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STATUS OF MANGROVES IN PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

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Abstract

Realising the importance of managing and conserving the mangrove forest ecosystem especially after the Tsunami tragedy in Indonesia in 2004, the Malaysian government provided budget allocation for FRIM to undertake research activities related to the mangrove forest. One of the researchs is on the mapping and monitoring of mangrove forest changes in the entire Peninsular Malaysia. To share the findings from the study, a book entitled the ‘Status of Mangroves in Peninsular Malaysia’ is published. The book is divided into eleven main chapters explaining the mangrove ecosystem, its function and values, their current extent and distribution in Peninsular Malaysia in its first five initial chapters. The following six other chapters focused on the mangrove changes for the past 20 years, management, research and development aspects, threat, conservations efforts and highlight on the on the community awareness program. This book is part of FRIM’s continuous efforts to create more awareness to the public on the importance of mangrove forest ecosystem in this country.
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... The main mangrove tree species found in Malaysia are from the Rhizophoraceae family. However, there are at least a total of 70 mangroves species from 28 families that are found in this country[7]. Mangroves in Malaysia provide various ecological, economic and social benefits to the people and country[12]. ...
... However, it is the protected area and forest reserve status that have contributed essentially to the nature conservation of these sites thereby enabling them to support a unique mix of marine and terrestrial species through providing breeding, feeding and nursery grounds for fish and arthropods, as well as many local and migrant bird species, and reptiles. Mangroves in area 1 are also important for controlling floods and stabilizing shorelines[7]. Despite this significance, development is fast encroaching into these Ramsar sites, especially the Sungai Pulai forest reserve which has not been gazetted as having a protected area status. ...
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Effective monitoring is necessary to conserve mangroves from further loss in Malaysia. In this context, remote sensing is capable of providing information on mangrove status and changes over a large spatial extent and in a continuous manner. In this study we used Landsat satellite images to analyze the changes over a period of 25 years of mangrove areas in Iskandar Malaysia (IM), the fastest growing national special economic region located in southern Johor, Malaysia. We tested the use of two widely used digital classification techniques to classify mangrove areas. The Maximum Likelihood Classification (MLC) technique provided significantly higher user, producer and overall accuracies and less "salt and pepper effects" compared to the Support Vector Machine (SVM) technique. The classified satellite images using the MLC technique showed that IM lost 6740 ha of mangrove areas from 1989 to 2014. Nevertheless, a gain of 710 ha of mangroves was observed in this region, resulting in a net loss of 6030 ha or 33%. The loss of about 241 ha per year of mangroves was associated with a steady increase in urban land use (1225 ha per year) from 1989 until 2014. Action is necessary to protect the existing mangrove cover from further loss. Gazetting of the remaining mangrove sites as protected areas or forest reserves and introducing tourism activities in mangrove areas can ensure the continued survival of mangroves in IM.
... In early 1902, conservation of Matang mangrove has been started and lately it has been recognized as the best managed mangrove forest among the world [16]. Matang mangrove has been gazetted as permanent reserved forest in 1906 and has been efficiently managed by the Perak Forestry Department. ...
Chapter
Mangroves has been widely acknowledged for its role as a natural barrier to various environmental risks such as storms, tsunamis, waves, and coastal erosions by becoming the first defense in protecting the coastlines. In addition, this natural barrier also provides a wide range of ecosystem services including fisheries, timber productions, provision of foods, tourism, climate regulation, carbon storage that reduce the coastal communities’ vulnerability to hazards. Unfortunately, in many parts of the world, mangroves have been lost due to the pressure of urban developments, rapid expansion of aquaculture and agriculture, mining, overexploitation of timbers, and an increasing environmental risk. Given the extensive damages caused by the impact of environmental risks, for instance, the recent tsunami occurred in 2018 at Sulawesi, mangroves have never been more important to be conserved and restored due their crucial roles in providing natural protection to the ecosystems. Therefore, mangroves need to be seen as valuable resources to be managed and sustainably. This chapter aimed at reviewing the roles of mangrove as coastal protection as well as a natural barrier to storm surges, tsunami, wind, waves, and erosion, and the benefits of protecting mangroves.
