Modulation of Cellular Signaling Pathways in P23H Rhodopsin Photoreceptors.

Cellular Signalling (Impact Factor: 4.32). 12/2013; 26(4). DOI: 10.1016/j.cellsig.2013.12.008
Source: PubMed


We previously reported activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in P23H rhodopsin (RHO) retinas with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP). Knowing that the UPR can trigger Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum and regulate cellular signaling we examined the level of Ca(2+)-regulated proteins. We also looked for changes in the expression of Bcl2 family proteins, autophagy proteins and the mTOR/AKT pathways, as well as for the induction of mitochondria-associated apoptosis in the P23H RHO retina. Our data demonstrated that the elevation of calpain and caspase-12 activity was concomitantly observed with a decrease in the BCL2-XL/BAX ratio and an increase in mTor levels in the P23H-3 RHO retina suggesting a vulnerability of P23H RHO photoreceptors to apoptosis. The translocation of BAX to the mitochondria, as well as the release of cytochrome C and AIF into the cytosol supports this conclusion and indicates the involvement of mitochondria-induced apoptosis in the progression of ADRP. The level of autophagy proteins in general was found to be decreased in the P21-P30 P23H RHO retina. Injections of rapamycin, however, protected the P23H RHO rod photoreceptors from experiencing physiological decline. Despite this fact, the downregulation of mTOR did not alter the level of autophagy proteins. Our results imply that in addition to activation of the UPR during ADRP progression, photoreceptors also experience alterations in major proapoptotic pathways.

Download full-text


Available from: Marina S Gorbatyuk, Feb 13, 2014
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The process of photoreceptor cell death in retinitis pigmentosa is still not well characterized, and identification of common mechanisms will be instrumental for development of therapeutic strategies. Here we investigated activation of Bax in rd1, P23H transgenic, and Rho knockout retinas. Methods: Bax activation was evaluated by immunofluorescence using anti-activated Bax-specific antibodies and by Western blotting on mitochondrial protein extracts. Knockdown of cathepsin D, calpain 1, and calpain 2 was achieved by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) delivery in rd1 mutant photoreceptors cells differentiated from retinal neurospheres. The mechanism of Bax activation through calpains was evaluated in vivo by intravitreal injection of calpastatin. Results: We defined activation and mitochondrial localization of Bax as well as activation of calpains and cathepsin D in the three models of retinitis pigmentosa. Taking advantage of an in vitro culture system for rd1 mutant photoreceptors, we unraveled the mechanism of Bax activation. We demonstrated that calpain 1 and cathepsin D contributed to activation of Bax and to apoptosis-inducing factor (Aif) nuclear translocation. In vivo interference with calpain activity blocks Bax activation in the rd1 and Rho knockout retinas and reduces activation in the P23H transgenic retina. Conclusions: Activation of Bax was observed in all three models of retinitis pigmentosa and leads to neurodamage by localization at the mitochondrion. Our data suggest that Bax can be envisaged as one of the promising target molecules for restraining photoreceptor degeneration.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Retinal neurodegenerative diseases like age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy and retinitis pigmentosa each have a different etiology and pathogenesis. However, at the cellular and molecular level, the response to retinal injury is similar in all of them, and results in morphological and functional impairment of retinal cells. This retinal degeneration may be triggered by gene defects, increased intraocular pressure, high levels of blood glucose, other types of stress or aging, but they all frequently induce a set of cell signals that lead to well-established and similar morphological and functional changes, including controlled cell death and retinal remodeling. Interestingly, an inflammatory response, oxidative stress and activation of apoptotic pathways are common features in all these diseases. Furthermore, it is important to note the relevant role of glial cells, including astrocytes, Müller cells and microglia, because their response to injury is decisive for maintaining the health of the retina or its degeneration. Several therapeutic approaches have been developed to preserve retinal function or restore eyesight in pathological conditions. In this context, neuroprotective compounds, gene therapy, cell transplantation or artificial devices should be applied at the appropriate stage of retinal degeneration to obtain successful results. This review provides an overview of the common and distinctive features of retinal neurodegenerative diseases, including the molecular, anatomical and functional changes caused by the cellular response to damage, in order to establish appropriate treatments for these pathologies.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: All retinal disorders, regardless of their aetiology, involve the activation of oxidative stress and apoptosis pathways. The administration of neuroprotective factors is crucial in all phases of the pathology, even when vision has been completely lost. The retina is one of the most susceptible tissues to reactive oxygen species damage. On the other hand, proper development and functioning of the retina requires a precise balance between the processes of proliferation, differentiation and programmed cell death. The life-or-death decision seems to be the result of a complex balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic signals. It has been recently shown the efficacy of natural products to slow retinal degenerative process through different pathways. In this review, we assess the neuroprotective effect of two compounds used in the ancient pharmacopoeia. On one hand, it has been demonstrated that administration of the saffron constituent safranal to P23H rats, an animal model of retinitis pigmentosa, preserves photoreceptor morphology and number, the capillary network and the visual response. On the other hand, it has been shown that systemic administration of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), the major component of bear bile, to P23H rats preserves cone and rod structure and function, together with their contact with postsynaptic neurons. The neuroprotective effects of safranal and TUDCA make these compounds potentially useful for therapeutic applications in retinal degenerative diseases.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Molecules
Show more