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How Instructors' Emotional Expressions Shape Students' Learning Performance: The Roles of Anger, Happiness, and Regulatory Focus

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Abstract

How do instructors' emotional expressions influence students' learning performance? Scholars and practitioners alike have emphasized the importance of positive, nurturing emotions for successful learning. However, teachers may sometimes lose their temper and express anger at their pupils. Drawing on emotions as social information (EASI) theory, we hypothesized that expressions of anger can benefit learning performance. In Experiment 1, participants who were confronted with an angry instructor exhibited more accurate recognition of word pairs after a week of learning, compared with those who were confronted with a happy instructor. In Experiment 2, we conceptually replicated this effect on a recall task, but only among participants in a promotion rather than prevention focus. Present findings thus show, for the 1st time, that instructor anger can enhance students' performance. Findings are consistent with a conceptualization of emotion as social information and call into question the generally endorsed positivity paradigm. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

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... Extending from existing research advocating expressed positive emotions, this study proposes that a pedagogical agent's expressed negative emotions such as anger can benefit multimedia learning, particularly when framed as a feedback cue concerning learning effort and performance. In the education milieu, teachers and instructors can intentionally display ILS negative emotions such as anger to strategically indicate negative feedback and disapproval for mitigating undesirable learning behaviors and deficient standards of learners (Tunstall and Gsipps, 1996;Doorn et al., 2014). Displays of anger by teachers can prompt learners to attribute their sub-optimal performances to the lack of a learner's effort rather than the lack of learner ability, which can motivate them to devote more effort to improve their learning performance (Graham, 1984;Mcpherson and Young, 2004). ...
... Displays of anger by teachers can prompt learners to attribute their sub-optimal performances to the lack of a learner's effort rather than the lack of learner ability, which can motivate them to devote more effort to improve their learning performance (Graham, 1984;Mcpherson and Young, 2004). Across two experiments, the instructor who expressed anger through facial expressions, vocal tone and body stance while conveying learning tips led to superior task performance among learners than the instructor who expressed happiness (Doorn et al., 2014). While an instructor's expressed negative emotion, such as anger, is beneficial in a conventional classroom setting, little is known about the effects of a pedagogical agent's expressed anger in the multimedia learning context. ...
... Empirical studies predicated on emotions as social information theory have demonstrated that expressions of anger by a human evaluator can enhance task engagement or effort (Kleef et al., 2010a;Sy et al., 2005) and task performance (Kleef et al., 2010b;Chi and Ho, 2014;Kleef et al., 2009;Sy et al., 2005) more than a positive or a neutral emotional display. Framed within the learning context, Doorn et al. (2014) affirmed the emotions as social information effects insofar as the instructor who expressed anger through facial expressions, vocal tone ILS and body stance while conveying learning tips led to superior task performance among learners than the instructor expressing happiness when dispensing tips. ...
Article
This study aims to examine if a pedagogical agent’s expressed anger, when framed as a feedback cue, can enhance mental effort and learning performance in a multimedia learning environment than expressed happiness. A between-subjects experiment was conducted in which learners engaged with a multimedia learning material that taught programming algorithms, featuring a pedagogical agent who expressed anger or happiness as a feedback cue in response to the learners’ prior performance. Learners completed a self-reported scale and post-test for measuring mental effort and learning performance, respectively. Female learners reported higher mental effort and had better learning performance when the pedagogical agent expressed anger than happiness. Male learners reported marginally lower mental effort when the pedagogical agent expressed anger than happiness. This study focuses on a pedagogical agent’s expressed emotion as social information to learners. Extending from research advocating a pedagogical agent’s positive emotional expression, this study highlights the potential benefits of a pedagogical agent’s negative emotional expression, such as anger, as a cue for learners to enhance learning effort and performance in a multimedia learning environment.
... We know less about how regulatory focus shapes consumers' reactions to others' emotions (for an isolated experiment on the effects of angry vs. happy instructors on prevention-vs. promotion-focused students' learning see van Doorn, van Kleef, and van der Pligt 2014). Advancing regulatory focus theory in service literature demands such considerations though, because of the social nature of services and emerging evidence about the social functions of emotions (van Kleef 2014). ...
... Second, we contribute to regulatory focus theory (Higgins 1998) Furthermore, a stagnation in more recent empirical work, as well as reviews, indicated that theory development in the domain of emotions and regulatory focus had reached maturity (Higgins and Cornwell 2016). However, the social functions of emotional displays highlight the importance of socially expressed emotions (Keltner and Haidt 1999;van Kleef 2014). By demonstrating that a prevention (vs. ...
... motivations, for authentic displays and show that the effect of service quality due to authenticity, though not the effect of authenticity itself, is moderated by epistemic motivations. In addition to affirming the claim in EASI theory that the effects of authenticity depend on the observer's motivation (van Kleef 2009(van Kleef , 2014, we can combine our results with Wang et al.'s (2017) e v i e w 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 F o r P e e r R e v i e w 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 F o r P e e r R e v i e w 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 F o r P e e r R e v i e w 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 F o r P e e r R e v i e w 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 F o r P e e r R e v i e w 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 F o r P e e r R e v i e w 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 F o r P e e r R e v i e w 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 F o r P e e r R e v i e w 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 ...