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Mangroves in Malaysia reside coastlines and the largest areas of mangrove are in the Northern Sabah. They sheltered at the shores of the west coast. Over four decades since 1980, mangroves are recorded to be declining due to various causes. Aquaculture practices implemented in the first decade; in Peninsular Malaysia was the key reason of mangrove depleting during the years. Public participation and their awareness are considered as important components in conserving the mangrove areas. Thus, the research was conducted to discover local residents awareness towards the issue of mangrove degradation in Kuala Selangor. A questionnaire survey was employed to a total of 103 respondents in Kuala Selangor. The findings suggest that lack of local residents’ awareness due to several reasons. In this regards, this research is to study the local residents’ awareness on the importance of mangrove areas.
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Mangrove is one of the forest type found in Malaysia. The habitat of mangroves normally occurs along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, notably in the coasts of Perak, Selangor, Johor, and Kedah. This forest type plays an important role in protecting the coastlines from the wave actions and acts as a buffer for the surrounding communities as well as a source of income for the state. However, due to various human activities, the mangroves areas are rapidly depleting. Land development including for urban and settlement, establishment of shrimp farms, and expansion of agricultural lands have been identified as the main factors that contribute to the depletion of mangrove areas. In addition, natural phenomena such as tsunami, el-nino and la-nina and coastal erosion have also significantly deteriorating the prominence of mangroves in the region. This study is carried out to detect changes in terms of magnitude and extent that occurred on the angrove areas along the coast of Selangor for the last two decades. Several sets of Landsat -TM, -ETM+ and SPOT -XS satellite images dated between February 1989 and March 2007 were utilised to identify distribution and areas of currently existing mangroves and changes that have undergone within that period. Digital post classification change detection technique has been applied to the images and analysis was performed in GIS platform. From the study, it was found that the mangrove in Selangor has decreased from 28,954.6ha in 1989 to 19,456.1ha in 2007, a reduction of about 9,498.5ha or 32.8% with the average loss of some 527.7ha per year. If this trend continues, the impacts will not only affect the mangrove itself but also to the environment and communities as a whole. Urban and settlement developments and establishment of shrimp ponds were identified respectively in Klang and Sabak Bernam areas as the major reason for the mangrove loss. Hence, necessary management actions should be undertaken to minimise the mangrove reduction area in the near future.
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Udupi coast in Karnataka state, along the west coast of India, selected as a study area, is well known for sandy beaches, aquaculture ponds, lush greenery, temples and major and minor industries. It lies between 13°00′00″–13°45′00″ north latitudes and 74°47′30″–74°30′00″ east longitudes, the length of the coastline is 95km, and is oriented along the NNW–SSE direction. It is vulnerable to accelerated sea level rise (SLR) due to its low topography and its high ecological and touristy value. The present study has been carried out with a view to calculate the coastal vulnerability index (CVI) to know the high and low vulnerable areas and area of inundation due to future SLR, and land loss due to coastal erosion. Both conventional and remotely sensed data were used and analysed through the modelling technique and by using ERDAS Imagine and geographical information system software. The rate of erosion was 0.6018km2/yr during 2000–2006 and around 46km of the total 95km stretch is under critical erosion. Out of the 95km stretch coastline, 59% is at very high risk, 7% high, 4% moderate and 30% in the low vulnerable category, due to SLR. Results of the inundation analysis indicate that 42.19km2 and 372.08km2 of the land area will be submerged by flooding at 1m and 10m inundation levels. The most severely affected sectors are expected to be the residential and recreational areas, agricultural land, and the natural ecosystem. As this coast is planned for future coastal developmental activities, measures such as building regulation, urban growth planning, development of an integrated coastal zone management, strict enforcement of the Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) Act 1991, monitoring of impacts and further research in this regard are recommended for the study area.
