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Methods and Meanings: Credibility and Trustworthiness of Qualitative Research

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Abstract

Historically, qualitative research has been viewed as "soft" science and criticized for lacking scientific rigor compared to quantitative research, which uses experimental, objective methods (Mays & Pope, 1995). Common criticisms are that qualitative research is subjective, anecdotal, subject to researcher bias, and lacking generalizability by producing large quantities of detailed information about a single, unique phenomenon or setting (Koch & Harrington, 1998). However, qualitative research is not inferior research, but a different approach in studying humans. Qualitative research emphasizes exploring individual experiences, describing phenomenon, and developing theory (Vishnevsky & Beanlands, 2004).

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... 39 Credibility will be enhanced by building a good rapport with the focus group participants and regular member checking of raw data. 40 In addition, as the first author/ researcher is also an academic from a national university in Bali and has been involved in collaborative projects with some NGOs, existing networks and knowledge of services and programs will be beneficial throughout the research process. In order to reduce researcher bias, in addition to the bracketing process, member checking with research participants will be conducted to clarify whether the interpretation is representative of their thoughts/beliefs. ...
... 39 Credibility will be enhanced by building a good rapport with the community. 40 To increase the conformability, several representative quotations from respondents that signify each theme will be included. 38,40 Comprehensive descriptions of the contextual data and activities of the study through engagement, reflexive journaling, documentation and presenting the findings with quotations will provide transferability through allowing others to analyse the situation and research outcomes based on setting and context. ...
... 40 To increase the conformability, several representative quotations from respondents that signify each theme will be included. 38,40 Comprehensive descriptions of the contextual data and activities of the study through engagement, reflexive journaling, documentation and presenting the findings with quotations will provide transferability through allowing others to analyse the situation and research outcomes based on setting and context. 38 This study will be consistent with qualitative reporting, standard and criteria described in the literature including the COREQ and ENTREQ guidelines. ...
Article
Introduction The prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among MSM (men who have sex with men) and transgender women (waria) in Bali is of significant public health concern. According to the 2015 Integrated Biological and Behavioural Survey (IBBS), HIV prevalence among MSM in Denpasar (the capital city of Bali) was 36% – the highest prevalence in this population reported nationally. In addition, 26% of MSM and 25% of waria in Indonesia were living with HIV in 2015. There is limited research examining the attitudes, behaviours and experiences of MSM in Indonesia, and specifically in Bali. This study will develop a model to help understand the social-cultural context, attitudes, behaviours, and experiences to inform interventions to increase safe sex practices amongst Indonesian MSM and waria who live in Bali. Methods and analysis The community-engaged research (CEnR) study, employing a sequential mixed-methods approach, will engage MSM and waria community throughout all five phases. The first two phases will include partnership building and exploratory research (focus group discussions/FGDs). Phase three will include the administration of a survey ( n = 374 Indonesian MSM and waria). Phases four and five include explanatory (in-depth interviews) and dissemination phases, respectively. Multivariate analysis will be employed for the quantitative data (the survey) and thematic analysis will be used to analyse the qualitative data (FGDs and in-depth interviews). Discussion The findings of this CEnR will inform culturally congruent interventions for organisation working with MSM and transgender to promote safer sexual health practice and improve general well-being of this community.
... Credibility is defined [20][21][22] as an accurate portrayal of participants. To ensure credibility of the research findings, the researchers adhered to the prescribed design and methods of qualitative research as suggested in literature [20,21]. ...
... Dependability refers to the constancy of the data over similar conditions [21]. Dependability was ensured by providing a clear description of the designs and methods to allow other researchers to replicate or reproduce the study [22]. ...
... Confirmability refers to the researcher's ability to demonstrate that the data represent the participants' responses and not the researcher's viewpoints [22]. To adhere to the criterion of confirmability, the researchers provided a clear description of how conclusions and interpretations were established, and by providing enough evidence that that the findings were derived directly from the data as presented by the participants. ...
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Research studies as well as anecdotal evidence suggest that there are challenges regarding the NHI plan implementation. These include problems such as an increase in illnesses and a shortage of personnel to drive the project in South African public hospitals. This is exacerbated by the existing situation of most government-funded healthcare institutions, which are characterized by bad administration, insufficient budget, inadequate infrastructure, and insufficient drug supply, as highlighted in several studies. The hospital under investigation is one such facility, with a history of patients sleeping on the floor and people being turned away owing to a shortage of experts and an overburdened staff. This situation is concerning, given that the government claims to be providing appropriate funds to the institution. The hospital under research is highly regarded by the surrounding community. However, a visit by the Health MEC in 2014 revealed that the facility had insufficient sanitary standards and a high complaint rate. Based on the foregoing, as well as the difficulties that both employees and patients are confronted with at the selected hospital, the question that emerges is whether the hospital is fit for the implementation of the NHI. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the preparation for the launch of the national health insurance scheme at a Johannesburg hospital. Setting: The study was conducted at a hospital situated in eastern suburbs of Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa. Method: The study employed a qualitative method with an explorative, descriptive, qualitative study design. The population consisted of selected hospital employees, such as doctors, dispensary officers, hospital managers, human resources workers, facility managers, and administration record officials who were employed at the selected hospital. Purposive sampling was used to select participants. Sample size: Category saturation was used to determine the sample size. The participants for the study were chosen using purposeful sampling, with the researcher aiming for those who were familiar with the NHI scheme at the institution. Semi structured interviews and a focus group discussion were used to gather data. The data from the focus group discussion and semi-structured interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Results: The investigation found that the hospital was preparing to for the NHI implementation, but that was riddled with lack of resources, poor infrastructure, lack of training, delays in development and poor technological advances. Recommendations: The paper suggests that human resources be increased, infrastructure be upgraded, medicines and equipment be increased, and enough training on NHI implementation be provided. Contribution: The paper adds to the body of knowledge regarding the NHI in South Africa.
... Member checking is a strategy used in qualitative research to increase the quality and rigor of studies (Cope, 2014;Houghton et al., 2013;Yilmaz, 2013). To maintain rigor with my study, I used a company to transcribe the interview responses, scheduled a telephone call with participants, provided participants with a summary of the interview responses, and then verified with them if my summary and interpretation of the responses were accurate. ...
... Yin (2014) argued that describing in detail how to design and conduct a study is essential. Recording all steps taken and decisions made during the study are paramount for establishing an audit trail (Cope, 2014;Houghton et al., 2013;Morse, 2015). Using a QDAS further supports the auditability of a study (Houghton et al., 2013;Kaczynski et al., 2014;Woods et al., 2016). ...
... Following these strategies, I used rich quotations from the interviews when making interpretations and drawing conclusions, to assure confirmability. Cope (2014) used such an approach. ...
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Additive manufacturing (AM), also called 3-dimensional printing (3DP), emerged as a disruptive technology affecting multiple organizations’ business models and supply chains and endangering incumbents’ financial health, or even rendering them obsolete. The world market for products created by AM has increased more than 25% year over year. Using Christensen’s theory of disruptive innovation as a conceptual framework, the purpose of this multiple case study was to explore the successful strategies that 4 individual managers, 1 at each of 4 different light and high-tech manufacturing companies in the Netherlands, used to adopt AM technology into their business models. Participant firms originated from 3 provinces and included a value-added logistics service provider and 3 machine shops serving various industries, including the automotive and medical sectors. Data were collected through semistructured interviews, member checking, and analysis of company documents that provided information about the adoption of 3DP into business models. Using Yin’s 5-step data analysis approach, data were compiled, disassembled, reassembled, interpreted, and concluded until 3 major themes emerged: identify business opportunities for AM technology, experiment with AM technology, and embed AM technology. Because of the design freedom the use of AM enables, in combination with its environmental efficiency, the implications for positive social change include possibilities for increasing local employment, improving the environment, and enhancing healthcare for the prosperity of local and global citizens by providing potential solutions that managers could use to deploy AM technology.
... Bracketing contributed to confirmability by ensuring findings are grounded in data and represent participant responses rather than researcher viewpoints (Cope, 2014). Keeping field notes, recording reflective thoughts in a journal, and honoring relevant research reinforced transparency and confirmability of the research path (Korstjens & Moser, 2018). ...
... Keeping field notes, recording reflective thoughts in a journal, and honoring relevant research reinforced transparency and confirmability of the research path (Korstjens & Moser, 2018). When findings were reported, incorporating participant responses and descriptions of how conclusions were drawn directly from data contributed to exhibit confirmability (Cope, 2014). ...
... Transferability was established through thick description including a detailed narrative and relevant context in a presentation of findings providing meaning and interpretations of participant intentions (Korstjens & Moser, 2018). Thick description fostered understanding and plausibility (Cope, 2014). Conclusions drawn in qualitative research are descriptions and interpretations, sans the element of proof (Cope, 2014). ...