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Despite growing managerial interest in frontline employee behavior, and in display authenticity specifically, customers’ heterogeneous reactions to authentic displays have received little scholarly attention. Drawing on emotion as social information theory, we investigate the role of motivational orientations (i.e., regulatory focus) in customer reactions to authentic displays. The findings show that inauthentic displays have stronger negative effects on service performance for prevention-focused than for promotion-focused customers. A dyadic field study details these effects in terms of tipping, and three experiments provide further evidence by experimentally manipulating authenticity and regulatory focus. The conditional effect of authenticity on service performance also is mediated by inferred deception. Specifically, prevention-focused customers interpret inauthentic emotion displays as more deceptive than promotion-focused customers do. Managers should prime customers’ promotion focus using marketing communications before the service delivery when inauthentic displays are likely as well as consider customers’ regulatory focus when designing authenticity training for employees.
... On the one hand, expressions of happiness may have beneficial effects on team performance because they help instill positive emotions in team members that are conducive to within-team cooperation (Barsade, 2002;Sy et al., 2005). On the other hand, expressions of anger may enhance team performance because they signal unsatisfactory performance ) and a need for behavioral adjustment (Cacioppo & Gardner, 1999), thereby potentially engendering greater motivation and effort (Van Doorn, Van Kleef, & Van der Pligt, 2014;Van Kleef, Homan, Beersma, & Van Knippenberg, 2010). In light of these conflicting possibilities, we examined the effects of coaches' emotional expressions on team performance exploratively. ...
... Third, our finding that coaches' expressions of happiness are more conducive to team performance than coaches' expressions of anger contributes to the growing literature on the effects of emotional expressions on performance, in particular within the broader context of leadership and coaching. This literature is inconclusive in that some work suggests that expressions of happiness are conducive to performance because they help instill a positive atmosphere that facilitates coordination and cooperation in teams (Barsade, 2002;Sy et al., 2005), whereas other work suggests that expressions of anger benefit performance by signaling that current functioning is unsatisfactory (Lewis, 2000) and thereby engendering greater motivation (Van Kleef et al., 2010), effort (Sy et al., 2005), and performance (Van Doorn et al., 2014). It is increasingly clear that the intricate effects of emotional expressions on performance are subject to various moderating influences (Van Kleef, 2016), but the current data do suggest that expressions of happiness and enthusiasm by coaches can promote sports performance. ...
... On the one hand, expressions of happiness may have beneficial effects on team performance because they help instill positive emotions in team members that are conducive to within-team cooperation (Barsade, 2002;Sy et al., 2005). On the other hand, expressions of anger may enhance team performance because they signal unsatisfactory performance ) and a need for behavioral adjustment (Cacioppo & Gardner, 1999), thereby potentially engendering greater motivation and effort (Van Doorn, Van Kleef, & Van der Pligt, 2014;Van Kleef, Homan, Beersma, & Van Knippenberg, 2010). In light of these conflicting possibilities, we examined the effects of coaches' emotional expressions on team performance exploratively. ...
... Third, our finding that coaches' expressions of happiness are more conducive to team performance than coaches' expressions of anger contributes to the growing literature on the effects of emotional expressions on performance, in particular within the broader context of leadership and coaching. This literature is inconclusive in that some work suggests that expressions of happiness are conducive to performance because they help instill a positive atmosphere that facilitates coordination and cooperation in teams (Barsade, 2002;Sy et al., 2005), whereas other work suggests that expressions of anger benefit performance by signaling that current functioning is unsatisfactory (Lewis, 2000) and thereby engendering greater motivation (Van Kleef et al., 2010), effort (Sy et al., 2005), and performance (Van Doorn et al., 2014). It is increasingly clear that the intricate effects of emotional expressions on performance are subject to various moderating influences (Van Kleef, 2016), but the current data do suggest that expressions of happiness and enthusiasm by coaches can promote sports performance. ...
Article
Objectives: Sports games are inherently emotional situations. Although a plethora of research has investigated how athletes’ emotions influence their own performance, scant attention has been paid to how one person's emotional expressions influence others in the sports context. In particular, it remains unclear whether and how sports coaches’ emotional expressions influence players. Drawing on emotions as social information (EASI) theory, we examined how coaches’ emotional expressions influence players’ affect, cognition, and behavior. Design: We conducted two multi-level, multi-source field studies of sports coaches and players engaged in competitive team sports. Study 1 had a cross-sectional research design, and Study 2 had a cross-lagged design involving three measurement points (before, during, and after the game). Method: Study 1 was set in the context of baseball/softball, and study 2 in the context of soccer. In both studies, coaches reported on their emotional expressions, players reported on their experienced emotions and inferences regarding team performance, and the team's actual performance was recorded. Results: Coaches’ expressions of happiness and anger predicted (1) players’ experiences of happiness and anger, (2) players’ inferences about the quality of their performance, and (3) objective team performance outcomes. Regarding team performance, results indicated that coaches’ expressions of happiness were conducive to team performance, whereas expressions of anger were not. Conclusions: The current results provide first-time quantitative evidence for the beneficial effects of coaches’ positive emotional expressions on sports performance. The findings support key tenets of EASI theory and have implications for the broader literature on coaching and leadership.
