate that this method can be successfully used to solve these problems in other industries, as well as data knowledge can be applied in order to improve working conditions, especially in jobs that are most exposed to the harmful effects of the working environment.
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Situational factors affect human behavior, among which dishonesty. Previous studies linked darkness to an increase in immoral behavior. Simultaneously, ‘dark mode’ is increasingly offered in software. Accordingly it is important to investigate the moral behavioral effects of dark mode. In a high-powered, pre-registered, and economically incentivized experiment, users of ‘dark’ and ‘light’ user interfaces were compared on honesty. Results showed no effect of dark mode on honesty. However, dark mode promoted honesty in users that were awake for a longer period of time. As such, implementation of dark mode is safe and may even be encouraged.
Chapter
Nightlife areas aim to offer a hospitable environment for a public that is looking for entertainment but also produces nuisance. A recent paradigm shift focuses on changing public behavior rather than policing. This chapter describes two case studies from the Netherlands. The observations showed that at night the nightlife areas become an unofficial ‘festival zone' with large groups of tobacco smokers on the streets. Noise from these smokers (and friends) was identified as a major problem. Based on the lessons learned, a behavioral intervention approach is proposed that relies on multi-stakeholder participation and combines technology and choice architecture. The use of technology is relevant in several steps of the approach, and can be useful in facilitating behavior, reducing the impact of disruptive behavior, and monitoring the effectiveness of interventions. However, the Amsterdam case study also suggests that technology should rather be a small component of a broader positive behavioral and multi-stakeholder approach.
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This book investigates urban nightlife transformations and the challenge of enhancing the sense of belonging in sensitive areas like local communities and historical sites and offers new insights into controlling the chaotic intervention of traditional or digital technology, whether from citizens themselves or local authorities"-Provided by publisher. Identifiers: LCCN 2020055424 (print) | LCCN 2020055425 (ebook) | ISBN 9781799870043 (hardcover) | ISBN 9781799870050 (paperback) | ISBN 9781799870067 (ebook) Subjects: LCSH: Public spaces. | Nightlife. | Technology-Social aspects. Classification: LCC NA9053.S6 T73 2021 (print) | LCC NA9053.S6 (ebook) | DDC 725-dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2020055424 LC ebook record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2020055425
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Job shop production faces various challenges regarding the use of lean manufacturing (Lean) initiatives to sustain a competitive advantage; losing the ability to maintain continual improvement of longstanding initiatives is one of the most significant. This study explores how Lean improvement initiatives can be affected by years of indifferent treatment. Consisting of a single qualitative case study conducted in a Malaysian company that has implemented Lean initiatives for more than 20 years, our findings reveal that Lean implementations in job shop environments can deteriorate over time. Our analysis identifies three overarching themes. First, even though the company has many years' experience of lean implementation, a lack of organizational engagement hindered further improvements. Second, the resource capabilities provided, became outdated, and in poor condition. Third, the company saw a rapidly diminishing level of commitment among its workers. Thus, although the company had previously enjoyed some success in implementing Lean, its ability to keep the momentum behind its initiatives began to fade. The study will help guide practitioner's actions when implementing Lean initiatives, and will enhance the knowledge of issues related to long term Lean implementations in job shop production.
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Ambient lighting—in particular, its brightness—is known to affect cognitive activation and self-control, but research on lighting has reported mixed effects. Some studies have shown that brightness increases cognitive activation, whereas others have shown that darkness prompts cognitive activation. In this research, we attempted to reconcile those inconsistent findings by investigating how lighting's effects on cognition are affected by fluency—the subjective experience of ease of processing information. We propose that the interaction between the brightness and the correlated color temperature (i.e., the warmth or coolness) of ambient lighting can make it either fluent, promoting cognitive activation, or disfluent, diminishing cognitive resources. Because self-controlled behaviors reflect the willful suppression of automatic responses, the exertion of self-control requires greater cognitive activation. Our results replicated prior findings on brightness by showing that warm bright light improved participants' self-control; however, that effect extended to cool dim lighting conditions as well. By contrast, self-control was weakened under cool bright lighting and warm dim lighting. Our results from four experiments demonstrate that those lighting conditions induce disfluency, leading to cognitive depletion and, consequently, lower self-control.