Thesis
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In the realm of the internationalization of Korean higher education, the number of international students enrolled in Korean universities is on the rise. International students, like all college attendees, benefit from interacting directly with faculty members. Student-faculty interactions remain infrequent, despite being beneficial for student experiences and outcomes. Rare interactions between students and professors in South Korean tertiary education are problematic, especially for international students who face additional challenges. The phenomenological study explored the nature of international students’ lived experiences of student-faculty interactions while attending a Korean university. Through semi-structured in-depth interviews, 17 participants shared a wide range of experiences of direct student-faculty interactions inside and outside the classroom. The study identified eight prevalent meaning-making themes and 31 sub-themes evidenced in participant experiences. Despite infrequency, student-faculty interactions were deemed consequential for international students, who wanted to connect with professors beyond book-based knowledge. Factors such as professor demographics, language proficiency, and means of instruction influenced the quality and frequency of interactions. Immediacy was deemed important in meaningful relationships with faculty, while certain elements of the Korean educational culture hindered contacts. International students emphasized distinctions between in-person learning and online classes, as the COVID-19 pandemic greatly impacted instruction and student-faculty interactions. The study findings filled a gap in literature and may guide administration and faculty efforts towards genuine internationalization of the Korean higher education system, of which recruitment of international students is a crucial element.
... After independent analysis, the researchers met and merged related themes in an iterative manner until the themes were refined. This was done because independent analysis helps in enhancing the credibility and trustworthiness of findings (Cope, 2014). To further reduce bias in the study findings, the researchers sent out a draft of the final manuscript to participants and they verified their responsesmember checks (Cope, 2014;Lietz et al., 2006;Ritchie and Lewis, 2003). ...
... This was done because independent analysis helps in enhancing the credibility and trustworthiness of findings (Cope, 2014). To further reduce bias in the study findings, the researchers sent out a draft of the final manuscript to participants and they verified their responsesmember checks (Cope, 2014;Lietz et al., 2006;Ritchie and Lewis, 2003). From the verification exercise, none of the participants requested changes to their narratives. ...
... From the verification exercise, none of the participants requested changes to their narratives. This was also done to enhance the credibility of findingswhich is seen by Cope (2014) and Lietz et al. (2006) as the extent to which the findings give an actual plastic image of what is on the ground from the researchers' interpretations of findings. Moreover, to ensure the confirmability of findingsas posited by Cope (2014) the researchers provided rich verbatim quotes from participants and these quotes depict each emergent theme. ...
Article
This study explores one of the key factors influencing the struggle for social work professional identity, enunciating the impact of the effectiveness of the Council of Social Workers of Zimbabwe (CSW) in regulation of social work. This article, as such, focuses on abuse of the social work title in Zimbabwe’s government departments. It examines how non-social workers abuse the title, together with related effects and possible interventions. The researchers used a qualitative approach and employed a phenomenological design. Participants were recruited through snowballing and the researchers reached data saturation after 17 semi-structured telephone interviews. The collected data were analysed through thematic analysis. Findings of the study reflect that government departments employ non-social workers as medical social workers and probation officers, and this generally affects proper service delivery and the social work profession in particular. The study further established that the CSW has to ensure the recruitment of qualified social workers and rigorous monitoring of – and improved collaboration with – government departments. The researchers then suggested that if the CSW is to make future changes in protecting the social work profession in Zimbabwe, it should, inter alia, review its current legislative framework and draw lessons of best practices from other countries.
... Interviews were conducted privately either face to face (in an office), by telephone or video call. Data collection and analysis occurred concurrently and data collection was discontinued when no new information was being identified during interviews (Cope, 2014). No one refused participation, no participant dropped out and no repeat interviews were carried out. ...
... Definitions for the TFA constructs were adapted to communication with adult ICU patients (Table 1). To enhance credibility of the analysis a code book was constructed and modified using an audit trail through the multiple rounds of coding and discussions among the research team (Cope, 2014;De Cuir-Gunby et al., 2011). Further meanings in and across the acceptability constructs and participant groups were elaborated during the compilation stage. ...
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Aim: To explore barriers to and facilitators for supporting communication with and for patients treated with invasive mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design: A qualitative descriptive study reported according to the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research. Methods: Adult intensive care unit patients treated with an advanced airway for mechanical ventilation, their family members and healthcare providers (nurses, intensivists and allied health) were recruited for interviews between January and April 2021. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using content analysis methods. Reported communication barriers and facilitators were mapped to the theoretical framework of acceptability to identify potentially modifiable clinical and institutional practices. Results: We recruited 29 participants (20 healthcare providers, four patients and five family member). Provider communication barriers included isolation procedures, lack of personal protective equipment and inadequate communication tools/training, which reduced perceived communication frequency and effectiveness. Patients and families reported infrequent proactive provision of communication tools, which contributed to a crisis of unmet needs. Reported facilitators included adequate access to personal protective equipment to mitigate the risk of patient proximity and communication tools/training to improve communication effectiveness. Authentic unit leadership helped to assuage pandemic work stressors and encourage humanistic care. Our analysis indicates low acceptability of existing communication practices during the COVID-19 pandemic and the importance of leadership to reduce the burden of communication through provision of key necessary resources. Conclusion: COVID-19 conditions have precipitated a communication crisis in the ICU. The results of this study have practice and policy implications and will be used to co-design a communication intervention for use during and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic. Impact: The study contributes a better understanding of resources necessary to support patient communication. Results apply beyond the pandemic to routine use of infection prevention and control precautions in the intensive care unit.
... To ensure a high level of quality and integrity of the data, the study adopted Guba's (1985, 1986) criteria for quality in qualitative research. The five criteria, namely credibility, dependability, confirmability, transferability and authenticity (Cope, 2014; Osei Boakye, Dei Mensah, Bartrop-Sackey, & Muah, 2021), demonstrate the trustworthiness of qualitative research findings. ...
... The study ensured credibility by presenting and reporting exactly the respondents' statements while illustrating with quotes. Transferability was ensured by synthesising the thick descriptions of the various respondents into phrases such that findings could be generalised to other readers with similar experiences (Cope, 2014;Korstjens & Moser, 2018;Osei Boakye et al., 2021). ...
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Orientation: Educational institutions are ranked highly as the performance of their talented staff gives them a competitive advantage. Higher educational institutions (HEIs) and for that matter technical universities in Ghana, however, have the challenge of retaining their talented staff. Research purpose: To explore in the Ghanaian context the talent retention strategies employed by HEIs (technical universities) as a critical aspect of the talent management (TM) process. Motivation for the study: There is limited literature on TM in HEIs in Ghana and especially on talent retention in the technical university context. Research approach/design and method: A qualitative research approach and a case study design were adopted in this study, and 20 academic and management staff were purposively sampled and interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. Main findings: The study found that the university’s retention strategies employed included fair handling of staff promotions, settling of lawsuits and legal tussles, training and development measures, awards and recognition of talented staff, and better conditions of service for its talented staff.P ractical/managerial implications: This research provides insights into how talents are retained and specifically examines the talent retention strategies for which technical universities, institutions and human resource practitioners could employ. Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to TM literature by providing empirical evidence from the HEI context. It also extends the TM literature with evidence from technical universities in Ghana, as previous studies have been predominantly conducted in western contexts. Keywords: talent; talent management practices; talent retention strategies; higher education institutions, Cape Coast Technical University
... This permitted the attainment of sufficiently rich data that accurately depicted the participants' experiences. Credibility and trustworthiness was ensured through data triangulation (interviews, field notes and reflective memos), independent dual coding of transcripts, team consensus on thematic development and the use of verbatim quotations (26). ...
... While studies conducted from a single setting might limit transferability to all settings, the primary aim of this research was to acquire in-depth knowledge about the phenomenon studied. The steps taken to maximize study rigor and ensure data saturation (25,26) should provide confidence in the broad applicability of the findings to other non-admitted, public hospital services. ...
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Background Hospital clinicians are increasingly encouraged to use outpatient consultations as an avenue to deliver opportunistic health promotion. There is a dearth of evidence regarding the acceptance of health promotion initiatives from hospital patients themselves. Methods We explored the experiences of non-admitted patients who, during a routine consultation with a hospital surgeon received a recommendation to increase physical activity (PA) and a recommendation to engage in a PA telephone coaching program. Twenty-two semi-structured interviews were conducted with individuals who had received the recommendation and proceeded to enroll in a telephone coaching intervention to identify factors that influenced behavior change. Data were analyzed thematically. Results Participants' age ranged between 42 and 66 years, with the average age being 54 years. Of the participants, 15 (68%) were women and 7 (32%) were men. Three major themes were identified: (1) the hospital visit represented an opportunity for behavior change that is not to be missed; (2) surgeons were influential in promoting PA change contemplation; and (3) patients welcomed a communication style that promoted autonomy. Conclusions Almost all patients considered receiving the recommendation to engage with the telephone coaching as acceptable and helpful toward PA change. Although working in time-restricted consultations, surgeons delivered the recommendation in a patient-centered, autonomy-supportive way, which influenced behavior change. Hospitals should explore avenues to integrate health promotion into routine care, confident of the acceptability and appropriateness of health promotion practice to hospital patients.
