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Species Diversity and Conservation Status of Cartilaginous Fishes (Chondrichthyes) of Russian Waters

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The paper considers the composition of the fauna of cartilaginous fishes (Chondrichthyes) in the waters adjacent to the coast of the Russian Federation. Its features are analyzed in the seas of basins of different oceans. The conservation status of cartilaginous fishes in the waters of Russia is assessed according to the criteria of the International Union for Conservation of Nature. The current state of individual threatened species is briefly characterized.
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ISSN 00329452, Journal of Ichthyology, 2013, Vol. 53, No. 11, pp. 923–936. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2013.
923
The waters of the Russian Federation, due to its
geographic location, are characterized by a great
diversity of species of fishlike vertebrates and fishes
(Reshetnikov, 2013), including cartilaginous fishes
(Chondrichthyes), which include sharks, rays, and
chimaeras. Some of them are permanent residents of
the Russian waters, while others migrate into our
waters from the main habitats due to the nature of their
biology or because of climate changes.
There is no largescale targeted fishery for cartilagi
nous fishes in the Russian waters. The only exceptions
are spiny dogfish (spurdog)
Squalus acanthias
and
thornback ray (thornback skate)
Raja clavata
, which
are caught in small quantities at the Black Sea coast
(Luts et al., 2005). Basically, cartilaginous fishes are
taken as bycatch in longline, netting, and trawl fish
eries.
In the world practice, measures for conservation of
cartilaginous fishes are taken both by particular inter
national organizations and at the legislative level by a
number of countries. However, despite the actions
taken around the world, there is a reduction in species
diversity and numbers of cartilaginous fishes. The rea
son for this, on the one hand, is the increased demand
for derivatives of cartilaginous fishes (especially fins,
which are used for cooking soup) and features of their
biology (low growth rate and fecundity, late sexual
maturity, long life span, etc.) on the other hand. The
failure to take measures for the protection of cartilagi
nous fishes not only threatens preservation of biodi
versity in our waters but can also result in loss of per
spective fishery objects in the future.
The aim of the work is to assess the species diversity
and conservation status of cartilaginous fishes regis
tered in the waters of the Russian Federation.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The data on species diversity are presented for the
11 Russian seas (the White, Barents, Kara, Laptev, East
Siberian, Chukchi, Bering, Okhotsk, Japan, Azov, and
Black) and the Kuril and Kamchatka waters of the
Pacific Ocean (Pacific Northwest). The data on the
occurrence of a particular species in the area under con
sideration are taken from the literature. Compilation of
the list of cartilaginous fishes of the Russian waters was
based on the scheme proposed by Nelson (2009). The
Latin names of species are given in accordance with the
electronic catalog of Eschmeyer (2013).
The conservation status is given according to the
International Union for Conservation of Nature’s
(IUCN) Red List of threatened species, that is, the list of
species under threat of extinction. The species included
in this list are divided in terms of the degree of threat into
nine categories: Extinct (EX), Extinct in the Wild (EW),
Critically Endangered (CR), Endangered (EN), Vulner
able (VU), Near Threatened (NT), Least Concern (LC),
Data Deficient (DD), and Not Evaluated (NE). The
species characterized as threatened combine three cate
gories: CR, EN, and VU. Each category is defined by the
criteria that take into account parameters such as the
population size, range, degree of decrease, rate of decay
into smaller groups, etc. (IUCN, 2013).
In some cases, the IUCN conservation status was
determined for the species whose taxonomic status
was later revised, for example,
Rhinoraja interrupta
was considered a junior synonym of
Bathyraja inter
rupta
(Spies et al., 2011),
Rhinoraja taranetzi
a junior
synonym of
Bathyraja taranetzi
(Nelson et al., 2004;
Raja binoculata
, a junior synonym of
Beringraja binoc
ulata
(Nelson et al., 2004); and
Dipturus linteus
a jun
ior synonym of
Rajella lintea
(Stehmann, 2012). In
Species Diversity and Conservation Status of Cartilaginous Fishes
(Chondrichthyes) of Russian Waters
I. V. Grigorov and A. M. Orlov
Russian Federal Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography, Moscow
email: grig9@list.ru
Received July 8, 2013
Abstract
—The paper considers the composition of the fauna of cartilaginous fishes (Chondrichthyes) in the
waters adjacent to the coast of the Russian Federation. Its features are analyzed in the seas of basins of differ
ent oceans. The conservation status of cartilaginous fishes in the waters of Russia is assessed according to the
criteria of the International Union for Conservation of Nature. The current state of individual threatened
species is briefly characterized.
Keywords
: cartilaginous fishes (Chondrichthyes), species diversity, conservation status, sea waters of Russia
DOI:
10.1134/S0032945213110040
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these cases, estimates of the conservation status of the
species taking into account the revisions carried out
were used. The validity of the North Pacific spotted
spiny dogfish
Squalus suckleyi
was restored only
recently (Ebert et al., 2010). Prior to this, it was
thought that the Pacific Northwest is inhabited by
population of the common spiny dogfish
S. acanthias
,
whose conservation status has been identified and
which we considered appropriate to be used in this
paper. When the IUCN conservation status was deter
mined not for a species as a whole but for its individual
populations (for example, those Pacific and Atlantic),
such species from different basins are provided with
different estimates.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Species diversity.
Today, the waters adjacent to the
coast of the Russian Federation are inhabited with
69 registered species of cartilaginous fishes belonging
to 20 families (Tables 1–3).
The cartilaginous fish fauna of the Pacific consists
of 55
1
species of sharks, rays, and chimaeras—respec
1
The occurrence of the Arctic skate
Amblyraja hyperborea
in the
far eastern waters, in our opinion, is questionable (Table 1). This
species was first specified for the Russian far eastern waters by
Dolganov (1983); subsequently, with reference to this publica
tion, it was included in the list of species found in the waters of
the Russian Far East (Borets, 2000; Fedorov, 2000; Sheiko and
Fedorov, 2000; Fedorov et al., 2003). Meanwhile, the range of
this skate is limited by the basins of the Atlantic and Arctic
oceans. In the Russian waters, it was observed from the Barents
to the East Siberian Sea (Vas’kov et al., 2006; Dolgov et al.,
2011); it was not found in the Chukchi Sea (Mecklenburg et al.,
2002; Lynghammar et al., 2013). At the same time, in the Bering
Sea, in recent years, there have been repeated catches of the
closely related to it broad skate
A. badia
(Stevenson et al., 2008;
Lynghammar et al., 2013) with very similar external morpholog
ical features. Therefore, we believe that the published data on
the findings of the Arctic skate in our far eastern waters are the
result of incorrect species identification.
tively 19, 34, and 2 species. In the basin of the Arctic
Ocean, there are four
2
species of cartilaginous fishes
(two species of rays and two species of sharks). Such
small species diversity is due, primarily, to harsh cli
matic conditions and partly insufficient scrutiny of
fish fauna of this region because of the fact that most
of the year this water space is icebound. The cartilag
inous fish fauna of the northern seas of the Atlantic
Ocean basin (the Barents and White seas) is richer:
there are 14 species, including seven rays, six sharks,
and one chimaera. In the southern seas (the Azov and
Black), there are only three species—one species of
sharks and two species of rays. A small number of spe
cies can be explained by the territorial isolation of
these seas from the ocean and specificity of their
oceanographic conditions (reduced in comparison with
the ocean salinity, shallowness of the Sea of Azov, pres
ence of a hydrogen sulfide layer in the Black Sea, etc.).
