Despite the prevalence of psychiatric illness in people with acquired brain injury (ABI), there are very few empirically validated studies examining the efficacy of treatments targeting commonly occurring disorders such as depression and anxiety. Using a randomised controlled trial, this study evaluated the efficacy of a cognitive behavioural intervention specifically designed for managing social anxiety following ABI. Twelve brain-injured participants were screened, randomly allocated to either treatment group (TG) or a wait list group (WLG), and proceeded through to the final stages of therapy. The TG received between 9 and 14 hourly, individual sessions of cognitive behavioural therapy. Repeated measures analyses revealed significant improvements in general anxiety, depression and a transient mood measure, tension-anxiety, for the TG when compared to the WLG at posttreatment. These treatment gains were maintained at one-month follow-up. Although in the predicted direction, postintervention improvements in social anxiety and self-esteem for the TG were not significant in comparison with the WLG. This study lends support to the small body of literature highlighting the potential of cognitive behavioural interventions for managing the psychological problems that serve as a barrier to rehabilitation following ABI.