... The use of content analysis as a research method has been widened in health studies in recent years. Conventional content analysis aims to describe a phenomenon [19][20][21]. The phenomenon in this study was the lived experience of mothers of a young child with T1D. ...
... Guba & Lincoln criteria, including credibility, transferability, conformability, and dependability were used to assure the rigor of qualitative data [19,22]. Member checking was carried out to ensure the data's credibility. ...
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Introduction Caregiver burden is a complex construct that depends heavily on the context and culture of the community in which care takes place. This study aimed to explore the lived experience of being mothers of a child with type 1 diabetes aged 6 to 18 years. Materials and methods We used a qualitative methodology utilizing conventional content analysis. We conducted 24 interviews with 20 mothers who had a child with type 1 diabetes aged 6 to 17 years. Results The mean age of mothers and children were 36.3 and 12.3 years, respectively. The mean of years with the disease was 4.3 years. Thirteen children were girls. The essential theme was coping with the burden of care through personalized coping and active acquisition of social support. The main theme consists of four sub-themes including Crisis in the family and burden of care, Losing the family equilibrium, Personalized coping strategies, and Active acquisition of social support. Mothers used personalized strategies and every support they could get to reach their aim. Conclusions Families of children with type 1 diabetes need extensive and personalized care plans.
... The study's audit trail consisted of the list of themes, sub-themes, categories, and each of their definitions from the data analysis process. The researcher participated in reflexive journaling regularly during each phase/step of the research and analysis processes, as well as when emerging thoughts occurred regarding the research process, which could include new ideas, beliefs, confusion, or concerns (Carlson, 2010;Cope, 2014;Rodwell, 1998). This study's reflexive journal contains a variety of information, such as activities that were conducted from day-to-day, plans for the study for the upcoming days, weeks, etcetera, the researcher's understanding of the interviews that took place, contacts made via phone, email, or texts during the study process for recruitment, and member-checking. ...
Article
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Marianismo refers to the prioritization of Latina mothers concerning their children and families. This term acknowledges the selflessness of Latina mothers. This study explored the perceptions of thirteen Latino adolescent participants following their experiences of being raised by a single mother. To study this relationship, an adapted version of Narrative Analysis was used. While the analysis focused on participants' relationships with their mothers, relationships with their biological fathers and other father figures (i.e., natural mentors) in their lives were explored. The study's findings are contextualized through the lens of attachment theory, social learning theory, and the relevant literature. This study shines light on the important impact of mothers and natural mentors on the lives of Latino male adolescents. Social workers from varying professional domains who are working with Latino families can take the marianismo cultural value into account in their own interactions and services with their clients. Additionally, just as the Latino adolescents in this study were keenly aware of their mothers' many positive values, strengths, and contributions to their lives, it is vital for social workers to do the same.
... Rigors of research are ensured following the Trustworthiness Framework (Lincoln & Guba cited in Cope, 2014;Nassaji, 2020), namely: credibility (truth), dependability (consistency), transferability (applicability), and confirmability (neutrality). Credibility was established using data triangulation by having different sources of data. ...
Research
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Educational institutions are accountable to the stakeholders in ensuring quality. Valuable stakeholder feedback will serve as a check and balance in quality assurance framework. The goal of this qualitative descriptive design is to present a descriptive summary of the stakeholders' feedback of the accreditation process in Teacher Education institutions. Data saturation was guided by what constitutes the sample size. The 106 participants, selected by purposive sampling, were stakeholders from eight (8) teacher education institutions accredited by three (3) accrediting bodies. The participants come from three categories of stakeholders from each institution, namely: administrators, faculty and students. A semi-structured interview guide was utilized during the focus group discussion (FGD) composed of five to seven participants. Following the Procedural Spiral Approach (Creswel, 2013), thematic analysis was done by developing and applying a coding system to logically organize themes that emerged from the data. Derived themes are: benefits of accreditation, challenges of accreditation and proposals for future accreditation. The benefits include: continuous improvement, graduate employability and stakeholder satisfaction. The challenges are: time constraints and tedious preparation of the documents; varied interpretation; limited accreditation time. Proposals include: organized and efficient process in preparation of evidences; rigorous selection and training of accreditors; and implementation of accreditation recommendations. Therefore, accreditation has its benefits and challenges. The benefits of accreditation affirm the necessity of accreditation while the challenges and proposals need to be responded to sustain the culture of quality in Teacher Education institutions.
... The two main criteria for evaluating quality in qualitative research are credibility and trustworthiness (Cope, 2014). As much as possible during the focus group interview sessions, the facilitator (the second author) would paraphrase the participants' responses to confirm what was being said. ...
Article
This qualitative study explored the experiential group learning experiences of student teachers (STs) who participated in a two-day experientially based group learning programme, as part of their curriculum at a teacher training institute in Singapore. This programme is designed as a personal growth group with an emphasis on value and character development. Thirteen groups were selected, with 12 members from each group randomly recruited to participate in the focus group interviews. A total of thirteen focus group interviews were conducted, with 109 STs participating in the sessions. The interview data was transcribed, coded and presented in themes using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The main themes were largely compatible with the therapeutic factors identified by psychiatrist Irvin Yalom that were found to improve interaction and facilitated outcome in group processes in his research. The overall results show that the dominant therapeutic factors experienced by the participants included instillation of hope, universality, imitative behaviour and cohesiveness. These findings provide us with valuable information that may help facilitate a positive and beneficial group learning experience in teacher education.
... Finally, in selective coding, we re-examined all subcategories and verified their relationships (Glaser & Strauss, 2017). To protect the confidentiality of participants (Cope, 2014), we ensured anonymity in the interpretation of the results. ...
Article
While information and communication technology has permeated education, institutions and faculty are seeking innovative pedagogical approaches to meet the demands of online teaching and learning. The aim of this study is to design a mobile pedagogical framework to enhance online teaching in higher education system. Based on the literature review and extant framework analysis, we developed a conceptual framework for mobile pedagogy. Then we conducted interviews with 25 lecturers and 4 policy makers to investigate reflections and assessments of mobile pedagogy. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the interview data. Based on the results, the mobile pedagogical framework was expanded. The revised framework provides a roadmap for faculty and institutions to enhance mobile pedagogy and online learning in the higher education.
... Trustworthiness of information was ensured through adherence to strategies, such as credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability. [15][16][17][18] Transferability and confirmability were guaranteed by acknowledging the different domains of CCTs, being aware of investigator bias, using direct quotations of participants and keeping an audit trail. ...
Article
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Background: Critical care transfer (CCT) involves the movement of high-acuity patients between facilities. Internationally, CCTs are commonly performed by a dedicated team using specialised vehicles and equipment. These transfers comprise a significant portion of the work of local ambulance services; however, there is a dearth of literature on current approaches and practices. Objectives: To investigate and describe the experiences of a sample of Gauteng Province-based emergency care (EC) providers conducting CCTs. Methods: A qualitative descriptive design used thematic analysis to gather data from 14 purposely selected participants during semi-structured focus group discussions, which were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were coded and analysed using ATLAS.ti to generate themes and sub-themes. Results: The two dominant themes that emerged from the study were that there is no common understanding or clear definition of a CCT in the local context, and that systemic challenges are experienced. Participants indicated that their undergraduate training did not sufficiently prepare them to conduct CCTs. Local ambulance services appear to lack a common definition and understanding of exactly what constitutes a CCT and how this differs from 'normal' ambulance operations. Participants felt undervalued and poorly supported, with several systemic challenges being highlighted. Conclusion: The absence of a contextually relevant definition of what constitutes a CCT, coupled with potential curriculum deficits in undergraduate EC programmes, negatively impacts on the experiences of EC providers conducting CCTs. Acknowledging CCT as an area of specialisation is an important step in addressing some of the frustrations and challenges experienced by EC providers tasked with conducting such transfers. Further research into formal postgraduate programmes in CCT is recommended. Contributions of the study: This study provides insights into the experiences of South African emergency care providers conducting critical care transfers (CCTs). The research highlights a need to develop a common understanding and definition accepted by industry of what constitutes a CCT and how CCTs differ from primary response incidents, including the need for additional education and a focus on the conducting of CCTs.
... Members of the study team, including the Principal Investigator and the team of CPNP patient navigators actively engaged with CASL and the Chinatown community. Connectivity, a potential outcome of community-engaged research, lends to more honest responses, increased trustworthiness in the researchers, and credibility of the results [29]. We also increased the credibility of the findings through member checking, a qualitative step where the research team summarizes the results and communicates them back to the participants after the data is analyzed. ...