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Ranking of workplaces with respect to working conditions is very significant for each company. It indicates the positions where employees are most exposed to adverse effects resulting from the working environment, which endangers their health. This article presents the results obtained for 12 different production workplaces in the copper mining and smelting complex RTB Bor - 'Veliki Krivelj' open pit, based on six parameters measured regularly which defined the following working environment conditions: air temperature, light, noise, dustiness, chemical hazards and vibrations. The ranking of workplaces has been performed by PROMETHEE/GAIA. Additional optimization of workplaces is done by PROMETHEE V with the given limits related to maximum permitted values for working environment parameters. The obtained results indicate that the most difficult workplace is on the excavation location (excavator operator). This method can be successfully used for solving similar kinds of problems, in order to improve working conditions.
Chapter
Several studies have been exploring the relationship between lighting variables, urban environment and people perception to understand their reciprocal influence. Through a literature review of indoor and outdoor lighting research, the chapter focuses on understanding the modalities and location of experiential fruition (in-situ real location, laboratory installation, image- and visualization-based experiences, and immersive experiences through augmented reality technologies). The research has also evidenced the different research procedures, methods and tools to develop technical/objective and subjective environmental assessment, highlighting the specific features related to data acquisition (direct elicitation and observation techniques) and data elaboration. The aim is to summarise traditional and experimental methodologies, to report advantages and disadvantages, to evidence the importance of exploring in a scientifically reliable way the affective, social appraisal and behaviours of laypersons in relation to the lighting design and luminous atmospheres of the nocturnal urban environment. Besides, the implication in practice has been discussed highlighting the importance of the systematic use of objective and subjective assessment of outdoor lighting before, during and after a project of lighting design to educate lighting designers and decision-makers toward more human-oriented lighting practice.
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Assumptions of the goal framing theory are applied to the specific context of a nightlife environment. Focusing on public urination as specific and often occurring antisocial behaviour in nightlife environments, this research explored how choice behaviour of potential public urinators can be influenced in a positive way. One boundary condition was to intervene in choice behaviour without negatively affecting the widely appreciated attractive and stimulating character of nightlife environments. Five experimental forms of nudging and priming are conducted to facilitate alternative social behaviour and to further stimulate potential public urinators to perform social behaviour. This was done by activating positive emotions, presenting visible and accessible alternatives and influencing subjective norms. Facilitating social behaviour reduced public urination by 41%, while additional interventions reduced public urination up to 67%. The results contribute to an extension of goal framing theory to specific contexts like nightlife environments.
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Models postulating 2 distinct processing modes have been proposed in several topic areas within social and cognitive psychology. We advance a new conceptual model of the 2 processing modes. The structural basis of the new model is the idea, supported by psychological and neuropsychological evidence, that humans possess 2 memory systems. One system slowly learns general regularities, whereas the other can quickly form representations of unique or novel events. Associative retrieval or pattern completion in the slow-learning system elicited by a salient cue constitutes the effortless processing mode. The second processing mode is more conscious and effortful; it involves the intentional retrieval of explicit, symbolically represented rulesfrom either memory system and their use to guide processing. After presenting our model, we review existing dual-process models in several areas, emphasizing their similar assumptions of a quick, effortless processing mode that rests on well-learned prior associations and a second, more effortful processing mode that involves rule-based inferences and is employed only when people have both cognitive capacity and motivation. New insights and implications of the model for several topic areas are outlined.
