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Further new species of Menegazzia (Parmeliaceae, Lecanorales)

  • Tasmanian Museum & Art Gallery

Abstract and Figures

Three new species of Menegazzia are described and illustrated, and their relationships and affinities to other species in the genus discussed. Menegazzia bjerkeana Kantvilas is an isidiate species from the coastal ranges of New South Wales; M. brattii Kantvilas is an eight-spored species related to the widespread M. pertransita (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant., and is endemic to Kerguelen Island; and M. gallowayi Kantvilas is an eight-spored species from South Island, New Zealand. Menegazzia sanguinascens (Räsänen) R. Sant. is recorded from Kerguelen for the first time.
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The Lichenologist 44(6): 795–800 (2012) 6British Lichen Society, 2012
Further new species of Menegazzia (Parmeliaceae,Lecanorales)
Abstract: Three new species of Menegazzia are described and illustrated, and their relationships and
affinities to other species in the genus discussed. Menegazzia bjerkeana Kantvilas is an isidiate species
from the coastal ranges of New South Wales; M. brattii Kantvilas is an eight-spored species related
to the widespread M. pertransita (Mu
¨ll. Arg.) R. Sant., and is endemic to Kerguelen Island; and
M. gallowayi Kantvilas is an eight-spored species from South Island, New Zealand. Menegazzia
sanguinascens (Ra¨sa¨nen) R. Sant. is recorded from Kerguelen for the first time.
Key words: biodiversity, lichen chemistry, lichens, Southern Hemisphere, taxonomy
Accepted for publication 25 May 2012
The genus Menegazzia A. Massal. is an im-
portant, species-rich component of the li-
chen biota of cool temperate regions in the
Southern Hemisphere. Whilst revising the
30 known Tasmanian species ( Kantvilas
2012), three additional, undescribed, non-
Tasmanian species were discovered; these
are described below. For a general introduc-
tion to the genus, outlining previous research,
diagnostic features, ecology and biogeogra-
phy, see Kantvilas (2012).
Materials and Methods
This study is based chiefly on collections in the Tasma-
nian Herbarium (HO), supplemented by reference to
critical holdings in other herbaria, especially the Natural
History Museum (BM), the Allan Herbarium, New
Zealand (CHR), and the herbarium of the late Henry
Imshaug (MSC). Routine chemical analysis of all speci-
mens followed standard methods of thin-layer chroma-
tography (Orange et al. 2001), with solvent A being the
preferred medium. All fertile material was sectioned
and dimensions of ascospores given in the descriptions
are based on at least 100 observations each and pre-
sented in the format: 5th percentile–mean–95th percen-
tile, with outlying measurements given in parentheses.
Hand-cut apothecial and thallus sections were routinely
mounted in water for observation and measurement,
but subsequently eluted with 15% KOH or ammoniacal
erythrosin for further examination.
The Species
Menegazzia bjerkeana Kantvilas sp. nov.
MycoBank No: MB800687
Menegazziae eperforatae similis et item thallo potius
olivaceo-viridi, acidum sticticum continenti et dense
isidiato sed perforatis numerosis et lobis parum latiori-
bus, 1–2 mm latis differt.
Typus: Australia, New South Wales, Wiangaree Forest
Drive, Tweed Range, near ‘‘The Pinnacle’’, on Nothofa-
gus moorei, 3 August 1988, G. Kantvilas 639/88 (HO—
holotypus; NSW, TROM—isotypi).
