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Nowadays, there are a lot of techniques and tools for addressing the ontology matching problem; however, the complex nature of this problem means that the existing solutions are unsatisfactory. This work intends to shed some light on a more flexible way of matching ontologies using ontology meta-matching. This emerging technique selects appropriate algorithms and their associated weights and thresholds in scenarios where accurate ontology matching is necessary. We think that an overview of the problem and an analysis of the existing state-of-the-art solutions will help researchers and practitioners to identify the most appropriate specific features and global strategies in order to build more accurate and dynamic systems following this paradigm.
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The Knowledge Engineering Review, Vol. 00:0, 1–24. c
2010, Cambridge University Press
DOI: 10.1017/S000000000000000 Printed in the United Kingdom
An Overview of Current Ontology Meta-Matching Solutions
JORGE MARTINEZ-GIL and JOS ´
E F. ALDANA-MONTES
University of M´alaga, Department of Computer Language and Computing Sciences
Boulevard Louis Pasteur 35, 29071 M´alaga, Spain
E-mail: {jorgemar, jfam}@lcc.uma.es
Abstract
Nowadays there are a lot of techniques and tools for addressing the ontology matching problem,
however, the complex nature of this problem means that the existing solutions are unsatisfactory.
This work intends to shed some light on a more flexible way of matching ontologies using ontology
meta-matching. This emerging technique selects appropriate algorithms and their associated
weights and thresholds in scenarios where accurate ontology matching is necessary. We think
that an overview of the problem and an analysis of the existing state-of-the-art solutions will
help researchers and practitioners to identify the most appropriate specific features and global
strategies in order to build more accurate and dynamic systems following this paradigm.
1 Introduction
Most existing information systems use their own schemas to represent the data they handle. In
order to obtain interoperability between agents, services or simply people that need to exchange
information, correspondences must be established.
Nowadays ontologies are used to facilitate the exchange of information. Ontologies are formal
representations of sets of concepts and relationships within a domain. But we are interested in the
fact that ontologies are considered to extend the notion of schema. The reason is that an ontology
can use more information than a traditional database schema, e.g., both hierarchical and non
hierarchical information, as well as description information. Therefore, in comparison with classic
schema matching, ontology matching has its own unique characteristics. Firstly, when comparing
database schemas, ontologies provide greater flexibility and more explicit semantics for defining
data. Secondly, database schemas are usually defined for specific databases, whereas an ontology
aims to be reusable and sharable. Thirdly, ontology development is becoming a more and more
decentralized procedure, although there are some exceptions such as the large-scale ontology
SNOMED CT (Schulz et al., 2007) which is developed centrally by only a few experts. Last but
not least, ontologies have a larger number of representation primitives like cardinality constraints,
inverse properties, transitive properties, disjoint classes, and type-checking constraints (Li et al.,
2009).
Therefore, the old problem of matching classic schemas has now evolved into an analog
problem, although it is a little more complex. The task of finding correspondences between
ontologies is called ontology matching and the output of this task is called ontology alignment
(Euzenat & Shvaiko, 2007). In fact, obtaining satisfactory ontology alignments is a key aspect
for such fields as:
Semantic integration (Euzenat & Shvaiko, 2007). This is the process of combining metadata
residing in different sources and providing the user with a unified view of these data. This
kind of integration should be done automatically, because manual integration is not viable,
at least not for large volumes of information.
2martinez-gil & aldana-montes
Ontology mapping (Bernstein & Melnik, 2004). This is used for querying different ontologies.
An ontology mapping is a function between ontologies. The original ontologies are not
changed, but the additional mapping axioms describe how to express concepts, relations,
or instances in terms of the second ontology. A typical use case for mapping is a query in one
ontology representation, which is then rewritten and handed on to another ontology.
The Web Services industry, where Semantic Web Services (SWS) are discovered and
composed in a completely unsupervised manner. Originally SWS alignment was based on
exact string matching of parameters, but nowadays researchers deal with heterogeneous and
constrained data matching (Cabral et al., 2004).
Data Warehouse applications (He et al., 2005). These kinds of applications are characterized
by heterogeneous structural models that are analyzed and matched either manually or semi-
automatically at design time. In such applications matching is a prerequisite of running the
actual system.
Similarity-based retrieval (Forbus et al., 1995). Semantic similarity measures play an
important role in information retrieval by providing the means to improve process recall
and precision. These kinds of measures are used in various application domains, ranging
from product comparison to job recruitment.
Agent communication (Fasli, 2007). Existing software agents need to share a common
terminology in order to facilitate the data interchange between them. Using ontologies is
a promising technique to facilitate this process, but there are several problems related to the
heterogeneity of the ontologies used by the agents which make the understanding at semantic
level difficult. Ontology matching can solve this kind of problem.
All this means that business and scientific communities seek to develop automatic or
semiautomatic techniques (known as matching algorithms or simply matchers) to reduce the
tedious task of creating and maintaining the alignments manually. However, the nature of the
problem is complex because “finding good similarity functions is, data-, context-, and sometimes
even user-dependent, and needs to be reconsidered every time new data or a new task is inspected”
(Kiefer et al., 2007). So we need mechanisms to make matching as independent as possible of
data, context and users. A promising way of doing this is to combine similarity values predicted
by multiple matchers to determine correspondences between ontology entities. In this way it will
be possible to benefit from both the high degree of precision of some algorithms and at the same
time the broader coverage of others (Eckert et al., 2009). Ontology meta-matching tries to achieve
this effectively and efficiently.
Although substantially different, this work complements the schema and ontology matching
surveys presented in (Rahm & Bernstein, 2001), (Kalfoglou & Schorlemmer, 2003b), (Noy, 2004),
(Shvaiko & Euzenat, 2005), and (Choi et al., 2006) where ontology matching methods and tools are
reviewed in detail, while the main contribution of this work is related to ontology meta-matching,
thus, related to effective and efficient use of the techniques described in these surveys, which
is one of the most important future challenges for semantic integration according to (Shvaiko
& Euzenat, 2008). Whereas in our previous paper (Martinez-Gil & Aldana-Montes, 2009) we
designed, implemented and evaluated two ontology meta-matching approaches, the current paper
focusses on the following key points:
An introduction to the notion of ontology meta-matching and its technical background.
An analysis of the main techniques for ontology matching and their application to meta-
matching.
A qualitative explanation of the differences between some matcher combinations, matcher
self-tuning and ontology meta-matching, terms that are often used inappropriately.
An analysis of the existing state-of-the-art tools in this field.
A discussion on the controversial issues concerning to meta-matching and the identification
of the problems that remain open.
An Overview of Current Ontology Meta-Matching Solutions 3
The rest of this work is organized as follows: Section 2 discusses the state-of-the-art related to
ontology matching and why it is necessary to take into account mechanisms for exploiting simple
ontology matchers. Section 3 describes the technical background necessary for understanding
ontology meta-matching. Section 4 discusses the techniques that are used to meta-match. Section
5 presents an overview of the state-of-the-art tools on ontology meta-matching. Section 6 discusses
the advantages and disadvantages of using meta-matching and, finally, in Section 7, we extract
the conclusions from this work.
2 Problem Statement
At the present time, there are many thousands of ontologies available on the web (Martinez-Gil
et al., 2010). These ontologies are developed for different collections of information, and different
kinds of applications. There are several reasons for the quick proliferation of ontologies, but we
consider mainly two:
It is often easier to construct a new ontology, than find an existing one which is appropriate
for a given task.