... We recommend future works exploring other text-to-speech emotional tones, including negative ones, such as Alexa's synthetic disappointed or angry voice tones for multimedia learning. This recommendation hinges on the emerging literature accentuating the potential benefits of negative emotional tones in augmenting learning effort and performance in a multimedia learning environment Liew et al., 2022;Sullins et al., 2009), which simulates instructors' strategic use of positive and negative emotional expressions to promote learning in the educational milieu (Tunstall & Gsipps, 1996;Van Doorn et al., 2014). The state-of-the-art synthetic voice engines like Amazon Alexa, Typecast.AI, and Microsoft Azure, which provide myriad artificial emotional tones, open up prospects for researchers and practitioners to enrich multimedia learning through socio-emotional cues. ...
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Modern text-to-speech voices can convey social cues ideal for narrating multimedia learning materials. Amazon Alexa has a unique feature among modern text-to-speech vocalizers as she can infuse enthusiasm cues into her synthetic voice. In this first study examining modern text-to-speech voice enthusiasm effects in a multimedia learning environment, a between-subjects online experiment was conducted where learners from a large Asian university (n = 244) listened to either Alexa’s: (1) neutral voice, (2) low-enthusiastic voice, (3) medium-enthusiastic voice, or (4) high-enthusiastic voice, narrating a multimedia lesson on distributed denial-of-service attack. While Alexa’s enthusiastic voices did not enhance persona ratings compared to Alexa’s neutral voice, learners could infer more enthusiasm expressed by Alexa’s medium-and high-enthusiastic voices than Alexa’s neutral voice. Regarding cognitive load, Alexa’s low-and high-enthusiastic voices decreased intrinsic and extraneous cognitive load ratings compared to Alexa’s neutral voice. While Alexa’s enthusiastic voices did not impact affective-motivational ratings differently from Alexa’s neutral voice, learners reported a significant increase of positive emotions from their baseline positive emotions after listening to Alexa’s medium-enthusiastic voice. Finally, Alexa’s enthusiastic voices did not enhance the learning performance on immediate retention and transfer tests compared to Alexa’s neutral voice. This study demonstrates that a modern text-to-speech voice enthusiasm can positively affect learners’ emotions and cognitive load during multimedia learning. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed through the lens of the Cognitive Affective Model of E-learning, Integrated-Cognitive Affective Model of Learning with Multimedia, and Cognitive Load Theory. We further outline this study’s limitations and recommendations for extending and widening the text-to-speech voice emotions research.
... Teachers' emotions have been shown to be related to teachers' perceived self-efficacy and confidence in the classroom (Sutton, 2005), as well as student motivation and engagement (Becker et al., 2014;van Doorn et al., 2014). However, teachers who educate students with ASD face levels of stress which are higher than average (Rämä et al., 2019). ...
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In this study, we used Gross's (2015) emotional regulation model to examine teachers' emotional regulation strategies and the relationship between this emotional regulation and the participation of students with ASD. The sample was selected using a non‐probabilistic technique (convenience) with a total of 131 Cuban teachers from primary schools and preschools participating. The results revealed significant differences in the emotional regulation strategies used by teachers which were associated with teaching stage and specific ASD training, with primary school teachers and those who had ASD training obtaining better results. In addition, a significant relationship was found between teachers using cognitive reappraisal of emotions and the participation of students with ASD in school. Practical implications, teacher training programs and lines of future research are discussed.
... Thus, expressing anger is functional (at least, from the expresser's point of view) to the extent that it leads to behavioral change in the observer (Fischer and Roseman, 2007;Van Kleef, 2009). For instance, it has been shown that expressions of anger can help to extract concessions from negotiation partners (Van Kleef et al., 2004), that a teacher's angry expressions can increase a student's learning performance (Van Doorn et al., 2014), and that leaders' displays of anger can enhance follower motivation and performance (Damen et al., 2008;Van Kleef et al., 2010). ...
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How many members of a group need to express their anger in order to influence a deviant group member’s behavior? In two studies, we examine whether an increase in number of angry group members affects the extent to which a deviant individual feels rejected, and we investigate downstream effects on conformity. We show that each additional angry reaction linearly increases the extent to which a deviant individual feels rejected, and that this relation is independent of the total number of majority members (Study 1). This felt rejection is then shown to lead to anti-conformity unless two conditions are met: (1) the deviant is motivated to seek reacceptance in the group, and (2) conformity is instrumental in gaining reacceptance because it is observable by the majority (Study 2). These findings show that angry reactions are likely to trigger anti-conformity in a deviant, but they are also consistent with a motivational account of conformity, in which conformity is strategic behavior aimed at gaining reacceptance from the group.
