Book

Interdisciplinary Analyses of Terrorism and Political Aggression

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Abstract

Over the past decade, academics spanning the professional spectrum have begun to unpack the complexity of factors that underlie terrorism and political violence with increased vigor. The resulting field has begun to yield valuable empirical and theoretical insights into these dynamics, which are now shaping both immediate frameworks for responding to terrorism as well as the broader policy implications for managing this problem in the near and far-term. Interdisciplinary Analyses of Terrorism and Political Aggression seeks to advance the understanding of terrorism and political violence by disseminating research representing a wide array of professional disciplines from scholars across the globe. This volume aims to encourage academic discourse and debate, and provide a more complex understanding of the myriad of factors that contribute to terrorism as well as the way in which groups respond to terrorism.
... Among the more prevalent theories regarding emotional vulnerability as a risk factor for radicalization () is the role that frustration plays in anger and, ultimately, aggression (). The frustration-aggression hypothesis identifies the incongruence between subjective needs and objective reality as the cause of disappointment/aggravation that is then displaced (Maile et al, 2010); this has been postulated to be among the root causes of extremist violence (). Frustration results when stimuli prevent an individual from attaining some goal. ...
... Frustration results when stimuli prevent an individual from attaining some goal. This has been identified as a necessary condition for aggression (Berkowitz & Harmon-Jones-2004); however, it is typically inhibited by contextual factors such as social norms and/or threat of punishment (Maile et al, 2010). When an aggressive response is suppressed, the use of alternative strategies may fail to achieve the desired goal, thereby reinforcing aggressive behavior, and perhaps elevating it as a dominant response (Maile et al, 2010). ...
... This has been identified as a necessary condition for aggression (Berkowitz & Harmon-Jones-2004); however, it is typically inhibited by contextual factors such as social norms and/or threat of punishment (Maile et al, 2010). When an aggressive response is suppressed, the use of alternative strategies may fail to achieve the desired goal, thereby reinforcing aggressive behavior, and perhaps elevating it as a dominant response (Maile et al, 2010). Bandura's (1978) social-learning theory of aggression suggests that violence follows observation and imitation of an aggressive model, and a variant of this theory has been invoked to explain terrorist behaviors, not as the consequence of innate aggressiveness, but of cognitive restructuring of social and moral imperatives. ...
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Herein, MAJ Gregory Seese, MAJ Shawn Stangle, CPT Robby Otwell, SFC Matthew Martin, and LTC Rafael Linera provide a broad overview of significant improvements in the understanding of human cognitive processes afforded by recent developments in neuroscience. These methods show that traditional collection approaches fail to provide holistically effective metrics to plan and assess modern persuasive efforts. The authors note that media neuroscience techniques that where once cost prohibitive and confined to a laboratory are now affordable, compact, and mobile. They argue that USASOC can capitalize on recent advancements in media neuroscience and integrate the field’s most currently available equipment, training, and techniques into the PSYOP force. This new technology can be leveraged to augment and enhance the existing social/behavioral science methods presently in use. This will then contribute to an increase in the effectiveness of DoD influence campaigns, as it modernizes both the practices and equipment used within the PSYOP Force.
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Obwohl die Nachfrage nach Terrorismusforschung nicht nur weiterhin boomt, sondern ihr gar eine Zukunft als „stand-alone subject entering a golden age of research“ (Shepherd 2007; Attwood 2007) attestiert wird, sieht sich das Forschungsfeld mit einigen zentralen Herausforderungen konfrontiert.
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