There is often a desire for direct control over the ontology for a particular domain, rather
than having the structure dictated by external forces.
The main consequence of having large numbers of ontologies available is that we will have
to integrate knowledge which is represented in different ways. Thus, in addition to the problem
of integrating knowledge from different sources, we are now faced with the challenge of coping
with different ontological representations of this knowledge. In relation to the first scenario,
we require integrating the concepts of one ontology with another. This challenge is called the
ontology matching problem and the key issue is the mapping of concepts and relationships from
one ontology to another. Figure 1 shows an example of this scenario: there is an alignment between
two ontologies representing landmarks and vehicles.
By examining two ontologies, it can be seen that ontology matching has to deal with the
following five problems:
1. Concepts may have different names
2. Concepts may only be present in one or other of the ontologies
3. Concepts may be similar but not identical
4. Concepts may have similar notations but different semantics
5. There may be unstated assumptions in the ontology
On the other hand, the ontology matching problem could be reduced or avoided by adopting
common ontologies. To this end, a number of efforts have been proposed with the intention of
creating top-level ontologies, or definitive ontologies for a particular domain. An example of a
top-level ontology is the IEEE Suggested Upper Merged Ontology (SUMO) (Oberle et al., 2007)
and examples of domain-specific ontologies include: the Gene ontology (Lomax, 2005), the OWL-
Time ontology (Pan & Hobbs, 2005), and the Standard Ontology for Ubiquitous and Pervasive
Applications (SOUPA) (Chen et al., 2004).
However, people tend to match ontologies (Falconer & Noy, 2007) and, this is performed using
(directly or indirectly) a six-step process that consists of the following steps proposed by Ehrig
(Ehrig, 2006) and which are described below:
1. Feature Engineering. It consists of selecting excerpts of the overall ontology specification
to describe a specific entity. Table 1 shows a complete list of ontology features that can be
exploited by ontology matching techniques.
2. Search Step Selection. It consists of choosing two entities from the ontologies to compare
them for an alignment.
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Figure 1 Example of alignment between two ontologies. Dotted lines indicate a kind of semantic
correspondence between a landmark and kind of vehicle. The main goal of ontology matching is to solve
this kind of situation automatically
3. Matcher Assessment. It consists of choosing a matching algorithm (matcher) for exploiting
a given feature of the entities.
4. Matcher Aggregation. It consists of aggregating the multiple matcher for one entity pair
into a single measure.
5. Interpretation. It consists of using all aggregated numbers, a threshold, and an interpreta-
tion strategy to decide whether two entities should eventually be aligned.
6. Iteration. The similarity of one entity pair influences the similarity of other entity pairs
which are structurally connected to the first one, so the equality needs to be propagated
through the ontologies.
The matchers from Step 2 can be linguistic matchers, structural matchers, constraint-based
matchers or integration-knowledge-based matchers (depending on the feature to be exploited).
It is also possible to create combinations of the matchers, in the attempt to overcome their
limitations by proposing composite solutions. However, this is far from being a trivial task. Firstly,
more and more matchers are constantly being developed, and this diversity by itself complicates
the choice of the most appropriate one for a given application domain. Secondly, as one would
expect, recent empirical analysis shows that there is no a single dominant matcher that performs
best, regardless of the application domain. For this reason, it is necessary to introduce the notion
of meta-matching.
An Overview of Current Ontology Meta-Matching Solutions 5
Feat u re Description
Linguistic Features
Entity Name The name of the ontology entity
Entity Documentation Short textual description of the entity
Structural Features
Entity Hierarchy Information about the entity in the hierarchy
Relations Relations of the entity to other entities
Attributes Attributes of the entity
Constraint-based Features
Data Type Thedatatypeoftheentity
Integration-Knowledge-based
Technical Names The technical annotation of the entity
Default Values The default value (if applicable) for the entity
Identifiers The local or global identifiers of the entity
Code Lists Possible values for the attributes of the entity
Instance Data Instances associated to the entity
Table 1 List of ontology features exploitable by ontology matching techniques
Feature to exploit Algorithm’s name
Linguistic Features
Entity Name Levenshtein Distance, Synonym similarity
Entity Documentation Documentation Similarity (Tf-Idf)
Structural Features
Entity Hierarchy NamePath (3-Grams)
Relations Children’s name Algorithm (Base-2)
Attributes Attribute’s name Algorithm (Base-2)
Constraint-based Features
Data Type Trivial algorithm for comparing data types
Integration-Knowledge-based
Technical Names Google Distance
Default Values Trivial algorithm for comparing default values
Identifiers 3-Grams
Code Lists Wikipedia Distance
Instance Data Instance-Based Algorithm (Dice)
Table 2 Example of matching algorithms that are categorized according to the techniques described in
Tab le 1
2.1 Examples of Matchers
We show here several examples of well-known matchers and their associated explanation. Table
2 categorizes several existing matchers using the classification established in Table 1. Then,
a more detailed description of the working mode for each algorithm is provided. The are two
exceptions: matchers for comparing data types and default values have not been published in
the past because they are trivial algorithms.
Levenshtein distance (Levenshtein, 1966). The Levenshtein distance between the names of
two entities is given by the minimum number of operations needed to transform one name
into other, where the operations can be insertions, deletions, or substitutions of a single character.
6martinez-gil & aldana-montes
Synonym similarity (WordNet) (Pedersen et al., 2004). Similarity measures quantify how
similar two entities are, this decision is based on the information contained in an ISA-hierarchy.
For this case, we are going to use the database called WordNet which organizes terms into
hierarchies of ISA-relations.
Documentation Similarity (Tf-Idf). The documentation similarity algorithm uses the
documentation of entities optionally available in some ontology languages. This algorithm
assumes that two entities belonging to different ontologies are similar if their associated
descriptions are also similar. Tf-Idf (Term frequency-Inverse document frequency)(Aizawa, 2003)
has been chosen to compare these descriptions because it is an efficient algorithm for comparing
short texts.
3-Grams. An n-gram is a subsequence of n tokens from a given name. The tokens can
be phonemes, syllables, letters, and so on. The n-gram algorithm is used for efficient string
matching. By converting a sequence of tokens to a set of n-grams (3 characters long in this case), it
can be embedded in a vector space allowing the sequence to be compared to other sequences easily.
NamePath (3-Grams). The NamePath algorithm uses the complete path of an entity an
ontology to calculate the similarity between entities. In an ontology, the Namepath is defined as
the path from the ontology root to the given entity in this ontology.
Children’s name Algorithm (Base-2). This technique is based on the detection of
overlapping children’s names from the entities to be compared. Base-2 means here that two
entities are considered to represent the same object when two associated children overlap.
Attributes’s name Algorithm (Base-2). This technique is quite similar to the detection
of overlapping children’s names from the entities to be compared. Base-2 means here that two
entities are considered to represent the same real world object when two associated attributes
are overlapped.
Google Distance (Cilibrasi & Vitanyi, 2007). The Google distance is a measure of semantic
relatedness derived from the number of hits returned by the Google search engine for a given set
of keywords. The idea behind this measure is that keywords with similar meanings in a natural
language sense tend to be “close” in units of Google distance, while words with dissimilar
meanings tend to be farther apart.
Wikipedia Distance. Wikipedia is the largest, free-content encyclopedia on the Internet.
