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Patriotism: Its scope and meaning

... Certain approaches to nationalism have focused on intragroup attitudes, such as national loyalty, nation-building, or blind submission to national authorities (see Abrams and Grant, 2012 ;Blank and Schmidt 2003 ;Rosenblatt, 1964 ;Skitka, 2005 ). Others have focused on intergroup attitudes, such as national superiority, dominance, enhancement, arrogance, purity, idealization, and hyper-valuation (see Bar-Tal and Staub, 1997 ;Blank and Schmidt, 2003 ;Davidov, 2009 ;Fabrykant and Magun, 2022 ;Grigoryan and Ponizovsky, 2018 ;Kosterman and Feshbach, 1989 ;Li and Brewer, 2004 ;Worchel and Coutant, 1997 ). Most researchers have focused on one or two characteristics, which often fail to overlap across conceptualizations. ...
... The intragroup expression of devotion in our study aligns with Schatz et al. (1999) concept of blind patriotism and Worchel and Coutant's (1997) concept of national loyalty, whereas the group cohesion expression aligns with Rosenblatt's (1964) focus on the desire for national unity The intergroup nationalism expressions of preference, exploitativeness, and superiority comprise many of the attitudes and sentiments attributed to nationalism, such as Blank and Schmidt's (2003) excessive national ingroup idealization, Kosterman and Feshbach's (1989) dominance, and Davidov's (2009) superiority. Finally, the purity facet encompasses specific nationalist attitudes such as the desire for a pure and homogeneous national group (e.g., Bar-Tal and Staub, 1997 ). Bizumic (2019a) identified that the main theme appearing across causes, consequences, and facets of ethnocentrism is an overwhelming concern with ethnic group strength, power, and resilience. ...
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Although a popular concept, nationalism suffers from inconsistent definitions and operationalizations. We argue that a new framework of ethnocentrism can be adapted to reconceptualize nationalism. This paper applied this ethnocentrism framework to nationalism across studies in Australia (n = 309) and the U.S. (n = 445) in both ethnic majority and minority groups. The studies examined the psychometric properties of a new nationalism measure, including its underlying structure, antecedents, and correlates. The current studies found support that nationalism consists of two distinct forms, intragroup nationalism and intergroup nationalism, which relate differently to theoretically related external variables. Ethnocentrism and nationalism were found to be conceptually distinct constructs, but the ethnocentrism framework applies clearly to nationalism. The findings have important implications for better understanding nationalism and highlighting the differences in nationalistic attitudes between ethnic majority and minority groups.
... According to Bar-Tal and Staub [7], patriotism reflects a positive evaluation of and emotion towards the group and its territory, and is expresses in belief and feelings connoting love, pride, loyalty, devotion, commitment and care. This means that patriotism implies behaviors that benefit the group. ...
... This means that patriotism implies behaviors that benefit the group. Furthermore, this entails that patriotism has both affective and cognitive elements such as commitment, concern, identification, attachment, devotion and love, as well as the intention to benefit the group and country, which in times of need must be expressed in action [7]. ...
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This study sought to establish the level of patriotism among youths in Zambia and to establish whether voting was the only way to show patriotism among the youths. This study employed a qualitative approach to generate data because the views and opinions of the youths in Zambia were sought. A descriptive research design was used. The target population were all youths in Zambia. The sample consisted of 50 youths and 5 senior citizens who were purposively selected. 20 youths and 5 senior citizens were subjected to interviews and 30 youths were subjected to Focus Group Discussions (FGDs), thus 5 FGDs comprising of 6 members were used to gather data. Inductive thematic analysis was used to analyse data. Key findings were that youth were able to define patriotism though this appeared rhetoric. Voting was not the only way to show patriotism but just one of the ways patriotism may be expressed. Patriotism had to do with the emotional attachment to a nation. The spirit of patriotism should be rooted in the ideas that gave birth to a nation. Based on the findings, this study recommends to the government through the Ministry of Education to strengthen patriotic values in schools and this should begin at kindergarten. Civil Society Organizations in Zambia should come up with awareness programmes targeted at the youths on patriotism.
