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A study in an area of transition between seasonally dry tropical forest and mesotrophic cerradão, in mato grosso do sul, southwestern Brazil

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This study describes the tree vegetation and soils occurring in a seasonally dry tropical forest (SDTF) and mesotrophic cerradão transition in southwestern Brazil. All trees ≥ 5 cm diameter were measured in 20 plots of 20 × 25 m, 10 in SDTF, and 10 in mesotrophic cerradão. Ten soil samples of 0−20 cm depth were made per plot and mixed in plot groups to produce two composite samples. A total of 71 species was recorded. Anadenanthera colubrina had the highest importance values in both formations. Differences in soil fertility were found between SDTFs (eutrophic soils) and mesotrophic cerradão (mesotrophic soils). A non-metric multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis confirmed the soil fertility segregation, and also showed an agreement between soil fertility and variance in species composition gradients. The mesotrophic cerradão showed higher species richness since it also includes many species typical of more dystrophic and open forms of Cerrado.
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... Florística A maior expressividade de Fabaceae é comum em comunidades vegetais, já que o clado é o terceiro maior em número de espécies em todo mundo (LPWG, 2013), ocupando a primeira posição no Brasil (Souza et al., 2018). A predominância de espécies deste grupo no fragmento estudado segue a tendência cosmopolita da família, que é reportada entre as de maior riqueza no estrato arbóreo-arbustivo de diversas fitofisionomias do Cerrado (Carvalho et al., 2008;Matos & Felfili, 2010;Bueno et al., 2013a;Giácomo et al., 2013), incluindo as formações de Cerradão (Bueno et al., 2013a;2013b;Giácomo et al., 2015). ...
... Florística A maior expressividade de Fabaceae é comum em comunidades vegetais, já que o clado é o terceiro maior em número de espécies em todo mundo (LPWG, 2013), ocupando a primeira posição no Brasil (Souza et al., 2018). A predominância de espécies deste grupo no fragmento estudado segue a tendência cosmopolita da família, que é reportada entre as de maior riqueza no estrato arbóreo-arbustivo de diversas fitofisionomias do Cerrado (Carvalho et al., 2008;Matos & Felfili, 2010;Bueno et al., 2013a;Giácomo et al., 2013), incluindo as formações de Cerradão (Bueno et al., 2013a;2013b;Giácomo et al., 2015). ...
... Bignoniaceae também é uma das famílias mais ricas do Cerrado Souza et al., 2018), e é reportada com grande riqueza em estudos no Cerradão (Souza et al., 2010;Giácomo et al., 2015). A capacidade de muitas espécies deste clado de ocuparem diferentes tipos de solos em áreas de Cerradão é um fator que colabora para sua expressividade florística e fitossociológica nesta fitofisionomia (Bueno et al., 2013a;Casella & Silva Júnior, 2013). ...
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A fragmentação de habitats causa diversos impactos ecossistêmicos. A resposta da vegetação às mudanças ambientais a tornam um bom indicador do estado de conservação da biodiversidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a conservação de um fragmento de Cerradão no município de Cáceres, MT, pela análise da estrutura horizontal e da diversidade de espécies do estrato arbóreo-arbustivo. O levantamento foi baseado em dois conglomerados aleatorizados, totalizando 8 parcelas em 0,8 ha. O critério de inclusão foi o diâmetro a 1,30 m do solo ≥ 10 cm. Foram amostrados 411 indivíduos, 44 espécies e 21 famílias botânicas. As famílias Fabaceae e Bignoniaceae apresentaram as maiores riquezas. Os valores dos índices de diversidade de Shannon-Weaver e de equabilidade de Pielou foram considerados elevados (3,18 e 0,84, respectivamente). A similaridade florística entre os conglomerados foi alta (índice de Sørensen = 74,63%), indicando homogeneidade no fragmento. A distribuição diamétrica apresentou o padrão J-invertido. A comunidade apresentou tendência ao agregamento, com índice de agregação de Payandeh médio (1,40). A riqueza e estrutura da vegetação indicaram bom estado de conservação do estrato arbóreo-arbustivo, pois não foram observadas alterações florístico-estruturais no fragmento oriundas das pressões antrópicas do entorno da área.
