Activated DDR1 increases RS cell survival
Blood (Impact Factor: 10.45). 12/2013; 122(26):4152-4. DOI: 10.1182/blood-2013-11-534123
In this issue of Blood, Cader et al show that tumor microenvironment promotes Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-driven lymphomagenesis in Hodgkin lymphoma by a novel pathway involving latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) and discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1), which is activated by collagen(s) and contributes to the survival of Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells.
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ABSTRACT: Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL), a distinct disease entity with characteristic clinical and pathologic features, accounts for approximately 10% of all malignant lymphomas. cHL can be considered a prototype model for how the tumor microenvironment influences cancer pathogenesis. Cellular components of the cHL microenvironment express molecules involved in cancer cell growth and survival, such as CD30L or CD40L. Moreover, several signal transduction pathways that are critical for the proliferation and survival of neoplastic Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells, including NFkB, JAK/STAT, PI3K-AkT and ERK, are deregulated in cHL. Although most patients can be cured with modern treatment strategies, approximately a quarter experience either primary or secondary chemorefractoriness or disease relapse, thus requiring novel treatments. Preclinical and clinical evidence has elucidated a complex cross-talk between malignant HRS cells and the reactive cells of the microenvironment, which suggests that novel therapeutic approaches capable of targeting HRS cells along with reactive cells might overcome chemorefractoriness. In the near future, these novel therapies will also be tested in chemosensitive patients, to reduce the long-term toxicity of chemo-radiotherapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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ABSTRACT: Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) is characterized by few tumor cells surrounded by immune cells, fibroblasts, specialized mesenchymal stromal cells and endothelial cells, representing together with their products an active part of the disease. Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells can secrete cytokines/chemokines and angiogenic factors capable of recruiting and/or inducing the proliferation of the surrounding cells and can also interact with distant sites of the microenvironment by secreting exosomes. To escape from a useful anti-tumor response due to the recognition by T and NK cells, HRS cells down-regulate HLA molecules, produce immune suppressive cytokines that inhibit cytotoxic responses, and induce an immunosuppressive phenotype on T lymphocytes and Monocytes. HRS cells survive, proliferate and are protected from the cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy agents by soluble factors or by the direct contact with inflammatory and stromal cells of the tumor microenvironment (TME). A summary of the current knowledge about classical Hodgkin Lymphoma focusing on the cross-talk between tumor cells and the microenvironment leading to immune-escape, angiogenesis tumor growth/survival and drug resistance will be reviewed here.