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Background Chinese Americans have lower breast and cervical cancer screening rates than the national average and experience multiple barriers to cancer care. Patient navigators have improved screening and follow-up rates for medically underserved populations, yet investigations of cancer navigation programs and their implementation among Chinese Americans are limited. To address this gap, we used the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) to examine facilitators and barriers to implementing the Chicago-based Chinatown Patient Navigation Program (CPNP) for breast and cervical cancer screening, follow-up, and treatment. Methods Stakeholders from clinical care, supportive care services, and community organizations were invited to participate in qualitative interviews to illuminate implementation processes and stakeholder perspectives of facilitators and barriers to implementing the CPNP. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and deductively coded according to CFIR domains, including (1) intervention characteristics; (2) outer setting; (3) inner setting; and (4) the implementation process. Results We interviewed a convenience sample of 16 stakeholders representing a range of roles in cancer care, including nurses, clinical team members, administrators, physicians, a community-based organization leader, and a CPNP navigator. Findings detail several facilitators to implementing the CPNP, including patient navigators that prepared Chinese-speaking patients for their clinic visits, interpretation services, highly accessible patient navigators, and high-quality flexible services. Barriers to program implementation included limited regular feedback provided to stakeholders regarding their program involvement. Also, early in the program’s implementation there was limited awareness of the CPNP navigators’ roles and responsibilities, insufficient office space for the navigators, and few Chinese language patient resource materials. Conclusions These findings provide valuable information on implementation of future patient navigation programs serving Chinese American and other limited-English speaking immigrant populations.
... Confirmability considered the degree to which the results of an inquiry could be confirmed, or corroborated by other researchers (Eyles & Baxter, 2016). The audit trail also established the confirmability of the study (Cope, 2014). This study obtained ethical clearance from the Human and Social Sciences Ethics Committee (ref: HS19/6/41) of the respective university. ...
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An understanding of career competencies is critical for the progression of academic careers, as it influences the availability of adequate and capable academic staff at all levels within universities. The study aimed to explore and describe the career competencies that academics demonstrate to successfully progress in their careers, while theoretically underpinned by an integrated competency framework. This report is based on the qualitative experiences, gathered through semi-structured interviews of eight academic staff in various career phases, in a South African university. Data was thematically analysed, while a deductive modality was adopted to identify the competencies. The findings align very closely with the dimensions of the integrated competency framework, including reflective competencies: gap analysis, self-evaluation, social comparison, and goal orientation; communicative competencies: information seeking and negotiation; and behavioural competencies: strategy alignment, control and agency, university awareness, continuous learning and collaboration. Whilst the study did not include a comparative analysis, it is interesting to note that strategy alignment was the most commonly found competency, with negotiation only demonstrated by more senior academics. A career competency approach provides leaders and development practitioners in the higher education sector with factors to consider, as they attempt to understand holistic development for academic career progression. Moreover, how to assist and support the development of academic career progression. It offers academics a keen awareness, as a personal resource, to engage and navigate self-directed career management behaviour.
... Trustworthiness was achieved through five criteria: credibility, dependability, confirmability, transferability and authenticity (Cope, 2014). Credibility was enhanced by the participant verification of transcripts, evaluation and summary of the two education sessions through utilization of the same education resources and note taking and recognition of the emerging themes. ...
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Aim: District Nurses apply specialized nursing knowledge and assessment skills to provide care in New Zealand communities. This study aimed to identify whether District Nurse's (both Registered and supervised Enrolled Nurse's) had knowledge of, and used the 15-Minute Interview tool, including Ecomaps/Genograms, and if not, what they saw as enablers or barriers to doing so. Design: Participatory action research was used, following the phases of look, think and act. Methods: Two pre-intervention focus groups occurred, two education sessions which introduced the 15-Minute Interview and four postintervention interviews which explored the use of the tools and their potential use in the future. Results: District Nurses demonstrated working with families, and the selection of when and where to apply the 15-Minute Interview.
... The audit trail consisted of detailed documentation of all stages, with reference to raw data used to support all interpretations (Creswell & Miller, 2000;Lincoln & Guba, 1985). Finally, reflexive writing accompanied the entire process, with the authors reviewing their ideas as they evolved (Braun & Clarke, 2019;Cope, 2014;Nowell et al., 2017). ...
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Sexual relationships between an adolescent and an older person are considered controversial and in many countries are conceptualized under the legal definition of statutory relationship/rape. Despite the consensus regarding their potential negative implications, little is known about how adolescents perceive and construct them. To address this lacuna, the current exploratory study examined how individuals who have experienced sexual relationships with an adult while growing up perceived the older person and the meaning they ascribed to the age gap (M age gap, 7.78 years; range, 2–18 years). A qualitative thematic methodology was incorporated in analyzing in-depth semi-structured interviews with 28 individuals (M age, 29.89 years) who had experienced sexual relationships with an (at least 2 years) older person during adolescence (M age, 14.78 years). Participants described five different perceptions of the older persons: romantic partner; sexual partner; authority figure; complex/unstable figure; and exploiter. Subsequent analysis, focusing on the role participants assigned to age when describing these different images of older persons, shed additional light on their subjective perceptions; namely, for each image, age had a particular meaning. This paper may contribute to the understanding of individuals’ experiences of sexual relationships with an older person by emphasizing the complexity of such relationships, as reflected in the participants’ construction of the older person’s image, potentially providing important information that can inform best practice for professionals working with this population. Findings highlight the need to address diversity and ambiguity rather than the uniform dichotomy that characterizes the legal framing of automatically constructing these relationships as statutory. Further implications for research, policy, and practice are discussed.
... In this study, Goba and Lincoln methods were used to ensure the accuracy and reliability of the research (11). To approve the data credibility, elongated engagements, maximum deviation, peer checking, and member checking were utilized. ...
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Background: The involvement of husbands during pregnancy within the Iranian culture is one of the challenging topics. In this context, efforts to encourage male involvement in the maternal health issues can strengthen family bonds and consequently improve the relationships between men and women in societies. Objectives: This qualitative study aimed to elucidate the involvement of husbands in maternal-fetal attachment (MFA). Methods: Using a qualitative approach and conventional content analysis, 11 pregnant women referring to the health care centers in Sari, Iran were interviewed from March 2020 to February 2021. The participants met the maximum diversity criteria in terms of age, level of education, occupation, and socioeconomic status. Deep and unstructured interviews were utilized to obtain the research data. All the interviews were then transcribed verbatim and analyzed using the qualitative content analysis method developed by Graneheim and Lundman in MAXQDA Software. Results: A total of 350 codes emerged from the data. We identified a main theme entitled ‘husband support’, which included four categories and 11 sub-categories. The main categories were: (1) empathic response, (2) emotional support, (3) continued support, and (4) attention to fetus. Conclusions: Interventions to enhance husband support could increase MFA. Planning to promote male participation in pregnancy process is essential to promote maternal and child health.
... In qualitative research, the role of the researcher is prominent throughout, as they are the vehicle for which data collection and analysis occurs (Maxwell, 2018). To help strengthen the credibility and dependability of a research study, researchers should convey a detailed description of their past research training and experience, further providing a transparent account of the contextual relationship with the research topic (Cope, 2014). As the primary instrument in qualitative research, the researcher cannot guarantee total objectivity (Maxwell, 2018); therefore, providing a transparent account provides a meaningful control for subjectivity by allowing readers a full accounting of the researcher's relationship to the research topic and the research process. ...
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Gatekeeping is an ethical imperative consigned to all counselor educators. While gatekeeping has been studied from the general perspective of counselor educators, no studies exist which examine the perspectives of new adjunct counselor educators’ gatekeeping in online settings. As online clinical mental health counseling programs continue to increase in number, so too does the burgeoning reliance on adjunct faculty to meet program needs. The purpose of this research study was to examine the perceptions of new adjunct counselor educators’ self-efficacy to perform their gatekeeper role in online clinical mental health counseling programs. A generic qualitative inquiry was conducted using Bandura’s 1977 and 1986 self-efficacy theory as a theoretical framework to explore the perceptions of 12 new online adjunct counselor educators as they reflected on their online gatekeeping experiences. Semi-structured interviews were used to elucidate participants’ gatekeeping self-efficacy perceptions, which were conducted virtually over Zoom (education edition). After a two-cycle coding process was applied, the research data were analyzed using the theoretical analysis procedure outlined by Percy et al. in 2015. NVivo was used to aid the coding application to ensure a thorough analysis of the raw data. The findings of this research study suggest six contributing factors are influencing the online gatekeeping self-efficacy perceptions of new adjunct counselor educators: (a) gatekeeper role confusion, (b) experiential opportunities, (c) connection and inclusion, (d) emotional excitation, (e) barriers inherent to online settings, and (f) cultural bias and broaching trepidation. The limitations of the research study are reviewed. Implications for the broader community of stakeholders are discussed, and recommendations for future research are provided.
... In this study, all researchers acknowledged and bracketed their assumptions about mass violence, including school shootings, through reflexive journaling and in-depth discussions with one another (Berger, 2015;Johnson et al., 2020). Finally, to increase the study's external validity, a rich, thick description of the study's methodology, as well as its results, were provided to present a transparent and comprehensive description of how the researchers drew conclusions from the data (Cope, 2014;Lincoln & Guba, 1985). Table 1, the majority of cases of ASV occurred in public schools (92.6%), followed by charter (3.7%), faith-based (2.5%), and private (1.2%) schools. ...