... Contudo, o compartilhamento da flora arbórea do Cerrado do MS em relação a flora de formações vegetacionais (biomas) adjacentes representam 37% flora arbórea do Cerrado do MS (Fig. 2). Isso corrobora com Ratter et al. (2003) Ratter et al. 1973, 1977, Furley & Ratter 1988, Bueno et al. 2013b). Ainda, de acordo com Ratter (comunicação pessoal), grande parte dos cerradões levantados no estado do MS apresentam tipologia mesotrófica. ...
... O cerradão mesotrófico normalmente Quadro 1. Lista das famílias e espécies arbóreas registradas para o Cerrado do estado de Mato Grosso do Sul. * Espécies listadas como dominantes do Cerrado (Bridgewater et al. 2004); ** espécies características de solo férteis (Ratter et al. 1977, 2011, Furley & Ratter 1988, Bueno et al. 2013b ocorre como uma faixa de transição em solos intermediários de fertilidade, isto é, entre cerradão distrófico ou cerrado stricto sensu com a Floresta Estacional Decidual (Mata Seca) (Ratter et al. 1977, Furley & Ratter 1988, Bueno et al. 2013b. Em Porto Murtinho esse tipo de formação ocorre em morros com afloramento rochoso, lado a lado com as florestas estacionais deciduais e as formações chaquenhas. ...
... O cerradão mesotrófico normalmente Quadro 1. Lista das famílias e espécies arbóreas registradas para o Cerrado do estado de Mato Grosso do Sul. * Espécies listadas como dominantes do Cerrado (Bridgewater et al. 2004); ** espécies características de solo férteis (Ratter et al. 1977, 2011, Furley & Ratter 1988, Bueno et al. 2013b ocorre como uma faixa de transição em solos intermediários de fertilidade, isto é, entre cerradão distrófico ou cerrado stricto sensu com a Floresta Estacional Decidual (Mata Seca) (Ratter et al. 1977, Furley & Ratter 1988, Bueno et al. 2013b. Em Porto Murtinho esse tipo de formação ocorre em morros com afloramento rochoso, lado a lado com as florestas estacionais deciduais e as formações chaquenhas. ...
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The main unit of Mato Grosso do Sul vegetation is the Cerrado. For presenting an accelerated habitat loss process associated by low rate of flora knowledge, becomes of paramount importance the knowledge on tree species in this Biome. In this work, we to present a list of tree species of the Cerrado in Mato Grosso do Sul, in order to support future assessments of the state of conservation and implementation of proposals that can help to conserve its natural resources. The data were extracted from NeoTropTree, which consists of a database set of floristic lists of tree species. We recorded 541 tree species in 85 plant families and 252 genera, and three species are exclusive to the state. © 2018 Fundacao Zoobotanica do Rio Grande do Sul. All rights reserved.
... In contrast, species occurring only in areas with higher levels of calcium and magnesium and lower levels of aluminium are characteristic of some kinds of forest in the Cerrado Domain, such as seasonally dry tropical forest (SDTF) and evergreen and semideciduous forests (Oliveira-Filho & Ratter 2002;Ribeiro & Walter 2008;Oliveira-Filho et al. 2013a b). Under intermediate aluminium concentrations, another forest type, mesotrophic cerradão, is believed to act as an intermediate community, in terms of both soil properties and species composition (Ratter 1971;Ratter et al. 1973Ratter et al. , 1978aRatter & Dargie 1992;Bueno et al. 2013). Meanwhile, permanently and temporarily waterlogged areas within the Cerrado are covered by evergreen and semideciduous forests or marshy "campos" (campos = grassland), while dry grasslands, savanna formations and SDTF occur in the higher and better-drained areas (Furley & Ratter 1988;Oliveira-Filho & Ratter 2002;Amorim & Batalha 2007;Ribeiro & Walter 2008). ...
