Immune Profiling of BALB/C and C57BL/6 Mice Reveals a Correlation Between Ureaplasma parvum-Induced Fetal Inflammatory Response Syndrome-Like Pathology and Increased Placental Expression of TLR2 and CD14
Both BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice are susceptible to intrauterine infection with Ureaplasma parvum, but only protypical TH2/M2 BALB/c mice develop severe chorioamnionitis, fetal infection, and fetal inflammatory response syndrome-like (FIRS) pathology.
Microscopy, gene expression analysis, and ELISA were used to identify placental innate immune responses relevant to macrophage polarity, severe chorioamnionitis, and fetal infection.
Both mouse strains exhibited a pro-M2 cytokine profile at the maternal/fetal interface. In BALB/c mice, expression of CD14 and TLRs 1, 2, 6 was increased in infected placentas; TLR2 and CD14 were localized to neutrophils. Increased TLR2/CD14 was also observed in BALB/c syncytiotrophoblasts in tissues with pathological evidence of FIRS. In contrast, expression in C57BL/6 placentas was either unchanged or down-regulated.
Our findings show a link between increased syncytiotrophoblast expression of CD14/TLR2 and FIRS-like pathology in BALB/c mice. Functional studies are required to determine if CD14 is contributing to fetal morbidity during chorioamnionitis.
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Available from: Maria von Chamier
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ABSTRACT: Tissue macrophages play an important role in all stages of pregnancy, including uterine stromal remodeling (decidualization) before embryo implantation, parturition, and post-partum uterine involution. The activation state and function of utero-placental macrophages are largely dependent on the local tissue microenvironment. Thus, macrophages are involved in a variety of activities such as regulation of immune cell activities, placental cell invasion, angiogenesis, and tissue remodeling. Disruption of the uterine microenvironment, particularly during the early stages of pregnancy (decidualization, implantation, and placentation) can have profound effects on macrophage activity and subsequently impact pregnancy outcome. In this review, we will provide an overview of the temporal and spatial regulation of utero-placental macrophage activation during normal pregnancy in human beings and rodents with a focus on more recent findings. We will also discuss the role of M1/M2 dysregulation within the intrauterine environment during adverse pregnancy outcomes.
Available from: Kirsten Glaser
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ABSTRACT: Colonization with Ureaplasma species has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcome, and perinatal transmission has been implicated in the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm neonates. Little is known about Ureaplasma-mediated infection and inflammation of the CNS in neonates. Controversy remains concerning its incidence and implication in the pathogenesis of neonatal brain injury. In vivo and in vitro data are limited. Despite improving care options for extremely immature preterm infants, relevant complications remain. Systematic knowledge of ureaplasmal infection may be of great benefit. This review aims to summarize pathogenic mechanisms, clinical data and diagnostic pitfalls. Studies in preterm and term neonates are critically discussed with regard to their limitations. Clinical questions concerning therapy or prophylaxis are posed. We conclude that ureaplasmas may be true pathogens, especially in preterm neonates, and may cause CNS inflammation in a complex interplay of host susceptibility, serovar pathogenicity and gestational age-dependent CNS vulnerability.
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