Wikipedia distance is similar to Google distance but we use Wikipedia content as corpus because
it represents a great wealth of human knowledge. In order to use this content, the distance
counts the hits returned by a Google search for the keywords after restricting the results with
the option site:wikipedia.org
Instance-Based Algorithm (Relative overlap). This technique is based on the detection
of overlapping instance’s names from the entities to be compared. Relative overlap represents a
value for the common instances. In the case of larger cardinality differences between instances,
the relative overlap can be quite small.
An Overview of Current Ontology Meta-Matching Solutions 7
3 Technical Background
In this section, we are going to define and explain the key concepts and examples that are
necessary to understand the notion of ontology meta-matching.
Definition 1 (Similarity Measure). A similarity measure sm is a function sm :μ1×μ2→
that associates the similarity of two input entities μ1and μ2to a similarity score sc ∈ in the
range [0, 1]. This definition has been taken from (Ziegler et al., 2006).
A similarity score of 0 stands for complete inequality and 1 for equality of the input solution
mapping μ1and μ2. Unlike a distance metric, where a similarity score of 0 stands for complete
equality and a similarity score 1 is a bound to indicate complete inequality. Some authors think
that a distance metric is not always appropriate because there are long-standing psychological
objections to the axioms used to define it. For example, a metric will always give the same distance
from a to b as from b to a, but in practice we are more likely to say that a child resembles their
parent than to say that a parent resembles their child (Widdows, 2004). These objections are not
relevant in this field because ontology matching is not directional. This means that, for example,
the similarity between “car” and “automobile” is the same as between “automobile” and “car”,
but for normalization purposes we always consider 0 for inequality and 1 for equality.
On the other hand, we are interested in a special kind of similarity measures called
configurable similarity measure. This kind of measure is a function that can be parametrized,
thus, its behavior may vary depending on some external variable defined by an user. From
the engineering point of view, configurable similarity measures share common characteristics:
the search space is very large and the decision is made involving multiple criteria. Notice that
resolving these simultaneously at run time makes the problem even harder. Example 1 shows a
measure of this type called weighted similarity measure.
Example 1 (Weighted Similarity Measure). Let O1and O2be two ontologies. Let w
a weight vector with wiκ, for some upper bound κR.Let
Abe a vector of similarity
measures. Then, the function wsf ranging over the unit interval [0,1] Ris defined as follows:
wsf w,
A(O1,O
2)=max(i=n
i=1 wi·Ai).
Example 1 shows a weighted similarity measure, thus, a function which leads to an
optimization problem for calculating the weight vector, because the number of candidates
from the solution space (in this case an arbitrary real interval) is infinite. For this reason, a
brute force strategy would clearly be inefficient. It is necessary to look for better computational
mechanisms that allow the problem of computing weighted measures to be solved more efficiently.
Definition 2 (Ontology Matching). An ontology matching om is a function om :O1×O2→ A
that associates two input ontologies O1and O2to an alignment A using a similarity measure.
Now we define the output of an ontology matching function, i.e., an ontology alignment as
follows.
Definition 3 (Ontology Alignment). An ontology alignment oa is a set {t, MD}.tis a set
of tuples in the form {(id,e,e
,n,R)}.Whereid is a unique identifier, eand eare entities
belonging to two different ontologies, Ris the relation of correspondence between these entities
and nis a real number between 0 and 1 representing the mathematical probability that Rmay
be true. The entities than can be related are the concepts, roles, rules and, even axioms of
the ontologies. On the other hand, MD is some metadata related to the matching process for
information purposes.
8martinez-gil & aldana-montes
It is also necessary to have methods that help us to distinguish between good and bad
alignments. In fact, there are many ways to evaluate an ontology alignment:
Compliance measures provide some insight on the quality of identified ontology alignments.
Performance measures show how good the approach is in terms of computational resources.
User-related measures help to determine the overall subjective user satisfaction, partially
measured, e.g., through user effort needed.
There are task-related measures, which measure how good the alignment was for a certain
use case or application.
In practice, however, there is a degree of agreement to use some measures from the Information
Retrieval field (Baeza-Yates & Ribeiro-Neto, 1999). These are precision and recall.
Definition 4 (Alignment Evaluation). An alignment evaluation ae is a function
ae :A×AR→ precision ×recall, where precision and recall are real n umbers ranging over
the unit interval [0,1]. Precision states the fraction of retrieved correspondences that are relevant
for a matching task. Recall is the fraction of the relevant correspondences that are obtained
successfully in a matching task.
In this way, precision is a measure of exactness and recall a measure of completeness. Empirical
studies of retrieval performance have shown a tendency for precision to decline as cecall increases.
(Buckland & Gey, 1994) examined the nature of the relationship between precision and recall
in more depth. On the other hand, in order to obtain a way to compare systems or techniques,
an f-measure is defined as a weighting factor between precision and recall. The most common
configuration consists of weighting precision and recall equally.
On the other hand, normally the goal of a matching function is to get the best value for the
f-measure when evaluating the ontology alignment generated. But in some cases this may not
be true, because the application being built needs a well-balanced pair of precision and recall
measures instead of an optimized f-measure. In any case it is very difficult, even for an expert,
to decide on the best way to customize a similarity measure and to implement it in the form of
a matching function. This is because the number of variables and parameters to be considered is
too large. On the other hand, we have that without tuning, ontology matching systems often fail
to exploit specific characteristics. So research is focused on automatically configuring a function
and avoiding the work which depends on a lot on human heuristics.
4 Ontology Meta-Matching
The expression Ontology Meta-Matching was introduced in (Euzenat & Shvaiko, 2007) for
naming systems that try to configure automatically ontology matching functions. Although other
approaches have been proposed, only several works have dared to give an explicit definition for
ontology meta-matching; (Lee et al., 2007) use the following definition: the method “to select
the right matching components to execute, and to adjust the multiple knobs (e.g., threshold,
coefficients, weights, etc.) of the components”. In (Martinez-Gil & Aldana-Montes, 2009), meta-
matching is defined as “the technique of selecting the appropriate algorithms, weights and
thresholds in ontology alignment scenarios”. The second definition does not include the selection
of matching components because it assumes that all matchers are offered initially, and those
which may be associated with a weight of 0 will be automatically deselected.
In general, there are several characteristics common to all meta-matching strategies:
It is not necessary for it to be done at runtime. Matching functions can be computed in the
background and then applied at runtime.
It must be an automatic process. So it must be possible for it to be implemented by means
of a software tool.
An Overview of Current Ontology Meta-Matching Solutions 9
Figure 2 General model for meta-matching. Although some features can vary, most of the strategies
present a solution schema similar to that presented here
It must return the best possible matching function. If we do not know the best matching
function, we can be satisfied with a function that behaves as a human expert would do.
The evaluation of a meta-matching strategy is its returned matching function.
Moreover, Figure 2 shows a diagram for modeling the general actions in a meta-matching
process. Although some features can vary, the process of meta-matching consists of adjusting in
a smart way several parameters (algorithms, combination formula, and thresholds) in order to
replicate the results of a heterogeneous set of solved cases. The optimized function is supposed
to solve cases similar to the given ones.
4.1 Matcher combination, matcher self-tuning, and meta-matching
The expressions matcher combination, matcher self-tuning and meta-matching are often confused.
Therefore, we are going to explain the differences between them.