... tropical forests (SDTF) occur on scattered patches of fertile soils (more fertile than in mesotrophic cerradão) and are notable for experiencing little fire and housing a markedly different set of plant lineages from other vegetation types in the Cerrado (e.g. Cactaceae; Ratter et al. 1973Ratter et al. , 1977Ratter et al. , 1978aPennington, Prado & Pendry 2000;Bueno et al. 2013;Oliveira-Filho et al. 2013ab, Neves et al. 2015. Two other principal forests in the Cerrado Domain are evergreen and semideciduous forests, largely synonymous with mata de galeria and mata ciliar in the terminology of Ribeiro and Walter (2008), which are found in more humid areas, such as along river courses (i.e. ...
... Mesotrophic cerradão is found on soils intermediate between the poor dystrophic soils of the savanna formations and dystrophic cerradão and the mineral-rich meso-or eutrophic soils of SDTF formations. Analysing the transition of tree species between SDTF and mesotrophic cerradão, Bueno et al. (2013) suggested that the floristic gradient was controlled mainly by soil fertility. It may be that under continued fire exclusion, mesotrophic cerradão, through litter deposition and nutrient cycling, may develop sufficient soil fertility to transition to SDTF. ...
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1) The Cerrado Domain of central Brazil houses the largest extent of savanna in the Neotropics, but despite its simple characterisation as a giant savanna, it contains considerable vegetation heterogeneity that is poorly understood. 2) We aimed to determine how vegetation types in the Cerrado diverge in their tree species composition and what role ecological factors play in driving compositional patterns. 3) We used a dataset of 1,165 tree species inventories spread across the Cerrado Domain, which come from six vegetation types that have a substantial arboreal component: woody savannas, dystrophic cerradão, mesotrophic cerradão, seasonally dry tropical forests, semideciduous forests and evergreen forests. We found three extremes in terms of tree species composition, with clear underlying ecological drivers, which leads us to propose a ternary model, the ‘Cerrado Vegetation Triangle’, to characterize woody vegetation in the Cerrado. At one extreme, we found that semideciduous and evergreen forests are indistinguishable floristically and are found in areas with high water availability. At another extreme lie seasonally dry tropical forests which are found on more fertile soils. At the third extreme, we found that all types of savanna, and dystrophic cerradão, are highly similar in tree species composition and are commonly found in areas of poor soils and high flammability. Mesotrophic cerradão is transitional in tree species composition between savannas and seasonally dry tropical forest. 4) The lack of variation in tree species composition attributed to climatic variables indicates that within homogeneous macroclimatic zones, many types of forest and savanna co-exist due to complex mosaics of local substrate heterogeneity and fire history. 5) Synthesis. Our findings highlight the complexity of forest-savanna transitions in the Cerrado Domain, with relevance for understanding the future of Cerrado vegetation under environmental change. If nitrogen deposition is extensive, some savannas may be more likely to transition to mesotrophic cerradão or even seasonally dry tropical forest whereas if water availability increases these same savannas may transition to semideciduous or evergreen forest. Our ‘Cerrado Vegetation Triangle’ model offers a simple conceptual tool to frame discussions of conservation and management.
... These species are tolerant of drought and shallow and brief inundations (Nunes da Cunha and Junk, 2000 b). Most SDTF species occur throughout central Brazil in patches of fertile soils in the Cerrado (Bueno et al., 2013Dexter et al., 2018), also subjected to fire. The analysis of indicators pointed to species that are indicators of fire (Table 1). ...
