ArticleLiterature Review

Sexting prevalence and correlates: A systematic literature review

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... Lastly, we tested the effects of gender (Ringrose et al., 2013) and age (Klettke et al., 2014) on willingness to engage in sexting. We tested these effects in a sample of young adults (Study 1) and a sample based on quotas regarding gender, age, and education in Austria (Study 2). ...
... Before the pandemic, sending sexts was prevalent in 40-50.0% of young adults (Drouin et al., 2013;Klettke et al., 2014;Mori et al., 2020) while only 13-14.8% of adolescents had sent sexts (Madigan et al., 2018;Patchin & Hinduja, 2019) and sexting is understudied in older adults (McDaniel & Drouin, 2015;Wiederhold, 2011). Research has hitherto heavily problematized sexting, even in consenting adults, and focused on negative correlates (e.g., Benotsch et al., 2013) while neglecting its psychological function: Exchanging intimate information is a vehicle for developing close relationships (Derlega & Berg, 2013) and (sexual) online self-disclosure can increases well-being (Burkett, 2015;Luo & Hancock, 2020;Parker et al., 2013). ...
... Studies further revealed that young people perceive sexual online interactions with strangers as risky (Baumgartner et al., 2010a) and assessment of risk and personal vulnerability longitudinally predicts decreased engagement in sexting and other sexual online interactions with strangers (Baumgartner et al., 2010b). However, people more often sext with a romantic or sexual partner than with strangers (Klettke et al., 2014). It has not been tested whether general privacy concerns, including concerns toward the romantic partner, also motivate people to refrain from sexting. ...
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When the COVID-19 pandemic began, in early 2020, lockdowns limited the options for physical intimacy and many resorted to technology-mediated forms of intimacy such as sexting. However, it is unclear what predicted willingness to engage in sexting during the lockdown. The present study filled this gap by investigating COVID-19-related social isolation, privacy concerns, age, and gender as predictors of willingness to engage in sexting. We further examined an interaction of COVID-19-related social isolation and privacy concerns on willingness to engage in sexting. We conducted online surveys with 494 young adults (Study 1) and with a quota-based sample of 437 adults (Study 2) in Austria. In both studies, negative binomial regressions revealed a positive effect of COVID-19-related social isolation on willingness to engage in sexting. Privacy concerns hindered young adults in Study 1 from engaging in sexting but not relatively older adults in Study 2. However, in neither study did privacy concerns moderate the effect of COVID-19-related social isolation on willingness to engage in sexting: Even individuals with high privacy concerns were more willing to sext under conditions of social isolation, suggesting that the need for intimacy outweighed the need for privacy protection. Gender had no effect in either study, indicating that men and women used sexting to cope with the unprecedented COVID-19-related situation.
... It can also be said that sexting is a new form of sexual behavior among young people (Bonilla et al., 2020). Although sexting is defined differently in different research studies, sexting behavior often involves sending a sexually suggestive or explicit message or a partially or fully nude photo or video (Drouin et al., 2013;Hudson, 2014;Klettke et al., 2014;Mitchell et al., 2012). The definition of sexting can alter prevalence rates, and these rates vary widely across studies (Klettke et al., 2014). ...
... Although sexting is defined differently in different research studies, sexting behavior often involves sending a sexually suggestive or explicit message or a partially or fully nude photo or video (Drouin et al., 2013;Hudson, 2014;Klettke et al., 2014;Mitchell et al., 2012). The definition of sexting can alter prevalence rates, and these rates vary widely across studies (Klettke et al., 2014). In addition, other factors also contribute to different results, such as the methodology of studies conducted on different samples of subjects, differences in the media used for sending sexually explicit content, different content of messages sent (text messages or photos), and the status of the relationship in which sexually explicit messages are sent. ...
... The most common form of sexting behavior, i.e., receiving sext, is consistent with the results of previous studies (Molla-Esparza et al., 2020;Ojeda et al., 2020). Klettke et al. (2014), suggesting that a higher prevalence of receiving sexting messages compared to sending sexting messages may be due to the following: some participants may underestimate their active involvement in sexting, others send the same image to multiple people, and/or those who receive sexting messages may not reciprocate the message. ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the sexting behaviors of surveyed participants through the lens of masculinity and femininity. A total of 352 high school students (264 girls, 88 boys; 14-20 years old) from Bosnia and Herzegovina as well as Croatia completed the Sexting Behaviors and Motives Questionnaire (SBM-Q) and the Traditional Masculinity-Femininity Scale (TMF). Data were collected online. Regarding the prevalence of sexting, 54.0% of high school students reported sexting during the analyzed school period: 32.0% had sent sexts, 48.3% had received sexts, and 45.5% had forwarded sexts. There were no statistically significant differences in sexting behavior by gender. A higher percentage of girls were classified as feminine and a higher percentage of boys were classified as masculine. The types of sexting (sending, receiving, and forwarding) significantly correlated with masculinity/femininity scores for female participants. Girls classified as feminine were more likely to participate in sexting than those classified as masculine. However, there were no significant correlations between types of sexting and masculinity/femininity scores for male participants. Students in the masculine group had the highest scores for sending sexts compared to the neutral and feminine groups. Overall, our results suggest that a relationship exists between sexting behavior and masculinity/femininity. Accounting for masculinity/femininity in sexting behavior probably contributes to a better understanding of sexting.
... Other topics that directly affect children in the online environment include the consensual (or nonconsensual) sharing of their own intimate material with other users of the network -so-called sexting. Research on sexting has been conducted since 2008 in a number of countries -the USA, UK, Belgium, Germany, Australia, Canada, China (Jolicoeur & Zedlewski, 2010;Klettke et al., 2014), as well as in the Czech and Slovak Republics (Holla et al, 2018;Kopecký et al., 2014a) The EU Kids Online research also conducted in Slovakia (Tomková, 2010) puts the sexting rate in the Slovak teenage population in the range of 4.6-9.6% (4.6% of respondents confirm that they have published photos of themselves in their underwear or fully nude). ...
... A very good overview of the prevalence of sexting is provided by a systematic review of information on sexting conducted by researchers at Deakin University (Klettke et al., 2014), which clearly presents the results of studies on sexting in recent years in Europe and the USA. Its results are then complemented by a systematic review conducted by English and Swedish researchers (Cooper et al., 2016). ...
... Since essentially identical instruments are used for measurement, this difference is not due to the method used and the methodology itself but has other causes. According to some researchers (Klettke et al., 2014), some respondents do not want to disclose that they are actively involved in the dissemination, some respondents then send the same material to multiple people at the same time, those who receive the material then do not send their own, etc. The increase in the prevalence of sexting as a child's age increases corresponds to the age at which young people discover their sexual identity and sexuality -according to some authors, sexting can then be considered a normal part of sexual behaviour and development (Temple & Choi, 2014). ...
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Internet use has skyrocketed in recent years, leading to risky behaviour such as online aggression. The aim of this study was to analyse the risks in the online environment of Czech and Polish students, with a special focus on online aggression. A quantitative approach was employed using an online survey. A total of 13657 students from the Czech Republic and Poland, aged 7-17 years (M = 13.75; SD = 3.85), participated in the study. The results revealed the apps most used by children (mostly YouTube, Facebook and Instagram) and online safety issues such as user theft, sexting and cyber-aggression. Finally, the implications of this work are discussed, highlighting the richness of the data obtained in relation to risk behaviours on the Internet during the Covid-19 pandemic.
... Dat komt, ten eerste, doordat veel onderzoekers de gebruikte technologie als uitgangspunt nemen, zoals de mobiele telefoon (Diliberto & Mattey, 2009;Klettke, Hallford & Mellor, 2014), het internet (Ahern & Machling, 2013;Yeung, Horyniak, Vella, Hellard & Lim, 2014;Ringrose, Gill, Livingstone & Harvey, 2012), sociale platforms als Facebook, Snapchat (Hasinoff, 2015), of apps (Clancy, Klettke, & Hallford, 2019). Andere onderzoeken richten zich, ten tweede, op de inhoud van de gewisselde berichten. ...
... Dankzij de populariteit van sociale platforms lijkt sexting in populariteit toe te nemen (De Graaf et al., 2017;Charteris et al., 2016). Toch blijkt het vaststellen van de prevalentie niet eenvoudig, simpelweg omdat -zoals geschetst -de definities van het begrip nogal uiteenlopen (Klettke, Hallford & Mellor, 2014;Lounsbury, Mitchell & Finkelhor, 2011). ...
... Wood en collega's (2015) wezen op aanzienlijke verschillen tussen jongeren in Europese landen: Verenigd Koninkrijk (38%), Noorwegen (30%), Bulgarije (28%), Italië (22%) en Cyprus (10%). Specifieke cijfers over het ontvangen van seksueel getint materiaal (met betrekking tot derden: passieve sexting) lopen eveneens uiteen: van tussen de 7,6% en 60% in 2017 (Barrense-Dias, Berchtold, Surís & Akre, 2017) tot gemiddeld 15,6% (Klettke et al., 2014), dan wel 27,4% (Madigan et al., 2018). ...
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Het gebeurt dat online – dikwijls seksueel getinte – (beeld)informatie wordt verspreid om iemand ‘te kijk’ te zetten ten overstaan van hun directe omgeving. Iemand wordt ‘exposed’. Deze praktijk heeft een enorme impact op het leven van slachtoffers en daders. Het boek belicht aan de hand van veel wetenschappelijke literatuur de achtergronden en verschijningsvormen van ‘exposen’. Maar het besteedt ook ruim aandacht aan de verhalen van mensen die lelijke littekens hebben opgelopen van online roddel en chantage. Het onderzoek gaat in op verschillende manieren waarop (seksueel) exposen geduid kan worden (sexting, wraakporno en seksafpersing). Het verkent hoe geslacht, etniciteit, culturele en sociaal-maatschappelijke aspecten een rol spelen bij dader- en slachtofferschap. Verder beschrijft het onderzoek de verregaande online en offline verwevenheid bij ‘exposen’ en hoe politie en justitie met exposen omgaan. Het accent ligt echter op hoe het bij ‘exposen’ in werkelijkheid toegaat. Op grond van de ervaringen, de lotgevallen die de meisjes en jongens, hun ouders, hulpverleners in diepte-interviews deelden, schetsen de onderzoekers een gedetailleerd praktijkbeeld van wat er gebeurt als iemand is exposed. Individuele verhalen die staan voor een breder beeld: aangrijpende verhalen van mensen die dikwijls al op jonge leeftijd ‘te kijk’ stonden en in het diepst van hun wezen werden geraakt.
... Additionally, very few studies have been carried out on adolescent experiences of non-consensual image-based sexting in, through and with digital media. For Germany, there is still a lack of reliable data on the prevalence among adolescents (Vogelsang, 2017), evidence on prevalence can be found in United States studies (e.g., the reviews by Döring, 2014;Klettke et al., 2014). This paper explores the orientations toward the exchange of intimate images and boundary-violating communication through digital media in a school setting. ...
... Among adults, sexting is common as a form of sexual communication. Data gained from an international metaanalysis of 31 studies show, for example, that more than half of the surveyed adults have sent or received sexts (Klettke et al., 2014). The prevalence of sexting among adolescents has also been the subject of empirical research. ...
... A study in Spain with 3,314 adolescents between the age of 12 and 16 demonstrates that "more than 2 in 25 teenagers send or forward sexual content, while more than 1 in 5 receive it directly from the creator, and more than 1 in 4 teenagers receive it via an intermediary" (Ojeda et al., 2020, 14). According to the meta-analysis of Klettke et al. (2014), in total only 10% of the surveyed adolescents had sent images; 16% indicated that they had received images. Results from a Dutch study with 4,453 adolescent participants "indicated that receiving sexual requests is quite common and that producing sexual images is relatively rare" (Kerstens and Stol, 2014, n. page). ...
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As digital media becomes more central to the lives of adolescents, it also becomes increasingly relevant for their sexual communication. Sexting as an important image-based digital medium provides opportunities for self-determined digital communication, but also carries specific risks for boundary violations. Accordingly, sexting is understood either as an everyday, or as risky and deviant behavior among adolescents. In the affectedness of boundary violations gender plays an important role. However, it is still unclear to what extent digital sexual communication restores stereotypical gender roles and restrictive sexuality norms or, alternatively, enables new spaces of possibility. In this sense, current research points to a desideratum regarding adolescents' orientations toward sexting as a practice between spaces of possibility and boundary violations. This paper discusses the possibilities, but also the risks, of intimate digital communication among adolescents. The main question is, how adolescents themselves perceive sexting practices and how they position themselves between both spaces for possibility and for the exchange of unwanted sexual content. For this purpose, orientations towards normalities and gender of students are reconstructed. To answer these questions, twelve single-sex, group discussions were carried out with students aged 16 and 17 at five different secondary schools in northern Germany. A total of 20 boys and 22 girls took part. The group discussions were structured by a narrative generating guideline. The analysis draws its methodology from the Documentary Method, regarding implicit and explicit forms of knowledge and discourse. It results in a typology of three types with different orientations. The study shows, that most of the students consider sexting to be a risky practice; only one type shows normality in the use of sexting. At the same time, some of the young people are interested in experimenting with image-based intimate digital communication. Further, gender differences in use and affectedness are also documented. In this way, orientations towards gender stereotypes ‘favour’ both the attribution of responsibility to girls, and overlook the responsibility of students who perpetrated the boundary violation. The orientations of adolescents should be taken more into account in research as well as in educational programs for the prevention of sexual violence.