Matcher Combination. It involves the combination of individual matchers belonging to
libraries of matchers. This increases the complexity of the matching problem as several
matchers must be put together and combined appropriately. So far, only design time toolboxes
allow to do this manually.
10 martinez-gil & aldana-montes
Matcher Self-Tuning. Self-tuning is a term used widely in systems theory to name strategies
that are able to maintain system stability and performance. In this way, Matcher Self-Tuning
approaches attempt to tune and automatically adapt matching solutions to the settings
in which an application operates. Decisions are usually taken at runtime. For example,
systems can choose very fast matchers when receiving a very large ontology as an input
or can automatically reduce a threshold when many correspondences are not found between
ontologies.
Ontology meta-matching consists of combining a set of heterogeneous ontology matchers in
a smart way. It is not necessary to be performed at runtime. The main issue here is the
automatic combination of matchers, the finding of the most appropriate values for their
associated weights, the thresholds and in general, any parameter which may affect the results
of an evaluation. The goal is try to balance the weaknesses and reinforce the strengths of
the components. Unlike matcher self-tuning, the end goal of meta-matching is not to keep a
system running effectively, but to get a very good ontology matching function.
On the other hand, ontology meta-matching can be seen from three points of view: (i) from
the point of view of pre-match efforts and post-match efforts, (ii) from the point of view of the
algorithmic techniques used to obtain the matching function and, (iii) from the point of view of
the computer science paradigm that makes the meta-matching possible. All of them are discussed
below.
4.2 Pre-match efforts and post-match efforts
From the point of view of pre-match efforts and post-match we have two kinds of meta-matching:
Pre-metamatching consists of feature selection, training of matchers, parameter configuration,
and specification of auxiliary information. The main goal is that all this is done automatically.
Pre-metamatching is not necessary to be performed at runtime.
Post-metamatching consists of identifying false positives and false negatives. The goal is
to avoid human intervention, so it is necessary to use background knowledge strategies to
automatically improve the results generated. Current research focuses on using web measures
in order to find the relatedness between the entities that have been matched (Gracia & Mena,
2008). In this way, it is possible to check if the results are consistent.
4.3 Algorithmic techniques
From the point of view of the algorithmic techniques used to obtain the final ontology matching
function, there are several strategies:
Aggregation. This technique determines the upper bound T(n) on the values obtained from
a sequence of n matchers, then calculates the average value to be T(n)/n.
Combination. The main idea is to combine similarity values predicted by multiple matchers to
determine correspondences between ontology entities. Where combinations can be as simple
as: arithmetic or harmonic means, maximum, minimum, Minkowski distances, weighted
product or sum, and so on, or more complex combinations.
Composition. Let f1,f
2, ..., fnbe n unique matchers, a composition is a function f(O1,O
2)=
f1f2... fn. Thus, the idea of this mechanism is to use simple functions to build more
complicated ones like (Ji et al., 2006).
4.4 Paradigms to build meta-matching solutions
There are several ways to build ontology meta-matching systems. Figure 3 shows meta-matching
techniques categorized according to the paradigm that makes the meta-matching possible, i.e.,
how the parameters are recalculated. It should be noted that this problem can be solved trivially
An Overview of Current Ontology Meta-Matching Solutions 11
Figure 3 Existing ontology meta-matching techniques categorized according to the paradigm that
makes it possible
by a brute force search when the number of matchers is low, but meta-matching scales better for
a higher number of matchers. For this reason we do not include brute force methods as a viable
technique. According to (Martinez-Gil & Aldana-Montes, 2009), these are the two main groups
of techniques considered:
Heuristic meta-matching. Two fundamental goals in computer science are to find algorithms
with probably good run times and with probably good or optimal solution quality. A heuristic is
an algorithm that abandons one or both of these goals; e.g., it usually finds pretty good solutions,
but there is no proof that the solutions could not get arbitrarily bad; or it usually runs reasonably
quickly, but this may not necessarily always be the case. A heuristic is a method to help to solve
a problem, commonly informal. It is particularly used for a method that may lead to a solution
which is usually reasonably close to the best possible answer.
1. Based on Genetic Algorithms meta-matching. Genetic Algorithms (GAs) (Forrest, 1997) are
adaptive heuristic search algorithms based on the evolutionary ideas of natural selection. The
basic concept of GAs is designed to simulate the natural evolutionary system.
2. Greedy meta-matching. Greedy meta-matching is a technique which, given a particular
matching task, tries to automatically tune an ontology matching function. For this purpose,
it tries to choose the best matchers and parameters to be used, but with a short-sighted
strategy (Cohen et al., 1996). Results from Greedy techniques are, in general, worse than
those based on Genetics, although Greedy techniques also use much less computation time.
3. Rules. Rules are statements that define or constrain several aspects of the ontology matching
tasks. eTuner (Lee et al., 2007) uses perturbation rules in order to detect correspondences
between source and target entities. The idea behind behind rules of this kind is to modify
the source entity using well-known rules. If a perturbation coincides with the target entity
then eTuner knows exactly what type of correspondence is the most appropriate to link the
two entities.
Based on Machine Learning meta-matching, where the most outstanding approaches are
Relevance Feedback, Bayes Learning, Decision Trees, and Neural networks training for meta-
matching. In both cases, parameters are learned. Based on Machine Learning (Langley, 1994)
meta-matching techniques considers both schema information and instance data. This kind of
meta-matching can be divided into four subtypes.
12 martinez-gil & aldana-montes
1. Relevance feedback. This kind of approach explores the user validation of initial ontology
alignments for automatically optimizing the configuration parameters of the matching
strategies. Using such techniques we are able to avoid the user, and maybe the context,
the dependency of the matching task, however, this approach involves spending much time
on training the systems.
2. Bayes learning for meta-matching. Bayes learning is able to capture interdependencies among
ontology matching algorithms and thus possibly improve the way they are combined. To do
this, it proposes the use of Bayesian Networks (Svab & Svtek, 2008), a formal technique that
can capture interdependencies among random variables. The main advantage of Bayesian
networks compared to other uncertainty representation formalisms is that this approach
allows rather complicated mutually related phenomena to be modelled quite easily.
3. Decision trees. A decision tree (or tree diagram) is a decision support tool that uses a tree-like
graph or model of decisions and their possible consequences, including chance event outcomes,
resource costs, and utility.
4. Neural networks. Neural networks are non-linear statistical data modeling or decision making
tools. They can be used to model complex relationships between inputs and outputs or to
find patterns in data. Neural networks training for meta-matching consists of training a
neural network with heterogeneous benchmarks and then using the knowledge to predict new
similarity functions.
4.5 Thresholds
When matching ontologies, a matcher can discard correspondences that do not reach some
predefined threshold, assuming that those correspondences with low probability to be true are
less appropriate than those with high probabilities. By doing so, a matcher increases precision,
at the expense of recall. This means that it is necessary to take this parameter into account
because a high value for it can reduce drastically (and not always wisely) the number of semantic
correspondences discovered and vice versa. According to (Euzenat & Shvaiko, 2007), there are
four main types of thresholds:
Hard threshold. It selects only those values above a certain threshold value.
Delta threshold. It is used as the threshold value of the greater similarity value, which is
beyond a particular value given.
Proportional threshold. It is used as the threshold percentage of the maximum value of
the similarity values.
Percentage. It retains the n% correspondences above the others.
Choosing appropriate thresholds is an important issue and it is not a trivial task. Indeed,
manually choosing a proper configuration for the threshold is a very difficult process, even for an
expert. Ontology meta-matching techniques can help so that this parameter can be optimized.