... We observed traits such as thick bark and resprouting capacity in various species, e.g., Rhamnidium elaeocarpum and Senegalia tenuifolia (Table 1), which use the forest islet as "stepping stones" moving into the floodplain. These species exhibit traits able to overcome fire and spread on patches in the Pantanal wetland (Damasceno-Junior et al., 2009;Bueno et al., 2013;Souza et al., 2019). Many species on higher zones of the flood gradient have such characteristics as large stems and thick bark. ...
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Flood and fire act as ecological filters which can interact to shape forest structure and species composition. Our objective was to investigate how the interaction between fire and flood influences richness, abundance, basal area and species composition of the tree community and the monodominant belts of Attalea phalerata Mart. in forest islets of the Pantanal wetland. We used satellite images to find 12 forest islets without fire events from 1998 to 2014, and 12 forest islets burned only once in the same period in a fire event in 2009. In these forest islets, we set up a transect with 10 to 14 contiguous 5 × 10 m plots and sampled all trees with a diameter at breast height of ≥ 4.7 cm. We also measured the watermark height. Flooding influenced species richness and abundance, increased toward wetter areas of the forest islet flood gradient. In contrast, the interaction between fire and flood inverted that trend, with richness and abundance increasing in flood-free areas. Total basal area increases in the more flooded areas of the gradient. The fire or the interaction between fire and flooding did not influence the basal area. The abundance of A. phalerata increased with flood level and under the fire-flood interaction. We conclude that the interaction between fire and flood influences forest islet structure and species composition; moreover, it favors A. phalerata monodominance.
... Another important point is that the analysed vegetation types present clear differences in regard to edaphic factors, mainly soil fertility and salinity. These edaphic variables are remarkable characteristics of the Chaco and SDTFs (Pennington et al. 2000;Spichiger et al. 2005;Bueno et al. 2013;Neves et al. 2015), supporting the presence of Atlantic Forest and Chaco at the extremes of the ordination graph, i.e. the longitudinal gradient. As stated by Oliveira-Filho et al. (2005), increase in soil fertility together with periods of water shortage and increased temperatures, are characteristics of a transition area from semideciduous to deciduous forests and then to semi-arid formations, either Caatinga (tropical) or Chaco forests (subtropical), whereas increasing fire frequency and decreasing soil fertility lead from seasonal forests to either cerrados (tropical) or southern campos (subtropical) . ...
... Likewise, the species with the greatest fidelity to the Cerrado Semideciduous Forested Savana (e.g. Qualea grandiflora and Q. parviflora) are also typical species with widespread occurrence in this vegetation type (Ratter et al. 2003;Bridgewater et al. 2004;Bueno et al. 2013Bueno et al. , 2016. For the Atlantic Forest, due to the small sampled area and the geographical proximity to drier vegetation types (with only areas of semideciduous forest being sampled), indicator species found in our analysis also occurred in other biomes, especially in the Cerrado. ...
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The Paraguayan territory and region, in the centre of South America, is a huge transition area with a succession of various vegetation types. However, this area has received little attention from researchers, with few works published on its flora and its delimitations. We aimed to identify the most important environmental driving forces and delimit floristic patterns in this region, since understanding the forces that drive floristic variations in this ecotonal region could help comprehend the distribution of vegetation not only in this region but throughout South America. We obtained 1234 tree species occurrence records, 205 geographic coordinates and 23 environmental variables and altitude from the ‘NeoTropTree’ database and verified the influence and contribution of environmental factors through variance partition. We tested the floristic consistency of the different vegetation types using dendrogram, indicator species and ordination analyses. We also constructed multiple linear models to check the correlation between species distribution and environmental variables. We found eight consistent vegetation types. The spatial variables coupled with environmental variables were more important than individual environmental or spatial variables. Among the environmental variables, the aridity index was the most important. Despite the importance of spatial factors, due to environmental heterogeneity, we found a gradient related to climate and edaphic variables related to tree flora. The results confirm that the Paraguayan territory and region can be considered to be a diversified and important ecotone area in South America with respect to tree flora.