Article
The purpose of this study is to examine how recent incidents of planned mass violence in high schools within the United States were successfully averted. Using the Averted School Violence database, this study utilizes a mixed-methods content analysis approach to analyze 82 incidents of averted mass violence in high schools that occurred post-Columbine era. The following three themes were identified: attack motives and logistics, plot discovery, and attack aversion. Implications for professional school counselors in preventing similar mass violence attacks in the future are discussed, including fostering trusting relationships between students and adults, providing education to parents about social media platforms and proper firearms storage, establishing threat assessment teams, and educating parents, students, and school personnel about warning signs for violence. Key points • • School counselors play key roles in preventing mass violence as a part of their comprehensive school counseling programs. • • Based on a mixed-methods content analysis, implications for school counselors in preventing mass violence attacks are discussed.
... This study followed the criteria for evaluating rigour in qualitative research (Cope, 2014). The primary author conducted all interviews and this consistency ensured data dependability. ...
Article
Stillbirth commonly affects women in Nigeria, but their experiences of grief following stillbirth is under explored. This study aimed to describe Nigerian women’s experiences of grief after stillbirth. Face-to-face, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 women in Nigeria who experienced stillbirth. The results from the thematic analysis suggest that mothers had an unmet need to see their stillborn baby, and they experienced communication challenges such as being blindsided/misled about the baby during their interactions with health personnel. The participants experienced emotional and psychological reactions to grief that manifested in the form of emotional pain, sadness, blame and shock, but having a sense of gratitude helped them cope. The findings of this study highlight gaps in bereavement care and suggest the need for basic bereavement training for health personnel.
... After each focus group field notes were recorded and checked against the recording. Transferability and authenticity [24] have been addressed by recording and reporting detailed 'thick' descriptions of the interactions and discussions in each focus group. While qualitative research is not precisely transferable, there are similarities between many kinds of human experiences and readers of the research may recognize the findings as transferable to their own context, particularly as we have included the participants' own words as much as practicable [22]. ...
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Background Considerable resources have been expended, both in universities and health workplaces to improve nurses' abilities to interact with research and research literature to enable their engagement with evidence-based practice. Despite these efforts, a considerable number of nurses experience difficulty with research literature and are reluctant to use it in practice. Aims This study aimed to explore the experiences and perceptions of Registered Nurses when they have been required to read and understand research literature for work or education. Design A qualitative descriptive study using online and in-person focus groups. Methods Focus groups (online and in-person) were conducted between June and November 2020. Forty participants were included. We used focus group recordings and field notes to collect data. Transcribed records of these focus groups were coded on the basis of similarity of meaning and then subjected to thematic analysis. Results Three distinct themes were identified from the data: 'coming into learning about research', fitting research into the reality of nursing life', and 'working towards using research.' Participants described their early experiences in learning about research, experiences both positive and negative in integrating research into practice, and their personal strategies for reading and using research, particularly in the context of significant anxiety about understanding the content of methods and results sections of quantitative research articles. Conclusion This study goes beyond the barriers and facilitators dichotomy that has been the majority of the conversation about nurses' evidence-based practice engagement previously, and explores the issues underlying aversion to research literature. Many nurses struggle with the language, numbers, and/or statistics used in research and this requires educational interventions suited to the problem and the population.
... This study followed the criteria for evaluating rigor in qualitative research (Cope, 2014). Prolonged engagement with the participants, use of verbatim quotations to support themes, member-checking, and peer-debriefing among the authors during analysis strengthened the case for the study's credibility. ...
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Introduction Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, nurses have been on the frontline providing care for patients with COVID-19. Caring for patients with COVID-19 can be a rewarding experience for nurses, but research also suggests that nurses experience numerous challenges on the frontline. Objectives This study aims to explore the experiences of frontline nurses caring for patients with COVID-19 in Nigeria Methods Ten nurse volunteers working in a COVID-19 isolation center were purposively recruited. Data were collected with a semi-structured interview guide, and a template analysis approach was used to analyze the transcribed interviews. Results The participants volunteered at the isolation center for safety reasons, professional gain, and concern for humanity. Working at the isolation center was accompanied by changes in working hours, work dynamics, care context and care tools. These changes resulted in personal, professional, and work-related challenges for nurses. However, team spirit, positive patient outcomes, gratitude and family support helped the nurses cope with the challenges. Conclusions This research highlighted that working on the frontline of COVID-19 is associated with multiple and complex challenges that can impact nurses’ personal and professional life. Thus, a tailored approach to support is needed to address the challenges faced by frontline nurses.
... Acknowledging an awareness of this trust and the credibility toward the profession of social work (Cope, 2014), and acknowledging the power differential between the participant and researcher, are essential. Both were done through personal reflections and honest discussions with the dissertation committee and dissertation workgroup. ...
Article
Objective: This qualitative study explores the experiences of social workers who work with Latina adolescents with suicidal behaviors. Specifically, this work explores social workers’ knowledge and utilization of sociocultural risk and protective factors (e.g., level of acculturation) when engaging Latina adolescents in suicide risk assessments and safety planning. “Latinx/Latine” will be used throughout the dissertation to reference the entire Latinx/Latine community as well as for gender non-conforming adolescents, and where gender is not relevant, unknown, or nonspecific, whereas “Latina” will designate Latina cisgender females. Research over the past two decades has shown that Latina female adolescents have higher rates of suicidal ideation and attempts over time compared to non-Hispanic White, Black, and African American adolescent females (CDC, 2017, 2011; Price & Khubchandani, 2017; Romero et al., 2014; Silva & Van Orden, 2018) and are twice as likely to report suicidal ideation, prior suicidal plans, and suicide attempts compared to Latino male adolescents (Kann et al., 2018). Given the significance of suicidality among Latina adolescents, the study explores the understudied therapeutic relationship between Latina adolescents and their social workers to understand the facets that support therapeutic trust and risk assessments from the therapists’ perspectives when engaging in treatment to mitigate suicide risk. Method: This study employed grounded theory methodology. The researcher used purposive, targeted, convenience, and snowball sampling to recruit 20 licensed social workers from outpatient mental health agencies in New York City. Participants each completed a single, in-depth, semi-structured interview about their therapeutic work engaging Latina adolescents and their parents in treatment for suicidality. The interview guide included questions and prompts addressing the following topics: social workers’ experiences treating Latina adolescents with suicidal behaviors; the understanding and use of Latinx/e sociocultural factors when assessing for suicide risk and safety planning including familismo, perceived as a factor that encourages keeping problems and concerns within the family (Steidel Lugo & Contreras, 2003); immigration and generational challenges; language barriers; perspectives on the significance of the therapeutic relationship; and training intervention needs. Interviews were transcribed verbatim for analysis. Using the constant comparative method, the researcher completed open coding to develop an iterative codebook, in addition to deductive coding using concepts from literature on suicidal behaviors for Latinx/e individuals and theoretical constructs surrounding Latinx/e beliefs and experiences regarding mental health and mental health care. The researcher worked with a qualitative methods expert and a content expert to analyze and synthesize data into findings. Findings: Interview data supported the importance of social workers’ understanding of sociocultural factors in suicide treatment with Latina adolescents and their families. Specific factors identified by participants included the following: large acculturation gaps between the parent and adolescent; challenges acquiring independence and individual identity away from their family systems while balancing how autonomy looks for the family and the girls; pressure to embody the Latina female gender role; burden to create a better life than their immigrant parents; immigration status and discrimination; cultural and religious traditions values as protection; and family cohesion. Implicit biases were evident in all interviews and were not dependent on the participant’s self-identified race or ethnicity. These biases are highlighted by the researcher to increase contextual awareness viewpoints held in therapeutic care with Latina adolescents and their families. The primary importance of the social worker’s relationship with the adolescent, their parents or other family members, and the collective relationships with outside community members/providers involved in the adolescents’ lives contributed to effective treatment from the social worker’s point of view. The trusting, therapeutic role that bilingual and bicultural social workers hold due to their ability to grasp a deeper understanding of sociocultural factors was emphasized throughout the interviews as well. Engagement and effective care for Latina adolescent clients and their family members were aided by the following: utilizing relational growth strategies, including building trust and transparency around multiple identities in treatment; providing concrete therapeutic tools to both the adolescents and their family members such as teaching perspective-taking and increasing psychoeducation around suicide risk and safety planning; and social workers’ engagement in identity work outside of the therapeutic relationship. Discussion: Sufficient trainings and a comprehensive understanding of Latinx/Latine sociocultural risk and protective impacts are necessary to effectively provide suicide treatment for Latina adolescents and to support their families. Findings speak to a significant gap in theoretical understandings of the clinical relationship in this context. Specifically, findings suggest elements that may flesh out the Ecodevelopmental Model including mental health treatment, the relationship with the social worker, and their knowledge of sociocultural factors to broaden a trajectory away from the Latina adolescent’s suicide attempt. Dominant cultural messaging about Latinx/e families and White-centered mental health practices that inform provider bias and approaches require ongoing analysis and discussions in order to increase engagement in growth-fostering therapeutic care for suicide risk. Conclusion: This research finds several essential clinical needs for working with Latina adolescents exhibiting suicidal behaviors. These needs include the following: building a comprehensive sociocultural understanding of Latina adolescents that reduces biased assumptions of the girls and their families, the contexts they live in, and their immigration statuses; integrating family values and members into care; and building trust with cultural humility. It is essential to add to the knowledge base and minimize ongoing explicit and implicit bias of the mental health providers who serve this high-risk population in order to help Latina adolescents navigate and thrive in their complex multicultural worlds.