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Swanson, Rudman, and Greenwald (200118. Swanson , J. E. , Rudman , L. A. and Greenwald , A. G. 2001 . Using the Implicit Association Test to investigate attitude-behavior consistency for stigmatised behaviour . Cognition and Emotion , 15 : 207 – 230 . [Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®], [CSA]View all references) used an Implicit Association Test (IAT) to measure attitudes toward smoking and found that smokers have negative implicit attitudes toward smoking. In a first experiment, we replicated the results of Swanson et al. but showed that scores on an attitude IAT do discriminate between smokers and nonsmokers to the same extent than scores on an IAT that is designed to measure associations between smoking and approach or avoidance. In a second experiment, we did find positive implicit attitudes toward smoking in smokers when we used a personalised version of the IAT that was designed to be less susceptible to effects of societal views. Our results indicate that implicit attitudes should not be dismissed as a causal factor in the maintenance of smoking behaviour.
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This article describes a dual-system model of consumer behavior. This model is based on the assumption that all human behaviors are a joint function of reflective and impulsive mechanisms. Those mechanisms have different principles of operation but contribute to the act of buying. However, the relative contribution of impulsive and reflective processes depends on personal and contextual circumstances. The operation and interaction of the 2 systems at different stages of information processing is described and applied to the dynamics of consumer behavior, with a special emphasis on impulse buying. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Humans pay close attention to the reputational consequences of their actions. Recent experiments indicate that even very subtle cues that one is being observed can affect cooperative behaviors. Expressing our opinions about the morality of certain acts is a key means of advertising our cooperative dispositions. Here, we investigated how subtle cues of being watched would affect moral judgments. We predicted that participants exposed to such cues would affirm their endorsement of prevailing moral norms by expressing greater disapproval of moral transgressions. Participants read brief accounts of two moral violations and rated the moral acceptability of each violation. Violations were more strongly condemned in a condition where participants were exposed to surveillance cues (an image of eyes interposed between the description of the violation and the associated rating scale) than in a control condition (in which the interposed image was of flowers). We discuss the role that public declarations play in the interpersonal evaluation of cooperative dispositions.
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Self-control is a central function of the self and an important key to success in life. The exertion of self-control appears to depend on a limited resource. Just as a muscle gets tired from exertion, acts of self-control cause short-term impairments (ego depletion) in subsequent self-control, even on unrelated tasks. Research has supported the strength model in the domains of eating, drinking, spending, sexuality, intelligent thought, making choices, and interpersonal behavior. Motivational or framing factors can temporarily block the deleterious effects of being in a state of ego depletion. Blood glucose is an important component of the energy.
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Recent evidence suggests that self-determined prejudice regulation is negatively related to both self-reported prejudice and automatic racial bias. However, the social-cognitive processes involved in this association have not yet been examined. Thus, the current project sought to test the ‘internalization-automatization hypothesis’, that is, to assess the extent to which prejudice regulation is automatic for those high and low in self-determined motivation to regulate prejudice. To this end, two different experimental paradigms were used. In Experiment 1 (N=84), differences in the automatic activation and application of stereotypes were assessed for those high and low in self-determined prejudice regulation. As expected, both types of prejudice regulators showed similar stereotype activation. However, only self-determined individuals inhibited the application of stereotypes following a prime. Experiment 2 (N=134), assessed the impact of self-regulatory depletion on the regulation of implicit prejudice. As anticipated, for the self-determined regulators, prejudice regulation did not vary between depleted and non-depleted individuals. However, when non-self-determined prejudice regulators were depleted, prejudice increased, relative to non-depleted controls. Results are discussed in terms of an increased understanding of prejudice regulation through self-determination. Evidence of the automatization of self-determined prejudice regulation offers promising implications for the reduction of prejudice.