(Fig. 1A & B)
Thallus relatively tightly adnate, very brittle
and fragile, typically forming rather neat
rosettes to c. 10 cm wide, isidiate. Lobes
10–15(–20) mm wide, rather flattened
and undulate, densely imbricate and con-
gested at the centre of the thallus, at the mar-
gins dichotomously branched and palmately
radiating; apices discrete, adnate, decumbent
or eascending. Upper surface perforate, pale
olive-green to greyish green, brownish bronze
at the apices, glossy, epruinose, with con-
spicuous, whitish, effigurate maculae, espe-
cially in younger, marginal parts. Perforations
scattered, abundant, roundish to ellipsoid,
G. Kantvilas: Tasmanian Herbarium, Private Bag 4,
Hobart, Tasmania, Australia 7001. Email: gkantvilas@
Fig. 1. New species of Menegazzia.A,M. bjerkeana habit; B, M. bjerkeana detail, showing the maculate, perforate
lobes with isidia; C, M. brattii habit; D, M. brattii detail, showing perforate lobes and apothecia with a crenulate,
non-inflated margin; E, M. gallowayi, habit; F, M. gallowayi detail, showing maculate lobes, perforations with
upturned margins, and apothecia with a pruinose disc. Scales: A, C, E ¼5 mm; B, D, F ¼2 mm.
rather variable in size and shape, 01–
05(–08) mm wide, with margins flush with
the thallus surface or turned slightly inward,
occasionally rather ragged. Medullary cavity
byssoid, persistently white on the upper sur-
face, black with a few white, cobweb-like
hyphae on the lower surface. Isidia laminal,
very numerous, covering most of the thallus
except for the lobe apices, particularly
crowded in the centre of the thallus, erect or
decumbent, at first rather knob-like, occa-
sionally swelling and resembling minute lobes
but more commonly elongate, cylindrical, to
1 mm long and 010–0 25 mm wide, simple
or coralloid branched with the axils con-
Apothecia and conidia not seen.
Chemistry. Atranorin, stictic acid, constictic
acid, menegazziaic acid (trace), cryptostictic
acid (e
trace), peristictic acid (e
trace), 3-O-
methylconsalazinic acid (trace), plus addi-
tional traces of related compounds; medulla
K+ yellow, P+ orange, C-- ,KC
-- ,UV
-- .
Etymology. This species is named in honour
of my colleague Dr Jarle Bjerke of Tromsø,
Norway, who has made significant contribu-
tions to the study of Menegazzia and has
given me much assistance and encourage-
ment in my study of the genus in Australasia.
Distribution and ecology. Menegazzia bjer-
keana is known only from the type locality,
in the Nothofagus-dominated rainforests of
the coastal ranges along the New South
Wales-Queensland border. It grows in the
shaded forest interior on rough, rather dry,
flaky bark of a mature Nothofagus moorei
tree. Although locally very common, it was
not found elsewhere, despite the author’s
detailed lichen studies in numerous stands
of Nothofagus-dominated forests throughout
New South Wales. Menegazzia bjerkeana is a
further addition to a small group of Menegaz-
zia species confined to this region, viz.:M.
conica P. James, M. enteroxantha (Mu
¨ll. Arg)
R. Sant. and M. grandis P. James.
Remarks. Menegazzia bjerkeana is closely
related to M. eperforata and M. nothofagi.
These three species are superficially similar,
sharing an olive-green thallus, relatively
narrow, fragile and brittle, conspicuously
maculate lobes and the stictic acid chemo-
syndrome (see Kantvilas 2012). It is most
similar to M. eperforata in that both species
have isidia, an uncommon feature in Mene-
gazzia. However, it is clearly different in hav-
ing very obvious and numerous perforations.
Like M. bjerkeana, M. nothofagi is also per-
forate, but this species differs in having sore-
dia that develop from inflated, subglobose
to coralloid, isidia-like vesicles that rupture
or become abraded (Kantvilas 2012). Mene-
gazzia bjerkeana differs further from both
of these related species by having slightly
broader lobes.
Menegazzia brattii Kantvilas sp. nov.
MycoBank No: MB800688
Menegazziae pertransitae similis et item ascis octosporis
sed atranorinum et acidum lecanoricum, plerumque
cum pigmento aurantiaco ignoto continenti differt.