... To increase the validity of our qualitative analysis, we considered five criteria of trustworthiness: (1) credibility (the way that the data are interpreted and presented), (2) dependability (the consistency of findings across similar participants in similar conditions), (3) confirmability (the accurate and unbiased representation of the data compiled from the participants), (4) transferability (the application of the findings to other populations), and (5) authenticity (the faithful presentation of the essence of each participant's experience; Cope, 2014). First, to ensure credibility, we adopted a reliable and well-known method for content analysis. ...
... Credibility refers to the extent to which the research findings are believable and appropriate, which depends on the richness of the information rather than the amount of collected data (Cope, 2014). Generally, the findings would be more credible if they were examined by multiple complementary sources instead of a single source, indicating a more comprehensive understanding of the phenomenon and, therefore a higher level of trustworthiness (Patton, 1999). ...
Article
Many cities have put relentless efforts in promoting transformational changes to tackle urban challenges, accumulating considerable experiences and knowledge for other cities to learn. To reuse the successful experiences in an effective way, previous studies have developed experience mining systems, which adopt Case Base Reasoning as smart decision support systems to provide valuable references on how to manage and solve the current problems. However, the experience mining systems generally pay limited attention to the feasibility and applicability of transition experiences for the target city, making it challenging to validate results considering the complexity of urban transitions. To fill the gap, this paper proposes a methodological framework to evaluate matching degrees of past experiences by integrating experience mining with triangulation, aiming at selecting the most appropriate case for the target city from multiple perspectives. A case study of Beijing is further conducted, with different methodologies leading to distinguished results, which proves the necessity of employing various methods to enhance the validity of experience mining for urban transitions. It is envisaged that the integrated framework could help future practitioners and researchers to make better-informed choices with experience mining systems during experience learning or theory development in urban transitions.
... 43,46 Member-checking with participants confirmed that the summary of findings that we shared with them reflected their experiences and perceptions, 46 and helped to validate the conclusions. 47 Detailed information is provided about the participants, the composition of focus groups and the contexts and assumptions underlying the study. The researcher's actions, changes and the rationale for them, notes and reflections were recorded in a journal throughout the study. ...
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Purpose: A qualitative study was carried out to explore obese adolescents' understanding of physical activity, perceptions of the ideal body type and to identify facilitators of and barriers to physical activity. Methods: Twenty-two adolescents 12-18 years of age and 14 of their parents were recruited from an obesity intervention programme in Brooklyn, New York, from June to November 2017. Data were collected using focus groups and individual semi-structured interviews, followed by interpretative phenomenological analysis of the transcripts. Results: The adolescents wanted to 'lose some weight', but not to be 'thin' or 'look hungry'. Most females desired a 'slim-thick' figure, which was 'a flat stomach with big thighs, and curvy'. Fun and support from parents, peers and programme staff facilitated achieving their physical activity goals. Barriers included low self-efficacy, inactive families, fear of neighbourhood gangs and crime and perceptions that the parks were small and overcrowded, with limited physical activity options for adolescents. Conclusion: These findings highlight the need to consider local norms concerning body image when designing obesity interventions. To effectively reduce childhood obesity in New York City, policy should prioritize the promotion of public safety, improvement of neighbourhood parks and increase options for physical activity. Patient or public contribution: The voices and narratives of patients and their families informed this study.
... 32 Persistent observations and prolonged engagements during the data collection have allowed the researcher to establish rapport with the participants that led to sufficient data being obtained. 33 Data triangulation was conducted by collecting data at three different secondary schools located in different towns in Selangor using the same methods and investigator. 34 Investigator triangulation was done with a researcher in the same field (ZYMY) and a researcher from a different specialty (UO) where the themes and the coded data were assessed independently to ensure the themes correctly depicted what the participants had said. ...
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Developing health-related smartphone applications for oral health education should consider the end-user's perspectives to ensure they will be usable. This study aimed to explore the opinions of secondary school students in Selangor, Malaysia regarding the use of a smartphone application for oral health education and to identify the features for an oral health education smartphone application from the perspectives of adolescents. Focus group discussions were conducted among Form Two (14-year-old) and Form Four (16-year-old) students from selected government secondary schools in Selangor utilising a semi-structured topic guide until data saturation was achieved. Data were analysed using framework analysis. Ten focus group discussions were conducted involving 77 participants. Mixed opinions were recorded on the use of health-related smartphone applications for oral health education. The preferred features in a health-related smartphone application are disease detection, have games and rewards, educational and fun, access to a dentist, reminders, and user-friendliness. Adolescents are aware of the positive aspect of using health-related smartphone applications for oral health education; however, they are wary of the need to install one. Nevertheless, identifying adolescents’ preferred features of an oral health education app is the first step in developing an application tailored to their needs. Smartphone application could be a timely strategy to improve oral health education delivery and behaviour improvement for this age group.
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The purpose: The aim of this research was to understand the criteria used by patients in choosing which types of health centres they go for in Anglophone Cameroon. This study involved the use of a qualitative approach in research. Methodology:Colaizzi 1978 phenomenological research method and in-depth interviews were conducted with patients to have a thick description of the reasons motivating their choice of hospitals. Findings: Hospitality, negligence, professionalism, cost, affordability, sanitation of the hospitals influenced patients' choices. All respondents revealed not to have health insurance and therefore rely on various factors before making the choice to go for public or private health institutions. Implications: This research article can be used by health care managers and providers to have a customer management level understanding of how patients take decisions in terms of health care providers and therefore establish benchmarks to enhance the branding of their institutions.
Article
Background: Although bundled communication interventions are recommended to address communication barriers for patients with an advanced airway in the intensive care unit (ICU) such interventions have not been evaluated in pandemic conditions. Aim: To evaluate the acceptability, appropriateness, and feasibility of a co-designed bundled intervention to support communication with adult patients with an advanced airway in ICU in pandemic conditions. Study design: Prospective, convergent mixed method design in a single centre medical-surgical ICU in Toronto, Canada between September 2021-March 2022. After the use of the co-designed bundled communication intervention quantitative data were collected from health care providers using validated acceptability, appropriateness, and feasibility measures and analysed using descriptive statistics. Qualitative data were collected from providers, patients and families using semi-structured interviews and analysed using content analysis applying the theoretical framework of acceptability. Joint table analysis enabled the integration of the two data sets. Results: A total of 64 (41.3%) HCPs responded to the survey: 54 (84.4%) rated the intervention acceptable; 55 (85.9%) appropriate; and 49 (76.6%) feasible for use in this context. Qualitative data (23 interviews: 13 healthcare providers, 6 families and 4 patients) and the joint table analysis extended the understanding that intervention acceptability was related to positive affective attitudes and reduced communication frustration. Appropriateness and feasibility were promoted through intervention alignment with values, ability to personalize tools, and ease of access. Recommendations to improve the acceptability included adaptation for immobilized and/or restrained patients, additional education, and integration into existing workflows. Conclusions: This mixed method evaluation of a co-designed bundled intervention to support patient communication in the ICU during pandemic conditions demonstrated high rated and described acceptability, appropriateness, and feasibility by participants. Relevance to clinical practice: A co-designed communication intervention demonstrating stakeholder acceptability, appropriateness, and feasibility can be implemented into clinical practice in pandemic and other infection prevention and control contexts.
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Objectives To inform updates to the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) design and processes, African American/Black and Hispanic/Latina women in Florida provided feedback on their awareness and perceptions of the PRAMS survey, and preferences for survey distribution, completion, design and content. Methods Focus groups were conducted in English and Spanish with 29 women in two large metropolitan counties. Participants completed a brief survey, reviewed the PRAMS questionnaire and recruitment materials, engaged in discussion, and gave feedback directly onto cover design posters. Results Participants reported limited awareness of PRAMS. Preferences for survey distribution and completion varied by participant lifestyle. Interest in topics covered by PRAMS was as a motivator for completion, while distrust and confidentiality concerns were deterrents. Participants were least comfortable answering questions about income, illegal drug use, and pregnancy loss/infant death. Changes to the length of the survey, distribution methods, and incentives/rewards for completion were recommended. Conclusions for Practice Results highlight the need to increase PRAMS awareness, build trust, and consider the design, length and modality for questionnaire completion as possible avenues to improve PRAMS response rates.