The greatest species diversity in the waters of Russia
(Fig. 1) is characteristic for rays of the families Arhyn
chobatidae (23 species), Rajidae (14 species), and
Dasyatidae (five species). Among the sharks, repre
sentatives of the families Lamnidae (four species) and
Carharhinidae (three species) are most diverse. The
rest of the families are represented by 1–2 species. The
predominance among the cartilaginous fishes in our
waters of representatives of the order Rajiformes is
natural because the high species diversity within this
taxonomic group is characteristic to high latitudes of
both the hemispheres (Dolganov, 2003).
In the cartilaginous fishes fauna of the Pacific basin
(Fig. 2), the highest diversity was observed in represen
2
The Northern border of the range of the North Pacific spotted
spiny dogfish
Squalus suckleyi
extends to the Kotzebue Sound in
the Chukchi Sea (Mecklenburg et al., 2002; Lynghammar et al.,
2013), so one can assume that it can also enter into the Russian
waters of the Chukchi Sea. However, the occurrence of this spe
cies in our waters is not validated yet.
Others
Lamnidae
Carcharhinidae
Arhynchobatidae
Rajidae
Dasyatidae
2520151050
Number of species
Fig. 1.
Number of species from different families in fauna of cartilaginous fishes (Chondrichthyes) in waters of the Russian Fed
eration.
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SPECIES DIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION STATUS 925
Others
Lamnidae
Carcharhinidae
Arhynchobatidae
Rajidae
Dasyatidae
2520151050
Number of species
Triakidae
Fig. 2.
Number of species from different families in fauna of cartilaginous fishes (Chondrichthyes) in Russian waters of the
Pacifi c.
tatives of the three families of the order Rajiformes
(Arhynchobatidae, Rajidae, and Dasyatidae—respec
tively, 22, 7, and 4 species). Among the sharks, the
largest diversity was observed in the families Lamnidae
and Carharhinidae (each by three species), the family
Triakidae is represented by two species. The rest of the
families were represented by a single species. The
highest species diversity among the pelagic sharks spe
cies is associated with intrusions into our waters under
climatic changes or seasonal warming of such heat
loving species as the great white shark
Carcharodon
carcharias
(Dolganov, 1983; Novikov et al., 2002; Veli
kanov, 2010), shortfin mako
Isurus oxyrinchus
(Novikov et al., 2002), the blue shark
Prionace glauca
(Lindberg and Legeza, 1959; Fedorov and Parin,
1998; Borets, 2000), the sandbar shark
Carcharhinus
plumbeus
(Novikov et al., 2002; Sokolovskii et al.,
2011), and the copper shark
C. brachyurus
(Lindberg
and Legeza, 1959; Novikov et al., 2002).
Of the 16 species of cartilaginous fishes found in
the Russian waters of the Atlantic Ocean basin, seven
belong to the family Rajidae; the remaining nine spe
cies belong to nine different families (Fig. 3).
When comparing the species composition of carti
laginous fishes of the Russian waters of the Atlantic
and Pacific oceans, there is a striking fact of the high
est species diversity in both the basins in the order of
Rajiformes: the first is dominated by representatives of
the family Rajidae (seven species) and the second by
Arhynchobatidae (22 species) and Rajidae (seven spe
cies). The lowest species diversity in both of these
basins is typical for the pelagic sharks.
The cartilaginous fish fauna of the Arctic Ocean
basin is very poorly represented: two species of rays
from the family Rajidae and two species of sharks of
the family Somniosidae.
Lamnidae
Scyliorhinidae
Squalidae
Arhynchobatidae
Rajidae
Chimaeridae
753210
Number of species
Somniosidae
64
Cetorhinidae
Carcharhinidae
Fig. 3.
Number of species from different families in fauna of cartilaginous fishes (Chondrichthyes) in Russian waters of the Atlan
tic Ocean basin (northern seas).
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Table 1.
Species composition and conservation status of cartilaginous fishes (Chondrichthyes) in Russian waters of the Pacific
No.
Species CC
Region
s
Sources
of literature
*
Sea
of Japan Sea of
Okhotsk Bering
Sea
Pacific
North
west
Subclass Elasmobranchii
Order Hexanchiformes
Family Hexanchidae, cow sharks
1
Notorynchus cepedianus
(Peron, 1807), broadnose sevengill shark DD + 8, 13
Order Heterodontiformes
Family Heterodontidae, bullhead sharks
2
Heterodontus japonicus
(Dumeril, 1865), Japanese bullhead shark LC + 24
Order Orectolobiformes
Family Orectolobidae, carpet sharks
3
Orectolobus japonicus
(Regan, 1906), Japanese wobbegong DD + 18
Order Lamniformes
Family Lamnidae, mackerel sharks
4
Carcharodon carcharias
(Linnaeus, 1758), great white shark VU + + + 5, 6, 10, 13, 14, 16,
18, 19, 22, 24
5
Isurus oxyrinchus
(Rafinesque, 1810), shortfin mako NT + + + 1, 3, 4, 10, 13, 15, 16,
18, 24
6
Lamna ditropis
(Hubbs et Follett, 1947), salmon shark LC + + + + 5, 6, 9, 13, 15, 16–
18, 20, 24
Family Cetorhinidae, basking sharks
7
Cetorhinus maximus
(Gunnerus, 1765), basking shark EN + + + 6, 10, 15, 16, 18, 19,
24
Order Carchariniformes
Family Scyliorhinidae, catsharks
8
Apristurus fedorovi
(Dolganov, 1983), Federov’s catshark DD + 5, 10, 13, 16
Family Triakidae, houndsharks
9
Mustelus manazo
(Bleeker, 1855), starspotted smoothhound DD + 4, 13, 18, 24
10
Triakis scyllium
(Müller et Henle, 1839), banded houndshark LC + 4, 5, 13, 18, 24
Family Carcharhinidae, requiem sharks
11
Carcharhinus brachyurus
(Günther, 1870), copper shark NT + 4, 18, 24
12
Carcharhinus plumbeus
(Nardo, 1827), sandbar shark VU + 18, 24
13
Prionace glauca
(Linnaeus, 1758), blue shark NT + + + 4, 9, 10, 13, 15, 16, 24
Family Sphyrnidae, hammerhead sharks
14
Sphyrna zygaena
(Linnaeus, 1758), smooth hammerhead shark VU + + 2, 4, 6, 13, 18, 24
Order Squaliformes
Family Dalatiidae, kitefin sharks
15
Isistius brasiliensis
(Quoy et Gaimard, 1824), cookiecutter shark LC + 9, 13
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Table 1.
(Contd.)
No.