Typus: I
ˆles Kerguelen, Bras de la Fonderie, summit
of coastal cliffs W of Col Demi-Lune, near sea level,
8 March 1971, G. C. Bratt 71/535A (HO—holotypus;
(Fig. 1C & D)
Thallus tightly adnate, forming irregular
rosettes to c. 8 cm wide (herbarium material),
lacking soredia or isidia. Lobes 1–3 mm wide,
cylindrical to a little flattened, at the centre
of the thallus irregular and densely imbricate,
at the margins more neatly radiating but
nevertheless rather disorganized and contig-
uous; apices inflated. Upper surface perforate,
presumably a shade of pale greenish grey but
discolouring pale yellowish brown in storage,
here and there streaked with black along the
margins, abundantly speckled with black,
scattered pycnidia, rather glossy, smooth to
a little puckered in older parts, epruinose,
mostly emaculate. Perforations occasional,
round to irregularly oval, 05–20 mm wide,
with margins somewhat elevated when young,
soon becoming flush with the thallus surface
and at length turned inward, sometimes
markedly so. Medullary cavity byssoid, white
to suffused pale yellowish, K-- to Kebrown-
ish, also with patches of an orange, K+
purple pigment on the upper and lower
surfaces, especially towards the lobe apices,
2012 New Menegazzia species—Kantvilas 797
in the oldest parts of the thallus becoming
blackened, with sparse, white cobweb-like
Apothecia scattered, occasional, to 3 mm
wide, sessile to subpedicellate; thalline mar-
gin 01–02 mm thick, not inflated, smooth
and entire to crenulate; disc matt, orange-
brown to brown, epruinose, persistently con-
cave. Hymenium 95–120 mm thick, orange-
brown in the upper part, not inspersed; asci
8-spored, occasionally with some spores
aborted during development; paraphyses with
apices not capitate, unpigmented, to 2–3 mm
thick. Ascospores broadly ellipsoid, (26–)27–
321–36(–38) 16–201–24(–25) mm.
Pycnidia abundant, scattered, especially
towards the lobe apices, visible as black or
black-brown specks 005–0 08 mm wide.
Conidia filiform, 6–8 05mm.
Chemistry. Atranorin (trace), lecanoric acid
plus unidentified pigments; medulla K-- ,
C-- or every weak pink, KC-- ,P
-- ,UV
-- ;
orange-pigmented areas K+ purple. As with
several other species [e.g. M. myriotrema
¨ll. Arg.) R. Sant. and M. tarkinea Kant-
vilas], the concentration of lecanoric acid is
too weak to yield a reliable spot test; how-
ever, it can be discerned by eluting squash
preparations with bleach solution. The suf-
fused yellowish, Kebrownish pigment is
probably related to secalonic acid. The K+
purple pigment is unknown and does not
show up on TLC plates, possibly due to its
low concentration; it may also occur in the
subhypothecial medulla where it reacts K+
orange-red in squash preparations.
Etymology. This new species is named after
the Tasmanian lichenologist, Geoff Bratt
(1931–1977), who undertook pioneering
lichen collection in Tasmania in the 1960s
and 1970s, and collected the type speci-
men while visiting Kerguelen with Henry
Imshaug’s expedition in 1971 (Bratt 1971;
Imshaug 1971).
Remarks. Menegazzia brattii is character-
ized by the combination of 8-spored asci,
and the presence of lecanoric acid and yellow
and orange pigments. Lecanoric acid is found
in some South American eight-spored taxa
[e.g. M. cincinnata (Ach.) Bitter and M.
valdiviensis (Ra¨sa¨nen) R. Sant.; Bjerke 2005]
but these are yellowish, usnic acid-containing
lichens. In contrast, M. brattii is greyish, con-
tains atranorin and closely resembles the
Australasian species, M pertransita (Stirt.) R.
Sant. The latter differs from M. brattii chiefly
in its chemistry, which comprises protoli-
chesterinic and/or lichesterinic acids, as well
as suffused yellowish secalonic acid-type pig-
ments. Another related, superficially similar
species is M. jamesii Louwhoff & Kantvilas,
which also contains protolichesterinic acid
plus an additional yellow, K+ purple pig-
ment, skyrin. All the compounds in M. brattii
occur in relatively low concentrations. I have
tried repeatedly to establish whether pro-
tolichesterinic acid is present but cannot be
certain. A more detailed discussion of the
pigments of the M. pertransita group is pro-
vided by Kantvilas & Louwhoff (2004).