... National identification, also referred to as patriotism, is a form of emotional attachment to one's country (Bar-Tal & Staub, 1997;Kosterman & Feshbach, 1989). It has been invoked in many spheres -military sacrifice, tax compliance, politics, and as a factor in history and during various crises, now including the COVID-19 pandemic. ...
... Apart from attachment and love for the nation, national identification may also entail critical reflection, motivation, and devotion to working to make the country better (i.e., constructive patriotism, Schatz et al., 1998;Sekerdej & Roccas, 2016). On the other hand, when this love is accompanied by unquestioning, blind loyalty to the nation's policies and structures, and to thinking of the nation in terms of its superiority, we are speaking about nationalism or glorification (Roccas et al., 2006; similar concepts include nationalism: Kosterman & Feshbach, 1989, and blind patriotism: Schatz et al., 1999;Staub, 1997). In order to fully understand the role of national identification in shaping attitudes and behaviors, it is necessary to consider its different forms simultaneously (e.g., Sekerdej & Roccas, 2016;Rupar et al., 2020a;Rupar et al., 2020b). ...
We examined the link between constructive patriotism, glorification, and conventional patriotism and COVID‐19‐related attitudes and behaviours at different stages of the pandemic in Poland. In Study 1 (N = 663), constructive patriotism was positively associated with support for internal measures (e.g., raising awareness about health practices). Glorification was negatively linked to support for such measures and positively connected to support for external measures (e.g., closing the borders). In Study 2 (N = 522), constructive patriots showed greater compliance with hygiene and social distance practices. In Study 3 (N = 633), the attribution of responsibility for fighting the crisis to the state and particularly to individuals underlined the link between constructive patriotism and compliance with health practices. Additionally, constructive patriotism was linked to support for international collaboration. Study 4 (N = 1,051), conducted on a representative sample, further corroborated these findings. The results regarding conventional patriotism were not consistent across studies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... O patriotismo é condição essencial para a existência do grupo (Bar-Tal, 1993;Bar-Tal & Staub, 1997). Reflete o apego dos membros da sociedade à sua nação e ao país em que residem. ...
This article describes the autobiographical story of my professional and intellectual development. It describes sources of my values and begins the story of my doctoral study at the University of Pittsburgh that influenced my approach to making science. Next, the article describes the beginning of my academic career at School of Education of Tel Aviv University. Also the beginning was significantly influenced by the work of Arie Kruglanski who was developing his Lay epistemic theory. The shift of interest in the early 1980s to political psychology opened new avenues for developing theories and empirical research. The climax of this line of work was the development of the general theory of shared societal beliefs and more specific theory of the sociopsychological foundations and dynamics of intractable conflicts. Since the end of the second millennium my efforts have been focused on training graduate students according to developed principles of the "learning community."
... This takes patriotic and nationalistic forms, which, though overlapping, are empirically distinct constructs. The former concerns positive affect directed towards the nation; the latter deals with feelings of national superiority and dominance (Blank & Schmidt, 2003;Bar-Tal & Staub, 1997;Blankenship et al., 2018). Moreover, nationalism, but not patriotism, are associated with support for tough immigration policies, intolerance towards minorities, and support for aggressive U.S. military intervention (Blank &Shmidt, 2003;Blankenship et al., 2018). ...
A look at Belief in a Just World scores and voting in the 2020 Presidential Election
... National identification has been conceptualized in different ways within the existing literature. It can be defined as a deep national attachment characterized by binding affection toward the country-patriotism (Bar-Tal & Staub, 1997;Kosterman & Feshbach, 1989). While there are different operationalizations of this emotional attachment, we define it in terms of positive benevolent emotions toward the nation, that is, the feeling of love (i.e., conventional patriotism; Sekerdej & Roccas, 2016). ...