... People may use expressions of emotion to infer the cooperativeness (Van Doorn et al., 2012) and level of risk (e.g., Sorce et al., 1985;Parkinson and Simons, 2009;Parkinson et al., 2012) of the situation in which the expression takes place. Other inferences may include whether the target of the expression performed sufficiently well on a task (Weiner et al., 1979(Weiner et al., , 1982Van Doorn et al., 2014). Finally, observers may infer qualities of the person expressing the emotion, such as personality (e.g., Knutson, 1996;Hess et al., 2000;Hareli and Hess, 2010), status (e.g., Tiedens, 2001), moral beliefs (e.g., Horberg et al., 2013), and the likely next behavior of an emotional counterpart in a negotiation (e.g., Van Kleef et al., 2004Wubben et al., 2009;de Melo et al., 2014). ...
Article
Emotional expressions constitute a rich source of information. Integrating theorizing on attribution, appraisal processes, and the use of emotions as social information, we examined how emotional expressions influence attributions of agency and responsibility under conditions of ambiguity. Three vignette studies involving different scenarios indicate that participants used information about others’ emotional expressions to make sense of ambiguous social situations. Expressions of regret fueled inferences that the expresser was responsible for an adverse situation, whereas expressions of anger fueled inferences that someone else was responsible. Also, expressions of anger were interpreted as a sign of injustice, and expressions of disappointment increased prosocial intentions (i.e., to help the expresser). The results show that emotional expressions can help people understand ambiguous social situations by informing attributions that correspond with each emotion’s associated appraisal structures. The findings advance understanding of the ways in which emotional expressions help individuals understand and coordinate social life.
... Yet the persuasive power of anger expression might depend upon how appropriate it is for the social context (Adam & Brett, 2015;Adam, Shirako, & Maddux, 2010). For example, anger expression increases concessions during negotiations (e.g., Sinaceur et al., 2011;van Kleef, van Doorn, Heerdink, & Koning, 2011), but decreases compliance with donation requests (van Doorn, van Kleef, & van der Pligt, 2014). Similarly, we predicted that the persuasive power of anger might depend on the expresser's gender and race. ...
Article
Expressing anger can signal that someone is certain and competent, thereby increasing their social influence—but does this strategy work for everyone? After assessing gender- and race-based emotion stereotypes (Study 1), we assessed the effect of expressing anger on social influence during group decision making as a function of gender (Studies 2–3) and race (Study 3). Participants took part in a computerized mock jury decision-making task, during which they read scripted comments ostensibly from other jurors. A “holdout” juror always disagreed with the participant and four other confederate group members. We predicted that the contextual factor of who expressed emotion would trump what was expressed in determining whether anger is a useful persuasion strategy. People perceived all holdouts expressing anger as more emotional than holdouts who expressed identical arguments without anger. Yet holdouts who expressed anger (versus no anger) were less effective and influential when they were female (but not male, Study 2) or Black (but not White, Study 3)—despite having expressed identical arguments and anger. Although anger expression made participants perceive the holdouts as more emotional regardless of race and gender, being perceived as more emotional was selectively used to discredit women and African Americans. These diverging consequences of anger expression have implications for societally important group decisions, including life-and-death decisions made by juries.
... Possible scores range from 0 to 24. The ACS affect naming task has been used in various clinical populations, including abstinent alcoholic individuals (Valmas, Mosher Ruiz, Gansler, Sawyer, & Oscar-Berman, 2014), supporting its utility as a reliable measure of emotion perception ability. ...
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Alcohol intoxication is linked to negative social behaviors, but the mechanisms underlying this relationship are poorly understood. We investigated the effects of high-dose alcohol intoxication on the ability to perceive a range of basic emotions (sad, happy, anger, disgust, fear, and surprise) of different intensities, and on self-appraisals of emotion perception ability (i.e., metacognitive judgments). Sixty-four participants consumed either an alcohol or placebo beverage. An emotion recognition task was used to assess emotion perception ability, and participants provided confidence ratings when providing each emotion recognition response. Alcohol-intoxicated individuals demonstrated a reduced ability to detect fear and sadness at moderate-to-high levels of emotion intensity and less overall insight into their ability to recognize emotions. These results provide new insights into the possible difficulties experienced by alcohol-intoxicated individuals in perceiving emotions in others and the limited capacity to monitor their emotion perception abilities, both of which may contribute to inappropriate social responding.