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Social power, alcohol intoxication, and anonymity all have strong influences on human cognition and behavior. However, the social consequences of each of these conditions can be diverse, sometimes producing prosocial outcomes and other times enabling antisocial behavior. We present a general model of disinhibition to explain how these seemingly contradictory effects emerge from a single underlying mechanism: The decreased salience of competing response options prevents activation of the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS). As a result, the most salient response in any given situation is expressed, regardless of whether it has prosocial or antisocial consequences. We review three distinct routes through which power, alcohol intoxication, and anonymity reduce the salience of competing response options, namely, through Behavioral Approach System (BAS) activation, cognitive depletion, and reduced social desirability concerns. We further discuss how these states can both reveal and shape the person. Overall, our approach allows for multiple domain-specific models to be unified within a common conceptual framework that explains how both situational and dispositional factors can influence the expression of disinhibited behavior, producing both prosocial and antisocial outcomes. © Association for Psychological Science 2011.
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Although ambient lighting and atmosphere are intuitively related, there is a paucity of empirical, naturalistic data supporting such a relation. The objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of lighting in evoking an atmosphere in the real world, amongst the extensive set of other cues available there. In a field study involving 57 clothing stores, lighting attributes (e.g. brightness, contrast, glare and sparkle) and context (i.e. the shops interior) were assessed and quantified independently. These data were then used to predict four dimensions of perceived atmosphere in hierarchical regression analyses. Lighting attributes and interior qualities were both related to perceived atmosphere. This indicated that, even given the substantial contribution of design elements in retail environments, lighting plays a role in evoking atmosphere. © 2010 The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers.
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A hypothesized need to form and maintain strong, stable interpersonal relationships is evaluated in light of the empirical literature. The need is for frequent, nonaversive interactions within an ongoing relational bond. Consistent with the belongingness hypothesis, people form social attachments readily under most conditions and resist the dissolution of existing bonds. Belongingness appears to have multiple and strong effects on emotional patterns and on cognitive processes. Lack of attachments is linked to a variety of ill effects on health, adjustment, and well-being. Other evidence, such as that concerning satiation, substitution, and behavioral consequences, is likewise consistent with the hypothesized motivation. Several seeming counterexamples turned out not to disconfirm the hypothesis. Existing evidence supports the hypothesis that the need to belong is a powerful, fundamental, and extremely pervasive motivation.
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A 2-system framework is proposed for understanding the processes that enable--and undermine--self-control or "willpower" as exemplified in the delay of gratification paradigm. A cool, cognitive "know" system and a hot, emotional "go" system are postulated. The cool system is cognitive, emotionally neutral, contemplative, flexible, integrated, coherent, spatiotemporal, slow, episodic, and strategic. It is the seat of self-regulation and self-control. The hot system is the basis of emotionality, fears as well as passions--impulsive and reflexive--initially controlled by innate releasing stimuli (and, thus, literally under "stimulus control"): it is fundamental for emotional (classical) conditioning and undermines efforts at self-control. The balance between the hot and cool systems is determined by stress, developmental level, and the individual's self-regulatory dynamics. The interactions between these systems allow explanation of findings on willpower from 3 decades of research.
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Four studies suggest that priming may yield directionally different effects on social perception and behavior if perceptual and behavioral experiences with the stimulus diverge. This seems true for sex and aggression: Men are more likely to behave aggressively than women, whereas women are more likely to perceive aggressive behavior than men. Using a sequential priming paradigm, Study 1 demonstrates that a basic semantic link between sex and aggression exists for both genders. This link, however, has opposing behavioral and perceptual consequences for men and women. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrate that sex priming facilitates aggressive behavior only for men. Study 4 shows that only women perceive the ambiguously aggressive behavior of a male target person as more aggressive after sex priming. Thus, the perceptual and behavioral responses to sex priming are consistent with the experiences men and women typically have with sex and aggression.