Species CC
Region
s
Sources
of literature
*
Sea
of Japan Sea of
Okhotsk Bering
Sea
Pacific
North
west
Family Etmopteridae, lantern sharks
16
Centroscyllium ritteri
(Jordan et Fowler, 1903), whitefin dogfish DD + 5, 10, 13, 15, 16
Family Somniosidae, sleeper sharks
17
Somniosus pacificus
(Bigelow et Schroeder, 1944), Pacific sleeper shark DD + + + + 4, 5, 6, 10, 13, 15–
17, 20
Family Squalidae, dogfishes
18
Squalus suckleyi
(Girard, 1855), North Pacific spotted spiny dogfish EN + + + + 4, 5, 10, 13–16, 18,
20, 23, 24
Order Squatinidae
Family Squatinidae , angel sharks
19
Squatina japonica
(Bleeker, 1858), Japanese angelshark VU + 18, 24
Order Rajiformes
Family Arhynchobatidae, softnose skates
20
Bathyraja abyssicola
(Gilbert, 1896), deepsea skate DD + + + 5, 13, 15, 16, 20, 25
21
Bathyraja aleutica
(Gilbert, 1896), Aleutian skate LC + + + 5, 13, 15, 16, 17, 20
22
Bathyraja andriashevi
(Dolganov, 1983), littleeyed skate LC + ? 13
23
Bathyraja bergi
(Dolganov, 1983), bottom skate LC + + + 5, 13, 16, 18, 24
24
Bathyraja diplotaenia
(Ishiyama, 1950), dusky pink skate LC + + 15
25
Bathyraja fedorovi
(Dolganov, 1983), cinnamon skate LC + + 5, 13, 15, 16, 20
26
Bathyraja interrupta
(Gill et Townsend, 1897), sandpaper skate LC + 16
27
Bathyraja isotrachys
(Günther, 1877), raspback skate LC + + 5, 13, 15, 16, 20
28
Bathyraja lindbergi
(Ishiyama et Ishihara, 1977), commander skate LC ? + + 8, 25
29
Bathyraja maculata
(Ishiyama et Ishihara, 1977), whiteblotched skate LC + + + + 5, 13, 15, 16, 17, 20,
25
30
Bathyraja mariposa
(Stevenson, Orr, Hoff et McEachran, 2004), butterfly skate DD + 25
31
Bathyraja matsubarai
(Ishiyama, 1952), dusky purple skate DD + + + 5, 15, 16, 17, 20
32
Bathyraja minispinosa
(Ishiyama et Ishihara, 1977), smallthorn skate LC + + + 5, 13, 15–17, 20, 25
33
Bathyraja parmifera
(Bean, 1881), Alaska skate LC + + + + 4, 5, 13, 15–18, 20,
24, 25
34
Bathyraja smirnovi
(Soldatov et Pavlenko 1915), golden skate LC + + + 18
35
Bathyraja spinosissima
(Beebe et TeeVan, 1941), spiny skate LC + 13, 16, 20
36
Bathyraja taranetzi
(Dolganov, 1983), mud skate LC + + 5, 13, 15, 16, 25
37
Bathyraja trachura
(Gilbert, 1892), roughtail skate LC + + + 5, 13, 15, 16, 20, 25
38
Bathyraja tzinovskii
(Dolganov, 1983), creamback skate LC + 12, 20
39
Bathyraja violacea
(Suvorov, 1935), Okhotsk skate DD + + + + 4, 12, 13, 15, 16, 20
40
Rhinoraja kujensis
(Tanaka 1916), dapplebellied softnose skate LC + 7
41
Rhinoraja longicauda
(Ishiyama, 1952), whitebellied softnose skate LC
+–+12, 13, 16
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Table 1.
(Contd.)
No.
Species CC
Region
s
Sources
of literature
*
Sea
of Japan Sea of
Okhotsk Bering
Sea
Pacific
North
west
Family Rajidae, sharpnose skates
42
Amblyraja badia
(Garman 1899), broad skate LC ? + ? 21
43
Amblyraja hyperborea
(Collett, 1879), Arctic skate LC ? ? ? 13, 15, 16, 20
44
Beringraja binoculata
(Girard 1855), big skate NT + 21
45
Dipturus tengu
(Jordan et Fowler, 1903), acutenose skate DD + ? 13, 18, 24
46
Okamejei kenojei
(Müller et Henle, 1841), ocellate spot skate DD + + 4, 13, 18, 24
47
Okamejei meerdervoortii
(Bleeker, 1860), bigeye skate DD + 24
48
Raja pulchra
(Liu, 1932), mottled skate VU + + + 4, 5, 11, 13, 18, 24
49
Raja rhina
(Jordan et Gilbert, 1880), longnose skate LC + + 15
Order Myliobatiformes
Family Dasyatidae, whiptail stingrays
50
Dasyatis akajei
(Müller et Henle, 1841), whip stingray NT + 4, 5, 13, 18, 24
51
Dasyatis matsubarai
(Miyosi, 1939), pitted stingray DD + 18, 24
52
Neotrygon kuhlii
(Müller et Henle, 1841), bluespotted stingray DD + 18, 24
53
Pteroplatytrygon violacea
(Bonaparte, 1832), pelagic stingray LC + 5, 9, 10, 13
Family Myliobatidae, eagle rays
54
Myliobatis tobijei
(Bleeker, 1857), Japanese eagle ray DD + 13
Subclass Holocephali
Order Chimaeriformes
Family Chimaeridae, shortnose chimaeras
55
Hydrolagus barbouri
(Garman, 1908), ninespot chimaera DD + + 5, 13, 14, 16
Family Rhinochimaeridae, longnosed chimaeras
56
Rhinochimaera pacifica
(Mitsukuri, 1895), Pacific spookfish LC ? + 16
Here and in Tables 2 and 3: CC, conservation status: Critically Endangered (CR), Endangered (EN), Vulnerable (VU), Near Threatened (NT), Least Concern (LC), Data Deficient
(DD); “+” species is present, “–” species is not observed, “?” occurrence is not validated; * 1, Taranets, 1938; 2, Lindberg, 1947; 3, Rumyantsev, 1947; 4, Lindberg and Legeza, 1959;
5, Dolganov, 1983; 6, Compagno, 1984; 7, Ishihara, 1990; 8, Nagasawa and Torisawa, 1991; 9, Savinykh, 1998; 10, Fedorov and Parin, 1998; 11, Dolganov, 1999; 12, Dolganov and
Tuponogov, 1999; 13, Borets, 2000; 14, Parin, 1988; 15, Fedorov, 2000; 16, Sheiko and Fedorov, 2000; 17, Chereshnev et al., 2001; 18, Novikov et al., 2002; 19, Compagno, 2002;
20, Fedorov et al., 2003; 21, Stevenson et al., 2008; 22, Velikanov, 2010; 23, Kulish et al., 2010; 24, Sokolovskii et al., 2011; 25, Lynghammar et al., 2013.
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SPECIES DIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION STATUS 929
Conservation status.
The results of the analysis of
the conservation status of cartilaginous fishes of the
Russian waters (Tables 1–3) show that, as of today,
three species (including the population of the com
mon spiny dogfish of the Atlantic Northeast) are crit
ically endangered (CR), two species are endangered
(EN), seven species (including the Black Sea popula
tion of the common spiny dogfish) are vulnerable
(VU), and nine species are near threatened (NT).
Another 48 species at this time are either of least con
cern (LC, 30 species) or there are deficient data (DD,
18 species).
In general, 11 species of cartilaginous fishes in the
Russian waters are classified into the endangered cat
egories (CR, EN, and VU). There are seven species of
these categories for the Pacific Ocean basin; five and
one, respectively, for the northern and southern seas of
the Atlantic Ocean basin; there are no species of this
category in the basin of the Arctic Ocean. The maxi
mum number of species of the categories CR, EN, and
VU in the Pacific and Atlantic basins is due to the fact
that the most developed fisheries are in these regions.
The absence of species belonging to the categories CR,
EN, and VU in the Arctic Ocean basin is explained by
the absence of fisheries in this region due to adverse
climatic conditions and low diversity of cartilaginous
fishes.