... Both sexting and sexy self-presentation have been considered sexual risk behaviors that may result in severe negative consequences, such as cyberbullying, sexual victimization, or different forms of psychological distress (e.g., Klettke et al., 2014;Gámez-Guadix et al., 2015;Festl et al., 2019;Gassó et al., 2019Gassó et al., , 2020Gassó et al., , 2021bMori et al., 2019;Burić et al., 2020;Barroso et al., 2021;García-González et al., 2021;Lu et al., 2021;Tamarit et al., 2021;Wachs et al., 2021). Indeed, several empirical studies have identified direct relationships between engagement in sexting and decreased mental health (Klettke et al., 2014;Gassó et al., 2019;Mori et al., 2019). ...
... Both sexting and sexy self-presentation have been considered sexual risk behaviors that may result in severe negative consequences, such as cyberbullying, sexual victimization, or different forms of psychological distress (e.g., Klettke et al., 2014;Gámez-Guadix et al., 2015;Festl et al., 2019;Gassó et al., 2019Gassó et al., , 2020Gassó et al., , 2021bMori et al., 2019;Burić et al., 2020;Barroso et al., 2021;García-González et al., 2021;Lu et al., 2021;Tamarit et al., 2021;Wachs et al., 2021). Indeed, several empirical studies have identified direct relationships between engagement in sexting and decreased mental health (Klettke et al., 2014;Gassó et al., 2019;Mori et al., 2019). For example, Frankel et al. (2018) surveyed 6,021 high school students and found that consensual as well as non-consensual sexting is positively associated with suicide attempts, self-harm, and depression symptoms. ...
... Another limitation concerns the participant samples most studies are based on. A large majority of studies examine OSE among teenagers and adolescents (Klettke et al., 2014;Gassó et al., 2019;Mori et al., 2019Mori et al., , 2020 probably because younger users are considered an at-risk group for negative consequences. However, some empirical evidence suggests that sexting not only is a youth phenomenon but also is engaged in by quite a high percentage of middle-aged and older adults (Gámez-Guadix et al., 2015). ...
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Several cross-sectional studies have shown that online sexual engagement (OSE) in the form of sexting or sexy self-presentation on social media is associated with an increased risk of experiencing negative consequences, such as online sexual victimization (OSV) or lower levels of psychosocial well-being. However, representative and longitudinal studies are scarce. The current study follows three research goals: (1) examining the prevalence of OSE and OSV among a random-quota sample of 1,019 German Internet users aged 14–64 years, (2) examining gender and age-related differences in OSE and OSV, and (3) examining the longitudinal relationships between OSE, OSV, and psychosocial well-being over a period of 1 year. Our results indicate that OSE and OSV are relatively widespread: 17.7% of the participants had already experienced OSV, 25.3% indicated that they had presented themselves online in a sexualized manner at least once in the past 2 months, and 22.7% showed a certain willingness to engage in sexting. We found higher rates among the younger participants. However, to a certain degree, older individuals were also affected. Male participants showed higher sexting willingness and more often presented themselves in a sexualized manner than females, whereas only small differences related to OSV were found. Concerning relationships with psychosocial well-being, our cross-sectional results showed that OSE, OSV, and mental problems are intercorrelated. Furthermore, we detected a significant long-term relationship between higher sexting willingness at time 1 and more victimization experienced 1 year later, whereas no significant longitudinal associations with lower levels of psychosocial well-being were identified.
... While various definitions of sexting have been established, most often sexting is defined as the sending and/or receiving of a sexually suggestive or explicit text, partial nude photo or video with sexual conations, or a fully nude photo or video [1]. Sexting a partner has become a somewhat normative behavior in modern American society, with studies demonstrating that over half of a sample engaged in this behavior [2] as well as in other countries including Australia [3], Spain [4], and Germany [5]. Sexting behaviors have been associated with potential mental health outcomes [6][7][8], associated with other sexual behaviors like multiple partners and condomless sex [9], and certain emotional experiences when sexting [1]. ...
... Individuals who sext also have expectancies on the outcome of the behavior they are participating, called sexting expectancies [30]. Sexting expectancies have been explored by behavior (sending and receiving) [3,31] as well as by valence (positive and negative) [1,30]. Individuals who have positive sext expectancies believe that sexting makes one more affectionate, intimate, more likely to have sex, and even more attractive to others [30]. ...
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While many researchers have explored the impact sexting may have on relationships and mental health, few have explored the motivations and expectancies as to why individuals engage in sexting. By understanding why individuals sext their partners, we can learn more about what drives the behavior. Therefore, the current study sought to determine if sexting for sexual purposes (SP) or body image reinforcement (BIR) would predict positive sext expectancies. There was no prediction for instrumental/aggravated reasons (IAR). The online questionnaire had 348 participants, and based on regression analysis, positive sext expectancies while sending a sext message predicted sex-ting for sexual purposes. Somewhat surprisingly, sexting for instrumental/aggravated reasons was predicted by negative sext expectancies (both sending and receiving). These findings demonstrate individuals who sext for sexual purposes, and have positive sext expectancies, appear to enjoy the consequences of that behavior. Individuals who sext for instrumental/aggravated reasons may be uncomfortable with the outcome of their sexting behavior. This result highlights an area where cli-nicians could help clients explore the true reinforcements behind IAR.
... The last decade has seen increased public and academic attention on sextingloosely defined as sharing sexually explicit media through text messages and other electronic platforms (Klettke et al., 2014;Krieger, 2017;Madigan et al., 2018;Ringrose et al., 2022). In particular, the phenomenon is seen with an upward trend among adolescents (Del Rey et al., 2019;Mitchell et al., 2012). ...
... In particular, the phenomenon is seen with an upward trend among adolescents (Del Rey et al., 2019;Mitchell et al., 2012). A systematic review reported the prevalence of sexting among adolescents (aged 10-19 years) was 10.2% for sending and 15.6% for receiving sexually explicit content (Klettke et al., 2014). ...
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This paper aimed to examine the association between digital sexual violence (threat to post or nonconsensual posting of sexually explicit media) and suicidal (ideation, planning, and attempt) and non-suicidal self-harm behavior. The data for the current analysis come from an online sample of sexual minority adolescents (aged 14–17) recruited from across the United States (n = 970). Multivariate logistic regressions were used to examine the association between digital sexual violence with suicide (ideation, planning, and attempt) and self-harm. In the sample, 9.1% of participants reported being threatened to have their sexually explicit media posted without their consent, while 6.5% reported their sexually explicit media had been posted without their consent. Threat to post sexually explicit media without consent was associated with higher odds of reporting suicidal ideation (odds ratio [OR] = 1.88), suicide plan (OR = 2.12), suicide attempt (OR = 3.56), and self-harm (OR = 1.96). While nonconsensual posting of sexually explicit media was associated with higher odds of reporting suicidal ideation (OR = 1.82) and suicide attempt (OR = 2.20). All models controlled for age, assigned sex at birth, sexual identity, and race and ethnicity. These findings underscore important considerations and future research directions. Given the associations between digital sexual violence and suicide risk among sexual minority adolescents, suicide prevention efforts with adolescents must be responsive to the needs of sexual minority adolescents and the changing landscape of sexual violence in digital spaces. Future research should examine the trajectories of digital sexual violence among adolescents and comparative analyses by demographic subgroups to better understand changes in these processes over time.
... Identification of covariates relating to youth sexting is still in progress, although there is reason to believe that youth age, gender, race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status associate with sexting behaviors. Studies have shown that older youth are more likely to send and receive sexts ((Gámez-Guadix and De Santisteban, 2018); Klettke et al., 2014;Madigan et al., 2018), as would be expected with youth sexual development. Findings are mixed regarding gender associations with sexting, but a study in a similar age range identified males as sending more sexts than females (Rice et al., 2014). ...
... The present data also reflects an imbalance in sending and receiving sexts; similar to previous studies, more youth reported receiving than sending sexts (Klettke et al., 2014). This, along with the moderate correlation found between sexting behaviors, suggests that sexts are not always exchanged in a reciprocal fashion, raising concern over the extent of unsolicited sexts, non-consensual forwarding of sexts, or sexts obtained via pressure or harassment (Barrense-Dias et al., 2017). ...
Article
Purpose Early adolescent sexting has implications for health and wellbeing. Parenting practices may impact youth engagement in online risk behaviors. This study examines associations between parental media mediation and early adolescent sexting in a sample of U.S. youth and their parents. Methods Parents and their 10-14-year-olds (N = 306 dyads) completed an online survey of technology use and online experiences. Youth reported on receiving (valid % = 14.5) and sending (valid % = 11.5) sexts. Media parenting behaviors were measured by four scales (youth and parent report): active mediation, restriction, parental monitoring, and technology control. Logistic regression was used to test associations between media parenting and sexting, controlling for demographic and social covariates. Results Parent and child reports of restrictive parenting were negatively associated with sending and receiving sexts; active mediation was negatively associated with sending sexts; and parent report of monitoring was positively associated with sending sexts. Age, SES, and parent respondent gender were associated with sending sexts. Conclusions Specific types of parental media mediation are associated with reduced youth sexting, particularly restriction and active mediation. Although parent and youth report of mediation were similar, differences emerged. Future research should explore these differences and associations with health risk behaviors.
... As body dissatisfaction develops and increases over time in adolescents (Eisenberg et al., 2006), sexting can become a way to obtain social reinforcement about the adequacy of their appearance (Bianchi et al., 2017). Yet although body dissatisfaction is associated with negative sexuality outcomes (e.g., Klettke et al., 2014), little research has examined how it may contribute to adolescents' sexting. This study aimed to examine the associations between body appreciation and sexting behaviors in adolescents and whether these associations differed by gender and sexual orientation. ...
... Lastly, as sexting may play a role in sexual exploration in a relationship (Reed et al., 2020) and has been associated with dating and sexual experience (e.g., Klettke et al., 2014), as well as with alcohol and substance use (e.g., Ševčíková, 2016), these variables were controlled for in the present study (see Fig. 1). ...
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Sexting has become part of the repertoire of adolescents’ sexual behaviors, especially among those who identify as gender and sexually diverse. Whereas body dissatisfaction increases during adolescence and is associated with negative sexuality outcomes, little research has examined how body appreciation may contribute to adolescents’ sexting. The present study examined associations between body appreciation and sexting behaviors, and whether these differed by gender and sexual orientation, using path analysis in a sample of 2904 adolescents (Mage = 14.53; SD = 0.61) comprised of five groups: heterosexual cisgender and gender and sexually diverse boys (heterosexual cisgender = 1193; gender and sexually diverse = 157), heterosexual cisgender and gender and sexually diverse girls (heterosexual cisgender = 1152; gender and sexually diverse = 320), and non-binary adolescents (n = 18). Lower levels of body appreciation were associated with higher sexting frequency in heterosexual cisgender girls and gender and sexually diverse boys. Adolescents preoccupied with their appearance may use sexting for body image-related validation.
... Previous studies have addressed a number of factors that explain why adolescents engage in sexting, including sexual purposes (e.g., flirting, initiation of sexual activity, and sexual attention from the recipient) [7,8], body image reinforcement [9,10], being pressured ( [11]; Kopecký, 2011), or harming someone in exchange for favors or money and victimization and perpetration of sexting [8,12]. Sexual purposes increased with age, while body image reinforcement showed a quadratic trend, increasing from adolescence to early young adulthood and decreasing from early to late young adulthood [10]. ...
... The majority of emerging adults perceive sexual behavior as normative and there is less stigma associated with sexual activity than among adolescents [19]. In addition, young adults are more likely than adolescents to engage in sexting, and sexting may be a common behavior in established young adult relationships ( [11]; Mori et al., 2020). ...
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Many sexting studies conducted in the Western cultures have shown that the percentage is higher in less traditional cultures. However, the generalizability of this phenomenon to non-Western cultures has not been extensively researched. The purpose of this study is to examine and explain cross-cultural differences in sexting behavior among subjects from Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia. A mixed methods approach was used. The first, qualitative phase included focus groups with two groups of high school students from Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia (N = 57), aged 15 to 19. In the second, quantitative phase, questionnaires were sent to 440 young adults with an average age of 21 years (SD = 3:8). From the interviews with the young people, nonconsensual sexting was perceived as less beneficial. Sexting was viewed as a double standard. The quantitative study revealed gender and country differences in attitudes toward sexting and motives for sexting. Positive attitudes toward sexting were found to predict different forms of sexting motives in both samples. In the sample from Bosnia and Herzegovina, age was found to predict sexting with instrumental motives and body image reinforcement motives. Gender, on the other hand, was found to be predictive of instrumental sexting motives in the Croatian sample and body image reinforcement sexting motives in the Bosnia and Herzegovina sample. This study illustrates the value of cross-cultural approaches combined with mixed methods as a design to study sexting behavior.
... Findings on gender differences in engagement in this behaviour are inconclusive. Some studies have found that women are more likely to engage in sexting than men, other studies have found the opposite, and still other studies have found no differences between genders (Klettke et al., 2014). ...