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Color is a ubiquitous perceptual stimulus, yet relatively little empirical and even less theoretical work exists on color and psychological functioning. The research that has been conducted has tended to lack the scientific precision and rigor evident in other areas of inquiry in psychology. In response, we have set out to develop a general model of color and psychological functioning-color-in-context theory-which we present herein. We also overview several lines of empirical work that have emerged from this theoretical framework, starting with research on red in achievement contexts, moving on to research on red in affiliation contexts, and concluding with research on other colors in other contexts. In addition, we articulate the need to carefully attend to the fact that color comprises three attributes-hue, lightness, and chroma-in creating color manipulations in experimental work. We close by highlighting the conceptual, empirical, and practical implications of viewing color as a functional, as well as aesthetic, stimulus, and by sounding the call for more research in this important yet overlooked area.
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In reporting Implicit Association Test (IAT) results, researchers have most often used scoring conventions described in the first publication of the IAT (A. G. Greenwald, D. E. McGhee, & J. L. K. Schwartz, 1998). Demonstration IATs available on the Internet have produced large data sets that were used in the current article to evaluate alternative scoring procedures. Candidate new algorithms were examined in terms of their (a) correlations with parallel self-report measures, (b) resistance to an artifact associated with speed of responding, (c) internal consistency, (d) sensitivity to known influences on IAT measures, and (e) resistance to known procedural influences. The best-performing measure incorporates data from the IAT's practice trials, uses a metric that is calibrated by each respondent's latency variability, and includes a latency penalty for errors. This new algorithm strongly outperforms the earlier (conventional) procedure.
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In randomized clinical trails (RCTs), effect sizes seen in earlier studies guide both the choice of the effect size that sets the appropriate threshold of clinical significance and the rationale to believe that the true effect size is above that threshold worth pursuing in an RCT. That threshold is used to determine the necessary sample size for the proposed RCT. Once the RCT is done, the data generated are used to estimate the true effect size and its confidence interval. Clinical significance is assessed by comparing the true effect size to the threshold effect size. In subsequent meta-analysis, this effect size is combined with others, ultimately to determine whether treatment (T) is clinically significantly better than control (C). Thus, effect sizes play an important role both in designing RCTs and in interpreting their results; but specifically which effect size? We review the principles of statistical significance, power, and meta-analysis, and commonly used effect sizes. The commonly used effect sizes are limited in conveying clinical significance. We recommend three equivalent effect sizes: number needed to treat, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve comparing T and C responses, and success rate difference, chosen specifically to convey clinical significance.
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Many studies showed that a concern to maintaining good reputation induces cooperation. Haley & Fessler (2005) found that an illustration of a human face makes people cooperative in the dictator game. We demonstrate that this effect is moderated by a particular contextual variable – darkness. We found that the illustration of a human face did not increase an amount of donation in the dictator game when it was presented in a dark sound proof room. In darkness, an observer often has a hard time in monitoring an actor even when an actor can see an observer. Hence, we conjecture that the human face-like stimuli does not increase a concern to reputation when presented in darkness, because the risk of an observer to identify the actor is low. Current experimental results show a possibility that a system that makes people cooperative in response to cues indicating the presence of the others is triggered only in a specific condition.