Distribution and ecology. Menegazzia brattii
is known only from a rich collection, made
from the bark of an unidentifed tree or shrub
at the type locality. The specimen labels offer
no further ecological information, nor could
any further details be gleaned from the
collector’s notebooks, held in the archives
of the Tasmanian Herbarium (HO). Asso-
ciated with the new species are scraps of a
sorediate Parmelia (probably P. protosulcata
Hale) and Mycoblastus dissimulans (Nyl.)
Zahlbr. Of greater interest is that it was col-
lected together with a specimen of Menegaz-
zia sanguinascens (Ra¨sa¨nen) R. Sant. (G. C.
Bratt 71/542B, MSC), a species previously
unrecorded for the island. The only other
species of Menegazzia recorded for Kergue-
len is M. castanea P. James & D. J. Galloway
(Øvstedal & Gremmen 2009).
Additional specimen examined. I
ˆles Kerguelen: Bras de
la Fonderie, summit of coastal cliffs W of Col Demi-
Lune, near sea level, 1971, G. C. Bratt 71/542A (MSC).
Menegazzia gallowayi Kantvilas sp. nov.
MycoBank No: MB800689
Thallo perforato, griseo-albido, esorediato, lobis 12–
25 mm latis, acidum fumarprotocetraricum continenti,
discis apotheciorum laete albido-pruinosis, asci octospori
et ascosporis 28–40 mm longis et 12 –24 mm latis distin-
Typus: New Zealand, South Island, Canterbury,
Craigieburn Range, Craigieburn Stream, 430701500 S
1714204800 E, 1050 m alt., on young Nothofagus solandri
var. cliffortioides, 27 November 2010, G. Kantvilas 311/
10 (HO —holotypus; CHR— isotypus).
(Fig. 1E & F)
Thallus loosely to tightly adnate, mostly
forming rather neat rosettes to c. 10 cm wide,
lacking soredia or isidia. Lobes 12–20(–25)
mm wide, mostly rather flattened, usually
cylindrical only in central parts of the thallus,
sparsely dichotomously branched, imbricate,
congested and convoluted centrally, at the
margins palmately radiating, discrete or
contiguous; apices flattened. Upper surface
perforate, grey-white, pale greenish grey in
more shaded situations, usually black to
blackish brown along the lobe margins and at
the apices, matt to glossy, epruinose, with
scattered blotch-like maculae, smooth when
young but increasingly wrinkled, dimpled or
somewhat ridged in older lobes. Perforations
scattered, numerous, roundish, 03–10mm
wide, at first with margins flush with the thal-
lus surface or slightly turned inward, soon be-
coming slightly to conspicuously elevated and
with the margins turned upwards. Medullary
cavity byssoid and white throughout.
Apothecia scattered and numerous, to
35(–50) mm wide, subpedicellate epersis-
tently; thalline margin 02–05 mm thick,
not inflated, smooth and entire, or crenulate
and with occasional radial cracks; disc matt
or glossy, pinkish or yellowish brown to
brown, with a patchy to continuous whitish
pruina at least when young, becoming dark
red-brown and mostly epruinose when older.
Hymenium 120–170 mm thick, orange-brown
in the upper part, not inspersed (although
overlying pruina granules fluoresce in polar-
ized light and dissolve in K); asci 8-spored;
paraphyses with apices mostly not capitate
and unpigmented, to 2–4 mm thick. Asco-
spores narrowly to broadly ellipsoid, some-
times ovate, (28–)30–33838(–40) 12–
16122(–24) mm.
Pycnidia black, speck-like, scattered on the
upper surface, mainly towards the lobe tips,
not common. Conidia filiform, 6–9 05mm.
Chemistry. Atranorin (trace), fumarproto-
cetraric acid plus additional traces of related
compounds; medulla K-- , P+ red, C-- ,KC
-- ,
UV-- .