... Moreover, sexting can be problematic when individuals are put under pressure to produce sexually explicit images of themselves, when the images are forwarded without the consent of the creator (e.g., revenge porn), or when sexts are used to coerce the victims (i.e., sextortion) . Klettke et al. (2014), in their literature review, found significant relationships between sexting and risky sexual behaviours, and between sexting and several other adverse outcomes, such as the sharing of sexual content without consent, legal consequences, and negative mental health repercussions. However, in a more recent study on a sample of young adults, Klettke et al. (2019) found no significant relationships between sending or receiving sexts and psychological distress indicators. ...
Article
Studies on sexting motivations have produced a wealth of data and valuable information, but the roles of potentially relevant psychological variables in predicting specific sexting motivations have rarely been investigated. This study aims to explore, in a sample of 587 Italian adults (Mage = 25.5; SD = 6), whether online moral disengagement, body dissatisfaction, and three psychosexual variables can predict different sexting motivations (i.e., body image reinforcement, sexual, and aggravated/instrumental motivations), and whether these reasons can predict different sexting behaviours, such as private sexting, sexts' dissemination, and posting own’ sexts online. A full Structural Equation Modeling analysis was carried out to explore the relationships between predictors of sexting motivations, sexting motivations, and sexting behaviours. Results showed that sending sexts privately was positively affected by all three sexting motivations. Posting own’ sexts online was only affected by body image reinforcement in a positive direction, whereas disseminating others’ sexts was only positively predicted by aggravated/instrumental reasons. In turn, body image reinforcement was positively affected by sexual preoccupation and negatively by body esteem. Sexual purposes were instead positively predicted by sexual esteem and sexual satisfaction and negatively by online moral disengagement and body esteem. Finally, aggravated/instrumental reasons were positively influenced by online moral disengagement and sexual preoccupation. Our study highlights the role of online moral disengagement in predicting aggravated/instrumental reasons, which lead to harmful or even illegal forms of sexting, and further supports the idea that aggravated and experimental sexting are two distinct behaviours, with distinct precursors.
... In their review of the literature, Klettke et al. (2014) found that voluntary sexting is associated with increased sexual activity and riskier sexual behaviors starting at earlier ages. Females are more likely to send out sexually explicit messages and photos, whereas males are more likely to receive those messages and photos. ...
... However, 61% of those who have sent the photos report having felt pressured to do so (AP-MTV, 2009), raising the question of how voluntary the sexting actually is. Klettke et al. (2014) also found that pressure was a recurring theme for females, suggesting possible links with bullying behaviors. Thus, the present study sought to examine students' attitudes towards cyberbullying in general and cyberbullying through sexting, and how cyberbullying and sexting are related to college student well-being, as measured by self-esteem, depression and academic and social adjustment to college. ...
Chapter
To date, much of the research that has examined online bullying has viewed it as a direct correlate of face-to-face bullying. However, bullying may take different forms online, as when individuals share sexually explicit texts or pictures that were sent privately or press others into doing the same. Thus, this study explored how cyberbullying through sexting is related to college student well-being as measured by self-esteem, depression, and academic and social adjustment to college. Among 284 college students, sexting was unrelated to college adjustment or well-being, but was moderately correlated with cyberbullying. Overall, students did not report being affected by involuntary sexting in the same way as traditional cyberbullying.
... El Sexting ha sido analizado por diversos autores en distintos contextos en los últimos años. Algunos señalan que no existe una definición única, por lo cual las cifras y los resultados de las investigaciones no son comparables (Doring, 2014;Klettke, Hallford y Mellor, 2014;Agustina y Gómez-Durán, 2012); otros, definen el Sexting como el envío y recepción de fotografías sexualmente explícitas. Sin embargo, Bianchi, Morelli, Baiocco y Chirumbolo (2019) lo entienden como el intercambio de contenido sexualmente sugestivo a través de Internet, teléfonos inteligentes, y redes sociales y ha recibido atención particular por parte de las autoridades de salud, no solo por su asociación con conductas sexuales de alto riesgo, sino además, por el impacto emocional que puede causar en una persona cuya reputación se vea afectada por prácticas tales como el cyberbullying (Ouytsel, Walrave y Ponnet, 2019). ...
... Hinduja y Patchin (2018) indican que el primer estudio sobre el Sexting fue desarrollado por la Campaña Nacional para prevenir el embarazo no deseado entre adolescentes; en el mismo se identificó que el 19% había enviado una foto sugestiva o video con alto contenido sexual, a través del correo electrónico, celular u otra forma de interacción social. Algunos estudios reportan que las mujeres tenían mayor probabilidad de participar en Sexting enviando imágenes (AP-MTV, 2009;Cox Communications, 2009;Mitchell et al., 2012, todos citados en Hinduja y Patchin, 2018Klettke, Hallford y Mellor, 2014). En los últimos años, las investigaciones tienden a reportar que no hay diferencias en cuanto al género en las conductas de enviar o recibir mensajes de Sexting (Lenhart, 2009;Rice et al., 2012); otras han atendido este tema entre hombres a quienes les gusta tener sexo con hombres, y se han orientado a determinar la prevalencia de este comportamiento y las probabilidades de que una persona participe en esta dinámica (Currin y Hubach, 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper was as goal to know the relation between Sexting self-revealed by 1,364 high school students from Colombia and the Routine Activities Theory. The Sexting and Routine Activities scales are reliable (Alpha> 0.80) and valid, according to the judge of experts. The construct validity of the Sexting scale was determined through Exploratory Factorial Analysis, we found two factors that jointly explain 78.196% of the variance, called Sexting behaviors and Sexting consequences. The results showed that, at least once, students have sent or forwarded (15%) or received (24.8%) photos or videos with explicit sexual content. 29.4% of the young people exhibited Sexting behaviors. Women have a greater tendency to Sexting and the probability of participating in this behavior increases as their degree of study increases. Finally, the binary logistic regression showed that the online adequate objective dimension of the Routine Activities Theory, predicts both Behaviors and Consequences of Sexting, increasing the probability of their occurrence. To prevent Sexting, young people should be made aware of the risks of establishing friendships with strangers through the Internet, posting photos or videos or saving personal information on their cell phone or tablet, indicators of the predictor variable.
... Concerns about this phenomenon have grown, and it has attracted considerable attention from researchers, families, teachers, schools, and the media (Anastassiou, 2017;Gewirtz-Meydan et al., 2018;Van Ouytsel et al., 2015). This has occurred as a consequence of its potential negative impact and the effects it can have on adolescent well-being, where sexual content is disseminated without consent or where teens feel peer or partner pressure to engage in sexting behaviors (Klettke et al., 2014;Olivari & Confalonieri, 2017;Schubert, 2014). Even teachers agree that sexting could cause classroom disruption (O'Bannon & Thomas, 2014). ...
... The practice of sexting is characterized by its psychological, social, and behavioral consequences (Klettke et al., 2014), which can lead to ethical and socio-moral conflicts alongside other concerns about the privacy and protection of personal content (Schubert, 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Sexting has become a new form of intimate interaction in line with contemporary communication methods. This phenomenon often leads to positive outcomes, but it can also have negative repercussions depending on the situation, such as the context of the relationship, and whether it is consensual or coercive. Despite this, the main types of sexting behaviors (sending, receiving, and third-party forwarding) must be addressed in order to promote safe and healthy practices. However, the approach to tackling this phenomenon remains unclear. This systematic review sought to summarize the lines of action proposed or conducted in the scientific literature to address sexting, to help researchers and educators create and evaluate effective programs. A systematic search of 21 databases was conducted; only articles relating to sexting education, prevention, and intervention among child and adolescent populations were considered. In total, 456 articles were identified, 91 of which were included for the purposes of this research. The results highlighted a need to respond to the aforementioned sexting behaviors and to tackle the resulting conflict situations. Although interventions across different areas are recommended (e.g., health, family, policies, legal advice, law enforcement, technology experts, and even society as a whole), most studies agree that school is the most practical setting for intervention. Thus, the 15 lines of action identified in this systematic review must all be considered to effectively address sexting in childhood and adolescence.
... Bu bağlamda cinsel içerikli mesajlaşma eylemi bireylerin cinselliği ve cinsel yönelimlerini keşfetmeleri açısından yeni bir ortam yaratmakta (6,7) ve özellikle cinselliğin ve cinsel ilişkiye girmenin tabu olduğu, evlilik öncesi cinsel ilişkinin onaylanmadığı ya da çok konuşulmadığı toplumlarda cinsel ilişkinin yerine bir alternatif olarak kullanıldığı görülmektedir (8). Cinsel içerikli mesajlaşmanın görülme sıklığına bakıldığında ergenlerde %2,5'ten %60'a varacak şekilde büyük bir varyasyon gösterdiğini (9); yetişkinlerde ise ortalama %53,31 olduğu saptanmıştır (10). Araştırmaların çoğunda mesaj gönderme sıklığının alma sıklığından daha düşük oranda olduğu (10) ve kadınların cinsel içerikli mesaj gönderme olasılığının erkeklerden daha fazla olduğu gözlemlenmiştir (11,12). ...
... Cinsel içerikli mesajlaşmanın görülme sıklığına bakıldığında ergenlerde %2,5'ten %60'a varacak şekilde büyük bir varyasyon gösterdiğini (9); yetişkinlerde ise ortalama %53,31 olduğu saptanmıştır (10). Araştırmaların çoğunda mesaj gönderme sıklığının alma sıklığından daha düşük oranda olduğu (10) ve kadınların cinsel içerikli mesaj gönderme olasılığının erkeklerden daha fazla olduğu gözlemlenmiştir (11,12). Cinsel içerikli mesajlaşma eyleminde bulunan bireylerin dijital ortamda bu tarz cinsel aktivitelerde bulunmanın yüz yüze iletişime göre daha güvenli olduğuna yönelik düşünceleri olsa da (13), çevrimiçi bilgi aktarımının kontrolsüz ve hızlı olması bu güveni ortadan kaldırmaktadır. ...
Article
Objective:Sexting is emerged as a result of the frequent use of internet and social media to send messages, photos and videos quickly and easily and it became a common concept nowadays. In this sense, the aim of the study is to determine the rate of sexting for the research sample, identifying the factors which affects the perspective towards sexting and to investigate whether there is a relationship between victimization and sexting.Methods:The sample of this research is consisted of 565 participants who are 18 years and older. Theory of Reasoned Action has been used as a background theory to predict and determine the perspective towards sexting and sexting behavior. The data were collected by using demographic information form and sexting scale which are prepared by researchers.Results:The rate of women participants is 70.4% (398) and for men 29.6% (167). For age distribution, 61.4% (347) of the participants are in the age group of 18-25, 38.6% (218) of them are in the age group of 26 and above, and the average age is 25.2. It was determined that a great majority of the participants engaged in sexting, men had more positive attitude and more frequent behavior compared to women, and being a victim of sexting did not make a significant difference on the perspective towards sexting. The proportion of individuals who became a victim because of sexting is 22.5% and most of them were women. According to types of victimization, individuals mostly experience emotional and psychological problems; however, it has been determined that the victimization is not limited to a single form.Conclusion:The prevalence of sexting, perspectives of the individuals and their motivation to act are determined to a certain extent. In this way, the case of unconsidered sexting in Turkey is identified and it is asserted that it can cause serious problems worth considering.
... Das Versenden heruntergeladener pornografischer Bilder wird nicht unter dem Begriff Sexting gefasst (Döring, 2014). Einige Definitionen von Sexting beinhalten auch das Versenden oder Empfangen von schriftlichen Textnachrichten mit sexuellem Inhalt (Barrense-Dias, Berchtold, Surís, Akre, 2017; Klettke, Hallford, Mellor, 2014). Die Definitionen in der wissenschaftlichen Literatur unterscheiden sich darin, was als sexueller Inhalt angesehen wird und ob ausschließlich Bildmaterial oder zusätzlich auch Textnachrichten berücksichtigt werden. ...
Article
Full-text available
Sexting, defined as sending and receiving self-produced, sexually explicit images, is a widespread phenomenon among adolescents, which can have negative consequences, especially if an abusive dissemination occurs. In this study, a program on the prevention of the abusive distribution of sexually explicit images was developed and implemented for grades 6 and 7.The programwas evaluated using a pre-, post- and follow-up design. Students’ program satisfaction, students’ attitudes towards privacy on the internet and sexting, their knowledge about sexting and image rights, and their strategies handling sexting were measured. The results of the evaluation show that the adolescents (N = 132; 58.3 % female; Mage = 12.1 years, SD = 0.64) were satisfied with the program.There was a significant increase in knowledge. Furthermore, the results indicate an increase of strategies to cope with an unintentional distribution of a picture and strategies for a responsible use of sexting. Attitudes toward sexting were somewhat less critical after program participation. In addition to the successful implementation of the program in the school context, the results indicate that the program is effective.
... The use of mobile devices or computers to send or receive sexually explicit messages, photographs, or images (Klettke et al., 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
The Corrigendum only concerns the addition of the second first author also as a corresponding author. See full paper below.
