The exposure of living organisms to low doses of ionizing radiation
continuously poses a high risk to their cells depends on the amount of absorbed
dose and the duration of exposure, used in this study thirty-six male mice of the
Bulb-C strain were divided into six groups of six mice of each group. The first
group (control group) did not receive any radiation; while irradiated the other
groups of mice with different doses of gamma radiation emitted from cesium-137
source of 100μci activity, with the external dose rate (11.883μGy/h), by changing
the time of irradiation of each group respectively. Pulling blood by puncture heart
in the mice and the organs were extracted (liver, kidney and spleen) to study the
hematological and histopathological changes.
The results complete blood count showed a significant decrease (P<0.05) in
the White blood cells, Red blood cell ,Hematocrit, Eosinophil, and Mean
Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration, and a highly significant decrease
(P<0.01) in the Monocytes and red cell distribution width compared with control
group, and non-significant difference (P<0.05) in the mean of Hemoglobin,
Platelets count, Neutrophils, Lymphocyte, Mean cell volume and Mean cell
hemoglobin compared with control group.
The results of the blood film analysis after 6 days of irradiation RBCs
appear as clear cell with on nuclei low stain density (Microcytic Hypochromic) and
showed Burr cells, after 12 days RBCs showed Microcytic Normochromic appear
as light dote due to gradually loss of normal stain also unequal in size
(Anisocytosis). After 18 days RBCs which appeared microcytic hypochromic with
different in shapes and sizes (Anisopikilocytosis). After 24 days the RBCs
appeared microcytic hypochromic, mild (Anisopikilocytosis) is detection loss
normal size (Enlargments). After 32 days, RBCs appeared as empty vacuole due to
loss of Chromatin material (Death), also some cells appeared like Drop,
Elliptocytes and Rouleaux in shape, WBCs showed marked Leucopenia.
a- Histological changes in liver after the end of the irradiation period showed
vaculation and enlargement of hepatocytes, absence of sinusoids , increase in
the number of kupffer cells with infiltration of inflammatory cells, extansion of
centeral vein, large necrotic area appear surrounded by the inflammatory zone.
focal aggregation of infiltration cells and granuloma.
b- Histological changes in kidney after the end of the irradiation period showed a
congestion, mild hemorrhage vaculation of epithelial lining urinary tubules
appeared with sloughing of some of cell, expinsion glomerular tuft, appear cast
in urinary tubules, severes hemorrhage with infiltration of inflammatory cells
and atrophy of glomerular tuft.
c- Histological changes in spleen after the end of the irradiation period showed
depletion of white pulp ,increase in number of megakaryocyte, depletion of
lymphoid, congestion in central artioles and vessels, destruction of spleen
parenchyma and trabeculae, deposition of amyloid-like substances more clearly
around lymphoid .
The study also includes complete blood count test for a number of workers
in the Radiation Therapy Center in Baghdad, who exposed to low-dose of ionizing
radiation because of their work, and compare the results with a control group
(population).The results showed a significant decrease (P <0.05) in RBCs, and
highly significant decrease (P <0.01) in Neu, Lymph, Mono,and MCHC, and Nonsignificant
difference in (WBCs, Hg, Hct, MCV, MCH and RDW) compared with
the control group. The study also recommended a periodic complete blood test for
radiation workers to ensure the safety of workers.