In the waters of
the Pacific basin
(Fig. 4), the
endangered categories include seven species. There
are two species in the category EN: the North Pacific
spotted spiny dogfish
Squalus suckleyi
and the basking
shark
Cetorhinus maximus
. These species were
included into this category due to a reduction in their
number (worldwide for the basking shark) as a result of
fishing activities of man. The categories of vulnerable
species (VU) include five representatives of cartilagi
nous fishes. Of these, three species are pelagic sharks:
the sandbar shark, the great white shark, and the
smooth hammerhead
Sphyrna zygaena
. These shark
species are widely distributed in the oceans and peri
odically enter the Russian Pacific waters during peri
ods of warming. The main threat to them is commer
cial fishing
3
in which they are caught as bycatch
(mainly in fishing for tuna (Scombridae) and sword
fishes (Xiphiidae)) as well as sporting and recreational
fishing. This category also includes the mottled skate
Raja pulchra
and Japanese angelshark
Squatina japon
ica
, for which the main threat is bottom coastal fish
ing.
The category of near threatened species (NT)
includes five cartilaginous fishes—three species of
3
At present, there is no specialized domestic fishery in the Rus
sian far eastern waters, and cartilaginous fishes are caught only
as bycatch in fishing for other species. Most of them are thrown
overboard, and some fishing companies in recent years have
begun to supply rays to the Chinese market. Since 2012, fins of
rays periodically appear on sale in the fish markets of Petropav
lovskKamchatsky as “skate wings” and their price depending
on the size ranges from 75 to 120 rubles per 1 kg (A.M. Tokra
nov, personal communication).
Table 2.
Species composition and conservation status of cartilaginous fishes (Chondrichthyes) in Russian waters of Arctic
Ocean
No. Species CC
Regions
Sources
of literature*
Kara
Sea Laptev
Sea
East
Siberian
Sea
Chukchi
Sea
Subclass Elasmobranchii
Order Squaliformes
Family Somniosidae, sleeper sharks
1
Somniosus pacificus
(Bigelow et
Schroeder, 1944), Pacific sleeper shark DD–––+26
2
Somniosus microcephalus
(Bloch et
Schneider 1801), Greenland shark NT
+
25, 27, 28
Family Squalidae, dogfishes
3
Squalus suckleyi
(Girard 1855),
North Pacific spotted spiny dogfish EN ? 25, 26
Order Rajiformes
Family Rajidae, sharpnose skates
4
Amblyraja hyperborea
(Collett, 1879),
Arctic skate LC
+++
25, 27, 28
5
Amblyraja radiata
(Donovan, 1808),
thorny skate VU
+
–––25
* 26, Mecklenburg et al., 2002; 27, Borkin et al., 2008; 28, Dolgov et al., 2011; see Table 1 for remaining symbols.
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Table 3.
Species composition and conservation status of cartilaginous fishes (Chondrichthyes) in Russian waters of the
Atlantic Ocean basin
No. Species CC
Regions
Sources
of literature*
northern seas southern seas
White
Sea Barents
Sea Sea of
Azov Black
Sea
Subclass Elasmobranchii
Order Lamniformes
Family Lamnidae, mackerel sharks
1
Lamna nasus
(Bonnaterre 1788), porbeagle CR + 25, 37
Family Cetorhinidae, basking sharks
2
Cetorhinus maximus
(Gunnerus, 1765), basking shark EN + + 6, 19, 25
Order Carchariniformes
Family Scyliorhinidae, cat sharks
3
Galeus melastomus
(Rafinesque, 1810), blackmouth
catshark LC–+––25
Family Carcharhinidae, requiem sharks
4
Prionace glauca
(Linnaeus, 1758), blue shark NT + 25
Order Squaliformes
Family Somniosidae, sleeper sharks
5
Somniosus microcephalus
(Bloch et Schneider 1801),
Greenland shark NT + + 25, 28, 32, 34,
37, 38
Family Squalidae, dogfishes
6
Squalus acanthias
(Linnaeus 1758), common spiny
dogfish
—Atlantic Northeast population CR + + 35, 37
—Black Sea population VU + + 36
Order Rajiformes
Family Arhynchobatidae, softnose skates
7
Bathyraja spinicauda
(Jensen, 1914), spinytail skate NT + 25, 35, 37, 38
Family Rajidae, sharpnose skates
8
Amblyraja hyperborea
(Collett, 1879), Arctic skate LC + 25, 28, 37, 38
9
Amblyraja radiata
(Donovan, 1808), thorny skate VU + + 25, 28, 31, 37,
38
10
Dipturus batis
(Linnaeus, 1758), common skate CR + 25, 35, 37
11
Leucoraja fullonica
(Linnaeus, 1758), shagreen ray NT + 37
12
Rajella fyllae
(Lütken, 1887), round ray LC + 25, 31, 35, 37,
38
13
Rajella lintea
(Fries, 1838), sailray LC + 25, 35, 37
14
Raja clavata
(Linnaeus, 1758), thornback ray NT ? + 30, 33, 36
Order Myliobatiformes
Family Dasyatidae, whiptail stingrays
15
Dasyatis pastinaca
(Linnaeus, 1758), common stin
gray DD + + 29, 36
Subclass Holocephali
Order Chimaeriformes
Family Chimaeridae, shortnose chimaeras
16
Chimaera monstrosa
(Linnaeus, 1758), rabbit fish NT + 25, 35, 37
* 29, Ovodov, 1927; 30, Drapkina, 1957; 31, Leim and Scott, 1966; 32, Antonova and Chernova, 1989; 33, Lushnikova and Kirnosova,
1990; 34, Vas’kov et al., 2006; 35, Dolgov, 2006; 36, Vasil’eva, 2007; 37, Dolgov, 2011; 38, Wienerroither, 2011; see Tables 1 and 2 for
remaining symbols.
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SPECIES DIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION STATUS 931
sharks and two species of rays. The sharks are repre
sented by species such as shortfin mako
Isurus oxyrin
chus
, the copper shark, and the blue shark. As with
other species of the pelagic sharks, the main threat to
these species is fishing. In the case of obtaining new
evidence about the increased impact of fishing on the
populations of these species, which led to the decline
in their numbers, the category NT in relation to these
species may be revised.
The category of species of least concern (LC)
includes 26 representatives of cartilaginous fishes.
Most of them live at considerable depths (21 species
out of 26 are deepsea skates), so the impact of fishing
on them is curre ntly low. Ho wever, in the cas e of devel 
opment of deepsea fisheries in the future, when pop
ulations of these rays will be fished throughout the
bathymetric range of distribution, development of
effective measures for their conservation will be
required.
Weak scrutiny of many species of cartilaginous
fishes of the Pacific basin was the result of the fact that
almost a third of them were classified as DD, that is,
there are no sufficient data for assessment of their con
servation status. This category consists mainly of rare
and poorly studied deepsea species. Better under
standing of the life cycle of these species and more reli
able assessment of their conservation status require
intensification of studies, especially at great depths.
In the northern seas of
the Atlantic basin
(Fig. 5),
five of the 14 recorded species of cartilaginous fishes
are threatened with extinction: the category EN char
acterizes one species (the basking shark), the category
CR characterizes three species (the common skate
Dipturus batis
, the porbeagle
Lamna nasus
, and the
common spiny dogfish), and the category VU charac
terizes one species (the thorny skate
Amblyraja radi
ata
). The category of near threatened (NT) fishes is
also represented by five species of cartilaginous fishes.
EN
LC
NT
DD
2520151050
Number of species
VU
30
Fig. 4.
Ratio of species of cartilaginous fishes (Chondrichthyes) by IUCN categories (see text) in waters of the Pacific.