... Da uno studio condotto dall'American Medical Association 4 emerge come la prevalenza del sexting negli ultimi anni sia in forte crescita, unita all'inoltro dei cosiddetti "sexts senza consenso". Gli studi condotti su adolescenti e adulti suggeriscono come le immagini sessuali sono tipicamente condivise originariamente nel contesto di una relazione intima 5 . Una delle principali conseguenze del sexting è il revenge porn, espressione che sta per "revenge pornography" e che consiste nella divulgazione di immagini o video sessualmente espliciti realizzata senza il consenso delle persone rappresentate 6 . ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The Revenge Porn phenomena is non-consensual pornography related to the sexually explicit pictures dissemination without informed consent form involved individuals. Several studies focused on sociological aspects and related issues for judiciary; few researches were conducted investigating the related psychological and psychopathological characteristics. Objective: Our study aimed to review the recent scientific literature in order to propose analysis about relevant keypoints for reveng porn. Method: A rapid review was conducted on international dababases (MEDLINE, Embase) about literature published in the period 2016-2021 in order to analyze psychological issue of reveng porn phenomena. Results: 8 articles included in the present study. Descriptive analyses showed the phenomena is becoming part of the psychosexuality, intimacy expressions, sexual relationship by technologically and digitally interpersonal interaction. Anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress symptoms have been highlighted in revenge porn. Conclusions: Actually, predictive factors for revenge porn practice are individual aspects; our study suggested future research should be focused on the investigation of personality dimensions in order to draw more detailed psychological implications.
... Nevertheless, this online expression of sexuality can lead to negative consequences, for example, it can be manipulated, documented, and distributed to unintended recipients, exposing users to bullying, harassment, revenge porn, and sextortion (Madigan et al., 2018;Van Ouytsel et al., 2017;Walrave et al., 2014). Studies have also shown that youths are liable to engage in sexting as a result of peer pressure or emotional difficulty (Gámez-Guadix & de Santisteban, 2018;Klettke et al., 2014). These risks are causing substantial public concern, so that attempts have been made to cope with the phenomenon using various means, including legal ones (Lee & Darcy, 2021). ...
Article
Full-text available
Sexting (sending, receiving, and forwarding nude, semi-nude, or sexually explicit content) entails risks for adolescents; therefore, it is important for parents to be able to communicate with their children about its implications. The goal of the present study was to identify parental characteristics that lead to dysfunctional communication (lower quality of communication) about sexting, on a sample of 427 parents (336 mothers and 91 fathers) of Israeli adolescents aged 10–18 years and to determine whether parents’ perceived severity of sexting and the degree to which they perceive their adolescent to be susceptible to sexting function as mediating factors. Parents completed a set of questionnaires online. Findings indicated that authoritarian and permissive parenting styles were positively associated with dysfunctional parent–child communication about sexting. Authoritative style was inversely related to dysfunctional communication and was mediated by positive attitudes toward sex education. Additionally, authoritative parents were capable of assessing the severity of their children’s sexting activities, and the degree to which their children were susceptible to engage in sexting. The quality of the discussion initiated by authoritative parents appears to have enabled them to be aware of adolescent behaviors and to adjust their communication about the inherent risks. Findings suggest that the perception of sexting as too risky diminishes parents’ ability to conduct a high-quality discussion about it. In conclusion, research findings emphasize parents’ role in mediation of the online experiences of their children and conducting a constructive discussions with them about sexting.
... Among the key limitations in research on IBSA perpetration, is that it has been mostly subsumed in broader studies on sexting, dating violence, cyberbullying, or online harassment, focused on the distribution of sexual images (e.g., Garcia et al., 2016;Hudson et al., 2014;Morelli et al., 2016;Reed et al., 2016), with many studies lacking specificity as to whether these images were non-consensually distributed, despite the important distinctions between IBSA and consensual sexting. The vast majority of sexting research is with adolescent and college-age samples (Henry & Powell, 2015;Klettke et al., 2014;Madigan et al., 2018), and it suggests sexting behaviors have been increasing over the past decade, particularly among these younger cohorts. Whilst noting the relative lack of data on adult perpetration of IBSA specifically, one recent systematic review and meta-analysis explored rates of IBSA perpetration and found an average pooled estimate of 12.1% for sharing sexual images beyond the original recipient (Patel & Roesch, 2020). ...
Article
Image-based sexual abuse (IBSA) is a form of technology-facilitated abuse in which intimate (nude or sexual) images of a person are taken, distributed, or threats are made to distribute the images, without a person’s consent. It is an increasingly criminalized form of sexual abuse, and yet little is known about the perpetrators of these harms, including the extent, relational nature and correlates of perpetration. This article reports on the first multi-country survey study to comprehensively investigate IBSA perpetration. An online panel survey of the general community (aged 16–64 years) in the United Kingdom (UK), Australia, and New Zealand (NZ) ( n = 6109) found that self-reported IBSA perpetration was relatively common, with one in six (17.5%, n = 1070) respondents engaging in at least one form of IBSA. Logistic regression analyses identified nine characteristics that significantly increased the odds of having engaged in IBSA perpetration during their lifetime, namely: residing in the NZ as opposed to the UK or Australia, being male, having disability/assistance needs, holding attitudes that minimize the harms and excuse the perpetrators of IBSA, engaging in online dating behaviors, engaging in sexual self-image behaviors, and experiencing IBSA victimization (images taken, images distributed, and images threatened). Policy and prevention implications of the findings, as well as directions for future research are discussed.
... More recent research is focused on adults, aged 25 and older, engaging in sexting Klettke et al., 2014). While a large portion of the population is participating in sexting, it appears sexting is a normal aspect of sexual development and exploration (Ybarra & Mitchell, 2014), suggesting sexting is perceived as a normative sexual behavior. ...
Article
With the majority of individuals in the United States owning a mobile device, communicating via text is popular. Many individuals who text also engage in sexting, commonly defined as sending a sexually suggestive or explicit message that can include a nude image. In September of 2019, Texas passed a law prohibiting the sending of an unsolicited nude image without consent from the receiver. The goal of the study was to capture the reactions of individuals to this state law. There were 400 different responses by 400 different individuals posted on Reddit by users expressing their reactions to the passing of the state law. Initial reactions were captured, chosen from specific Reddit threads containing the link to the law within 1 month of the law being passed. These comments were collected and the research team used thematic analysis to highlight the themes to users’ responses to the sexting law. Of note was the sizeable number of individuals who disapproved of the law, highlighting a lack of knowledge about consent to engage in sexual behaviors in general, the need to gain consent to engage in sexting, and a misunderstanding of what defines sexual harassment. Implications for sex education programs and policy makers are discussed.
... Examinations of adolescent Internet use have documented relatively high rates of problematic behaviours online (Durkee et al., 2016;Hinduja & Patchin, 2008;Kormas et al., 2011;Lopez-Fernandez & Kuss, 2020;Mak et al., 2014;Mikami et al., 2010;Moreno et al., 2009). Two areas of online risk-taking behaviours of increasing concern are that of cyberbullying (Kowalski et al., 2014) and sexting (Klettke et al., 2014;Korenis & Billick, 2014). Cyberbullying is the use their cyberbullying and sexting behaviours and their parents' knowledge and monitoring of their online activities; parent-reported opposition-defiant disorder symptoms were also collected. ...
Article
This study explored the role of caregivers in promoting Internet safety among adolescents (n = 58; 13–16 years old) diagnosed with attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the United States. Teen participants reported their cyberbullying and sexting behaviours and their parents’ knowledge and monitoring of their online activities; parent‐reported opposition‐defiant disorder symptoms were also collected. Teens reported their parents monitored their Internet behaviours in a variety of ways; however, the only variables associated with decreased online risk behaviours were the teens’ perception of their parents’ general knowledge of their online engagements. Parent‐reported teen oppositional behaviours did not alter results. Cultivating communicative parent–teen relationships may be the most beneficial strategy in promoting online safety.
... The use of mobile devices or computers to send or receive sexually explicit messages, photographs, or images (Klettke et al., 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Based on its prevalence, there is an urgent need to better understand the mechanisms, opportunities and risks of sexual interaction in digital contexts (SIDC) that are related with sexual arousal. While there is a growing body of literature on SIDC, there is also a lack of conceptual clarity and classification. Therefore, based on a conceptual analysis, we propose to distinguish between sexual interaction (1) through, (2) via, and (3) with digital technologies. (1) Sexual interactions through digital technologies are face-to-face sexual interactions that (a) have been started digitally (e.g., people initiating face-to-face sexual encounters through adult dating apps) or (b) are accompanied by digital technology (e.g., couples augmenting their face-to-face sexual encounters through filming themselves during the act and publishing the amateur pornography online). (2) Sexual interactions via digital technology are technology-mediated interpersonal sexual interactions (e.g., via text chat: cybersex; via smartphone: sexting; via webcam: webcam sex/camming). (3) Sexual interactions with digital technology occur when the technology itself has the role of an interaction partner (e.g., sexual interaction with a sex robot or with a media persona in pornography). The three types of SIDC and their respective subtypes are explained and backed up with empirical studies that are grouped according to two major mediators: consent and commerce. Regarding the causes and consequences of the three types of SIDC we suggest a classification that entails biological, psychological, social, economic, and technological factors. Regarding implications of SIDC we suggest to focus on both opportunities and risks for sexual health. The proposed conceptual framework of SIDC is meant to inform future research.
... More recently, the view that sexting is a normal developmental behavior among young people has become increasingly accepted (Barrense-Dias et al., 2017;Döring, 2014;Levine, 2013 numerous studies have examined the prevalence of sexting among young people. Klettke et al. (2014) analyzed 12 studies conducted with youth under the age of 19 and found that the average prevalence of receiving and sending sexting ranged from 10% to 16%. In addition, this research found that studies conducted with a non-probabilistic sample had a higher prevalence than studies conducted with a probabilistic sample. ...
Book
This manual was prepared as part of the project “Nature and determinants of sexting among adolescents and youth: A cross-national study (SextYouth)” of the Department of Psychology, University of Zadar, funded by the Croa�tian Science Foundation from February 2021 to February 2026. The manual contains a description of educational workshops for adolescents, teachers, and parents/guardi�ans, based on the latest scientific findings on the important characteristics and contributing factors of sexting, but also on the factors that can protect against the negative conse�quences of sexting. The main aim of the workshops is to develop knowledge and awareness about the phenomenon of sexting and to understand the strategies to assess and work with young people who are exposed to the negative consequences of sexting. The manual, after an introductory theoretical section about the problem of sexting, offers a practical section that includes an overview of the educa�tional workshops with the materials needed for their imple�mentation and evaluation of the workshops. With the help of this manual, all interested teachers, educators and other professionals working with young people, as well as all in�terested parents/guardians and adolescents, can be informed and further implement the program to prevent negative risk consequences of sexting among adolescents.
... Whether they are sexy "selfies," "nudes," or written texts-"the sending, receiving, and forwarding of sexually explicit images, videos, and messages through electronic devices," (Klettke et al., 2014) has become commonplace among young people. A recent meta-analysis found that 15% of adolescents report sending sexts, and 28% report receiving them (Mori et al., 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
Although many studies have examined reasons for sexting among young people, few have taken into account the underlying motivations associated with different reasons and how that may be associated with divergent positive or negative outcomes. This study addressed this gap by employing Self-determination Theory to assess how autonomous and controlled motivations for sexting were related to subjective well-being and relationship quality among emerging adults. Online survey data from 267 emerging adults (72 men, 195 women) ages 18–25 who had sent sexually explicit images or videos of themselves through electronic means to a committed partner were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling. Autonomous and controlled motivations for sexting were significantly related to pleasant affect, with autonomous motivation predicting more pleasant affect and controlled motivation predicting less pleasant affect. Autonomous motivations for sexting were related to enhanced relationship quality, whereas controlled motivations for sexting were related to decreased relationship quality. Neither form of motivation had a statistically significant relationship with unpleasant affect or life satisfaction. These results demonstrate that the quality of motivations for sexting among emerging adults in committed relationships may contribute to different outcomes, particularly in terms of relationship quality. Implications for counselors, educators, and practitioners working with emerging adults who sext are discussed.
... It is difficult to establish as such, the exact prevalence rates of receiving OUMamong new generation (Klettke, Hallford, & Mellor, 2014). However, Finn (2004), focused on receiving of online unwanted lewd images, he studied thestudents of college at the New Hampshire University and found that, half of therespondents had received obscene images. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract The objective of this study is to measure the relationship of online guardianship with thechances of receiving online unwanted material (OUM) that faced by the universities studentsof Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP).The guardianship’ conceptis adopted from Routine ActivityTheory (RAT). It is a descriptive and survey analytical research. All universities students ofKParethe population of the study. 800 students are selected from the 6 HEC top ranked publicsector universities of KP. The collected data are processed, tabulated, explained andinterpreted through some statistical tools i.e. tables and Multiple regression analysis. Theresults of the studies reveals that the guardian's restriction of online activities and guardian'smonitoring of online activities by checking the websites their children have visited and they review their internet use decrease the likelihood of receiving OUM measured in the currentstudy. In order to attain maximum benefits from the current study,somekey recommendations are made in the light of findings.
... Research has shown that sexting -a digital sexual communication strategy that involves sending and receiving sexually explicit materials and textbased messages through digital technologies -is an emerging phenomenon attracting public health and social interest, especially among adolescents in Uganda [18,25,26]. However, sexting research has not found conclusive evidence of its association with adolescent sexual health [27,28]. Nor has any conclusive evidence of this association been found in sub-Saharan Africa [29][30][31], a region hosting the majority of the world's refugees and displaced adolescents [32], both populations highly vulnerable to HIV transmission. ...