5 Existing Meta-Matching Tools
A number of tools have been developed which are based on the notion that humans are best
equipped to perform ontology mappings. Thus, these tools are designed to present the task in
such a way as to make it straightforward to define correspondences, e.g. by drawing links between
concepts in a graphical interface. These software tools may also be combined with automated
methods, which generate candidate matches for the user.
Another approach that we have taken into account is based on the definition of theoretical
frameworks for ontology mapping. This is generally accomplished by considering the underlying
Description Logics (DL) on which the ontologies are founded. Examples include formal concept
analysis, information (IF-MAP) (Kalfoglou & Schorlemmer, 2003a).
An Overview of Current Ontology Meta-Matching Solutions 13
A further possibility that exists is the manual combination of simple ontology matchers. Maybe
the most popular tools to perform this task are: COMA (Hai Do & Rahm, 2002), COMA++
(Aumueller et al., 2005), FOAM (Ehrig & Sure, 2005), and Ontobuilder (Roitman & Gal, 2006).
All the tools belonging to this type of matching rely on human heuristic techniques.
Finally, we have considered two novel lines of research; one for evaluating the results of an
alignment tool and to provide feedback to the process (Lambrix & Tan, 2007) and another, the
object of this overview, called ontology meta-matching. It tries to optimize all the parameters
related to the matching task. It should be taken into account that ontology meta-matching is
not an end in itself, but a way to obtain high quality ontology alignments. Therefore, not all
existing tools are pure meta-matching tools. MaSiMe (Martinez-Gil & Aldana-Montes, 2009),
GAOM (Wang et al., 2006), GOAL (Martinez-Gilet al., 2008), eTuner (Lee et al., 2007), APFEL
(Ehrig et al., 2005), MatchPlanner (Duchateau et al., 2008), and YAM (Duchateau et al.,
2009) could be considered pure tools, while other tools are considered because they implement
ontology meta-matching in any of the steps which they follow to solve problems. It should also
be taken into account that several tools like Automatch (George Mason University)(Berlin &
Motro, 2002), GLUE (University of Washington)(Doan et al., 2003), SemInt (C&C/MITRE
Corporation/Oracle)(Li & Clifton, 2000), and Rank Aggregation (Cornell University/Israel
Institute of Technology)(Domshlak et al., 2007) can only process classic schemas, and will
therefore not be considered in this in this overview. The most outstanding tools in the area
of heuristic ontology meta-matching are the following:
eTuner (University of Illinois/MITRE Corporation), (Lee et al., 2007). This is a meta-
matching tool which, given a particular matching task, automatically tunes an existing
ontology matching system (computing one-to-one alignments). For this purpose, it uses a
perturbation rules algorithm that chooses the best parameters and the most effective basic
matchers to be used.
GAOM (Tongji University), (Wang et al., 2006). GAOM (Genetic Algorithm based Ontology
Matching) is a genetic algorithm-based optimization procedure for ontology matching
problems which are presented as a feature-matching process. Firstly, the authors of this
approach model the ontology matching problem as the optimization of a mapping between
two compared ontologies. Each ontology has its associated feature sets. Secondly, as a heuristic
search strategy, a genetic algorithm is used.
GOAL (University of Malaga), (Martinez-Gil & Aldana-Montes, 2009). The GOAL approach
is a genetic algorithm that is able to work with several goals: maximizing the precision,
maximizing the recall, maximizing the F-measure or reducing the number of false positives.
Moreover, it has been tested combining some leading-edge similarity measures over a standard
benchmark and the results obtained show such advantages as it is possible to optimize
whatever specific aspect (precision, recall, fall-out or false positives)
MaSiMe (University of Malaga), (Martinez-Gil & Aldana-Montes, 2009). MaSiMe is a
customizable similarity measure that tries to establish the most appropriate weights for
configuring a composite matching function to solve a set of matching cases. MaSiMe uses a
greedy strategy that consists of using multiples from a value (called granularity) to reduce
the solution space substantially. Then an exhaustive search is done over the reduced solution
space.
Below are the most outstanding tools in the area of machine learning ontology meta-matching:
APFEL (University of Karlsruhe/University of Koblenz Landau), (Ehrig et al., 2005).
APFEL means apple in German but it is here the acronym for Alignment Process Feature
Estimation and Learning. In this work users are first given the ontology alignments for
validation. These alignments are generated using previous proposals of the same authors.
Using user validation, new hypotheses are generated by APFEL and weighted using the
initial feedback.
14 martinez-gil & aldana-montes
Figure 4 Existing meta-matching tools categorized according to the paradigm that makes them possible
IAC Neural Network (SAP Research/Yahoo!/University of Pittsburgh) (Mao et al., 2008).
IAC stands for Interactive Activation and Competition. This proposal is based on a neural
network to search for a global optimal solution that can satisfy as many ontology constraints
as possible.
MatchPlanner (University of Montpellier) (Duchateau et al., 2008). It uses a decision tree
to combine the most appropriate similarity measures for a given domain. In this way, the
time performance of the tool is improved since the complexity is bounded by the height of
the tree. This tool is also able to learn new decision trees, thus automatically tuning the tool
to provide optimal configuration for a given matching scenario.
SFS (University of South Carolina/Siemens Research) (Huang et al., 2007). SFS (Super-
concept Formation System) is a tool for ontology meta-matching that tries to obtain
automatically a vector of weights for different semantic aspects of a matching task, such as
comparison of concept names, comparison of concept properties, and comparison of concept
relationships. To do so, it uses an advanced neural network technique.
YAM (University of Montpellier) (Duchateau et al., 2009). According to the authors, YAM
(Yet Another Matcher) is not (yet) another schema matching tool, as it enables the generation
of a schema matcher according to user requirements. These requirements include a preference
for recall or precision, a training data set and provided expert mappings. According to the
authors, YAM uses a knowledge base that includes a set of similarity measures and classifiers.
Based on the user requirements, YAM learns how to best apply these tools in concert to
achieve quality for results.
Figure 4 shows the categorization of the listed ontology meta-matching tools according to the
computational paradigm used to implement them. As can be seen, researchers have explored all
the branches of the tree described in Section 4.
5.1 Comparison of the tools
In this subsection we compare the existing ontology meta-matching tools. It should be taken into
account that it is very difficult to compare the existing tools. One reason is that researchers have
not used the same characteristics when presenting their approaches. Also many of the studied
tools are not under free licenses. Nevertheless, we will attempt to show the characteristics that
An Overview of Current Ontology Meta-Matching Solutions 15
can be extracted strictly from the articles where the tools were presented. The characteristics
that we have chosen are explained below.
Results. Researchers have not used the same benchmark datasets in order to offer their results.
So we are going to study this characteristic according to a fuzzy classification that will be
described in more detail later. The intention is not to offer a tool ranking, but rather to try
to understand the scope of the different approaches.
Time consumption. This characteristic is related to the time required to obtain results. We
are not going to measure the time quantitatively, but we know that the time needed depends
largely on the strategy used, e.g., a brute force strategy is very expensive in terms of time
consumption, while more sophisticated strategies can reduce the time needed, for example,
trying to avoid some regions from the solution space.
Training needed. One of the disadvantages of ontology meta-matching tools is that a lot
of effort for training them is required. This characteristic seems to be inherent to machine
learning tools, but we are going to consider the time for optimizing heuristic tools too.