EN
VU
LC
NT
543210
Number of species
CR
6
Fig. 5.
Ratio of species of cartilaginous fishes (Chondrichthyes) by IUCN categories (see text) in Russian waters of the Atlantic
Basin (northern seas).
932
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2013
GRIGOROV, ORLOV
There are four species in these seas that were classified
as those of least concern (LC).
In the southern seas of
the Atlantic basin
, the Black
Sea population of the common spiny dogfish is endan
gered; its main threat is the targeted fishery, especially
strongly developed in the Turkish waters.
Below, there is a brief description of the representa
tives of the fauna of cartilaginous fishes of the Russian
waters, which are included in the categories of species
under threat of extinction.
Cetorhinus maximus
, basking shark
IUCN assessment—EN
The basking shark is a pelagic cosmopolitan that
lives in the open ocean as well as in temperate and
warm coastal waters; it also may approach the coasts
and enter into closed bays (Compagno, 2002). It is dis
tributed in the northern part of the Pacific Ocean from
the East China Sea and California to the Gulf of
Alaska and the Aleutian Islands. Off the coast of Pri
morye, the basking shark is found occasionally in the
spring–summer period (Novikov et al., 2002). The
capture of a juvenile approximately 2 m in length was
marked in the Kandalaksha Bay of the White Sea in
1976 (Konstantinov and Nizovtsev, 1979). For a long
time, it had been considered a valuable commercial
fish. As a result of subsequent overfishing, the number
reduced to a critical level. ICES (The International
Council for the Exploration of the Sea) recommends a
zero TAC (total allowable catch) for the basking shark
in all areas of the North Atlantic. It has been agreed
that in 2012–2014 there will be no specialized fishing
for this shark in the Convention Area of NEAFC
(North East Atlantic Fisheries Commission). A num
ber of countries have taken measures to protect this
species. It is listed in Appendix I of the United Nations
Convention on the Law of the Sea, Appendix II of
CITES (Convention on International Trade in
Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna), and
Appendix I of the Bonn Convention.
Squalus suckleyi
, North Pacific spotted spiny dogfish
IUCN assessment—EN
The North Pacific spotted spiny dogfish is a pelagic
shark common in all the far eastern seas of Russia
(Novikov et al., 2002). In the Russian waters of Pri
morye and Sakhalin, prior to the Second World War,
tens of thousands of tons of this shark were caught
every year (Fadeev, 1984). Currently, there is no spe
cialized domestic fishery. Most often it is caught as a
bycatch of driftnet fishery for Pacific salmons of the
genus
Oncorhynchus
. Often catches consist mainly of
females with developing embryos (Osipov, 1986). It is
a common species in the seas of the Far East (Novikov
et al., 2002). Long life span (2530 years), long
embryonic period, and the low level of replenishment
make the North Pacific spotted spiny dogfish popula
tions vulnerable to fishing. The absence of measures
for limiting fishery and conserving the species put it in
a threatened position.
Dipturus batis
, common (blue) skate
IUCN assessment—CR
The blue skate is a bottom, BorealAtlantic species.
It is found in the northern part of the Atlantic Ocean
from the Mediterranean Sea and the Bay of Biscay to
Iceland and the Barents Sea (Dolgov, 2011). In our
waters, it was marked by several records in the Barents
Sea at the Murmanskii Yazyk and Demidovskaya
Banka (Dolgov, 2006). It is the subject of trawl and
longline fisheries in European countries, the most
economically important species of rays in Europe
(Dolgov, 2011), and no longer found in the waters of
the Mediterranean (Orlov and Shevernitskii, 2008). In
the central part of the current range near the British
Isles, the population size has strongly reduced. How
ever, it is still caught in the Scottish waters, especially
near the Shetland Islands.
D. batis
reaches large size
before maturity. So the catching of large but immature
individuals threatens the existence of the entire popu
lation (Orlov and Shevernitskii, 2008). There are mea
sures for the protection of this species in England and
Northern Ireland. In accordance with the require
ments of the European Union, individuals of this ray
caught in the North Sea should be returned back into
the environment.
Lamna nasus
, porbeagle
IUCN assessment—CR
The porbeagle is a cosmopolitan that is common in
temperate waters of both hemispheres. Until recently,
it was the subject of fisheries in the North Atlantic. In
our waters, the porbeagle is found in the Barents Sea,
where it is not a subject of commercial fishing (Dolgov,
2011). It was taken by longlines, but now it is caught as
bycatch in the trawl fishery. The populations were
depleted due to the strong pressure of fishing in the
Atlantic.
L. nasus
has low fecundity, but is expensive in
the market and, thus, highly vulnerable to fishing
(Orlov and Shevernitskii, 2008). It is listed in CITES
Appendix II, Appendix I to the UN Convention on the
Law of the Sea, Bonn Convention Appendix I, etc.
The governmental measures of some countries consist
in limiting its catch and a ban on landing of fins sepa
rate from carcasses. In recent years, ICES has repeat
edly recommended the prohibition of targeted fishing
and minimization of bycatch. The measures taken
and greater control of fisheries in the North Atlantic
should lead to restoration of the population of the por
beagle.
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SPECIES DIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION STATUS 933
Squalus acanthias
, common spiny dogfish
IUCN assessment—CR and VU
The common spiny dogfish is a pelagic shark,
widespread in both hemispheres and represented by
populations with different conservation status. The
North Atlantic population is in a critical condition
(CR), and that of the Black Sea has a vulnerable status
(VU). Different IUCN categories are assigned to these
populations due to their different numbers and differ
ent levels of commercial exploitation. In the North
Atlantic, fishery for the spiny dogfish is over 100 years
old, so the number of its population decreased to a
critical level, where it is in the present. The ability of
the spurdog to form large aggregations makes it eco
nomically viable catch but leads to a rapid decrease in
the population (twofold reduction in the number of the
North Atlantic population from 1987 to 1994). In the
Black Sea, Russia carries out specialized fishing for the
spurdog by set nets throughout the year. In 1993–2002,
the annual catch of the spurdog averaged 20–30 t, and all
the Black Sea countries caught approximately 2000 tons
(Luts et al., 2005). The spiny dogfish population is
influenced both by features of biology (later matura
tion, low reproduction rate, long life) and press of the
fishery. Eating meat of the spiny dogfish is widespread
in Europe. Its liver, rich in fat and vitamin A, is in
demand, as well as its skin, which is used for polishing
wood (Sokolovskii et al., 2011). The measures taken
for regulating commercial fishing and reduction of by
catch are insufficient. In recent years, ICES has
repeatedly recommended a total ban on targeted fish
ing and minimization of bycatch in fisheries for other
species. The repeated attempts to introduce the com
mon spiny dogfish into the appendixes of CITES so far
have not succeeded.
Carcharadon carcharias
, great white shark
IUCN assessment—VU
The great white shark is a cosmopolitan, distrib
uted throughout the tropical, subtropical, and temper
ate waters of all oceans; it is found in the open sea and
in coastal waters (Lindberg and Legeza, 1959; Fedorov
and Parin, 1998). It can approach the shore, entering
into shallow bays (Compagno, 2002). In temperate
waters, it appears only in periods of warming. In the
Russian far eastern seas, this species was observed at
the southern Kuril Islands (Compagno, 1984); it occa
sionally enters into Peter the Great Bay, migrating
when the temperature rises from the southern part of
the Sea of Japan (Novikov et al., 2002). In recent
years, it was observed in the Posyet Bay of the Sea of
Japan (Dolganov, 1983) and at the northwestern coast
of the Gulf of Aniva (Sakhalin Island) (Velikanov,
2010). The main threat is its deliberate destruction in
order to profit from the sale of body parts (jaw, teeth,
fins, etc.) (Compagno, 2002). Protection measures
have been taken in a number of countries. The great
white shark is listed in Appendix I of the United
Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, CITES
Appendix II, and Bonn Convention Appendix I.