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AHMAD S. 2009. Nilai rekreasi untuk hutan paya bakau di Larut Matang, Perak. Hutan paya bakau di Larut Matang merupakan sebuah kawasan ekosistem yang produktif yang menghasilkan faedah kepada penduduk tempatan melalui hasil tangkapan ikan dan udang, ternakan kerang, kutipan hasil kayu bakau dan keluaran bukan kayu. Di kawasan hutan ini kegiatan rekreasi juga menjadi satu kegiatan yang penting. Namun untuk menganggar faedah daripada kegiatan rekreasi bukanlah satu langkah yang mudah dilakukan secara langsung kerana penglibatan dalam rekreasi tidak mempunyai harga pasaran. Kajian ini dijalankan untuk menganggar faedah rekreasi (nilai khidmat langsung) yang diperoleh daripada ekosistem hutan paya bakau di Larut Matang. Kaedah penilaian kontigensi digunakan untuk menemu bual 331 orang penggiat rekreasi tempatan bagi menganggar faedah rekreasi. Kesan ralat daripada penggunaan kaedah penilaian kontigensi dikurangkan dengan memberi penekanan dalam pemilihan sampel yang sesuai dan dalam pembentukan borang soal selidik. Purata kesediaan membayar bagi setiap penggiat rekreasi adalah sebanyak RM44.58 bagi setiap lawatan, manakala nilai yang dianggar ialah RM41.18 bagi setiap lawatan.
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Based on literature and herbaria surveys and recent collections of plants from Pulau Tioman, a provisional checklist of seed plants is presented. A total of 650 species of seed plants, comprising of 5 gymnosperms and 645 angiosperm\, belonging to 434 genera and 128 families were enumerated. These are distributed in four main vegetation types; mangrove forest. beach vegetation, lowland dipterocarp forest and hill dipterocarp forest. The richness of seed plants on Pulau Tioman warrant the forests there to be conserved.
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To achieve an efficient method of coastal rehabilitation, a coastal structure was applied in combination with the mangrove restoration scheme in Sungai Haji Dorani where coastal forest over-cutting associated with erosion has resulted in severe coastline retreat. Such an attempt provides the opportunity to mitigate erosion as well as improve ecological and socio-economic aspects of coastal areas, both of which are of great importance to local communities and authorities. Beach morphological changes were monitored for an eight-month period of time. The results indicate that the attempt has been successful in retaining sediment on the beach and consequently raising the elevation of the site. While the monitoring schedule is required to continue for several years to evaluate long-term performance of the rehabilitation effort, approximately 30% of the transplanted mangrove saplings' survival after eight months shows that the project was moderately successful. Since the general conditions of the selected site represent the majority of the eroded shorelines on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, the method applied in this study can be replicated as an appropriate cost-effective alternative for the same cases.
Article
A mathematical model is proposed for the movement of water and sediments in Coral Creek. a tidal creek surrounded by thickly vegetated mangrove wamps in Missionary Bay at the northern end of Hinchinbrook Island, northern Queensland. It is shown that a net down-stream longitudinal current through mangrove swamps exists and is responsible for rapidly carrying away organic detritus (e.g. fallen tree leaves) to the ocean, thereby enhancing the export of nutrients from mangrove swamps. The asymmetry between ebb and flood currents contributes to the maintenance of a deep self-sustaining drainage channel. even in the presence of a large sediment input from surrounding coastal waters. The size and geometry of the drainage channel are related to vegetation density in mangrove swamps. Evapotranspiration from mangroves in Coral Creek is responsible for the existence of a longitudinal salinity gradient. The evapotranspiration rate could be as large as 3 cm,'day. Residual currents are clockwise in Missionary Bay and explain the overall patterns of scour and deposition in the bay.
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This report is by the Working Group on Mangrove Ecosystems of the IUCN Commission on Ecology in cooperation with the United Nations Environment Programme and the World Wildlife Fund. The review describes the mangrove resource and its value; factors which maintain the ecological processes in mangroves; and the causes and consequences of mangrove destruction. There is a section on management of the mangrove resource and 2 chapters on recommendations for those concerned with mangrove management and applied research needs. Appendices describe the mangrove reserves of the world. -K.Clayton