Ranking generation.(Domshlaket al., 2007) showed that it is also possible to build rankings
for matching functions using meta-matching techniques. This is possible because several meta-
matching techniques are able to identify a numerical fitness for each matching combination
and, therefore, it is trivial to use this numerical fitness in order to generate a ranking of
alternative approaches.
Human behaviour. This characteristic tries to measure if it is possible to simulate the
behaviour of the users who train the tools. As we commented earlier, a meta-matching tool
should return the best possible matching function. If we do not know which one is the best
matching function (and in this case), we can be satisfied with a function that behaves as a
human expert would do.
Instance Data. This feature tries to measure if the tools are able to deal with not only
ontology classes, properties and relations, but with individuals too. It should be taken into
account that work with individuals is far from being a trivial task because there is not much
additional information in an ontology about entities of this kind.
We have established a fuzzy categorization with five kinds of values for each of these
characteristics.
Very good. When the tool is one of the best tools for a given characteristic.
Good. When the meta-matching tool successfully implements a characteristic.
Regular. When it is possible to implement or configure a given characteristic easily.
Not so good. When the characteristic could be implemented but with serious changes.
Bad. When the tools do not implement this characteristic at all.
Heuristic tools for ontology meta-matching share several common characteristics, for example,
it is easy for them to generate rankings of alternative approaches and they do not need too much
time on training. But it is very difficult to simulate the user behaviour.
eTuner made a great contribution to the field of meta-matching when proposing perturbation
rules in order to automatically configure matching functions. To the best of our knowledge, eTuner
is the only tool which is able to tune existing tools. The main characteristics of eTuner are: eTuner
results are very good, moreover it is possible to work with instance data, time consumption is not
high, and training is not needed due to the perturbation rules that have been used. However, the
tool can not simulate the behaviour of a specific user; it is only possible to simulate the behaviour
of the perturbation rule designers.
GAOM was the first tool to propose the use of Genetic Algorithms for solving the ontology
matching problem. However, results are far from the state-of-the-art. Time consumption depends
of the user needs, so we have chosen an intermediate value. Training is needed, but a set of
previously solved cases can be used, so we have chosen an intermediate value too. It uses a
16 martinez-gil & aldana-montes
technique based on a numerical fitness, so it is very easy to GAOM to generate a ranking of
approaches. Lastly, synthetic cases are used to optimize the strategy, so user behaviour cannot
be simulated.
GOAL is the state-of-the-art tool using evolutionary computation. It is based on a genetic
algorithm which scales very well for combining a large number of atomic matching algorithms
and it is able to optimize the results of the matching process. Results for GOAL are comparable
to those obtained in the state-of the-art, although this depends largely on the basic matchers to
be composed. Time consumption is high because it is necessary to follow an evolutionary strategy
to configure the matching function. Training is needed, but existing alignments can be reused. It
is also possible to simulate the human behaviour and work with instance data.
MaSiMe is the only greedy tool among those studied. It tries to choose the best matchers
and parameters to be used, but with a short-sighted strategy. The advantage of using this
strategy is that it is possible to rapidly configure a matching function, but this configuration
is not often the best. Therefore, the results are often not very good. Time consumption and
training needed parameters are not high. Moreover, MaSiMe cannot simulate human behaviour,
because a statistical method is used, but it can work with instance data. Lastly, MaSiMe
associates a numerical fitness to each matching combination, so it is easy to generate a ranking
of combinations.
Machine Learning tools for ontology meta-matching share several common characteristics, for
example, all of them need a lot of training and it is very difficult to generate rankings of alternative
approaches to solve a given scenario. On the contrary, it is a natural advantage for the tools of
this kind the ability to simulate the human behaviour.
APFEL was the first tool which explored the user validation of initial alignments for
optimizing alignment methods. For this reason, APFEL is considered the most representative
tool for Relevance Feedback and is considered the classical tool for meta-matching in the field of
machine learning. Relevance Feedback makes it possible to simulate the behavior of humans using
the tool. It is possible to work with instance data and results are good according to the authors.
For time consumption we have chosen a lower intermediate value. As negative points, a lot of
training effort is needed and it is not possible to generate a ranking for different combinations.
MatchPlanner makes use of a decision tree to combine the most appropriate matching
algorithms. As a first consequence of using the decision tree, the performance of the system
is improved since the complexity is bounded by the height of the decision tree. Simulation of
the user behaviour and results are very good. Time consumption can be optimized, so we have
chosen an intermediate value for it. The tool needs a lot of training, and generating a ranking is
not possible. MatchPlanner can deal with instance data.
IAC Neural Network tries to find a global optimal solution that best satisfies ontology
constraints. The experimental results show the approach dramatically improves the performance
of preliminary results in some common scenarios. Characteristics for IAC are: results and time
consumption for IAC are reasonable. As with tools based on machine learning, much training is
required, and ranking generation is not easy. Authors do not explain if the tool is able to deal
with instance data, however, user behavior solving the cases to train the neural network can be
simulated.
SFS tries to optimize a feature vector. During automated matching among ontologies, different
semantic aspects, i.e., concept names, concept properties, and concept relationships, contribute in
different degrees to the matching result. Therefore, a vector of weights are needed to be assigned
to these aspects. SFS tries to obtain the best vector of weights. These characteristics are quite
similar to the previous tool that we have considered. Maybe it is because the two tools use neural
networks. Authors do not provide information about instance data in their paper. However, results
according to the dataset they have used are good, and it is possible for the tool to behave as a
human would.
An Overview of Current Ontology Meta-Matching Solutions 17
Figure 5 According to the characteristics that we have studied, we can conclude that the most complete
tools, i.e. those tools with cover the greatest area in the radial graphics are eTuner and GOAL in the
field of heuristic meta-matching, and APFEL and YAM in the field of machine learning
YAM is more than a meta-matching tool; it is a framework for researching meta-matching
strategies. According to the authors, the idea of YAM is to train matchers with two errors which
can occur when matching ontologies: discovering an irrelevant correspondence (false positive)
and missing a relevant correspondence (false negative). The first error decreases precision while
the second one decreases recall. Classifiers usually assign the same weight for both errors, but
YAM tries to configure an optimal weight for them. On the other hand, YAM is possibly the
most complete based-on-machine-learning tool for ontology meta-matching. It should be taken
into account that it is the most modern too. Simulation of the user behaviour. The capability to
work with instance data and the results presented are very good. Time consumption and training
needs depend largely on the selected strategy so we have chosen an intermediate value for these
two parameters. As a negative point, it is very difficult to offer a ranking of approaches using
YAM.
Figure 5 shows a summary of the characteristics for the existing ontology meta-matching tools.
We have chosen to represent the characteristics in a radial graphic. Each vertex of the graphic
represents one of the proposed characteristics. In this way, it is easier to visualize the strengths
and weaknesses for each ontology meta-matching tool. It should be taken into account that we are
using the default configuration for each meta-matching tool, and we are not making a quantitative
comparison, but a qualitative comparison.