Squatina japonica
, Japanese angelshark
IUCN assessment—VU
The Japanese angelshark is a sea bottom shark of
temperate and warm waters. It migrates from the
waters of Korea into the Primorye waters during
warming periods (Novikov et al., 2002). The range of
this species is the Sea of Japan to the south of Hok
kaido, the Yellow and East China Seas (Sokolovskii
etal., 2011). It is a very rare species for the Russian
waters of the Sea of Japan (Parin, 2001). In Japan,
China, and Korea, this shark meat is highly valued,
and skin is used for polishing. There are no measures
for the conservation of this species.
Carcharhinus plumbeus
, sandbar shark
IUCN assessment—VU
The sandbar shark is a nearbottom pelagic tropi
calsubtropical species that inhabits mainly the coastal
areas of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans. In
periods of warming, it enters into the Primorye waters
(Sokolovskii et al., 2011) and the southwest of Sakha
lin (Probatov, 1951). It is a very rare species for the
waters of Russia. The sandbar shark is characterized by
a small number of offspring, slow growth rate, and late
sexual maturity at a relatively long period of gestation,
and, therefore, vulnerable to overfishing. The growing
popularity of sport fishing and increasing demand for
derivatives of sharks (fins and meat) in the 1980s had a
negative impact on the number of the population in
the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. The measures for
the conservation of this shark population consist in
monitoring and a variety of management plans for
fisheries in some countries (United States, Australia),
it is also listed in Appendix I of the UN Convention on
the Law of the Sea.
Sphyrna zygaena
, smooth hammerhead
IUCN assessment—VU
The smooth hammerhead is a coastal pelagic and
semioceanic species. It is common in warm and tem
perate waters of all oceans of the northern and south
ern hemispheres. In the Sea of Japan, it penetrates to
the north to the Gulf of Data in the Tatar Strait (Lind
berg and Legeza, 1959). It is the subject of longline
fishing in some European countries. This shark meat is
used for food; fins are of high quality and highly appre
ciated. Protection measures consist in banning of
finning (fishing for fins) in several countries. The spe
cies is listed in Appendix I of the UN Convention on
the Law of the Sea, CITES Appendix II, and Bonn
Convention Appendix I.
934
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2013
GRIGOROV, ORLOV
Amblyraja radiata
, thorny skate
IUCN assessment—VU
The thorny skate is a bottom predominantly boreal
species. In the Barents Sea, it lives at depths from 50 to
800 m. It is a eurythermal species and is found at tem
peratures from –1 to +7.5
°
C (Dolgov, 2011). The
range of this skate covers a vast water space of the
North Atlantic from the Novaya Zemlya and Spitsber
gen in the Barents Sea to the Gulf of Maine and
Southern England (Vas’kov et al., 2006). It is a abun
dant species. In the Barents Sea, it is always found as
bycatch in the trawl and longline fisheries for ground
fish (usually thrown overboard). In recent years, how
ever, Russian fishing companies have started to use this
skate for food production. The total annual catch of
skates by all the countries in the Barents Sea in 1990–
2008 was 67–1560 t (average 723 t), and of these,
approximately 95% of the catch came from the thorny
skate (Dolgov, 2011). The measures for the conserva
tion of the thorny skate, which consist in regulating
the fisheries, have been adopted by several countries
(United States, Canada, and United Kingdom).
Raja pulchra
, mottled skate
IUCN assessment—VU
The mottled skate is a lowboreal subtropical near
Asian species found at depths of 50 to 700 m (Novikov
et al., 2002). It is distributed from the Sea of Okhotsk
to the East China Sea, including the coast of the Sea of
Japan, the Pacific shelf of the Japanese and southern
Kuril Islands, and the waters around the island of
Hokkaido (Novikov et al., 2002). In Peter the Great
Bay,
R. pulchra
is common (Sokolovskaya et al., 1998)
or rare (Sokolovskii et al., 2009), and off the coast of
Primorye it is considered as a commercial species
(Novikov et al., 2002). According to other data
(Sokolovskii et al., 2007), it is a rare species off the
coast of Primorye. Off the coast of the Sakhalin Island,
the stock of
R. pulchra
is estimated at 520 t
(Antonenko et al., 2011).
R. pulchra
is an abundant
commercial species in the waters of the southwestern
coast of the Korean peninsula and the island of Hok
kaido. Currently, the stocks in all fishing areas
decreased significantly due to overfishing (Ishihara
et al., 2009). There are no measures taken to preserve
the species.
CONCLUSIONS
In the waters of Russia, there are 69 registered spe
cies of cartilaginous fishes from 20 families. The
Pacific Ocean basin is characterized by the greatest
diversity; there are 55 registered species of cartilagi
nous fishes from 20 families. The next area in terms of
the species diversity is the North Atlantic basin seas—
there are 14 species belonging to nine families. The
lowest diversity was observed in the basins of the Arctic
Ocean (four species from two families) and in the
southern seas of the Atlantic Basin (three species from
three families).
According to IUCN assessments of the conserva
tion status, the cartilaginous fishes of the Russian
waters are as follows: three species are critically
endangered (CR), two species are endangered (EN),
seven species are vulnerable (VU), nine species are
near threatened (NT), 30 species are of least concern
(LC), and 18 species are poorly studied (DD). The
directly endangered categories (CR, EN, and VU)
include 11 species. In the basin of the Pacific Ocean,
these categories include seven species, and five and
one, respectively, in the northern and southern seas of
the Atlantic Ocean. Preservation of the cartilaginous
fish populations of Russia requires development and
adoption of a national plan on the basis of the Interna
tional Plan of Action for Conservation of cartilaginous
fishes (International Action Plan for Conservation
and Management of Sharks) developed by FAO (Food
and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations),
support at the national level of initiatives for inclusion
in the Appendices of CITES of endangered cartilagi
nous fish species, regular monitoring of the status of
stocks of species exploited by fisheries, development of
measures to reduce bycatch, active participation of
experts in updating the IUCN Red List, support of ini
tiatives to ban finning, creation of a national research
group on cartilaginous fishes, etc.
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Translated by K. Lazarev
... To date, approximately 40 species of sharks, 59 species of skates, and seven species of chimaeras (the total number of cartilaginous fishes is 106 species) are known in the waters of Russia and the surrounding waters, with the maximum species diversity in the Far Eastern waters of Russia (Borets, 2000;Grigorov and Orlov, 2013;Parin et al., 2014;Dyldin, 2015). Nevertheless, the degree of study of the cartilaginous fishes of the waters of Sakhalin and the adjacent waters remains extremely low, and the published information is fragmentary and largely erroneous. ...
... Until now, there is no general list of cartilaginous fishes registered in the waters of Sakhalin, as, indeed, for all the marine fish of this region. The difficulty in drawing up such a list is partly due to the fact that a number of reports for representatives of this group indicate information on the geographic distribution of only a general nature, for example, the Sea of Japan or the Sea of Okhotsk (Borets, 2000;Parin, 2001;Grigorov and Orlov, 2013;Parin et al., 2014;Tuponogov and Kodolov, 2014), and there is information on the occurrence in the waters of Sakhalin only in rare cases (Ueno, 1971;Sokolovsky et al., 2007;Parin et al., 2014;Dyldin, 2015). In a recent report on the cartilaginous fishes of Russia and adjacent waters (Dyldin, 2015), 22 species of cartilaginous fishes are indicated directly for the waters of Sakhalin, but the information is very general without reporting data on distribution limits, habitats, occurrence, commercial significance, collection specimens, recent rare records, etc. ...