... Teachers' emotions are related to a variety of important teaching-related outcomes, including teachers' classroom effectiveness (Sutton, 2005), their well-being and health (Chang, 2013;Taxer & Frenzel, 2015), and student emotions and motivation (Becker, Goetz, Morger, & Ranellucci, 2014;van Doorn, van Kleef, & van der Pligt, 2014). Importantly, teachers often exert some level of control over their emotions via emotion regulation (Sutton, 2004;Taxer & Frenzel, 2015), which may be defined as 'the process by which individuals influence which emotions they have, when they have them, and how they experience and express these emotions' (Gross, 1999, p. 275). ...
... Although there is evidence on student emotion demonstrating the correlation between positive feedback and student educational success (Cavanagh, 2016), there is also evidence that positive feedback is negatively correlated with student learning, while negative feedback is positively correlated. Doorn, Kleef, and Pligt (2014) specifically looked at the emotional tone of an instructor's voice to measure the effect of happy and angry emotions on student learning. The researchers found that critical feedback delivered in an angry tone was associated with higher student learning because the negative tone was an emotional spark, which motivated students to work harder to address the instructor's criticism. ...
Technical Report
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I sent this report to the administration at the University of Texas at San Antonio in Sept, 2018, but my report was ignored so I resigned in protest.
... and increased conflict in romantic relationships (Sanford & Rowatt, 2004), an increased likelihood of divorce (Gottman & Levenson, 2002), and retaliation and impasses in conflict resolution (Friedman et al., 2004;Kopelman, Rosette, & Thompson, 2006;Van Kleef & Côté, 2007). However, other research has documented favorable outcomes of anger expressions, such as greater concessions from counterparts in negotiations (Van Kleef, De Dreu, & Manstead, 2004), increased effort and task performance of subordinates (Sy, Côté, & Saavedra, 2005;Van Kleef, Homan, Beersma, & Van Knippenberg, 2010), increased conformity of deviant group members (Heerdink, Van Kleef, Homan, & Fischer, 2013), enhanced learning performance of students (Van Doorn, Van Kleef, & Van der Pligt, 2014), and long-term improvement of intimate relationships (Fischer & Roseman, 2007). ...
Article
Inclusion in social groups is vital to human survival and wellbeing. We propose that emotional expressions signal acceptance versus rejection to observers. Based on this idea, we hypothesized that happy facial expressions prime acceptance, whereas angry expressions prime rejection. In six experiments using the Affect Misattribution Paradigm (Payne, Cheng, Govorun, & Stewart, 2005), we tested to what extent observers associate facial expressions (angry, happy, sad, fearful, and neutral) with three different operationalizations of acceptance and rejection (accept/reject, warm/cold, close/distant). A meta-analysis on these experiments revealed that angry expressions were more strongly associated with rejection than other (negative) expressions, and that happy expressions were more strongly associated with acceptance than other facial expressions. Effects were stable and robust at presentation times of 50 ms and higher and were similar across conceptualizations of acceptance/rejection. We discuss implications for theorizing on the social functions of emotions and the processing of emotional expressions.
... This group of studies tested the assumption that the leader behaviors, communication, gestures, and language trickle down, affecting and shaping the followers' motivation, attitudes, and behaviors. The second group of studies focused on the role of followers' regulatory focus as a moderator of the effect of the leader's characteristics and behaviors on the followers' outcomes (Benjamin & Flynn, 2006;Cheng, Chang, Kuo, & Cheung, 2014;De Cremer, Mayer, Van Dijke, Schouten, & Bardes, 2009;Graham, Ziegert, & Capitano, 2015;Hamstra, Van Yperen, Wisse, Sassenberg, 2011;Hamstra et al., 2014;Stam et al., 2010aStam et al., , 2010bPierro, Cicero, & Higgins, 2009;van Doorn, van Kleef, & van der Pligt, 2014;Whitford & Moss, 2009). This stream of research tested the assumption that various leadership processes and outcomes are mostly effective for promotion-or prevention-focused followers. ...
Article
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Self-regulatory focus reflects both a trait (chronic focus) and a state (situational focus) that can either influence or be influenced by various organizational factors and outcomes. It is a significant and explanatory construct because it comprises an inner-self component (ideal vs. ought), which is evident as a motivational force that mobilizes different individual and work-group processes and behaviors to achieve end results. These unique characteristics of regulatory focus make it especially appropriate for examining and understanding the psychological mechanisms that underlie leadership–followership processes involving dynamic relationships and mutual influences across time and context. Yet, to date, the relationships between leadership and regulatory focus, as well as the roles of time and context, have not been assessed systematically. We propose to review the literature on regulatory focus and leadership, while integrating the multiple targets and levels of regulatory focus (leaders, followers, the dyad, and the team), and to offer a comprehensive conceptual framework that focuses on the significance of time and context across these levels, in order to advance our knowledge and to suggest a roadmap for future research on leader–follower motivational processes and their influence on multiple level outcomes.