Article
Full-text available
Given the global growth of adolescent texting, we evaluate texting-based sexual communication as a potential site for interventions encouraging condom use cascades, particularly among displaced adolescents—a population with disproportionate levels of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. With data from 242 forcibly displaced adolescents in the slums of Kampala, Uganda, we used path analysis to examine pathways from gender/dating relationship to condom determinant (knowledge of where to access condoms) and practices (access/use of condoms), through sexting-based condom negotiation, controlling for sexting practices. We found direct pathways from gender (boys vs. girls) and from dating relationship (dating vs. not) to condom determinant. Sexting-based condom negotiation partially mediated the pathway from gender/dating relationship to condom determinant, and fully mediated the pathways from gender/dating relationship to condom practices. Future digital sexual health interventions should consider the utility of texting-based applications in promoting knowledge and use of condoms among adolescents.
... Some studies have also found that individuals are pressured or manipulated by their romantic partners to send explicit photos (Drouin, Ross, & Tobin, 2015;Ross, Drouin, & Coupe, 2016). The nature of such nonconsensual sexting has been considered similar to intimate partner violence (Klettke et al., 2014). For example, a romantic partner may use control over the explicit media to blackmail the sender. ...
... Definisi asas untuk istilah sexting adalah satu perlakuan menghantar mesej atau imej yang mengandungi unsur seksual kepada individu lain atau penerima (Arsad et al., 2021;Casas et al., 2019). Menurut Klettke et al. (2014) dan Wilson et al. (2021), perlakuan sexting adalah amalan menghantar atau menerima mesej atau gambar berunsur seksual melalui telefon mudah alih. Oleh itu, komunikasi sexting yang dimaksudkan dalam kajian ini adalah segala bentuk interaksi seksual yang berlaku dalam format mesej daripada seorang individu kepada individu lain menggunakan saluran media sosial. ...
Conference Paper
Aplikasi media sosial adalah satu medium komunikasi yang digunakan secara meluas untuk pelbagai tujuan. Aplikasi media sosial menyumbang pelbagai manfaat positif kepada para penggunanya. Tetapi penyalahgunaan aplikasi ini boleh membawa kepada pelbagai perilaku negatif. Tambahan pula, ciri-ciri yang terdapat dalam setiap aplikasi media sosial telah memberi peluang yang luas kepada para penggunanya untuk terlibat dengan komunikasi sexting ini. Oleh itu, objektif kertas konsep ini adalah untuk membincangkan faktor penggunaan media sosial terhadap tingkah laku komunikasi sexting. Kertas konsep ini adalah berasaskan Teori Kepenggunaan dan Gratifikasi (Uses & Gratification Theory). Kaedah yang digunakan dalam kertas konsep ini adalah kaedah kajian literatur. Dapatan kajian terdahulu menunjukkan terdapat hubungan yang positif antara penggunaan media sosial dan komunikasi sexting.
Chapter
Full-text available
Adolescents’ use of social media (e.g., text messaging, online video games, and social networking sites) as a method of interacting with peers has become increasingly ubiquitous in recent decades. Adoption of these technologies by teens as a primary mode of communicating with peers has been accompanied by many developmental costs and benefits. In this chapter, some of the unique ways in which peer relations and adolescent development are affected by digital communications platforms are explored. Then, ways that digital communications technologies can promote healthy or unhealthy peer relations that either support or undermine healthy adolescent development are considered. Finally, recommendations for how teachers and schools can approach adolescents' use of these technologies to promote healthy development inside and outside the school setting are discussed.
Chapter
Although there is a growing interest in understanding the impact of types and patterns of Internet use on individuals of different ages, relatively few studies have fully considered developmental perspectives. This chapter offers an overview of the main findings regarding Internet use and problematic Internet use during stages of development. It includes both behavioral development and neurodevelopment and describes frequently performed online behaviors including social networking, online sex, gambling and gaming, and cyberbullying.
Article
Social technology is ever-evolving, and increasingly offers novel domains for sexual experiences. In the current study, we investigated demographic correlates of engagement with emerging forms of sextech, defined here as internet-based applications, platforms, or devices used for sexual pleasure. Our web-based, demographically representative sample included 7,512 American adults aged 18-65 years, with a near-even gender split of men/women and moderate racial diversity (63% White). Participants indicated their engagement with eight forms of sextech, including six emerging forms of sexual technology (visiting erotic camming sites, participating in camming streams, teledildonic use, accessing virtual reality pornography, playing sexually explicit video games, and sexual messaging with chatbots or artificially intelligent entities) as well as two more common domains (online pornography and sexting). Participants who were younger, were men, had higher income, and were sexual minorities reported more frequent engagement with all forms of sextech assessed. Unlike prior work on pornography, religious individuals were more likely to engage with emerging sextech. Beyond online pornography (50%) and sexting (29%), visiting camming sites (18%) and playing sexually explicit video games (13%) were relatively common. Findings may contribute to the destigmatization of sextech engagement and forecast future norms in technologically-facilitated sexual behavior.
Article
Introduction In the past years, research regarding sexting behaviours and online sexual victimization has been rapidly growing, with literature examining the social, legal, psychological and psychopathological consequences of being coerced into sexting. However, up to date, there is little evidence exploring the psychopathological profile of sexting coercion perpetrators. The aim of this study was to examine differences in the psychopathological profile of sexting coercion perpetrators vs non-perpetrators, and, additionally, examining sex differences. Methods The original sample comprised 1370 college students (including 74% females, mean age = 21.40). The non-perpetrator subsample comprised 1247 participants (76% females, mean age 21.39) and the sexting coercion perpetration subsample comprised 75 participants (30% females, mean age = 21.38). Results Data indicated significant differences in the psychopathological profile between perpetrators and non-perpetrators, with the first group showing higher scores for different psychopathology scales. When examining sex differences intragroup, results showed significant differences between perpetrator males and non-perpetrator males for scales related with dysfunctional attachment, anger, frustration and social skills. Significant differences between female samples were only found for hostility. Finally, no differences were found between sexting coercion perpetrator males and females, with both groups showing similar psychopathological profiles. Conclusions People who engaged in sexting coercion perpetration show a different psychopathological profile than those who did not report coercing someone into sexting, however, males and females coercers show similar psychopathological profiles. Further results and implications regarding psychopathological differences between examined groups are discussed.
Article
Qualitative data analysis of text messages presents a unique methodological challenge for researchers and is largely absent specific guidelines to determine best practices in analysis as well as team management. This is especially true when the text messages are sexual and intimate in nature as researchers have new insight into previously private partnered communication. This research note explores the challenges and considerations in qualitative text message, specifically sexting, research. Although most current text message research is quantitative in nature rather than using qualitative analyses, the ubiquity of text messaging as a form of communication necessitates other approaches. Specifically, we explore how emotional this type of study can be for researchers and provide recommendations for how to manage researchers’ interactions with the data. We also discuss how reading and coding sexts and text messages between new couples can force researchers to uncomfortably reflect on their own relationships and how best to manage these challenges. We propose that this work is “messy” and teams interested in analysis of text messages should be structurally prepared for the emotional labor required.
Article
Sexual modesty is the social, cultural, interpersonal, and psychological systems - defined by the tenets of Script Theory - that regulate individuals' sexual expression and experience at the social, legal, and interpersonal boundaries of acceptable/not-acceptable, private/public, and personal/social. Almost all aspects of sexual expression and experience are touched by the pervasive modesty standards for sexual communication, sexual display, sexual relations, and sexual behaviors. Sexual modesty influences an array of sexual and reproductive health outcomes. Many aspects of sexual modesty are enforced by legal as well as social, cultural, and religious proscriptions, including social shaming and ostracism as well as corporal and capital punishments. The purpose of this paper is to summarize a diverse literature related to sexual modesty from the years 2000 to 2021 in order to clarify its role in sexual health and sexual wellbeing and to identify directions for new research.
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Background: There is a gap in the literature regarding data on sexting among youth under the age of 16 whereas the problems related to this practice could affect them more because of their ongoing development. This study aims to determine the prevalence rate and characteristics of sending one's own sexually related image among middle-school teens. Methods: Data were obtained from a web-based in-school survey conducted between October 2019 and February 2020. The sample comprised 3006 (mean age 13.7; 50.2% males) 10th-grade pupils in the canton of Vaud (Switzerland). Participants were asked "Have you ever sent a sexually related/sexy image of yourself?". Analysis of variance/chi-square tests and multinomial regression analyses were used to compare the groups. Results: Overall, 93.0% reported never, 3.7% once and 3.3% several times. No gender differences were found. Sending was associated with older age, low academic performance, cyberbullying victimization and reception of unsolicited sexually related images. Conclusions: Education and health professionals should be aware that it is necessary to discuss the theme, perhaps with a more global approach including pressure, consent, exchange of nonsexual images, and so on from an early age. The context and reasons for sending remain to be explored, particularly to determine if the pressure is greater at this age.
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As sexting continues to develop as a facet of sexual behavior among emerging adults, it is important to examine precursors and outcomes of such behavior. Current research is beginning to examine potential positive outcomes of consensual sex- ting in addition to negative consequences, as well as the motivations and contexts in which these consequences manifest. The purpose of the present study was to examine motivations for consensual sexting across gender and relationship status, as well as a range of perceived consequences of sexting in undergraduate emerging adults (N=536; 77.2% women). With regards to motivations for sexting, men and those in committed romantic relationships more frequently reported that their sexting was incited by relational motives compared to women and those in casual sexual relationships. In examining consequences of sexting, women reported higher levels of punishment compared to men. A significant interaction was present between gender and relationship status, revealing that women in casual sexual relationships reported the highest amounts of negative consequences. These findings highlight the complexity of sexting behaviors and suggest the need for more nuanced research to accurately conceptualize and contextualize the motivations for and the consequences of sexting as a function of relationship status and gender.
Book
Ovaj priručnik pripremljen je u sklopu projekta Priro�da i odrednice sekstinga među adolescentima i mladima: Kros-kulturalno istraživanje (SextYouth) Odjela za psiholo�giju Sveučilišta u Zadru, koji financira Hrvatska zaklada za znanost (HRZZ), od veljače 2021. do veljače 2026. godine. Priručnik sadrži opisane edukativne radionice za adolescen�te, nastavnike i roditelje/skrbnike, temeljene na najnovijim znanstvenim spoznajama o važnim karakteristikama i čim�benicima koji pridonose sekstingu, ali i o onim čimbenici�ma koji mogu biti zaštitni u kontekstu njegovih negativnih posljedica. Glavni su ciljevi radionica razviti znanje i svijest o fenomenu sekstinga te razumjeti strategije procjene i rada s mladima koji su izloženi negativnim posljedicama sekstin�ga. Nakon uvodnoga teorijskog dijela o problematici sek�stinga priručnik nudi i praktični dio koji uključuje edukativ�ne materijale za provedbu i evaluaciju radionica. Uz pomoć ovoga priručnika svi zainteresirani nastavnici, odgajatelji i drugi stručnjaci koji rade s mladima, kao i svi zainteresirani roditelji/skrbnici i adolescenti, mogu se informirati i dalje provoditi program radi sprječavanja negativnih posljedica sekstinga među adolescentima.
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In this study, we explored survivors' experience with sextortion (threats to expose sexual images to coerce victims to provide additional pictures, sex, or other favors). We conducted in-depth telephone interviews with 48 adults aged 18 to 25 who had been targets of sextortion. Nearly half of participants were minors at the time of the sextortion incident. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis, which resulted in four major dimensions. The dimensions identified were the emotional connections between victims and perpetrators, the nature of the threats, societal responses, and integrating the sextortion into their life stories. The findings emphasized the multidimensional nature of this phenomenon. There was a wide range of emotional connections, from brief connections to close intimate relationships or strong friendships. Some threats remained unfulfilled, while other were carried out. Some threats were one-time and some lasted for years. Societal responses were central in participants' narratives, with most participants actually turning to their peers and parents for support. Many expressed thankfulness for the opportunity to tell their story during the interviews. For the majority of participants sextortion was perceived as a central event in their lives, one that changed them forever. Listening to the voices of survivors helps professionals understand these harmful situations.
Chapter
The internet has altered the way we interact with other people, making the world a global village. Since the explosion of the internet, many aspects of our lives have not only been eased but aided with more harmful consequences. The secrecy of the internet has resulted in its swiftly becoming a breeding ground for illegal activities that continue to grow as internet child exploitation (ICE), a form of child abuse by their peers or adults using the internet. However, the threats children are confronted with are still indefinite. To determine this in Nigeria, a total number of 20 Nigerian children between the age range of 11 and 17 years from five junior secondary schools were interviewed using measures of internet child abuse. The study revealed that elements of internet child exploitation exist such as sexual exploitation, cyberbullying, nudity, and wasting judicious time on chatting and playing video games. These may eventually have harmful consequences on children.
Chapter
Exchanging sexually explicit messages has become an increasingly common form of interaction for both adolescents and adults. Although sexting has been identified as a risk factor for a variety of negative outcomes, this research has generally been conducted without attention to the relationship context of the communicators. This chapter will examine the prevalence of sexting in the context of existing romantic relationships, and how sexting may relate to features of the relationship. The authors will review existing research examining motivations for sexting with romantic partners, pressure to engage in sexting, and associations between sexting and romantic attachment styles and relationship satisfaction. The chapter will conclude with discussion of important future directions for research.