Etymology. This species is named after the
New Zealand lichenologist, David Galloway,
in appreciation of his monumental Flora of
New Zealand Lichens (1985, 2007) which has
greatly advanced knowledge of the lichens of
the Southern Hemisphere.
Distribution and ecology. Menegazzia gallo-
wayi is known only from the type locality
where it was abundant on the trunks and
upper limbs of young trees of Nothofagus
solandri var. cliffortioides in low, closed forest
fringing a subalpine grassland-heathland mo-
saic. It grew within a rich assemblage of
macrolichens that included species of Usnea,
Pseudocyphellaria and several other Mene-
gazzia species [M. abscondita Kantvilas, M.
caliginosa P. James & D. J. Galloway, M.
globulifera R. Sant., M. pertransita (Stirt.) R.
Sant. and M. lucens P. James & D. J. Gallo-
way]. The genus Menegazzia is now relatively
well studied and collected in New Zealand,
and thus the author was highly surprised to
encounter this undescribed species growing
so abundantly, albeit intermixed with several
other, superficially similar members of the
same genus.
Remarks. Menegazzia gallowayi is charac-
terized by the unique combination of 8-
spored asci and fumarprotocetraric acid, a
metabolite that is relatively uncommon in
the genus. In New Zealand, it is known only
in M. hypernota Bjerke, which is sorediate
and 2-spored (Bjerke 2004). In Australia, it
occurs in the saxicolous M. petraea Kantvilas
and the epiphytic M. conica P. James, both of
which are esorediate but have two-spored
asci ( James & Galloway 1992; Kantvilas
2012). In South America, there is the two-
spored, sorediate species M. fumarprotoce-
trarica Calvelo & Adler (Adler & Calvelo
1996), whereas in New Guinea, there is M.
menyamensis Elix (syn. M. fumarprotocetrica
Elix nom. illegit.) (Elix 2007, 2008). Eight-
spored species are not common in the genus,
2012 New Menegazzia species—Kantvilas 799
although there are six others in New Zealand
(Galloway 2007), all of which have a different
chemical composition. Pruinose apothecia
are also uncommon and notably occur in
the New Zealand endemic M. dielsii (Hill-
man) R. Sant., which has eight-spored asci
but differs in containing psoromic and echi-
nocarpic acids (Galloway 2007). In the field,
M. gallowayi is best recognized by the com-
bination of the very pale grey, rather macu-
late thallus, the elevated perforations and
pruinose, semi-pedicellate apothecia (at least
when young).
Additional specimens examined. New Zealand: South
Island: Canterbury, Craigieburn Range, Craigieburn
Stream, 430701500 S 1714204800E, 1050 m altitude,
2010, G. Kantvilas 350/10, 351/10 (HO).
I thank Dr Jean Jarman who photographed all of the
species and prepared the plate that illustrates this paper.
For the speedy loan of specimens from MSC I thank
Dr Alan Fryday. Fieldwork in New Zealand was greatly
assisted by Dr David Glenny.
Adler, M. T. & Calvelo, S. (1996) Two new species of
the genus Menegazzia (Parmeliaceae sensu lato,
lichenized Ascomycotina) from southern South
America. Mycotaxon 59: 367–372.
Bjerke, J. W. (2004) A new sorediate, fumarprotoce-
traric acid-producing lichen species of Menegazzia
(Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota). Systematics and Bio-
diversity 2: 45–47.
Bjerke, J. W. (2005) Synopsis of the lichen genus Menegaz-
zia (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) in South America.
Mycotaxon 91: 423–454.
Bratt, G. C. (1971) Des I
ˆles Keguelen. Tasmanian
Naturalist 46: 1–4.
Elix, J. A. (2007) New species in the lichen family
Parmeliaceae (Ascomycota) from Australasia. Biblio-
theca Lichenologica 95: 171–182.
Elix, J. A. (2008) Four new lichens from tropical and
subtropical Australasia. Australasian Lichenology 62:
Galloway, D. J. (2007) Flora of New Zealand Lichens.