6 Discussion
Using ontology meta-matching has several advantages over traditional techniques, but perhaps
the most important one is that ontology meta-matching makes the matching independent from
the data, context and the users, unlike the research work which depends a lot on human
heuristics when tuning matching tools. Moreover, it is also possible to build rankings for the
ontology matching functions as stated by (Domshlaket al., 2007). This is possible because meta-
matching techniques are able to identify the fitness for each matching combination. Moreover, it
is possible to simulate the behaviour of the users who train the tools. However, there are also
18 martinez-gil & aldana-montes
some controversial issues and unresolved problems too. The most important of them are: a) the
problem of the ground truth, b) optimizing precision or recall is trivial, and c) meta-matching
does not outperform blind benchmarks (yet).
6.1 The problem of the ground truth
Many critics believe that the meta-matching is a theoretical tool used to configure matching
functions, but in practice, large sets of solved cases are necessary. The problem is that meta-
matching systems are able to obtain good matching functions to face cases similar to the original
cases, but these systems are not so good for dealing with new situations. This fact is commonly
known as the problem of the ground truth. A partial solution is to optimize using a consensus of
matchers, but this approach adds much noise to the process, so the quality of results is not very
good.
6.2 Optimizing precision or recall is trivial
Many authors claim that their systems are able to optimize precision or recall. The problem here
is that existing techniques can easily work in order to obtain high precision at the cost of the
recall or, alternatively, recall can be increased at the cost of the precision. Several techniques try
to optimize the f-measure, that it is to say, the equation that equally weights precision and recall
in order to obtain a general measure, but the problem here is that current techniques are not able
to avoid unwanted deviation between the precision and recall, they can only optimize a weighted
equation. In this way, the best f-measure can be composed by a high precision and a low recall or
vice versa. This problem could be solved by the application of multiobjective algorithms (Nebro
et al., 2008).
6.3 Meta-matching does not outperform blind benchmarks (yet)
Although meta-matching allows users to benefit both from the high degree of precision of some
matchers and at the same time the broader coverage of others, in practice, researchers have not yet
been able to find an appropriate implementation to outperform blind benchmarks. Outperforming
well-known benchmarks has no practical implications, especially when these tools have been
optimized for the benchmark. Meta-matching tools have been able to obtain results quite similar
to best matching tools, but this still is not enough to justify their expensive development.
7 Conclusions
In this work, we have presented ontology meta-matching, as a novel computational discipline
for fexible and accurate automatic ontology matching that generalizes and extends previous
proposals for exploiting simple ontology matchers. We have presented the main techniques for
ontology meta-matching. These techniques take into account that it is not trivial to determine
what the weights of the semantic aspects should be and tries to avoid the research work depending
a lot on human heuristics.
Secondly, we have provided an analysis of the most popular simple algorithms and techniques
for simple matching, and characterized their relative applicability as black boxes in a meta-
matching environment. It is necessary to bear in mind that the success of the meta-matching
process depends largely on the type of the underlying simple matchers used and the heterogeneity
and soundness of the benchmarks for learning or optimizing the parameters.
Thirdly, we have provided a qualitative explanation of the differences between matcher
combination, matcher self-tuning and ontology meta-matching which are terms that are often
confused. Matcher combination is about obtaining complex matchers and is often performed
manually, self-tuning is about improving accuracy and coverage at runtime, and meta-matching
is about automatic matcher selection, combination and optimization.
An Overview of Current Ontology Meta-Matching Solutions 19
We have shown the most promising tools in the area of ontology meta-matching. A lot of tools
that clearly implement meta-matching have been developed recently. Like techniques, we have
shown that tools can also be classified into heuristic or learning-based ones. Moreover, we have
performed a study on these tools in order to identify their strengths and weaknesses. In order to
facilitate tasks of this kind in the future, it would be a great idea for reseachers to use benchmarks
like (Giunchiglia et al., 2009) when presenting results.
Finally, we have discussed the advantages and disadvantages of using ontology meta-matching.
We have explained throughout the work that meta-matching represents a serious effort to make
the task of ontology matching a more independent process from users, context, and even the data
involved, so we have focused the section for discussion on identifying explicitly the controversial
issues and problems that remain open.
The lessons learned on ontology meta-matching will allow researchers to work with other kinds
of conceptual schemas for modelling knowledge. In this sense, we are convinced that ontology
meta-matching is a perfect candidate to take practitioners and users a step further in the state-
of-the-art in terms of knowledge interoperability in increasingly demanding environments.
Acknowledgements
We wish to thank to all anonymous reviewers for their comments and suggestions which have
helped to improve this work. This work has been funded by the Spanish Ministry of Innovation
and Science through the project: ICARIA: From Semantic Web to Systems Biology, Project Code:
TIN2008-04844 and by Regional Government of Andalucia through: Pilot Project for Training
on Applied Systems Biology, Project Code: P07-TIC-02978.
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... Similarly, the desired outcome is not always the same: As opposed to ontology integration, i.e., the creation of a merged (integrated) ontology, ontology matching is a process that yields a set of correspondences: An ontology alignment [16,41]. This is known as the ontology matching problem (OMP), for which a great variety of strategies and algorithms have been devised [2,16,28,31,41]. The correspondences can be formulated, with increasing expressive power, as follows: ...
... For the present purpose, we will assume that the source ontology, which here is a marketplace-level ontology, is more expressive semantically, and less abstract; the EMMO will be the target ontology. Since ontologies can easily involve hundreds of entities, automatic and semi-automatic tools with different levels of user involvement have been created to perform ontology matching; see, e.g., Tab. 2 from Martínez and Aldana [28] for a list of algorithms, and Tab. 1 from Shvaiko and Euzenat [41] for a list of tools. The strategy they use to find correspondences is to look for similarities between entities (classes, relations, individuals), considering various aspects: Label and documentation, using exact or approximate text matching (terminological/linguistic aspect); subclasses and superclasses, relations, their domain and ranges (structural aspect); instances of classes (extensional aspect); data type (constraint-based aspect); class descriptions in the sense of rules (semantic aspect) [34,41]. ...
... The strategy they use to find correspondences is to look for similarities between entities (classes, relations, individuals), considering various aspects: Label and documentation, using exact or approximate text matching (terminological/linguistic aspect); subclasses and superclasses, relations, their domain and ranges (structural aspect); instances of classes (extensional aspect); data type (constraint-based aspect); class descriptions in the sense of rules (semantic aspect) [34,41]. Different matchers can be combined, with weights and thresholds, to build a meta-matching approach [28]; an API to describe alignments has been proposed as well [14]. ...
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The European Materials and Modelling Ontology (EMMO) is a top-level ontology designed by the European Materials Modelling Council to facilitate semantic interoperability between platforms, models, and tools in computational molecular engineering, integrated computational materials engineering, and related applications of materials modelling and characterization. Additionally, domain ontologies exist based on data technology developments from specific platforms. The present work discusses the ongoing work on establishing a European Virtual Marketplace Framework, into which diverse platforms can be integrated. It addresses common challenges that arise when marketplace-level domain ontologies are combined with a top-level ontology like the EMMO by ontology alignment.
... The fundamental notion was that it might optimize the precision, recall, or combination of the two, for example a harmonic mean called f-measure. In [9], a survey on ontology matching was presented with emphasis on the aggregation methods used by the different proposals existing to date, as well as the significant differences between the techniques for matcher combination, matcher self-tuning, and meta-matching. ...
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... The fundamental notion was that it might optimize the precision, recall, or combination of the two. In [17], a survey on ontology matching was presented with emphasis on the aggregation methods used by the different proposals existing to date, as well as the significant differences between the techniques for matcher combination, matcher self-tuning, and metamatching. ...