Article
Purpose This paper aims to disseminate results from research into three forms of online abuse: text messages, picture messages and online stalking. Design/methodology/approach Using a mixed methods design, qualitative and quantitative datasets were derived from an online anonymous questionnaire to identify themes associated with incidents of online abuse. Findings Women of all ages have experienced online abuse from men and other women. Men have also been targets of online abuse from other men and women. Research limitations/implications Researchers should strive to include mature-aged cohorts. Practical implications Researchers should not limit themselves to education settings for their sampling. Online abuse may meet the legal definition of “psychic assault”. The recent legislation against online abuse needs to extend beyond protecting young people and children. Social media owners must take more responsibility for the content on their platforms. Social implications The results from this research strongly suggest that gender alone is no longer pivotal to ones’ vulnerability to online abusers. Originality/value This research uses a more age-inclusive sample to include the experiences of people aged 25–75, who have largely been excluded from previous studies that have concentrated on the 18–25 age group.
Article
Résumé Objectif Avec l’avènement des téléphones mobiles et la généralisation d’Internet, l’envoi de nudes fait partie de ces nouvelles pratiques sexuelles qui interrogent. Cet article éclaire spécifiquement ces échanges de photos et vidéos chez les jeunes de 13 à 25 ans résidants sur le territoire français et belge francophone. Méthode L’échantillon de convenance est constitué de 10 700 participants, 7545 femmes et 3155 hommes. Le recrutement s’est réalisé principalement en ligne sur les réseaux sociaux. Résultats L’envoi de nudes de soi-même apparaît largement répandu chez les jeunes, et leur appréciation de cette pratique est majoritairement positive. Ce type de partage est intégré à leur sexualité, 74,5 % en ont envoyé. Cela s’opère largement de leur propre initiative pour 82,76 %, ainsi qu’à la suite d’une demande de leur partenaire pour 64,07 %. Une évolution notable concerne sans doute la place du couple dans ces échanges : le partage primaire joue toujours un rôle important dans les relations de couple, mais il occupe désormais également une place importante en dehors des relations amoureuses. Ils sont 86,8 % à en avoir envoyé en dehors d’une relation de couple. Le transfert de nude d’autrui apparaît majoritairement non désiré par les personnes photographiées. Malgré cela, les jeunes victimes ne sollicitent que peu l’aide d’un adulte. Ils sont encore moins à solliciter les forces de l’ordre. Ils sont 7,95 % à avoir déposé une plainte.
Article
Siber flört şiddeti, teknolojik araçların kullanımıyla birlikte partnerlerin kötüye kullanımı ve/veya mağduriyeti ile sonuçlanan bir flört şiddeti türüdür. Bu çalışmada, üniversite öğrencilerinin siber flört şiddeti kategorilerini yordayan risk faktörlerinin incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Araştırmaya, yaşları 18-25 yaş arasında değişen, 311 kadın 159 erkek olmak üzere toplamda 470 genç yetişkin katılmıştır. Araştırmada kullanılan ölçeklerden elde edilen verilerin analizinde, çok kategorili isimsel lojistik regresyon analizi kullanılmıştır. Bulgular, flörtle kısa mesajlaşma (sms) sıklığının, flörtle sosyal ağlar aracılığıyla mesajlaşma sıklığının, sosyal medyada herkese açık video, resim paylaşma sıklığının, sosyal medya kullanımında süreklilik ve yetkinliğin, problemli internet kullanımında online sosyal etkileşim tercihi ve duygu düzenlemenin siber flört şiddetinde partneri kötüye kullanma/mağduriyet olasılığını artıran veya azaltan risk faktörleri olduğu göstermiştir. Araştırma sonuçları alanyazın ışığında tartışılıp yorumlanmış, siber flört şiddetiyle ilgili önleyici ve müdahale edici stratejilerin geliştirilmesi önerilmiştir.
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Qualitative research on sexting is not at all rare internationally (for an overview, see Doyle et al., 2021). Despite this steady increase in qualitative international research, qualitative studies examining the phenomenon of sexting in non- Western, traditional cultural contexts are rare. This study aims to qualitatively examine sexting in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, as both are post-war countries that share similar cultural values, but also differences that may be evident in sexting behaviour. Participants were 57 high school students (aged 15-19) from Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia who participated in the six online focus group discussions, with each group consisting of six to twelve participants. Participants responded to five written vignettes describing sexting practices. The five vignettes about sexting were composed of five types of sexting experiences: (1) sexting under intimate partner pressure, (2) consensual sexting with intimate partner, (3) revenge sexting, (4) sexting under peer pressure, and (5) sexting to flirt with another person. Students gave their opinions on the vignettes presented. Sexting with the motive of partner revenge and peer or partner pressure was perceived negatively by participants, while sexting for the purpose of maintaining an intimate relationship was viewed positively. Sexting for the purpose of flirting was mostly perceived negatively or neutrally, in terms of making one‘s own choices. Overall, the qualitative study based on the vignette suggests that non-consensual forms of sexting are viewed as negative behavior in both cultural contexts, while consensual sexting with a trusted person is viewed as positive behavior.
Article
The study examines sexting among 3,171 Greek university students in the context of different relationship types (i.e. romantic partners, friends, strangers). Participants completed an anonymous online survey, assessing sexting during the last year along with demographic and relationship status information. Sexting was a common practice among participants, with the use of mobile phones and the Messenger application to exchange sexts. Sexting was more common among males and non-heterosexuals. Participants aged 25 and above were more likely to exchange sexts with strangers than those aged between 18 and 24. Romantic partners reported exchanging sexts more often than strangers. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that non-heterosexual males in a long-distance romantic relationship were more likely to participate in sexting, and that non-heterosexual older males who have been single for the last year were more likely to exchange sexual or provocative messages with strangers. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications.
Article
Sexual communication between adolescent partners is an important component of sexual health and wellbeing. Over 40 years of research on adolescent sexual communication has yielded rich information, yet there remain gaps in our understanding of the communication process. The purpose of this scoping review was to synthesize the body of research on adolescent sexual communication to identify how communication has been conceptualized, how researchers have measured communication, and what theoretical frameworks have been applied across the literature. We identified 198 assessments of sexual communication across 119 quantitative studies. This work included 127,489 adolescents (Mage = 15.97) from 15 countries (81.5% U.S.-based). Most studies relied on self-reports (93.4%) and surveyed only one member of a couple (97.5%). The definition of sexual communication was highly varied across the literature: in half of assessments (52.0%) sexual communication was operationalized as a behavior-the verbal or nonverbal exchange of messages about sex-whereas the remaining half of assessments captured social-cognitive aspects of communication (e.g., communication self-efficacy, fear/anxiety). There was also a tendency for investigators to create their own idiosyncratic instruments: half of studies (48.9%) used instruments created by the research team with limited or no discussion of reliability/validity. Regarding the topic of communication, a third of assessments (33.8%) focused exclusively on condom communication and another quarter (24.0%) focused on other safer-sex issues (e.g., STDs, abstinence). Notably absent were studies focused on communication surrounding consent or sexual pleasure. Also absent was a guiding conceptual model or theory that could unify this body of work. Overall, results highlight gaps and inconsistencies in how partner sexual communication has been conceptualized, measured, and theorized about in previous work. We provide several recommendations for future theory-building efforts as well as rigorous, multimethod empirical investigations of adolescent sexual communication that would further our understanding of this important aspect of adolescent sexual wellbeing.
Article
Objective(s) We examined the prevalence of sexting, related motivations, demographics, and association with behavioral health problems among justice-involved adolescents. Hypotheses We hypothesized positive associations between sexting and sexual risk, substance use, delinquency, and mental health problems. Methods Participants were 307 community-supervised justice-involved adolescents with a first-time offense (Mage =14.50 years, 44.6% female) and their caregivers. Adolescents answered questions on technology use and sexting by sending, receiving, or forwarding sexually suggestive text messages and images (pictures or videos). They also completed measures of recent (past 4-month) sexual activity, unprotected sex, cigarette, alcohol, marijuana, and other drug use, and delinquency; current trauma symptoms, internalizing problems, and adaptive functioning. Results Prevalence of sexting were 37.7% (lifetime overall; 17.0% sent texts; 17.4% sent images) and 29.5% (past-year overall; 12.8% sent texts; 13.6% sent images). Sexts were commonly sent as presents to partners, in response to sexts received, or to have fun. “Sexters” were older than “non-sexters” and more likely to identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or questioning. Past-year sexting was significantly associated with recent sexual activity; unprotected sex; alcohol use and days of use; marijuana and other drug use; delinquency and variety of delinquent acts; and elevated trauma symptoms and internalizing problems. Conclusions Sexting is prevalent among adolescents with a first-time offense and co-occurs with multiple behavioral health needs. Intervention for this population may be informed by routinely assessing sexting in community settings. Familiarity with local reporting laws could help clinicians navigate the legal implications of sexting among adolescents with existing justice-system involvement.
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The work addresses the issue of sexting among Czech preadolescents and adolescents. It monitors the prevalence of this phenomenon, focuses on the forms of sharing of these sexual materials on the Internet and describes children's motivation for such sharing. It also focuses on the dangers of this phenomenon and the consequences of sexting implementation (damage of one's reputation, cyber bullying, suicides, etc.). The paper is an outcome of an original survey which was carried out by the author in cooperation with other researchers from The Centre for the Prevention of High-risk Virtual Communication at the Faculty of Education at Palacky University in Olomouc. The survey was conducted in 2011 on a sample of 10,000 respondents aged 11-17.
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Abstract Although sexting among U.S. youth has received much popular media attention, there are only limited data on its prevalence among ethnic minority youth. This study, therefore, specifically examined the prevalence and patterns of sexting (sending and/or receiving a nude or semi-nude picture/video or a sexual text-only message) among a sample of black and Hispanic youth. Data from 1,034 tenth graders from a large, urban school district in southeast Texas were used to calculate the prevalence of sexting by gender-race/ethnicity. Overlap among sexting behaviors was also examined. Electronic surveys were administered via an audio-computer-assisted self-interview on laptop computers. Prevalence estimates were obtained, and chi-square analyses were conducted to compare the distribution of sexting behaviors by gender-race/ethnicity subgroups. More than 20% of students reported sending either a nude or semi-nude picture/video or a sexual text-only message (jointly referred to as a "sext"), and more than 30% reported receiving a sext. Sexts were also frequently shared with unintended recipients. Black males and females reported similar prevalence estimates for sexting behaviors. However, they were more likely than Hispanic males to participate in some sexting behaviors. Hispanic females reported the lowest estimates for sexting behaviors for all gender-race/ethnicity subgroups. Many youth who sent or received a nude or semi-nude picture/video were also likely to have sent or received sexual text-only messages. The results of this study indicate that sexting is prevalent among ethnic minority youth. However, more research is needed to understand the specific context and circumstances around which sexting occurs in this population.
Article
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The traditional media (television, radio, movies, magazines) and new, digital media (the Internet, Social Networking Sites such as Facebook and Myspace, and cell phones) have become important sex educators for adolescents. Adolescents in the United States spend six to seven hours a day with some form of media, often using more than one kind simultaneously. Studies show that exposure to the frequent, yet typically unhealthy sexual content in traditional media is related to sexual outcomes ranging from body dissatisfaction, to earlier sexual intercourse, less contraceptive use, and even pregnancy. Preliminary research about the uses of the new media suggest that adolescents are using the Internet to find sexual health information, and social networking to express sexual identity and desires, and to find and maintain relationships. Traditional and new media have also been used to promote healthier sexual behavior among adolescents with promising results. This article reviews how youth are using the new media to learn about sex, and how it can be employed to promote healthier sexual behavior. (Contains 3 tables.)
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In recent years, the emergence of the phenomenon of sexting has generated significant media and social concern. The practice of sexting has proven to be problematic, having led to serious psychological and legal consequences, particularly in the case of teenagers, highlighting the urgent need to develop adequate prevention strategies. Moreover, by sending sexting messages, images or videos, children (and adults) can inadvertently and irreversibly cross a risk threshold that exposes them to different types of victimization (blackmail, revenge or simply highly damaging indiscretions). Furthermore, sexting may constitute the beginning of sexual crimes initiated via ICTs (Wolak et al. 2004).
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Sexting (sending/receiving sexually explicit texts and images via cell phone) may be associated with sexual health consequences among adolescents. However, to date, no published data from a probability-based sample has examined associations between sexting and sexual activity. A probability sample of 1839 students was collected alongside the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey in Los Angeles high schools. Logistic regressions were used to assess the correlates of sexting behavior and associations between sexting and sexual risk-taking. Fifteen percent of adolescents with cell phone access reported sexting, and 54% reported knowing someone who had sent a sext. Adolescents whose peers sexted were more likely to sext themselves (odds ratio [OR] = 16.87, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.62-29.59). Adolescents who themselves sexted were more likely to report being sexually active (OR = 7.17, 95% CI: 5.01-10.25). Nonheterosexual students were more likely to report sexting (OR = 2.74, 95% CI: 1.86-4.04), sexual activity (OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.07-2.15), and unprotected sex at last sexual encounter (OR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.17-2.89). Sexting, rather than functioning as an alternative to "real world" sexual risk behavior, appears to be part of a cluster of risky sexual behaviors among adolescents. We recommend that clinicians discuss sexting as an adolescent-friendly way of engaging patients in conversations about sexual activity, prevention of sexually transmitted infections, and unwanted pregnancy. We further recommend that discussion about sexting and its associated risk behavior be included in school-based sexual health curricula.