Revised Second Edition. Volume 1. Lincoln, New
Zealand: Manaaki Whenua Press.
Imshaug, H. A. (1971) Kerguelen Islands botanical
expedition. Antarctic Journal of the United States 5:
James, P. W. & Galloway, D. J. (1992) Menegazzia.
Flora of Australia 54: 213–246.
Kantvilas, G. (2012) The genus Menegazzia (Lecanorales:
Parmeliaceae)inTasmaniarevisited.Lichenologist 44:
Kantvilas, G. & Louwhoff, S. (2004) A new eight-spored
species of Menegazzia from Australia. Lichenologist
36: 103–111.
Orange, A., James, P. W. & White, F. J. (2001) Micro-
chemical Methods for the Identification of Lichens.
London: British Lichen Society.
Øvstedal, D. O. & Gremmen, N. J. (2009) Additional
lichen records from Subantarctica 1. The Kerguelen
Islands. Australasian Lichenology 64: 3–9.
... The genus is also well represented in temperate mainland Australia, particularly in upland areas along the eastern seaboard. These Australian species were first treated as a group by James & Galloway (1992) but further species were subsequently added by Kantvilas & Louwhoff (2004), Elix (2007), Kantvilas (2012b) and McCarthy & Elix (2017). The most recent checklist of lichens for Australia and its island territories (McCarthy 2018) lists 37 taxa, of which six are recorded solely from the mainland and one is restricted to Lord Howe Island, off the New South Wales coast. ...
... The Australian endemics are all restricted to the coastal upland areas of New South Wales and Queensland where, with the exception of the saxicolous M. fortuita Elix & McCarthy, they occur as epiphytes in wet forests, usually dominated by Nothofagus moorei (Kantvilas 2012b;McCarthy & Elix 2017; G. Kantvilas, pers. obs.). ...
An identification key to the 39 species of Menegazzia recorded for Australia and its offshore islands (including Tasmania) is presented. Distribution patterns are discussed and summarized. Mainland Australia supports 19 species, with seven endemics, and shares 12 species with Tasmania, six with New Zealand and one with South America. The new species, Menegazzia williamsii Kantvilas from New South Wales, is described and is characterized by an inflated, fragile, esorediate thallus containing stictic acid but lacking isopigmentosin, 2-spored asci and an inspersed epihymenium. In addition, M. hypernota Bjerke, formerly known only from New Zealand, is recorded from Tasmania for the first time.
Full-text available
The following new lichen species are described, Neofuscelia remnantia Elix, Paraparmelia bourgeanica Elix, Paraparmelia inconspicua Elix, Paraparmelia inselbergia Elix, Paraparmelia lumbschii Elix and Xanthoparmelia norstrigosa Elix from Australia; Myelochroa nothofagi Elix from Papua New Guinea and Parmotrema tongaense Elix from Tonga.
Full-text available
Melanelia microglabra and Parmelia hygrophiloides from India are described as new to science. Three additional species of Parmeliaceae are reported for the first time from India.
Full-text available
With 30 species, Tasmania is a major area of species diversity in the genus Menegazzia. Seven of these are new to science: M. abscondita Kantvilas, known from Tasmania and New Zealand, and M. athrotaxidis Kantvilas, M. hypogymnioides Kantvilas, M. petraea Kantvilas, M. ramulicola Kantvilas, M. subtestacea Kantvilas and M. tarkinea Kantvilas, all endemic to Tasmania. An identification key, descriptions based exclusively on Tasmanian collections, and detailed discussion of distribution, ecology, chemical composition and inter-species relationships are provided. All literature records of Menegazzia species pertaining to Tasmania are accounted for. New synonyms include: Menegazzia prototypica P. James and Parmelia pertusa var. coskinodes F. Wilson [synonyms of M. myriotrema (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant.], M. fertilis P. James [a synonym of M. platytrema (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant.] and Parmelia pertusa var. montana F. Wilson (a synonym of M. subtestacea). Incorrectly recorded species that should be deleted from the Tasmanian census include M. castanea P. James & D. J. Galloway (present on Macquarie Island) and M. testacea P. James & D. J. Galloway (endemic to New Zealand). The South American species, M. sanguinascens (Räs.) R. Sant., is recorded in Australasia (Tasmania) for the first time, whereas the widespread south-eastern Australian M. norstictica P. James is recorded for Western Australia. Salient features of the genus are discussed, including morphology, anatomy and chemistry. The biogeography of the genus is explored briefly. Twelve species (40%) are endemic to Tasmania, a level of endemism unmatched by any other species-rich genus on the island. Twelve species are shared with mainland Australia, eleven are shared with New Zealand, and only four species are shared with southern South America, all of which are sorediate, suggesting they are products of long-distance dispersal.