Book
George Lakoff and Mark Johnson take on the daunting task of rebuilding Western philosophy in alignment with three fundamental lessons from cognitive science: The mind is inherently embodied, thought is mostly unconscious, and abstract concepts are largely metaphorical. Why so daunting? "Cognitive science--the empirical study of the mind--calls upon us to create a new, empirically responsible philosophy, a philosophy consistent with empirical discoveries about the nature of mind," they write. "A serious appreciation of cognitive science requires us to rethink philosophy from the beginning, in a way that would put it more in touch with the reality of how we think." In other words, no Platonic forms, no Cartesian mind-body duality, no Kantian pure logic. Even Noam Chomsky's generative linguistics is revealed under scrutiny to have substantial problems. Parts of Philosophy in the Flesh retrace the ground covered in the authors' earlier Metaphors We Live By , which revealed how we deal with abstract concepts through metaphor. (The previous sentence, for example, relies on the metaphors "Knowledge is a place" and "Knowing is seeing" to make its point.) Here they reveal the metaphorical underpinnings of basic philosophical concepts like time, causality--even morality--demonstrating how these metaphors are rooted in our embodied experiences. They repropose philosophy as an attempt to perfect such conceptual metaphors so that we can understand how our thought processes shape our experience; they even make a tentative effort toward rescuing spirituality from the heavy blows dealt by the disproving of the disembodied mind or "soul" by reimagining "transcendence" as "imaginative empathetic projection." Their source list is helpfully arranged by subject matter, making it easier to follow up on their citations. If you enjoyed the mental workout from Steven Pinker's How the Mind Works , Lakoff and Johnson will, to pursue the "Learning is exercise" metaphor, take you to the next level of training. --Ron Hogan Two leading thinkers offer a blueprint for a new philosophy. "Their ambition is massive, their argument important.…The authors engage in a sort of metaphorical genome project, attempting to delineate the genetic code of human thought." -The New York Times Book Review "This book will be an instant academic best-seller." -Mark Turner, University of Maryland This is philosophy as it has never been seen before. Lakoff and Johnson show that a philosophy responsible to the science of the mind offers a radically new and detailed understandings of what a person is. After first describing the philosophical stance that must follow from taking cognitive science seriously, they re-examine the basic concepts of the mind, time, causation, morality, and the self; then they rethink a host of philosophical traditions, from the classical Greeks through Kantian morality through modern analytical philosophy.
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Based on metaphorical associations between light and goodness, we hypothesized that experiencing brightness increases the salience of moral considerations and the likelihood of engaging in ethical behavior. The results of three experiments supported these predictions. In Experiment 1, participants in a well-lit room acted less selfishly in the dictator game and were more likely to return undeserved money than were those in a moderately or a dimly lit room. In Experiment 2, participants' monetary donations were positively associated with environment lighting. In Experiment 3, participants in a well-lit room volunteered to code more data sheets than did participants in moderate brightness. Experiments 2 and 3 used implicit and explicit measures of the salience of morality to self to demonstrate that the relationship between brightness and ethical behavior is driven by an increased mental accessibility of morality. Control over environment lighting may be an effective approach to increasing ethical behavior.
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Social cognition refers to the mental representations and processes that underlie social judgments and behavior—for example, the application of stereotypes to members of social groups. Theories of social cognition have generally assumed that mental representations are abstract and stable and that they are activated and applied by relatively automatic, context-independent processes. Recent evidence is inconsistent with these expectations, however. Social-cognitive processes have been shown to be adaptive to the perceiver's current social goals, communicative contexts, and bodily states. Although these findings can often be given ad hoc explanations within current conceptual frameworks, they invite a fuller integration with the broad intellectual movement emphasizing situated cognition. Such an approach has already been influential in many areas within psychology and beyond, and theories in the field of social cognition would benefit by taking advantage of its insights.
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Eta squared measures the proportion of the total variance in a dependent variable that is associated with the membership of different groups defined by an independent variable. Partial eta squared is a similar measure in which the effects of other independent variables and interactions are partialled out. The development of these measures is described and their characteristics compared. In the past, the two measures have been confused in the research literature, partly because of a labelling error in the output produced by certain versions of the statistical package SPSS. Nowadays, partial eta squared is overwhelmingly cited as a measure of effect size in the educational research literature. Although there are good reasons for this, the interpretation of both measures needs to be undertaken with care. The paper concludes with a summary of the key characteristics of eta squared and partial eta squared.
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In various interior spaces, specific trends are often discerned in combinations of the type of space and the method of lighting used. The type of space determines the type of lighting because of the relationship between characteristics of lighting methods and the ease of certain behaviors. This study examined the method of lighting preferred for interior behaviors. First, preferred lighting non-uniformity for behaviors was investigated using a questionnaire. Next, an experiment was carried out searching for the degree of lighting non-uniformity preferred for behaviors using a reduced scale model. The results of the questionnaire survey and the experiment were clearly similar, it was possible to quantitatively predict trends in the non-uniformity of interior lighting preferred for many other types of behavior not covered by this experiment.