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This exploratory project investigated the behaviors of sexting and infidelity on the internet. The researchers placed a survey on a web site designed for married people to find sexual partners outside their marriage. Using a sample of 5,187 respondents, the study explored how people use the internet to find partners. Using both descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression analysis, the researchers found that the respondents use the internet to find real-life partners, both for dating and for sex hookups, but many are anxious about being caught. Females are more likely than males to engage in sexting behaviors, while females and males are equally as likely to cheat both online and in real life while in a serious real-life relationship. Older males, however, are more likely than younger males to cheat in real life. The results suggest that perhaps people who are using dating web sites do not conform to the “official” standards of dating culture, but that maybe the standards are changing. KeywordsSexting–Infidelity–Cybersex–Internet–Online dating–Online Survey
Article
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Recently, a phenomenon known as sexting, defined here as the transfer of sexually explicit photos via cell phone, has received substantial attention in the U.S. national media. To determine the current and potential future impact of sexting, more information about the behavior and the attitudes and beliefs surrounding it must be gathered, particularly as it relates to sexting by minors. The present study was designed to provide preliminary information about this phenomenon. Participants were 606 high school students (representing 98 % of the available student body) recruited from a single private high school in the southwestern U.S. Nearly 20 % of all participants reported they had ever sent a sexually explicit image of themselves via cell phone while almost twice as many reported that they had ever received a sexually explicit picture via cell phone and, of these, over 25 % indicated that they had forwarded such a picture to others. Of those reporting having sent a sexually explicit cell phone picture, over a third did so despite believing that there could be serious legal and other consequences attached to the behavior. Given the potential legal and psychological risks associated with sexting, it is important for adolescents, parents, school administrators, and even legislators and law enforcement to understand this behavior.
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To examine characteristics of youth sexting cases handled by police and their outcomes in response to clinical and other concerns about the risks of sexting behavior. Mail surveys were sent to a stratified national sample of 2712 law enforcement agencies followed by detailed telephone interviews with investigators about a nationally representative sample of sexting cases handled by police during 2008 and 2009 (n = 675). The cases involved "youth-produced sexual images" that constituted child pornography under relevant statutes according to respondents. US law enforcement agencies handled an estimated 3477 cases of youth-produced sexual images during 2008 and 2009 (95% confidence interval: 3282-3672). Two-thirds of the cases involved an "aggravating" circumstance beyond the creation and/or dissemination of a sexual image. In these aggravated cases, either an adult was involved (36% of cases) or a minor engaged in malicious, non-consensual, or abusive behavior (31% of cases). An arrest occurred in 62% of cases with an adult involved, in 36% of the aggravated youth-only cases, and in 18% of the "experimental" cases (youth-only and no aggravating elements). Most of the images (63%) were distributed by cell phone only and did not reach the Internet. Sex offender registration applied in only a few unusual cases. Many of the youth sexting cases that come to the attention of police include aggravating circumstances that raise concerns about health and risky sexual behavior, although some cases were relatively benign. Overall, arrest is not typical in cases with no adults involved.
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To obtain national estimates of youth involved in sexting in the past year (the transmission via cell phone, the Internet, and other electronic media of sexual images), as well as provide details of the youth involved and the nature of the sexual images. The study was based on a cross-sectional national telephone survey of 1560 youth Internet users, ages 10 through 17. Estimates varied considerably depending on the nature of the images or videos and the role of the youth involved. Two and one-half percent of youth had appeared in or created nude or nearly nude pictures or videos. However, this percentage is reduced to 1.0% when the definition is restricted to only include images that were sexually explicit (ie, showed naked breasts, genitals, or bottoms). Of the youth who participated in the survey, 7.1% said they had received nude or nearly nude images of others; 5.9% of youth reported receiving sexually explicit images. Few youth distributed these images. Because policy debates on youth sexting behavior focus on concerns about the production and possession of illegal child pornography, it is important to have research that collects details about the nature of the sexual images rather than using ambiguous screening questions without follow-ups. The rate of youth exposure to sexting highlights a need to provide them with information about legal consequences of sexting and advice about what to do if they receive a sexting image. However, the data suggest that appearing in, creating, or receiving sexual images is far from being a normative behavior for youth.
Article
This article investigates public attitudes regarding sanctions for youth and young adult sexting behaviors. Recently, youths have been charged under child pornography laws for sending or receiving a nude photo via their cell phones. This study investigates the impact that age, gender, and sexual orientation of the relationship has on the public's agreement with sex offender registration as a sanction for sexting.
Article
The effects of sexting on relationship satisfaction and the conditions under which sexting occurs in adult romantic relationships was the focus of the study. Participants were recruited through social networking websites to participate in an online survey. The sample (n = 86) included 44 participants who were married or living together and 42 participants who were in a dating relationship. Results indicated that couples who scored higher on the consensus scale were more likely to have sexted. Hedonism was found to be a motivator of sexting behaviors. Clinical implications are discussed.
Article
Although much media attention has been directed towards sexting (transmission of sexual material via phone or internet), little empirical work exists on the topic. Moreover, the few studies that do exist have been inconsistent in their definition of sexting and measures of sexting behavior, which makes comparisons between these studies difficult. In this study, we provide a granular, descriptive analysis of sexting behavior within a cohort of young adults, focusing on the content of sex messages, the medium used to transmit these messages, and the relationship context in which these transmissions occur. We found that sexting was fairly common across all types of romantic relationships (committed, casual sex, and cheating), text messaging was the primary medium used to send sex pictures and videos, and the prevalence, motivations, and risks associated with sexting varied by relationship context. Considering the complexity and diversity of sexting practices within this cohort, we suggest that those studying sexting and implementing initiatives with young adults use more detailed (rather than general) definitions and questions of sexting behavior, and that they delineate between these different types of content, transmission media, and relationship contexts.
Article
The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of sexting among sixth through twelfth grade students and its correlations with other risk behaviors. The survey was conducted in 35 different schools in a midwestern state. Overall, 17% of students engaged in sexting, which varied significantly by age (3% of 12-year-olds to 32% of 18-year-olds). Adjusted odds ratios found statistically significant correlations between sexting and sexual behaviors, substance use behaviors, emotional health behaviors, and time spent texting. Sexting should be addressed by parents, teachers, and mental health professionals who interact with adolescents.
Article
Abstract Sexting, or the exchange of sexually explicit material via Internet social-networking site or mobile phone, is an increasingly prevalent behavior. The study sought to (1) identify expectancies regarding sexting behaviors, (2) examine how demographics (i.e., gender, sexual identity, relationship status) might be differentially related to sexting expectancies and behaviors, and (3) examine whether these concurrent relationships are consistent with a theoretical causal model in which sexting expectancies influence sexting behaviors. The sample consisted of 278 undergraduate students (mean age=21.0 years, SD=4.56; 53.8% female; 76.3% caucasian). Factor analyses supported the validity and reliability of the Sextpectancies Measure (α=0.85-0.93 across subscales) and indicated two expectancy domains each for both sending and receiving sexts: positive expectancies (sexual-related and affect-related) and negative expectancies. Males reported stronger positive expectancies (F=4.64, p=0.03) while females reported stronger negative expectancies (F=6.11, p=0.01) about receiving sexts. There were also differences across relationship status regarding negative expectancies (F=2.25, p=0.05 for sending; F=4.24, p=0.002 for receiving). There were also significant effects of positive (F=45.98, p<0.001 for sending, F=22.42, p<0.001 for receiving) and negative expectancies (F=36.65, p=0.02 sending, F=14.41, p<0.001 receiving) on sexting behaviors (η(2) from 0.04-0.13). College students reported both positive and negative sextpectancies, although sextpectancies and sexting varied significantly across gender, race, sexual identity, and relationship status. Concurrent relationships were consistent with the causal model of sextpectancies influencing sexting behaviors, and this study serves as the first test of this model, which could inform future prevention strategies to mitigate sexting risks.
Article
Purpose: Sexting has stirred debate over its legality and safety, but few researchers have documented the relationship between sexting and health. We describe the sexting behavior of young adults in the United States, and examine its association with sexual behavior and psychological well-being. Methods: Using an adapted Web version of respondent-driven sampling, we recruited a sample of U.S. young adults (aged 18-24 years, N = 3,447). We examined participant sexting behavior using four categories of sexting: (1) nonsexters, (2) receivers, (3) senders, and (4) two-way sexters. We then assessed the relationships between sexting categories and sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behavior, and psychological well-being. Results: More than half (57%) of the respondents were nonsexters, 28.2% were two-way sexters, 12.6% were receivers, and 2% were senders. Male respondents were more likely to be receivers than their female counterparts. Sexually active respondents were more likely to be two-way sexters than non-sexually active ones. Among participants who were sexually active in the past 30 days, we found no differences across sexting groups in the number of sexual partners or the number of unprotected sex partners in the past 30 days. We also found no relationship between sexting and psychological well-being. Conclusions: Our results suggest that sexting is not related to sexual risk behavior or psychological well-being. We discuss the findings of this study and propose directions for further research on sexting.
Article
Purpose: Cell phone use has become more widespread over the past decade. Young adults are frequently early adopters of new technologies, including cell phones. Most previous research examining sexting, the act of sending sexually explicit or suggestive images via text message, has focused on the legal or social consequences of this behavior. The current study focused on the public health implications of sexting by examining associations between sexting, substance use, and sexual risk behavior in youth. Methods: Young adults (N = 763) completed online questionnaires assessing demographics, cell phone use (e.g., texting, sexting), substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. Results: Sexting was reported by a substantial minority of participants (44%). Compared with their nonsexting counterparts, participants who engaged in sexting were more likely to report recent substance use and high-risk sexual behaviors, including unprotected sex and sex with multiple partners. Of those who engaged in sexting, a considerable percentage (31.8%) reported having sex with a new partner for the first time after sexting with that person. In multivariate analyses, sexting was associated with high-risk sexual behavior, after accounting for demographic factors, total texting behaviors, and substance use. Conclusions: Results suggest that sexting is robustly associated with high-risk sexual behavior. Many individuals exchange explicit or provocative photos with long-term sexual partners, but at least some participants in this study were incurring new sexual risks after sexting. Additional research is needed to understand the contexts in which sexting occurs, motivations for sexting, and relationship of sexting to risk behavior.
Article
This document addresses legal and practical issues related to the practice colloquially known as sexting. It was created by Harvard Law School’s Cyberlaw Clinic, based at the Berkman Center for Internet & Society, for the Berkman Center’s Youth and Media Policy Working Group Initiative. The Initiative is exploring policy issues that fall within three substantive clusters emerging from youth’s information and communications technology practices: Risky Behaviors and Online Safety; Privacy, Publicity and Reputation;and Youth Created Content and Information Quality. The Initiative is funded by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation and is co‐directed by danah boyd, Urs Gasser, and John Palfrey. This document was created for the Risky Behaviors and Online Safety cluster, which is focused on four core issues: (1) sexual solicitation and problematic sexual encounters; (2) internet‐related bullying and harassment; (3) access to problematic content, including pornography and self‐harm content; and (4) youth‐generated problematic content, including sexting. The Initiative’s goal is to bring the best research on youth and media into the policy‐making debate and to propose practical interventions based upon that research. This document is intended to provide background for the discussion of interventions related to sexting. It begins with a definition of sexting, and continues with overviews of research and media stories related to sexting. It then discusses the statutory and constitutional framework for child pornography and obscenity. It concludes with a description of current and pending legislation meant to address sexting.
Article
Objective To examine the prevalence of sexting behaviors as well as their relation to dating, sex, and risky sexual behaviors using a large school-based sample of adolescents. Design Data are from time 2 of a 3-year longitudinal study. Participants self-reported their history of dating, sexual behaviors, and sexting (sent, asked, been asked, and/or bothered by being asked to send nude photographs of themselves). Setting Seven public high schools in southeast Texas. Participants A total of 948 public high school students (55.9% female) participated. The sample consisted of African American (26.6%), white (30.3%), Hispanic (31.7%), Asian (3.4%), and mixed/other (8.0%) teens. Main Outcome Measure Having ever engaged in sexting behaviors. Results Twenty-eight percent of the sample reported having sent a naked picture of themselves through text or e-mail (sext), and 31% reported having asked someone for a sext. More than half (57%) had been asked to send a sext, with most being bothered by having been asked. Adolescents who engaged in sexting behaviors were more likely to have begun dating and to have had sex than those who did not sext (all P < .001). For girls, sexting was also associated with risky sexual behaviors. Conclusions The results suggest that teen sexting is prevalent and potentially indicative of teens' sexual behaviors. Teen-focused health care providers should consider screening for sexting behaviors to provide age-specific education about the potential consequences of sexting and as a mechanism for discussing sexual behaviors.
Article
This article will discuss the phenomenon of "sexting" (i.e., the exchange of sexually explicit images between adolescents via cell phone) in the United States, with a particular focus on clinical and legal implications. Although sexting is frequently discussed in the popular press, there is virtually no scientific literature available on this topic. In contrast, the legal literature has discussed sexting more comprehensively due to the implications of child pornography statutes for the social response to involved youth. This article will consider sexting from a clinical and legal perspective, and recommend ways to understand and address this practice clinically with adolescent patients.