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Crisis management is a technique that has existed within organizations worldwide and is dictated by the response of leaders' actions. In a classroom, the teacher can be referred to as 'educational leader'. With an emphasized work setting of the classroom, different leadership responses can be examined in a comparative analysis. The focus of this thesis is to explore the effect of intercultural experience when higher education leaders are dealing with crisis management within their classrooms. This exploratory study adopts a qualitative analysis with the help of deductive approach and critical realism philosophy. Primary source of this study is the interviews with professors from a Swedish University, both from local and international programs. By using intercultural crises challenges, crisis scenarios in a higher educational setting were created. These themes are ethnocentrism, scandal/misinterpretation, and culture shock. These scenarios were used in the interview process to understand how different program leaders manage the crises. Additionally, the findings of this study show that intercultural experience of higher educational leaders plays a role in how they are managing a crisis within a classroom setting.
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This study aimed to know the perspective on the stories of the holocaust and the lived experiences of twenty grade 11 senior high school students from secondary school in the division of Tagum City. This research employed qualitative employing phenomenological approach, which is deemed appropriate for this study since it sought to find out the lived perspectives of grade 11 students about the stories of the holocaust that they have read. Results of the study showed that students have diverse revealing perspectives about the stories of the holocaust, such as fear to fight, feeling of hatred to the oppressors, bravery leads to survival, admiration to survivors of the holocaust, condemnation of the oppressor's acts, and extending hands to the needy. These students needed guidance and support from their teachers in managing their emotions. They also needed support from the Department of Education to help them overcome the difficulties they encountered in the literature subject. Outcomes also confirmed that despite the different emotions that surfaced, most of the students still viewed the Holocaust as something that also had a positive impact despite the negative events that followed it.
Article
Child sexual abuse (CSA) has received considerable recent attention from scholars, contributing to prevention and therapeutic intervention services worldwide. However, CSA is still defined as a form of abuse characterized by age and power gaps between victims and perpetrators, despite ample evidence to the contrary. This may explain why preadolescent peer sexual abuse (PAPSA) remains an understudied area of research. PAPSA is generally defined as sexual acts that are developmentally inappropriate and or harmful between children of the same or similar age. The current study was designed to examine educational and therapeutic practitioners’ perceptions of PAPSA and their interactions with children and youth in their care who experienced this form of abuse, specifically focusing on children between the ages of 6-12. Forty in-depth interviews were conducted with practitioners who have encountered PAPSA in their professional lives, using snowball purposeful sampling. The interviews were analyzed using the qualitative thematic analysis method. The results revealed that participants struggled to make meaning and understand the effects of the phenomenon. To make sense of their experiences in encountering PAPSA, they relied on specific contextual elements related to (1) the characteristics of the peers involved, such as age, gender, and personal history; (2) the type and severity of the sexual acts and the effects on the survivors’ lives; and (3) the social discourse on sexuality—in particular, on sexual abuse—within the relevant age group. Relating to each of these contexts helped them to make sense of their experiences. Additionally, the final theme that emerged was the potential of educational and therapeutic environments to become spaces where PAPSA can be addressed in a compassionate way. The discussion emphasizes the complex and multifaceted nature of the PAPSA phenomenon, the lack of clear definitions guiding intervention, and the urgent need to advance theory to promote both prevention and therapeutic intervention efforts.
Thesis
Technology has been criticised for blurring boundaries and making them more permeable, which has been previously portrayed as having a negative impact on work-life balance (WLB) and a cause for burnout among employees. With burnout a growing concern for organisations and governments, this thesis uses a boundary theory lens to explore the effects of technology on WLB. To improve understanding in this area, social media practitioners (SMPs) were selected as the sample to study because it could be said they are extensive users of technology and social media. Studying this group as an “extreme case” produces learnings and practices that could be applied to the rest of the social media industry and the digital workforce. Informed by a constructivist grounded theory (CGT) approach, this thesis draws from in-depth interviews with thirty-one UK SMPs and observation of an additional five SMPs, in their place of work, to investigate the role technology plays in managing boundaries between work and non-work and maintaining perceived WLB. Presented in this document are four contributions. Firstly, this thesis turns its attention to the boundaries in the digital landscape. I introduce the new term digital virtual boundary (DVB) and acknowledge how these differ from their analogue counterpart and what this means for how we manage our boundaries. This research also recognises how Clark’s (2000) “borderland” can assist role demand management and WLB when a user is within a digital virtual space. Secondly, this thesis presents a typology of new digital boundary preference groups that recognise the impact technology has on SMPs boundary preference and management. For each group, characteristics are defined so that one can identify and align themselves with the most suitable group to assist them in their boundary management style. Thirdly, technological strategies and tactics shared by my participants are listed in this thesis as a means of practices that can be adopted by others to aid them in their boundary management and technology use, to avoid burnout and maintain their ideal WLB. Lastly, the unique data collection method for this area of work, although growing in use for boundary theory, is the first time to my knowledge it has been applied to the WLB literature. Unlike its earlier counterpart grounded theory (GT), CGT places priority on the studied phenomenon over the methods of studying it and acknowledges the researcher's role in interpreting data and creating categories. This research contributes to the WLB literature and boundary theory by providing a better understanding of how employees in digital facing roles manage their boundaries and avoid burnout whilst extensively using technology. It must be noted that the data presented in this research was collected and analysed in 2019 prior to the outbreak of COVID-19. This had a significant impact not only on the way in which people work and interact with technology, but the national lockdowns have meant the majority of those employed were forced to work from home. This means now more than ever workers have undoubtedly thought about their WLB and how they manage their boundaries. This work could be of significant benefit to individuals learning to align appropriate strategies to their boundary preference.<br/
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Objectives To identify the psychological impact of working during the COVID-19 pandemic on medical and nursing students’ psychological well-being. To inform recommendations for the provision of future student well-being support. Design An interpretative qualitative, semistructured interview study employing maximum variation sampling, snowball sampling and a thematic analysis. Setting A large West Midlands (UK) university with medical and nursing undergraduate and postgraduate programmes. Study undertaken between January and May 2020. Participants A purposive sample of eight medical (six women and two men) and seven nursing (all women) students who worked >2 weeks in a healthcare setting during the COVID-19 pandemic (from 1 March 2020 onwards). Results Four core themes with corresponding subthemes were identified: (1) COVID-19 sources of distress—working conditions, exposure to suffering, death and dying, relationships and teams, individual inexperience and student identity, (2) negative impact on mental health and well-being—psychological and emotional distress, delayed distress, exhaustion, mental ill health, (3) protective factors from distress—access to support, environment, preparation and induction, recognition and reward, time for breaks and rest and (4) positive experiences and meaningful outcomes. Conclusions Student pandemic deployment has had a significant negative impact on students’ psychological well-being, as a result of demanding working conditions, unprecedented exposure to death and suffering and lack of preparation for new job roles. Universities and healthcare organisations must formally acknowledge this impact and provide well-being support for distressed students working in such challenging contexts. They must also establish more supportive and inclusive healthcare environments for medical and nursing students in future pandemic and postpandemic circumstances, through the implementation of support systems and adequate preparation.
Article
Organizational leaders often fail to use the trust building strategies necessary for the successful implementation of virtual project teams (VPTs). Grounded in Meyerson et al.’s swift trust theory, the purpose of this qualitative single case study was to explore strategies project team leaders (PTLs) and project management office leaders in charitable nonprofit organizations leverage to effectively develop trust in VPTs. The participants were six PTLs and project management office leaders from a charitable nonprofit organization in the Washington, DC metropolitan area. Data were collected through semi structured interviews and a review of the organizational documentation. Data analysis occurred through a thematic approach. The major themes emerging from the study were trust, leadership, communication, and technology. A key recommendation is for leaders to create an environment conducive to effective communication and the right technology to facilitate the collaboration and work efforts of the team. The implications for positive social change include the potential for nonprofit organizations to effectively utilize VPTs in support of humanitarian and disaster relief projects for the benefit of people and communities around the world.
Article
Non‐physical abuse is a form of intimate partner violence (IPV), which negatively impacts physical and mental well‐being. The study objectives were to understand the process of support seeking amongst women who experience non‐physical IPV. Interviews were conducted with women who have experience of non‐physical IPV and support workers. The findings of this study suggest that women generally delay support seeking for non‐physical IPV as they are unable to recognise this form of violence. Increasing awareness about non‐physical IPV can be a prevention strategy to assist women in recognising this and seeking support. The important finding in our study that most of the women initially contacted a healthcare professional regarding the psychological impact of the non‐physical violence offers an opportunity for earlier intervention. Healthcare professionals are in a unique position to address the healthcare needs of women who experience IPV and can therefore assist in facilitating disclosure, offering support and referring to DV services. Training and education for professionals on all forms of IPV is required to improve identification and referral of women.