... This group of studies tested the assumption that the leader behaviors, communication, gestures, and language trickle down, affecting and shaping the followers' motivation, attitudes, and behaviors. The second group of studies focused on the role of followers' regulatory focus as a moderator of the effect of the leader's characteristics and behaviors on the followers' outcomes (e.g., Cheng et al., 2014;De Cremer et al., 2009;Flynn & Benjamin, 200t;Graham et al., 2015;Hamstra et al., 2011Hamstra et al., , 2014Stam et al., 2010a;Pierro, Cicero, & Higgins, 2009;Stam et al., 2010b;van Doorn, van Kleef, & van der Pligt, 2014;Whitford & Moss, 2009). This stream of research tested the assumption that various leadership processes and outcomes are mostly effective for promotion-or prevention-focused followers. ...
... As a ubiquitous factor in our interpersonal processes, suggestion operates on various levels of human psychological functioning, most importantly, their emotional aspects (Lundh, 1998). Accordingly, the connection of teachers' emotions with their efficiency in the classroom (Sutton, 2005) and shaping students' emotions (van Doorn, van Kleef, & van der Pligt, 2014) has been considered by researchers. However, the integration of suggestion into teacher preparation programs in their emotional and cognitive modification has not been duly noted. ...
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This study is a report on the emotional and cognitive impact of hypnotic suggestion on EFL teachers’ practices. Twenty-five EFL teachers participated in two hypnotic suggestion sessions plus a self-suggestion training class to enhance their emotional and cognitive experiences. To understand teachers’ emotional state, pre-intervention interviews were used, and post-intervention interviews were employed to assess the effects of the hypnotic suggestion intervention. Through content analysis, we found that the emotional experience of novice and expert teachers differed significantly. Furthermore, the effect of hypnotic suggestion on teachers’ emotions, cognition, and practice was significant and conducive to change in their perspectives toward hypnotic suggestion programs. Thorough theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... As a ubiquitous factor in our interpersonal processes, suggestion operates on various levels of human psychological functioning, most importantly, their emotional aspects (Lundh, 1998). Accordingly, the connection of teachers' emotions with their efficiency in the classroom (Sutton, 2005) and shaping students' emotions (van Doorn, van Kleef, & van der Pligt, 2014) has been considered by researchers. However, the integration of suggestion into teacher preparation programs in their emotional and cognitive modification has not been duly noted. ...
Article
Language immersion programs, which are a form of bilingual education, are shaped by multiple factors, including the specific characteristics of the region, the language, the community and the learners, as well as national and regional policies on language education. While the underdeveloped production skills of immersion students have been identified as the product of teacher-centred and controlled learning environments, it is not known what role background or heritage language students play in the Australian one-way immersion context, where their presence itself potentially enhances the speaking environment. This paper, based on a project on developing speaking strategies for a Japanese immersion program in Australia, argues that the speaking performance of students in immersion classes is also determined by other factors, such as peer interactions with background students, whose treatment in education systems in Australia remains ambiguous, reflecting the history of separation between foreign language education in schools and the maintenance of mother tongues in the community. By applying Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA), this paper analyses language policy and educational documents and discusses how the language performance of individual learners could be influenced not only by the curriculum but also by policy makers’ improved understanding of individual learners with diverse linguistic backgrounds within schools.
... Anger combines distress over an undesired event with perceiving the other as responsible for it Ortony et al., 1988). Once emotions are experienced, they influence partners' on-going appraisals, perceptions, information processing with important consequences in relationship judgments and behaviours (Bless, 2003;Parrott, 2003;Weiner, 2006;Van Doorn et al., 2014). For example, happy partners make more optimistic attributions than unhappy (Forgas, 1994;Planalp & Fitness, 1999). ...
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This study examined teachers’ attributions and emotions for their subjectively perceived interpersonal relationships with their students as positive or negative, and whether hope (pathways thinking, agency thinking) influences the perceived positive or negative interpersonal relationships, the subsequent attributions and emotions, and the impact of attributions on emotions. Fifty teachers, of both genders, completed the questionnaire for each of their five students who were randomly selected from their teaching classes. The results revealed that the positive interpersonal relationships were predominately attributed to stable, personally controllable and self-student controllable factors, whereas the negative interpersonal relationships were primarily attributed to external, external controllable, unstable, and self-student controllable factors. Also, teachers reported positive emotions of high intensity (sympathy, cheerfulness, exciting, love, not anger, calmness) for the positive relationships, and negative emotions of moderate intensity (no enthusiasm, shame, anxiety, no excitement) for the negative relationships. Yet, the high hope teachers made adaptive attributional and emotional appraisals for the positive and, mainly, negative interpersonal relationships. Agency thinking, as compared to pathway thinking, was a better and worse formulator of the appraisals in negative and positive interpersonal relationships, respectively. Hope, additionally, had direct effect on the emotions, beyond that afforded by attributions, particularly in negative interpersonal relationships.
... Leadership studies revealed that verbal, facial, vocal, and postural expressions of anger by leaders can enhance the motivation (Van Kleef et al. 2010) and performance ) of their followers, although such expressions may also undermine organizational citizenship behaviors (i.e., behaviors that are helpful to organizations but not explicitly specified in job descriptions; Koning & Van Kleef 2015). Furthermore, instructors' nonverbal expressions of anger in an educational context engendered more learning (i.e., better recognition and recall of learned words) than expressions of happiness (Van Doorn et al. 2014). Expressions of contempt, too, can motivate performance, although they may also provoke aggression . ...