The present research examines the relationship between distinct forms of national identification— constructive patriotism, conventional patriotism, and glorification—and both political and social engagement. Three correlational studies were conducted in Poland. In Study 1 (N = 234) and Study 2 (N = 316), using self-report measures, it was found that constructive patriotism positively predicts both forms of civic engagement. Conventional patriotism positively predicted social engagement (Studies 1 and 3). Glorification negatively predicted political engagement. Study 3 (N = 969) supported the link between these different forms of national identification and political and social engagement, using both self-report and behavioural measures of civic engagement. The findings suggest that national identification can both promote and deter civic engagement.
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This dissertation examined the acculturation processes from the host society point of view. The theoretical background drew on intergroup relations models of Cross-Cultural and Social psychology and attempted a synthesis of ideological, intergroup and existential parameters in the acculturation processes for the host society members. Four studies were carried out to investigate the influence of ideological, existential and intergroup parameters on the acculturation expectations of the host society towards immigrants in general and distinct immigrant groups. In Study 1 (N = 401 students and employees), the acculturation expectations for immigrants were examined. The most desirable acculturation expectation for immigrants was Individualism and Integrationism, while the less desirable was the Assimilationism. Acceptance of social dominance was negatively associated with Individualismism and positively with Assimilationism and Exclusionism while right-wing authoritarianism was negatively correlated with Integrationism-transformation and positively with Segregationism. Blatant and latent racism were associated with the negative -with regard to the intergroup outcome- expectations of Assimilationism, Segregationism and Exclusionism. It was found that mortality salience has a moderating role in the above correlations through the increase of the contribution of blatant racism to the prediction of the acculturation expectations and the decline of the contribution of latent racism. In Study 2 (N = 420 students), the role of sociopsychological parameters in the acculturation expectations for Albanians, Americans and Pakistani immigrants in Greece was investigated. Differentiation between the expected and the perceived acculturation strategies among valued and devalued immigrant groups was identified. In addition, a different intergroup outcome emerged in terms of intercultural convergence: a more frequent occurrence of the consensus model for Americans and Albanian immigrants on the one hand, and the conflictual and problematic model for Pakistani immigrants on the other. Ideological, existential and intergroup parameters predicted the acculturation expectations differently per immigrant group. A strong predictive factor was the acceptance of social dominance. As expected, constructive patriotism predicted Integration, while - contrary to what was expected - blind patriotism predicted multicultural ideology. In Study 3 (N = 450 students), acculturation expectations for an undervalued immigrant group (Pakistani) at both intergroup and interpersonal levels were investigated. In terms of acculturation orientation, the Greek participants reported a higher preference for adopting the language and values of the host country by Pakistani immigrants, as well as for maintaining the morals and customs, the citizenship and the religion of the immigrant group. Acculturation expectations were different at the interpersonal and the intergroup level. Significant predictive factors at both levels were social dominance orientation and perceived intergoup threat. In Study 4 (N = 529 students), acculturation expectations for Albanian and Pakistani immigrants and Syrian refugees were investigated. Significant differentiation regarding the contribution of ideological, intergroup and existential parameters to the prediction of acculturation expectations according to the studied migrant group was found. For the Albanian group, statistically significant predictive factors for acculturation expectations were variables related to economic parameters (intergroup competition, economic uncertainty, realistic threat). For the Syrians, significant predictive factors were prejudice (for Individualism and Assimilation) and realisitic threat (for Exclusionism and Integrationism-transformation). Finally, for the Pakistani group, intergroup competition and perception of intergroup threat emerged as predicting factors. In this target group Exclusionism was significantly predicted by most of the intergroup parameters (blind patriotism, contact, realistic threat, prejudice and latent racism). In sum, through the analyses per group and overall, strong predictive indicators were intergroup parameters, in particular intergroup threat and contact.
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