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Purpose: Research suggests that engaging in networking behaviors can affect individual work outcomes. However, relatively less is known about how internal versus external networking behaviors influence work outcomes, and whether gender moderates these relationships. Drawing on social capital theory and social role theory, we propose a positive relationship between employees’ internal and external networking behaviors and their work outcomes (job commitment and career success), and the moderating effect of gender. We also explore employee preference in networking. Design/methodology: Based on a sequential mixed-method research design with a four-month time lag, Study 1 data on networking behaviors and employee outcomes were collected via a survey of middle managers and their supervisors from 10 private sector organizations in Sri Lanka. Study 2 data were collected via interviews from a sample of those middle managers and their supervisors. Findings: Study 1 findings indicate a positive relationship between internal networking behaviors and job commitment, and external networking behaviors and career success. We also found that internal networking behaviors enhance job commitment. Study 2 findings indicate men and women network differently and benefit differently from that networking but achieve equitable workplace benefits. Originality/value: This study provides pioneering evidence that internal networking behaviors enhance job commitment among women. It appears that past research did not test the moderating effect of gender for internal versus external networking behaviors separately. Moreover, this study refines the evidence that internal and external networking behaviors differentially impact employee outcomes and explains the processes through a qualitative inquiry.
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Sexual harassment in the workplace, including the university, is not a behaviour perceived to be perpetrated only by males. In this article contrapower sexual harassment was investigated to find out whether female students harassed male lecturers at universities, and how harassment manifests with a view to devising measures to mitigate such harassment incidences. A qualitative case study research design was employed to explore the thoughts and experiences of participants at two public universities in Zimbabwe. Purposive sampling was employed in the identification and selection of participants with knowledge and experience of subjecting male lecturers to contrapower sexual harassment. Data were gathered through audio-taped face to face in-depth interviews with female undergraduates using a digital voice recorder. As data were collected through interviews, an iterative process was done. The study verified the existence of contrapower sexual harassment of male lecturers by female students. The study found that the measures that can be taken to mitigate contrapower harassment should include the explicit identification of all behaviours that constitute harassment and their consequences in university codes of conduct and policies. Universities should build a culture of respect in which students and lecturers interact without fear of harassment from either party. Universities need to ensure that lecturers are informed of the available resources should they have disturbing experiences pertaining to harassment from a student.
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Objectives: This research aimed to gain insights into the reporting of family violence (FV) and to explore any changes in FV reporting associated with a FV primary prevention initiative in Geraldton, Western Australia. Methods: An in-depth analysis of articles published by the Geraldton Guardian in 2019 examined the nature of FV reporting. Analysis was based on deductive coding from existing literature and inductive identification of new themes. A comparative analysis examined articles from the Geraldton Guardian and Albany Advertiser over the same three-month period in 2015, 2017 and 2019 to analyse trends in FV reporting. Results: Of 135 articles analysed, there was alignment with five previously reported themes and two new themes were identified: FV as a public health issue; and community responses to reduce FV. Episodic framing was overwhelmingly associated with court reporting. There was more reporting of efforts at primary prevention of FV over time in both newspapers. Conclusions: Local media can contribute to the promotion of community and public health issues related to FV. Efforts are needed to improve court reporting to situate FV in a broader context. Implications for public health: Concerted efforts to educate the public and journalists can support FV being recognised as a public health issue.
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Diverse challenges arise with research involving people with communication disorders while using remote methods for data collection. Ethical and methodological issues related to the inclusion of people with communication disorders in research, specifically qualitative research, are magnified by communication challenges specific to remote communication. Avenues are discussed to ensure that remote data collection processes can include people with a communication disorder, while limiting negative impacts on the validity of the data.
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In this paper I explore the relationship between bias, research and reflective studies. I argue that bias is not by definition counterproductive for research studies, and that biased studies do not necessarily constitute invalid research. Hence, I commence by discussing how the concept of bias and its relationship to knowledge production has developed within the history of science and how it has evolved during the twentieth century by drawing on the work of Ayer, Popper and Wittgenstein. I go on to argue that bias cannot sincerely be excluded from the research process, irrelevant of paradigm, and that the presupposition of excluding bias from research studies is based upon historical and ideological assumptions that, once pushed to their logical conclusion, do not hold ground. Nonetheless, I consider that research studies deriving from positivist or post-positivist paradigms will need to continue to strive for the elimination or minimisation of bias, because these are the fundamental rules of these paradigms. However, for non-positivist studies, which utilise reflection to reveal the researcher's bias, the paradigmatic rules require that these biases should be included rather than excluded from the study. Thus, the article concludes by suggesting that such studies are reflexive studies which are valid only if the researcher's bias is fully incorporated and becomes transparent throughout the study. A historical overview of bias in the production of knowledge The concept of unbiased research has acquired a peculiar cachet amongst those who critically analyse research findings and decide on the utilisation 279
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Various strategies are available within qualitative research to protect against bias and enhance the reliability of findings. This paper gives examples of the principal approaches anti summarises them into a methodological checklist to help readers of reports of qualitative projects to assess the quality of the research.
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Much contemporary dialogue has centered on the difficulty of establishing validity criteria in qualitative research. Developing validity standards in qualitative research is challenging because of the necessity to incorporate rigor and subjectivity as well as creativity into the scientific process. This article explores the extant issues related to the science and art of qualitative research and proposes a synthesis of contemporary viewpoints. A distinction between primary and secondary validity criteria in qualitative research is made with credibility, authenticity, criticality, and integrity identified as primary validity criteria and explicitness, vividness, creativity, thoroughness, congruence, and sensitivity identified as secondary validity criteria.
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This paper describes how methodological triangulation was used in two nursing research studies. The literature identified a number of principles in reporting studies that used triangulation, including giving the rationale for using triangulation, detailing the process used to assist with triangulation and explaining how rigour was maintained. A brief review of triangulated studies revealed that few adhered fully to these principles. A 'within method' and an 'across method' study are used to illustrate how methodological triangulation was used, and the ways in which rigour was addressed are also described. In addition, the different contributions of triangulation to nursing research are highlighted.
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Qualitative researchers have been criticised for a perceived failure to demonstrate methodological rigour. Kimberley D Ryan-Nicholls and Constance I Will offer cautionary recommendations related to the mechanisms for control of methodological rigour in qualitative inquiry.
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There are few explicit discussions in nursing literature of how qualitative research can be made as rigorous as it is relevant to the perspective and goals of nursing. Four factors complicate the debate about the scientific merits of qualitative research: the varieties of qualitative methods, the lack of clear boundaries between quantitative and qualitative research, the tendency to evaluate qualitative research against conventional scientific criteria of rigor, and the artistic features of qualitative inquiry. A framework for understanding the similarities and differences in research approaches and a summary of strategies to achieve rigor in qualitative research are presented.
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The aim of this paper is to show the way in which the decision trail of a qualitative research process can be maintained. It is argued that the trustworthiness (rigour) of a study may be established if the reader is able to audit the events, influences and actions of the researcher. The actual study containing the recording of this decision trail aimed to express the concerns of older patients who were admitted to the acute care sector. The study took place in two care of the elderly wards in a 1000-bed National Health Service hospital in the UK, in 1991. Eventually, 14 patients were interviewed, each on several occasions, and their concerns are expressed in themes, namely: routine geriatric style of care, depersonalization, care deprivation and geriatric segregation. I describe the preparations that were undertaken before patient interviews could commence. The literature recording the process of the interviewer's experience as data in qualitative research is scarce. I show the researcher's participation in making the data as part of an existential phenomenological research process. Existential phenomenology relies on recording influences while generating data such as significant literature, media reports, my value position and journal data.
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This paper discusses the literature on establishing rigour in research studies. It describes the methodological trinity of reliability, validity and generalization and explores some of the issues relating to establishing rigour in naturalistic inquiry. Those working within the naturalistic paradigm have questioned the issue of using validity, reliability and generalizability to demonstrate robustness of qualitative research. Triangulation has been used to demonstrate confirmability and completeness and has been one means of ensuring acceptability across paradigms. Emerging criteria such as goodness and trustworthiness can be used to evaluate the robustness of naturalistic inquiry. It is argued that the transference of terms across paradigms is inappropriate; however, if we reject the concepts of validity and reliability, we reject the concept of rigour. Rejection of rigour undermines acceptance of qualitative research as a systematic process that can contribute to the advancement of knowledge. Emerging criteria for demonstrating robustness in qualitative inquiry, such as authenticity, trustworthiness and goodness, need to be considered. Goodness, when not seen as a separate construct but as an integral and embedded component of the research process, should be useful in assuring quality of the entire study. Triangulation is a tried and tested means of offering completeness, particularly in mixed-method research. When multiple types of triangulation are used appropriately as the 'triangulation state of mind', they approach the concept of crystallization, which allows for infinite variety of angles of approach. Qualitative researchers need to be explicit about how and why they choose specific legitimizing criteria in ensuring the robustness of their inquiries. A shift from a position of fundamentalism to a more pluralistic approach as a means of legitimizing naturalistic inquiry is advocated.