Article
We review the burgeoning literature on the social effects of emotions, documenting the impact of emotional expressions on observers’ affect, cognition, and behavior. We find convergent evidence that emotional expressions influence observers’ affective reactions, inferential processes, and behaviors across various domains, including close relationships, group decision making, customer service, negotiation, and leadership. Affective reactions and inferential processes mediate the effects of emotional expressions on observers’ behaviors, and the relative potency of these mediators depends on the observers’ information processing and the perceived appropriateness of the emotional expressions. The social effects of emotions are similar across expressive modalities (face, voice, body, text, symbols). We discuss the findings in relation to emotional contagion, emotional intelligence, emotion regulation, emotions as social information (EASI) theory, and the functionality of emotions in engendering social influence. Finally, we identify gaps in our current understanding of the topic and call for interdisciplinary collaboration and methodological diversification. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology, Volume 73 is January 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
... Since the COVID-19 pandemic, 214 million students from pre-primary to upper secondary education in 23 countries worldwide have missed at least three-quarters of classroom instruction time (UNICEF, 2020). ...
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Lay Description What is already known about this topic Regulatory focus is a self‐regulatory motivational orientation that has a significant impact on online learning for university students. Self‐efficacy and academic emotions are among the main factors that influence online learning engagement. Online learning has spread due to the COVID‐19 pandemic. Lack of understanding of online learning engagement for high school students. Lack of experience of teachers in teaching online. What this paper adds Promotion focus had a steady significant positive effect on high school students' online learning engagement, while prevention focus had a significant negative effect on high school students' online learning engagement. Self‐efficacy and positive emotion had a significant positive mediating effect between promotion focus and online learning engagement. Positive emotion had a significant positive mediating effect between prevention focus and online learning engagement, while negative emotions had a significant negative mediating effect between them. Implications for practice and/or policy These findings provide suggestions for instructional strategies for the online classroom. (1) It is important for online teachers to design appropriate learning contexts to initiate a promotion focus for learners in order to increase online learning engagement. For example, by designing online learning contextual elements such as learning activities, learning atmosphere, social interactions, media resources, and contexts, online learners' tendency to promotion focus is activated and learners' level of engagement in online learning is increased. (2) Online teachers can promote learning engagement by initiating a promotion focus, or they can improve students' accountability by initiating their prevention focus, as appropriate. (3) To ensure a certain level of engagement in online learning, teachers should use teaching and learning assessment methods that are predominantly promotion‐focused and supplemented by prevention‐focused methods to accommodate students' different motivational orientations.
... Suppression, however, is regarded as a strategy that requires a lot of resources and can (in the long term) increase the emotional labor of the work (Donker et al., 2020;de Ruiter et al., 2021). Prior research has shown that teachers' emotions are not only related to their own wellbeing and health (Chang, 2013;Taxer and Gross, 2018), but that they also have a direct link to children's motivation and emotions (Becker et al., 2014;van Doorn et al., 2014). Furthermore, based on self-regulated learning (SRL) theory, Kramarski and Heaysman (2021) state that to support children's regulation skills, it is essential to pay attention to educators' own regulation skills. ...
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This experiment examines the impact of leader affect on subordinates in a failure feedback situation in the context of promotion and prevention task goals and whether or not the feedback was personalized or task focused. Results were consistent with expectations that negative leader affect displayed during feedback would produce lower perceptions of leader effectiveness and lower quality performance on a group task than positive leader affect. Also in line with expectations was the finding that leader affect interacted with goal type such that groups with a prevention goal perceived the negative affect leader more favorably than groups with a promotion goal. Goals also interacted with feedback focus. Prevention-goal groups identified more with the leader when feedback was personalized and promotion-goal groups identified more with the leader when the feedback was task focused, regardless of leader affect.
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Do followers perform better when their leader expresses anger or when their leader expresses happiness? We propose that this depends on the follower's level of agreeableness. Anger is associated with hostility and conflict-states that are at odds with agreeable individuals' goals. Happiness facilitates affiliation and positive relations-states that are in line with agreeable individuals' goals. Accordingly, the two studies we conducted showed that agreeableness moderates the effects of a leader's emotional displays. In a scenario study, participants with lower levels of agreeableness responded more favorably to an angry leader, whereas participants with higher levels of agreeableness responded more favorably to a neutral leader. In an experiment involving four-person teams, teams composed of participants with lower average levels of agreeableness performed better when their leader expressed anger, whereas teams composed of participants with higher average levels of agreeableness performed better when their leader expressed happiness. Team performance was mediated by experienced workload, which was highest among agreeable followers with an angry leader. Besides having important practical implications, the findings shed new light on the fundamental question of how emotional expressions regulate social behavior.