... Since the 2000s and up to the present, a number of works have been published that contain scattered information about cartilaginous fishes, including new findings from Sakhalin Island and the adjacent southern part of the Sea of Okhotsk (Balanov, 2000(Balanov, , 2003Parin, 2001;Fedorov et al., 2003;Tokranov et al., 2005;Fadeev, 2005;Gritsenko et al., 2006;Kim, 2007Kim, , 2010Sokolovsky et al., 2007Sokolovsky et al., , 2009Sokolovsky et al., , 2011Velikanov, 2010;Antonenko et al., 2011;Tuponogov and Kodolov, 2014;Tuponogov and Snytko, 2014;Romanov, 2015). Of recent publications, mention should be made of the work of Grigorov and Orlov (2013), in which the authors summarized the data on cartilaginous fishes of Russia, including the Sea of Okhotsk, and the monograph of Parin et al. (2014), which includes information on some species of Sakhalin Island and adjacent waters. Noteworthy is also the publication of the first author (Dyldin, 2015), where information on 22 two species of cartilaginous fishes for the waters of Sakhalin Island and adjacent waters is given and, besides, a number of the species, which have not been noted in waters of Russia, but findings of which are quite probable, are indicated. ...
Article
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An annotated list of cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes: Elasmobranchii, Holocephali) is given for the first time in the 200-year history of studying the ichthyofauna of Sakhalin Island and adjacent waters of the southern part of the Sea of Okhotsk (including the coast of Hokkaido Island) and the northern Sea of Japan. The list includes 43 species in two classes, eight orders, 16 families, and 25 genera. Information on nature conservation status, English and Latin names, depths of habitat, and distribution within the coastal waters of Sakhalin are presented. For a number of species caught off the coast of Sakhalin and in the adjacent waters, information is provided on collection specimens confirming their presence in the region under study. For a number of species of the Rajiformes order (Arctoraja parmifera, A. smirnovi, A. simoterus), the modern ranges and taxonomic status are being refined in the light of new data. The taxonomic status of the so-called “disputed” taxa is discussed as well as the validity of the species considered in the Bathyraja matsubarai complex. Based on the study of the collections, Arctoraja simoterus, previously unknown in the waters of Russia, as well as Myliobatis tobijei, caught in the Bering Sea, has been discovered, which significantly expands the range of this species to the north.
... The closest to the island was caught in the southern part of the Sea of Okhotsk near the northern part of Hokkaido, Japan (Imai et al., 2005). For the southern part of the Sea of Okhotsk, without preservation of specimens, the species is also mentioned in a number of other works (Nagasawa and Torisawa, 1991;Imai et al., 2005;Grigorov and Orlov, 2013;Dyldin and Orlov, 2018 (Dyldin and Orlov, 2018). The closest to the island was observed in 2012 in the southern part of the Sea of Okhotsk near Monbetsu, Hokkaido, Japan (Tomita et al., 2014). ...
... The presence of this species in the Sea of Okhotsk (Borets, 2000;Fedorov et al., 2003) and, in particular, off the eastern coast of Sakhalin (Balanov, 2003) requires documentary confirmation. According to a number of authors (Grigorov and Orlov, 2013;Mecklenburg et al., 2016Mecklenburg et al., , 2018, this species belongs to the Arctic ones, since it is distributed only in the Arctic seas and in border waters. ...
... Sakhalin: at the slope off the southeastern coast (Dyldin and Orlov, 2018;Dulvy et al., 2020d). The closest records to the island are for the waters of the Sea of Okhotsk, Hokkaido, Japan (Shinohara et al., 2012;Grigorov and Orlov, 2013;Uchida, 2020;Dulvy et al., 2020d). Marine. ...
Article
Full-text available
A complete annotated list of marine, brackish-water, and freshwater ichthyofauna of Sakhalin Island and the adjacent southern part of the Sea of Okhotsk is provided for the first time in the entire history of the study of the fish population. It is based on a critical analysis of the literature data for the last 200 years, collection materials, and the results of our own long-term studies. The list includes 600 species in 4 classes, 44 orders, 17 suborders, 129 families, 50 subfamilies, and 312 genera. It presents both English and Latin (sci-entific) names, information on the ranges in the World Ocean and distribution within Sakhalin waters, and data on the conservation status, commercial importance, and abundance. For a number of species, the list also provides information on collection specimens, confirming their presence within the studied water area. For all species, the current ranges and taxonomic status are specified according to the new data, if any. The so-called controversial taxa are discussed. The first part provides brief information about the history of the study of the Sakhalin ichthyofauna, the geographical and oceanological characteristics of the study area, as well as the first 118 species of the annotated list belonging to 79 genera, 42 families and 20 orders in 4 classes.
... In addition, numerous publications based on the offshore and coastal studies of the Bering Sea have been also taken into account. Regard must be paid to the long list of the reviews and original studies focusing on both the fauna of the Bering Sea and the basins of the Arctic and Pacific oceans, as well as the Far East seas of Russia, and some other marine areas; these publications mention the ichthyofauna of the Bering Sea quite frequently (Kaganovsky, 1933;Andriyashev, 1937Andriyashev, , 1939Andriyashev, , 1954Agapov, 1941;Geograficheskoe rasprostranenie…, 1955;Barsukov, 1958Barsukov, , 2003Ueno, 1970;Fedorov, 1973aFedorov, , 1973bNovikov, 1974;Pin chuk, 1976;Eschmeyer and Herald, 1983;Kessler, 1985;Allen and Smith, 1988;Kuznetsova and Kuz netsov, 1988;Andriyashev and Chernova, 1994;Rad chenko, 1994;Balanov, 1995;Pozvonochnye zhivot nye…, 1996;Chereshnev, 1996Chereshnev, , 2008Borets, 1997Borets, , 2000Dolganov, 1999;Dolganov and Tuponogov, 1999;Makoedov et al., 1999Makoedov et al., , 2000Sheiko and Fedorov, 2000;Borets et al., 2001;Snytko, 2001;Chereshnev et al., 2001b;Atlas…, 2002Atlas…, , 2003Meck lenburg et al., 2002Meck lenburg et al., , 2011Meck lenburg et al., , 2013Glebov et al., 2003Glebov et al., , 2010Datsky, 2005;Love et al., 2005;Tokranov et al., 2005;Fadeev, 2005; Atlas kolichestvennogo rasprede leniya demersal 'nykh…, 2006;Atlas kolichestvennogo raspredeleniya nektona…, 2006;Promyslovye ryby…, 2006;Grigor'ev, 2007;Datsky and Andronov, 2007;Batanov et al., 2008;Temnykh, 2008c, 2011;Balykin and Tokranov, 2010;Ryby…, 2010Ryby…, , 2013Sovremennoe sostoyanie…, 2010;Chernova, 2011;D'yakov, 2011;Kompleksnye issledovaniya…, 2011;Renaud, 2011;Zolotov, 2012;Macrofauna…, 2012Macrofauna…, , 2014Gavrilov and Glebov, 2013;Grigorov and Orlov, 2013;Zolotov et al., 2013;Ivanov, 2013;Lyng hammar et al., 2013;Litovka et al., 2013;Andronov and Datsky, 2014;Andronov and Datsky, 2014;Andronov et al., 2014;Grigor'ev and Sedova, 2014;Longshan et al., 2014;Parin et al., 2014;Tuponogov and Kodolov, 2014;Datsky, 2015). The species list comprises mostly the data from the annotated cata logues of Pisces and Ichthyoids inhabiting the seas of Russia, as well as the data in the numerous publica tions of the finding of the species in the Bering Sea. ...