... Many similar experiences already exist, for example, in the world of word embeddings, where recent research can demonstrate that the linear combination of existing methods is capable of surpassing the state-of-the-art [15]. It is also the case of meta-matching [8], where traditional matching algorithms are added in a strategic way to solve the problems that usually affect simple strategies when it comes to their exploitation. From the results obtained from our experiments, it is worth noting that the neuronal regressor gets the best results. ...
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... String comparison techniques are based on label and description of the ontology entities. There are several metrics for calculating distance between strings that can be used, such as Jaccard, Hamming, Levenshtein, etc. [10] applies techniques from graph theory to the problem. These techniques consider the ontologies to be aligned as labeled graphs, or even trees, leading to the graph isomorphism problem. ...
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Ontology matching has become one of the main research topics to address problems related to semantic interoperability on the web. The main goal is to find ways to make different ontologies interoperable. Due to the high heterogeneity in the knowledge representation of each ontology, several matchers are proposed in the literature, each seeking to capture a specific aspect of the ontology. Generally, different matchers are complementary and none stand out in all test cases. In this paper, we present a meta-matching approach employing the prey–predator meta-heuristic in order to define a set of weights to find the best possible result from a set of matchers. The approach was evaluated on the Ontology Alignment Evaluation Initiative benchmark and results showed that the prey–predator algorithm is competitive with other popular algorithms as it achieves an average f-measure of 0.91.
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Purpose Although ontology matchers are annually proposed to address different aspects of the semantic heterogeneity problem, finding the most suitable alignment approach is still an issue. This study aims to propose a computational solution for ontology meta-matching (OMM) and a framework designed for developers to make use of alignment techniques in their applications. Design/methodology/approach The framework includes some similarity functions that can be chosen by developers and then, automatically, set weights for each function to obtain better alignments. To evaluate the framework, several simulations were performed with a data set from the Ontology Alignment Evaluation Initiative. Simple similarity functions were used, rather than aligners known in the literature, to demonstrate that the results would be more influenced by the proposed meta-alignment approach than the functions used. Findings The results showed that the framework is able to adapt to different test cases. The approach achieved better results when compared with existing ontology meta-matchers. Originality/value Although approaches for OMM have been proposed, it is not easy to use them during software development. On the other hand, this work presents a framework that can be used by developers to align ontologies. New ontology matchers can be added and the framework is extensible to new methods. Moreover, this work presents a novel OMM approach modeled as a linear equation system which can be easily computed.
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Recently, the number of ontology matching techniques and systems has increased significantly. This makes the issue of their evaluation and comparison more severe. One of the challenges of the ontology matching evaluation is in building large-scale evaluation datasets. In fact, the number of possible correspondences between two ontologies grows quadratically with respect to the numbers of entities in these ontologies. This often makes the manual construction of the evaluation datasets demanding to the point of being infeasible for large-scale matching tasks. In this paper, we present an ontology matching evaluation dataset composed of thousands of matching tasks, called TaxME2. It was built semi-automatically out of the Google, Yahoo, and Looksmart web directories. We evaluated TaxME2 by exploiting the results of almost two-dozen of state-of-the-art ontology matching systems. The experiments indicate that the dataset possesses the desired key properties, namely it is error-free, incremental, discriminative, monotonic, and hard for the state-of-the-art ontology matching systems.
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Ontologies are a formal, declarative knowledge representation model. They form a semantic foun-dation for many domains, such as Web services, E-commerce, and the Semantic Web, where applica-tions can mutually understand and share informa-tion with each other. However, because ontologies reflect their designers' conceptual views of part of the world, heterogeneity is an inherent characteris-tic for ontologies. During (semi)automated match-ing among ontologies, different semantic aspects, i.e., concept names, concept properties, and con-cept relationships, contribute in different degrees to the matching result. Therefore, a vector of weights are needed to be assigned to these aspects. It is not trivial to determine what those weights should be, and current research work depends a lot on human heuristics. In this paper, we take an artificial neu-ral network approach to learning and adjusting the above weights, and thereby support a new ontol-ogy matching algorithm, with the purpose to avoid some of the disadvantages in both rule-based and learning-based ontology matching approaches.
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Nowadays many techniques and tools are available for addressing the ontology matching problem, however, the complex nature of this problem causes existing solutions to be unsatisfactory. This work aims to shed some light on a more flexible way of matching ontologies. Ontology meta-matching, which is a set of techniques to configure optimum ontology matching functions. In this sense, we propose two approaches to automatically solve the ontology meta-matching problem. The first one is called maximum similarity measure, which is based on a greedy strategy to compute efficiently the parameters which configure a composite matching algorithm. The second approach is called genetics for ontology alignments and is based on a genetic algorithm which scales better for a large number of atomic matching algorithms in the composite algorithm and is able to optimize the results of the matching process. KeywordsOntology meta-matching–Knowledge management–Information integration
Chapter
A genetic algorithm is a form of evolution that occurs in a computer. Genetic algorithms are useful, both as search methods for solving problems and for modeling evolutionary systems. This chapter describes how genetic algorithms work, gives several examples of genetic algorithm applications, and reviews some mathematical analysis of genetic algorithm behavior.
Chapter
Within the broad scope of the study of artificial intelligence (AI), research in neural networks is characterized by a particular focus on pattern recognition and pattern generation. Many neural network methods can be viewed as generalizations of classical pattern-oriented techniques in statistics and the engineering areas of signal processing, system identification, and control theory. As in these parent disciplines, the notion of “pattern” in neural network research is essentially probabilistic and numerical. Neural network methods have had their greatest impact in problems where statistical issues dominate and where data are easily obtained.
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Ontology mapping is seen as a solution provider in today's landscape of ontology research. As the number of ontologies that are made publicly available and accessible on the Web increases steadily, so does the need for applications to use them. A single ontology is no longer enough to support the tasks envisaged by a distributed environment like the Semantic Web. Multiple ontologies need to be accessed from several applications. Mapping could provide a common layer from which several ontologies could be accessed and hence could exchange information in semantically sound manners. Developing such mapping has beeb the focus of a variety of works originating from diverse communities over a number of years. In this article we comprehensively review and present these works. We also provide insights on the pragmatics of ontology mapping and elaborate on a theoretical approach for defining ontology mapping.
Book
Ontologies tend to be found everywhere. They are viewed as the silver bullet for many applications, such as database integration, peer-to-peer systems, e-commerce, semantic web services, or social networks. However, in open or evolving systems, such as the semantic web, different parties would, in general, adopt different ontologies. Thus, merely using ontologies, like using XML, does not reduce heterogeneity: it just raises heterogeneity problems to a higher level. Euzenat and Shvaiko’s book is devoted to ontology matching as a solution to the semantic heterogeneity problem faced by computer systems. Ontology matching aims at finding correspondences between semantically related entities of different ontologies. These correspondences may stand for equivalence as well as other relations, such as consequence, subsumption, or disjointness, between ontology entities. Many different matching solutions have been proposed so far from various viewpoints, e.g., databases, information systems, artificial intelligence. With **Ontology Matching**, researchers and practitioners will find a reference book which presents currently available work in a uniform framework. In particular, the work and the techniques presented in this book can equally be applied to database schema matching, catalog integration, XML schema matching and other related problems. The objectives of the book include presenting (i) the state of the art and (ii) the latest research results in ontology matching by providing a detailed account of matching techniques and matching systems in a systematic way from theoretical, practical and application perspectives.