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We review recent trends and methodological issues in assessing and testing theories of emotion, and we review evidence that form follows function in the affect system. Physical limitations constrain behavioral expressions and incline behavioral predispositions toward a bipolar organization, but these limiting conditions appear to lose their power at the level of underlying mechanisms, where a bivalent approach may provide a more comprehensive account of the affect system.
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Three experiments investigated the interpersonal effects of anger and happiness in negotiations. In the course of a computer-mediated negotiation, participants received information about the emotional state (anger, happiness, or none) of their opponent. Consistent with a strategic-choice perspective, Experiment 1 showed that participants conceded more to an angry opponent than to a happy one. Experiment 2 showed that this effect was caused by tracking--participants used the emotion information to infer the other's limit, and they adjusted their demands accordingly. However, this effect was absent when the other made large concessions. Experiment 3 examined the interplay between experienced and communicated emotion and showed that angry communications (unlike happy ones) induced fear and thereby mitigated the effect of the opponent's experienced emotion. These results suggest that negotiators are especially influenced by their opponent's emotions when they are motivated and able to consider them.
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Extending B. L. Fredrickson's (1998) broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions and M. Losada's (1999) nonlinear dynamics model of team performance, the authors predict that a ratio of positive to negative affect at or above 2.9 will characterize individuals in flourishing mental health. Participants (N=188) completed an initial survey to identify flourishing mental health and then provided daily reports of experienced positive and negative emotions over 28 days. Results showed that the mean ratio of positive to negative affect was above 2.9 for individuals classified as flourishing and below that threshold for those not flourishing. Together with other evidence, these findings suggest that a set of general mathematical principles may describe the relations between positive affect and human flourishing.
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Like all perception, social perception reflects evolutionary pressures. In encounters with conspecifics, social animals must determine, immediately, whether the "other" is friend or foe (i.e. intends good or ill) and, then, whether the "other" has the ability to enact those intentions. New data confirm these two universal dimensions of social cognition: warmth and competence. Promoting survival, these dimensions provide fundamental social structural answers about competition and status. People perceived as warm and competent elicit uniformly positive emotions and behavior, whereas those perceived as lacking warmth and competence elicit uniform negativity. People classified as high on one dimension and low on the other elicit predictable, ambivalent affective and behavioral reactions. These universal dimensions explain both interpersonal and intergroup social cognition.
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Previous theory and research have shown that people have two distinct self-regulatory foci. When promotion focused, people are motivated by growth and development needs in which they attempt to bring their actual selves (their behaviors and self-conceptions) in alignment with their ideal selves (self-standards based on wishes and aspirations of how they would like to be). When prevention focused, people are responsive to security needs in which they try to match their actual selves with their ought selves (self-standards based on felt duties and responsibilities). Strategically, eagerness or ensuring gains predominate for promotion-focused persons, whereas vigilance or ensuring nonlosses predominate for prevention-focused persons. People's regulatory focus influences the nature and magnitude of their emotional experience. Promotion-focused people's emotions vary along a cheerful-dejected dimension, whereas prevention-focused people's emotions vary along a quiescent-agitated dimension. We consider the implications of the relationship between regulatory focus and emotions for such topics as person/organization fit, goal-setting theory, expectancy-valence theory, behavioral decision theory, and employee resistance to organizational change. Possible antecedents of employees' regulatory focus also are discussed.
Regulatory focus theory: Implications for the study of emotions at work. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes
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Brockner, J., & Higgins, E. T. (2001). Regulatory focus theory: Implications for the study of emotions at work. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 86, 35– 66. doi:10.1006/obhd.2001.2972
How emotions regulate social life: The emotions as social information (EASI) model
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Van Kleef, G. A. (2009). How emotions regulate social life: The emotions as social information (EASI) model. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18, 184 –188. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8721.2009.01633.x
The many faces of emotion and leadership
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Humphrey, R. H. (2002). The many faces of emotion and leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 13, 493-504. doi:10.1016/S1048-9843(02)00140-6
Performance incentives and means: How regulatory focus influences goal attainment
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How emotions regulate social life: The emotions as social information (EASI) model. Current Directions in Psychological Science
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Van Kleef, G. A. (2009). How emotions regulate social life: The emotions as social information (EASI) model. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18, 184 -188. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8721.2009.01633.x Van Kleef, G. A., De Dreu, C. K. W., & Manstead, A. S. R. (2004). The interpersonal effects of anger and happiness in negotiations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86, 57-76. doi:10.1037/0022-3514 .86.1.57
On angry leaders and agreeable followers: How leaders' emotions and followers' personalities shape motivation and team performance
  • G A Van Kleef
  • A C Homan
  • B Beersma
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Van Kleef, G. A., Homan, A. C., Beersma, B., & Van Knippenberg, D. (2010). On angry leaders and agreeable followers: How leaders' emotions and followers' personalities shape motivation and team performance. Psychological Science, 21, 1827-1834. doi:10.1177/ 0956797610387438