Article
In this study, we explored how texting and sexting practices are related to attachment in college students’ (n=744) committed romantic relationships. Participants completed a survey containing questions about their texting and sexting practices and attachment styles with relationship partners. Results showed that texting and sexting are relatively common in young adult romantic relationships, and texting and sexting are both significantly related to attachment style. However, whereas text messaging was more common among those with secure attachments (i.e., those with less attachment avoidance), sexting (both texts and pictures) was more common among those with insecure attachments, particularly those with higher attachment avoidance. Whereas anxious attachment predicted variance in sending sex text messages only, attachment avoidance contributed unique variance in sending both sex texts and pictures. This relationship was moderated by gender—avoidant men were more likely than avoidant women to send sex text and picture messages to relationship partners.
Article
“Sexting” refers to sending and receiving sexually suggestive images, videos, or texts on cell phones. As a means for maintaining or initiating a relationship, sexting behavior and attitudes may be understood through adult attachment theory. One hundred and twenty-eight participants (M=22 and F=106), aged 18–30years, completed an online questionnaire about their adult attachment styles and sexting behavior and attitudes. Attachment anxiety predicted sending texts that solicit sexual activity for those individuals in relationships. Attachment anxiety also predicted positive attitudes towards sexting such as accepting it as normal, that it will enhance the relationship, and that partners will expect sexting. Sexting may be a novel form for expressing attachment anxiety.
Article
Several legal cases in the United States in which adolescents were charged with child pornography distribution after sharing nude photographs of themselves with romantic partners or others have highlighted the issue of sexting behaviors among youth. Although policy makers, mental health workers, educators and parents have all expressed concern regarding the potential harm of sexting behaviors, little to no research has examined this phenomenon empirically. The current study presents some preliminary data on the incidence of sexting behavior and associated high risk sexual behaviors in a sample of 207 predominantly Hispanic young women age 16-25. Approximately 20% of young women reported engaging in sexting behavior. Sexting behaviors were not associated with most other high-risk sexual behaviors, but were slightly more common in women who found sex to be highly pleasurable or who displayed histrionic personality traits.
Low risk associated with most teenage sexting: A study of 617 18-year-olds. Retrieved on 12 December, 2012 from Sexting behaviours among young Hispanic women: Incidence and association with other high-risk sexual behaviours
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Englander, E. (2012). Low risk associated with most teenage sexting: A study of 617 18-year-olds. Retrieved on 12 December, 2012 from. http://webhost.bridgew.edu/ marc/SEXTING%20AND%20COERCION%20report.pdf Ferguson, C. J. (2011). Sexting behaviours among young Hispanic women: Incidence and association with other high-risk sexual behaviours. Psychiatric Quarterly, 82, 239–243.
Of the seven studies that examined age as a factor in sexting behav-iour, six found that it was not significantly related to prevalence of sexting in adults
  • Benotsch
Of the seven studies that examined age as a factor in sexting behav-iour, six found that it was not significantly related to prevalence of sexting in adults (Benotsch et al., 2013; Dir, Coskunpinar, et al., 2013;
The frequency, attitudes, and beliefs of sexting among college students
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Woolard, A. (2011). The frequency, attitudes, and beliefs of sexting among college students. Unpublished Master's Thesis, Eastern Illinois University, Illinois, United States.
Explanation and elaboration The true prevalence of sexting Attachment in adulthood: Structure, dynamics, and change
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The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: Explanation and elaboration. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 62(10), e1ee34. Lounsbury, K., Mitchell, K. J., & Finkerhor, D. (2011). The true prevalence of sexting. Retrieved on 12 December 2012, from. http://unh.edu/ccrc/pdf/Sexting%20Fact%20Sheet%204_ 29_11.pdf Mikulincer, M., & Shaver, P. R. (2007). Attachment in adulthood: Structure, dynamics, and change. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
2012) was found to be 11.96%, 95% CIs [5.06–18.85]. Five studies measured adolescents receiv-ing sexts with sexually suggestive text or photo content
  • Hinduja
Hinduja & Patchin, 2010; Mitchell et al., 2012) was found to be 11.96%, 95% CIs [5.06–18.85]. Five studies measured adolescents receiv-ing sexts with sexually suggestive text or photo content (AP-MTV, 2009; Cox Communications, 2009; Hinduja & Patchin, 2010; Lenhart, 2009;
Sexting and sexual relationships among teens and young adults) (doi: http://scholarworks. boisestate Sexting: A brief guide for educators and parents [fact sheet Factors affecting sexting behaviours among selected undergraduate students
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Henderson, L., & Morgan, E. (2011). Sexting and sexual relationships among teens and young adults. McNair Scholars Research Journal, 7(1) (doi: http://scholarworks. boisestate.edu/mcnair_journal/vol7/iss1/9) Hinduja, S., & Patchin, J. W. (2010). Sexting: A brief guide for educators and parents [fact sheet]. Retrieved 12 December, 2013, from. http://www.cyberbullying.us/ Sexting_Fact_Sheet.pdf Hudson, H. K. (2011). Factors affecting sexting behaviours among selected undergraduate students. Unpublished doctoral thesis, Southern University Illinois Carbondale, Illinois, United States.
2012), with a mean prevalence of 15
  • Mitchell
Mitchell et al., 2012), with a mean prevalence of 15.64%, 95% CIs [11.71−19.57]. Two of these studies (Hinduja & Patchin, 2010;
2012) was found to be 10.2%, 95% CIs [1.77–18.63], whilst the estimated mean prevalence across studies that specifically measured sexting with photo content
  • Mitchell
Mitchell et al., 2012; Rice et al., 2012) was found to be 10.2%, 95% CIs [1.77–18.63], whilst the estimated mean prevalence across studies that specifically measured sexting with photo content (AP-MTV, 2009;
three studies found that males were more likely to receive sexts than females 2012), one study found that males were more likely to engage in sexting behaviours in general than females One study showed gender was not a predictor of the explicitness of sexting content sent to partners
  • Childers Wysocki
  • Dir
  • Coskunpinar
Wysocki & Childers, 2011), three studies found that males were more likely to receive sexts than females (AP-MTV, 2009; Dir, Coskunpinar, et al., 2013; Gordon-Messer et al., 2012), one study found that males were more likely to engage in sexting behaviours in general than females (Hudson, 2011), whilst six studies reported no gender differences (Benotsch et al., 2013; Dir, Cyders, et al., 2013; Drouin & Landgraff, 2012; Giroux, 2011; Henderson & Morgan, 2011; NCPTUP, 2008). One study showed gender was not a predictor of the explicitness of sexting content sent to partners (Parker et al., 2013).
Her teen committed suicide over 'sexting' (Today.com) Retrieved on Sexting " and sex offender registration: Do age, gender, and sexual orientation matter? Deviant Behavior
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Celizic, M. (2009). Her teen committed suicide over 'sexting' (Today.com). Retrieved on 12 December, 2012, from. http://studentservices.dadeschools.net/sexting/pdfs/Her_ Teen_Committed_Suicide_Over_Sexting.pdf Comartin, E., Kernsmith, R., & Kernsmith, P. (2013). " Sexting " and sex offender registration: Do age, gender, and sexual orientation matter? Deviant Behavior, 34(1), 38–52.
Sexting: New technology, old problem Sexting and student discipline
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Muscari, M. (2010). Sexting: New technology, old problem. Medscape Public Health & Prevention (Retrieved 12 December, 2010 from http://www.medscape.com/ viewarticle/702078) O'Donovan, E. (2010). Sexting and student discipline. District Administration, 46, 60–64.
Teens and sexting: How and why minor teens are sending sexually suggestive nude or nearly-nude images via text messaging. PEW Internet & American Life Project
  • A Lenhart
Lenhart, A. (December 15). Teens and sexting: How and why minor teens are sending sexually suggestive nude or nearly-nude images via text messaging. PEW Internet & American Life Project, PEW Research Center (Retrieved on 12 December, 2012, from http://pewresearch.org/assets/pdf/teens-and-sexting.pdf) Liberati, A., Altman, D.G., Tetzlaff, J., Mulrow, C., Gøtzsche, P. C., Ioannidis, J., et al. (2009).
Average teenager or sex offender? Solutions to the legal dilemma caused by sexting
  • S Shafron-Perez
Shafron-Perez, S. (2009). Average teenager or sex offender? Solutions to the legal dilemma caused by sexting. The John Marshall Journal of Computer & Information Law, 26, 431-451.
When sex and cell phones: Inside the prosecution of a teen sexting case Sexting: Youth practices and legal implications
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Richards, R. D., & Calvert, C. (2009). When sex and cell phones: Inside the prosecution of a teen sexting case. Retrieved on 12 December, 2012, from. http://www. lawrencewalters.com/articles/AlpertArticle.pdf Sacco, D. T., Argudin, R., Maguire, J., & Tallon, K. (2010). Sexting: Youth practices and legal implications. Berkman Center Research Publication No. 2010-8 (Retrieve 12
Sharing personal images and videos among young people
  • A Phippen
Phippen, A. (2009). Sharing personal images and videos among young people. Retrieved on 12 December, 2012, from. http://www.swgfl.org.uk/Staying-Safe/Sexting-Survey Rice, E., Rhoades, H., Winetrobe, H., Sanchez, M., Montoya, J., Plant, A., et al. (2012).
Submis-sion to the Victorian parliament Law reform Committee's inquiry into sexting Sex, sexuality, sexting, and sex ed: Adolescents and the media
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Boulat, M., Caddaye, D., D'Souza, H., Glyde, M., Hatwal, A., Jansz, C., et al. (2012). Submis-sion to the Victorian parliament Law reform Committee's inquiry into sexting. Retrieved 12 December, 2013, from. http://www.privacy.vic.gov.au/privacy/web2. nsf/files/inquiry-into-sexting-submission/$file/sexting_inquiry_submission_2012.pdf Brown, J.D., Keller, S., & Stern, S. (2009). Sex, sexuality, sexting, and sex ed: Adolescents and the media. The Prevention Researcher, 26, 12–16.
Sexting: Connections to sexual and social development Unpublished Honors Thesis, The University of Arizona, Arizona, United States Sexting among young adults
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Giroux, A. M. (2011). Sexting: Connections to sexual and social development. Unpublished Honors Thesis, The University of Arizona, Arizona, United States. Gordon-Messer, D., Bauermeister, J. A., Grodzinski, A., & Zimmerman, M. (2012). Sexting among young adults. Journal of Adolescent Health, 52, 301–306.
the estimated mean preva-lence was found to be 56.01%, 95% CIs [53.2–58.82]. One additional study collapsed sending and receiving sexts into one category, reporting a prevalence rate of 44%
  • Ferguson
Ferguson, 2011; Giroux, 2011; Hudson, 2011; Woolard, 2011), the estimated mean preva-lence was found to be 56.01%, 95% CIs [53.2–58.82]. One additional study collapsed sending and receiving sexts into one category, reporting a prevalence rate of 44% (Benotsch et al., 2013).
Teens and sexting: How and why minor teens are sending sexually suggestive nude or nearly-nude images via text messaging
  • A Lenhart
Lenhart, A. (December 15). Teens and sexting: How and why minor teens are sending sexually suggestive nude or nearly-nude images via text messaging. PEW Internet & American Life Project, PEW Research Center (Retrieved on 12 December, 2012, from http://pewresearch.org/assets/pdf/teens-and-sexting.pdf)
Sexting: A brief guide for educators and parents [fact sheet
  • S Hinduja
  • J W Patchin
Hinduja, S., & Patchin, J. W. (2010). Sexting: A brief guide for educators and parents [fact sheet]. Retrieved 12 December, 2013, from. http://www.cyberbullying.us/ Sexting_Fact_Sheet.pdf
Factors affecting sexting behaviours among selected undergraduate students
  • H K Hudson
Hudson, H. K. (2011). Factors affecting sexting behaviours among selected undergraduate students. Unpublished doctoral thesis, Southern University Illinois Carbondale, Illinois, United States.
The true prevalence of sexting Retrieved on 12 Attachment in adulthood: Structure, dynamics, and change
  • K Lounsbury
  • K J Mitchell
  • D Finkerhor
Lounsbury, K., Mitchell, K. J., & Finkerhor, D. (2011). The true prevalence of sexting. Retrieved on 12 December 2012, from. http://unh.edu/ccrc/pdf/Sexting%20Fact%20Sheet%204_ 29_11.pdf Mikulincer, M., & Shaver, P. R. (2007). Attachment in adulthood: Structure, dynamics, and change. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Sharing personal images and videos among young people http://www.swgfl.org.uk/Staying-Safe/Sexting-Survey Rice, Sexually explicit cell phone messaging associated with sexual risk among adolescents
  • A E Phippen
  • H Rhoades
  • H Winetrobe
  • M Sanchez
  • J Montoya
  • A Plant
Phippen, A. (2009). Sharing personal images and videos among young people. Retrieved on 12 December, 2012, from. http://www.swgfl.org.uk/Staying-Safe/Sexting-Survey Rice, E., Rhoades, H., Winetrobe, H., Sanchez, M., Montoya, J., Plant, A., et al. (2012). Sexually explicit cell phone messaging associated with sexual risk among adolescents. Pediatrics, 130, 667–673.