... In the Cerrado stricto sensu, stress factors such as the low availability of soil nutrients act filtering in lower-sized tree species, with slow growth and reduced specific leaf area (Westoby et al. 2002;Hoffmann et al. 2012;Bueno et al. 2013b). In this way, improvements in soil nutritional quality in these areas, even if transient, may have allowed the establishment of other species typical of less dystrophic formations of the Cerrado, such as Cerrado woodland (Cerradão) and seasonal forests (Bueno et al. 2013a;Neri et al. 2013;Meira-Neto et al. 2017). Secondly, the increase in aluminum concentrations may also have acted as an environmental filter, filtering out intolerant species. ...
... In this case, the morphophysiological adaptations of species, such as leaf stiffness and CAM (Medina et al. 1993;Crayn et al. 2015), ensure mechanical support and resistance to water stress and high temperatures, favoring their occupation in savannic and forest areas (Proença and Sajo 2007) and contributing to the high abundance found in the present study. On the other hand, the abundance values found for T. vulgaris are lower than in other studies conducted in savanna woodlands with inclusion limits lower than those used in the present study (≥5 cm DBH) (Marimon-Junior and Haridasan 2005;Araújo et al. 2011;Bueno et al. 2013). ...
... In this case, the morphophysiological adaptations of species, such as leaf stiffness and CAM (Medina et al. 1993;Crayn et al. 2015), ensure mechanical support and resistance to water stress and high temperatures, favoring their occupation in savannic and forest areas (Proença and Sajo 2007) and contributing to the high abundance found in the present study. On the other hand, the abundance values found for T. vulgaris are lower than in other studies conducted in savanna woodlands with inclusion limits lower than those used in the present study (≥5 cm DBH) (Marimon-Junior and Haridasan 2005;Araújo et al. 2011;Bueno et al. 2013). ...
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In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that: a) bromeliad Ananas ananassoides individuals and Tachigali vulgaris tree individual have an aggregate distribution pattern, and b) are spatially dissociated. To this effect, we quantified all A. ananassoides and T. vulgaris individuals (DBH of at least 30 cm) in large plot (1 ha) composed by 100 subplots measuring 10×10 m in a savanna woodland in the Bacaba Municipal Park, Nova Xavantina, Mato Grosso. The spatial pattern of A. ananassoides and T. vulgaris, and their spatial relationships, were measured using the aggregation and the association index, respectively. Both species had an aggregate distribution pattern and were spatially dissociated, which corroborates the hypotheses of this study. In this case, the preferred occupation in gaps by both species and the growth of the bromeliad in clumps may be conditioning the populations’ spatial dependence. On the other hand, the bromeliad’s clump formation and the tree species shading may be mutually exclusive factors, which intensify their competition for space and light and reveal spatial incompatibility by these populations. Further studies should be conducted to better understand the interactions between the herbaceous and tree layer, incorporating the temporal dynamics of natural regeneration and habitat conditions.
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Cerrado vegetation is the main formation covering c.60% of the land surface of Maranhão, Brazil, with cerradão being the dominant physiognomy. To characterise the cerrado flora in Maranhão, 12 localities were selected across its distribution in the northeastern, central, southern and southeastern regions of the state. A total of 150 angiosperm species were identified, distributed across 105 genera and 43 families. Twelve are new occurrences in Maranhão, and of these, four are also new records for Northeast Brazil. Two distinct floristic regions were recognised: the cerrados of the northeastern and central regions, and the cerrados of the southern region. Three subgroups were recognised in the southern region: cerrados of the highest altitudes, medium-altitude cerrados and cerrados of variable altitudes. Floristic comparisons with the Brazilian cerrados suggest that the medium-altitude southern cerrados of Maranhão are similar to those of the central region of Brazil, whereas the northeastern, central and southern highest-altitude regions form a distinct floristic group.
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The Cerrado, which includes both forest and savanna habitats, is the second largest South American biome, and among the most threatened on the continent.