Two new sorediate species in the genus Menegazzia A. Massal. are described, both based on Argentine collections. The rare M. fumarprotocetrarica Calvelo & Adler may well represent the sorediate counterpart of M. conica P. James while M. norsorediata Adler & Calvelo with medullary norstictic acid, could be the sorediate counterpart of either M. pulchra P. James & D. J. Galloway or M. norstictica P. James.
The genus Menegazzia in South America is revised. Of the 20 species recognized, seven are fertile, esorediate "primary species" and 13 are rarely fertile, sorediate "secondary species." This paper revises the fertile species and provides notes on the sorediate species. The new combination M. wilsonii is proposed, and M. albida is relegated to synonymy. M. hollermayeri is shown to be conspecific with and synonymous to M. dispora. M. valdiviensis belongs to subgenus Octospora, not to subgenus Dispora, as previously suggested. The sorediate species M. sanguinascens is shown to be a norstictic, not hypothamnolic, acid-containing species. M. norsorediata is placed in synonymy with M. sanguinascens. The hypothamnolic acid-containing Parmelia opuntioides var. violascens is raised to species level as M. violascens. Argentinian reports of three Australasian sorediate species are rejected, and M. kawesqarica is reported as new to Argentina. Seventeen species, 14 endemic, are known from southern South America. Only three species are known from the tropical parts of South America. No species appear to occur in both areas. Notes on chemistry, distribution and ecology, and a key to the species are also included.
The following new lichen species are described, Anzia niuginiensis Elix, Bulbothrix tuskiformis Elix and Hypotrachyna terricola Elix from Papua New Guinea; Neofuscelia convexa Elix, Xanthoparmelia hypoleiella Elix, Xanthoparmelia maccarthyi Elix and Xanthoparmelia mayrhoferi Elix from Australia; and Neofuscelia malcolmii Elix from New Zealand.
A new sorediate lichen, Menegazzia hypernota Bjerke, is described from New Zealand. This new species is characterised by convex, crescent‐shaped to fabi‐form soralia that are occasionally associated with perforations; apothecia with 2‐spored asci; the small perforations; the numerous secondary lobules; the presence of inconspicuous, yellow spots in the internal cavity; and fumarprotocetraric acid as principal medullary constituent. Menegazzia caliginosa, a species associated with M. hypernota, is reported for the first time from the Auckland Islands.
The new species, Menegazziajamesii Louwhoff & Kantvilas from Victoria and Tasmania, closely related to M.pertransita (Stirt.) R. Sant., is described. Chemical and nomenclatural notes on M.caliginosa P. James & D. J. Galloway and M.pertransita are provided, and the new combination, M.stirtonii (Zahlbr.) Kantvilas & Louwhoff, is proposed. The name M.weindorferi (Zahlbr.) R. Sant., widely applied in Australian literature, is considered synonymous with M.pertransita, whereas M.bullata (Stirt.) Bitter is considered a synonym of M.stirtonii.
Additional lichen records from Subantarctica 1. The Kerguelen Islands
  • Øvstedal
Øvstedal, D. O. & Gremmen, N. J. (2009) Additional lichen records from Subantarctica 1. The Kerguelen Islands. Australasian Lichenology 64: 3-9.