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Previous research suggests that evening constitutes a high-risk environment that increases the probability of binge eating and purging. One possible explanation for this finding is that exposure to dimmer light promotes behavioral disinhibition, thus undermining self-regulatory control and adherence to one's dietary standards, resulting in the disinhibited eating that is the hallmark of bulimia. Two studies (n=245 and 156) tested the hypothesis that individual differences in preference for dimmer lighting while eating are directly associated with bulimic behavior in restrained eaters but unrelated to bulimic behavior in nonrestrained eaters. Undergraduates completed questionnaire measures of indoor lighting preferences, dietary restraint, bulimic behavior, and several other variables. Results of both studies showed that, as hypothesized, preference for dimmer light while eating correlated positively with bulimic behavior in restrained eaters (rs between 0.31 and 0.58) but was unrelated to bulimic behavior in nonrestrained eaters. Study 3 found that participants who reported clinically significant levels of bulimic symptomatology preferred dimmer lighting while eating than did participants who were identical in dietary restraint but whose bulimic symptomatology was not clinically significant. The discussion applies Carver and Scheier's [Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F., 1998. On the self regulation of behaviour. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press] self-regulation theory to explain individual differences in lighting preference as they pertain to bulimia.
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Previous research suggests that evening constitutes a high-risk environment that increases the probability of binge eating and purging. Individual differences in morningness–eveningness are associated with differing levels of exposure to evening versus day, with “night people” spending a larger portion of their waking lives during the evening and a smaller portion of their waking lives during the day than do “day people”. This study tested the hypothesis that greater eveningness is associated with greater binging and purging. One-hundred and fifty-one undergraduates completed the Composite Scale of Morningness–Eveningness, the Bulimia Test-Revised, the Bulimia Scale of the Eating Disorders Inventory, and measures of several other variables. Results showed that eveningness was correlated moderately and positively (rs=0.24) with both measures of bulimic behavior; these correlations were reduced only slightly after controlling for other study variables. It is argued that exposure to the dimmer lighting of evening promotes general behavioral disinhibition, thus undermining self-regulatory control and adherence to one's dietary standards, resulting in the disinhibited eating that is the hallmark of bulimia.
Article
Employee creativity is critical to organizational competitiveness. However, the potential contribution made by the workspace and the physical environment is not fully taken into account because, up to now, it has been rather unclear how aspects of the physical environment, especially light, can support creativity. Consequently, in six studies, the present research investigated the effect of light and darkness on creative performance. We expected that darkness would offer individuals freedom from constraints, enabling a global and explorative processing style, which in turn facilitates creativity. First, four studies demonstrated that both priming darkness and actual dim illumination improved creative performance. The priming studies revealed that the effect can occur outside of people's awareness and independent of differences in visibility. Second, two additional studies tested the underlying mechanism and showed that darkness elicits a feeling of being free from constraints and triggers a risky, explorative processing style. As expected, perceived freedom from constraints mediated the effect of dim illumination on creativity. Third, moderation analyses demonstrated the effects' boundary conditions: the darkness-related increase in creativity disappeared when using a more informal indirect light instead of direct light or when evaluating ideas instead of generating creative ideas. In sum, these results contribute to the understanding of visual atmospheres (i.e. visual messages), their importance for lighting effects, and their impact via conceptual links and attentional tuning. Limitations as well as practical implications for lighting design are discussed. (c) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Article
Contrasts are statistical procedures for asking focused questions of data. Researchers, teachers of research methods and graduate students will be familiar with the principles and procedures of contrast analysis included here. But they, for the first time, will also be presented with a series of newly developed concepts, measures, and indices that permit a wider and more useful application of contrast analysis. This volume takes on this new approach by introducing a family of correlational effect size estimates. By returning to these correlations throughout the book, the authors demonstrate special adaptations in a variety of contexts from two group comparison to one way analysis of variance contexts, to factorial designs, to repeated measures designs and to the case of multiple contrasts.
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Psychology calls itself the science of behavior, and the American Psychological Association's current "Decade of Behavior" was intended to increase awareness and appreciation of this aspect of the science. Yet some psychological subdisciplines have never directly studied behavior, and studies on behavior are dwindling rapidly in other subdisciplines. We discuss the eclipse of behavior in personality and social psychology, in which direct observation of behavior has been increasingly supplanted by introspective self-reports, hypothetical scenarios, and questionnaire ratings. We advocate a renewed commitment to including direct observation of behavior whenever possible and in at least a healthy minority of research projects. © 2007 Association for Psychological Science.
Article
Whether instructions to be creative will act as goals or constraints was examined by comparing creative, practical, and analytical performance ratings under special instructions to be creative, practical, analytical, or under no special instructions at all, for 110 students with 2 different thinking styles. Consistent with goal-setting theory, specific-related instructions resulted in higher performance for each of the 3 performance ratings over no special instructions. In line with a person-situation fit model, people who prefer to play with their own ideas (i.e., those with a legislative thinking style) showed higher creative performance, whereas people who prefer to analyze and evaluate ideas (i.e., those with a judicial thinking style) showed lower creative performance when not given any special instructions.
Article
This article investigates the interplay between darkness, construal level, and psychological distance based on the link between environmental lighting conditions and visual perception. In the dark, visual perception becomes less focused and detailed, leading to more abstract representations. We argue that this link between physical darkness and a global perceptual processing style spills over to the conceptual level. In three experiments, darkness triggered a more global perceptual and conceptual processing style than did brightness, regardless of whether the darkness was physically manipulated or primed. Additionally, two Implicit Association Tests (IATs) showed that darkness is more strongly associated with high-level construal than with low-level construal. Moreover, drawing on the generalized link between construal level and psychological distance, we proposed that darkness is also linked to perceived psychological distance because the lack of detail information and the abstract representations in the dark remove objects and other persons from people’s direct, detailed experience. Eight IATs confirmed the implicit link between darkness and four dimensions of psychological distance. These implications of these results are discussed with regard to thinking styles and social processes like stereotyping and cooperation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Considers the conditions which cause the consciousness to focus on the self as an object. The theory that self-awareness has motivational properties deriving from social feedback is discussed and considered with relation to conformity, attitude-behavior discrepancies, and communication sets. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Describes the development of a scale to assess individual differences in self-consciousness. Construction of the scale involved testing the 38 initial items with 130 female and 82 male undergraduates. A principal components factor analysis of the data yielded 3 factors accounting for 43% of the variance: Private Self-Consciousness, Public Self-Consciousness, and Social Anxiety. The final version of the scale, which contained 23 items, was administered to several groups of undergraduates (N = 668) to obtain norms, test-retest (2 wks), subscale correlation, and reliability data. Test-retest reliabilities were .84 for the Public Self-Consciousness scale, .79 for the Private Self-Consciousness scale, .73 for the Social Anxiety scale, and .80 for the total score. Public Self-Consciousness correlated moderately with both Private Self-Consciousness and Social Anxiety, while the correlation of Private Self-Consciousness with Social Anxiety fluctuated around zero. No sex differences in scores were observed. Implications for research and therapy are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
It was hypothesized that darkness acts as a disinhibitor, and that subjects would deliver higher intensity shocks to a victim in a dimly lit setting than in a brightly lit setting. It was also predicted that this effect would be greater when subject and victim were in close proximity than when they were isolated from each other. The results supported these predictions. It was suggested that lighting may have important effects on social behaviors, and that further research on the influences of lighting on human behavior is needed.