... The taxonomic revisions play an important role in updating the spe cies list, especially during the last decade, when the genetic methods are used widely. The species list has been developed both under the published data (Andri ashev and Chernova, 1994;Borets, 2000;Sheiko and Fedorov, 2000;Mecklenburg, 2003aMecklenburg, , 2003bMecklenburg, , 2003cMecklenburg, , 2003dMecklenburg and Eschmeyer, 2003;Mecklen burg andSheiko, 2003, 2004;Anderson and Fedorov, 2004;Chernova et al., 2004;Evseenko, 2004;Sheiko and Mecklenburg, 2004;Love et al., 2005;Chernova, 2008Chernova, , 2011Anderson et al., 2009;Ryby…, 2010Ryby…, , 2013Mecklenburg et al., 2011Mecklenburg et al., , 2013Grigorov and Orlov, 2013;Parin et al., 2014) and the electronic data bases (BOLD, 2014;EOL, 2014;Catalog..., 2015;FishBase..., 2015;Integrated Taxonomic Information System, 2015;World Register of Marine Species, 2015), where the valid species (taxon) names, their synonyms, and outdated names are indicated. ...
Article
Full-text available
The species list of ichthyofauna of the Russian exclusive economic zone of the Bering Sea has been developed using the original data obtained in 1995–2012 and the data published since the very beginning of the studies in this region. The species list includes 344 species belonging to 188 genera, 65 families, and 23 orders. The diversity of the ichthyofauna of the western Bering Sea, calculated under the ratio of species, genera, and families, is significantly higher than that observed for the Arctic seas, the seas of the European part of Russia (except the Caspian Sea), and the Sea of Japan. It is similar to the diversity of the ichthyofauna of coastal waters of the northern Kuril Islands and the northern Sea of Okhotsk. The maximal diversity has been found for scorpion fishes and sculpins (Scorpaeniformes), perch-like fishes (Perciformes), salmons (Salmoniformes), flatfishes (Pleuronectiformes), and cods and hakes (Gadiformes). These orders comprise 33 families (50.8% of total number of families), 139 genera (73.9% of total number of genera), and 279 species (81.1% of total number of species) in total. The maximal diversity belongs to the scorpion fishes and sculpins and the perch-like fishes; they dominate absolutely by the number of the lower-order taxa (families, genera, and species). Such families as sculpins (Cottidae), eelpouts (Zoarcidae), snailfishes (Liparidae), righteye flounders (Pleuronectidae), pricklebacks (Stichaeidae), and poachers (Agonidae) are presented by 175 species, or comprise 50.9% of the total diversity of ichthyofauna.
... In addition, numerous publications based on the offshore and coastal studies of the Bering Sea have been also taken into account. Regard must be paid to the long list of the reviews and original studies focusing on both the fauna of the Bering Sea and the basins of the Arctic and Pacific oceans, as well as the Far East seas of Russia, and some other marine areas; these publications mention the ichthyofauna of the Bering Sea quite frequently (Kaganovsky, 1933; Andriyashev, 1937 Andriyashev, , 1939 Andriyashev, , 1954 Agapov, 1941; Geograficheskoe rasprostranenie…, 1955; Barsukov, 1958 Barsukov, , 2003 Ueno, 1970; Fedorov, 1973a Fedorov, , 1973b Novikov, 1974; Pinn chuk, 1976; Eschmeyer and Herald, 1983; Kessler, 1985; Allen and Smith, 1988; Kuznetsova and Kuzz netsov, 1988; Andriyashev and Chernova, 1994; Radd chenko, 1994; Balanov, 1995; Pozvonochnye zhivott nye…, 1996; Chereshnev, 1996 Chereshnev, , 2008 Borets, 1997 Borets, , 2000 Dolganov, 1999; Dolganov and Tuponogov, 1999; Makoedov et al., 1999 Makoedov et al., , 2000 Sheiko and Fedorov, 2000; Borets et al., 2001; Snytko, 2001; Chereshnev et al., 2001b; Atlas…, 2002 Atlas…, , 2003 Meckk lenburg et al., 2002 Meckk lenburg et al., , 2011 Meckk lenburg et al., , 2013 Glebov et al., 2003 Glebov et al., , 2010 Datsky, 2005; Love et al., 2005; Tokranov et al., 2005; Fadeev, 2005; Atlas kolichestvennogo raspredee leniya demersal'nykh…, 2006; Atlas kolichestvennogo raspredeleniya nektona…, 2006; Promyslovye ryby…, 2006; Grigor'ev, 2007; Datsky and Andronov, 2007; Batanov et al., 2008; Temnykh, 2008c, 2011; Balykin and Tokranov, 2010; Ryby…, 2010 Ryby…, , 2013 Sovremennoe sostoyanie…, 2010; Chernova, 2011; D'yakov, 2011; Kompleksnye issledovaniya…, 2011; Renaud, 2011; Zolotov, 2012; Macrofauna…, 2012 Macrofauna…, , 2014 Gavrilov and Glebov, 2013; Grigorov and Orlov, 2013; Zolotov et al., 2013; Ivanov, 2013; Lyngg hammar et al., 2013; Litovka et al., 2013; Andronov and Datsky, 2014; Andronov and Datsky, 2014; Andronov et al., 2014; Grigor'ev and Sedova, 2014; Longshan et al., 2014; Parin et al., 2014; Tuponogov and Kodolov, 2014; Datsky, 2015). The species list comprises mostly the data from the annotated cataa logues of Pisces and Ichthyoids inhabiting the seas of Russia, as well as the data in the numerous publicaa tions of the finding of the species in the Bering Sea. ...
... The taxonomic revisions play an important role in updating the spee cies list, especially during the last decade, when the genetic methods are used widely. The species list has been developed both under the published data (Andrii ashev and Chernova, 1994; Borets, 2000; Sheiko and Fedorov, 2000; Mecklenburg, 2003a Mecklenburg, , 2003b Mecklenburg, , 2003c Mecklenburg, , 2003d Mecklenburg and Eschmeyer, 2003; Mecklenn burg and Sheiko, 2003, 2004; Anderson and Fedorov, 2004; Chernova et al., 2004; Evseenko, 2004; Sheiko and Mecklenburg, 2004; Love et al., 2005; Chernova, 2008 Chernova, , 2011 Anderson et al., 2009; Ryby…, 2010 Ryby…, , 2013 Mecklenburg et al., 2011 Mecklenburg et al., , 2013 Grigorov and Orlov, 2013; Parin et al., 2014) and the electronic dataa bases (BOLD, 2014; EOL, 2014; Catalog..., 2015; FishBase..., 2015; Integrated Taxonomic Information System, 2015; World Register of Marine Species, 2015), where the valid species (taxon) names, their synonyms, and outdated names are indicated. ...
... На основании собранных материалов и литературных данных в 1959 г. Г. У. Линдберг [20] опубликовал список рыб, который включал в себя и сведения о хрящевых рыбах, встречающихся в южной части прибрежья Сахалина и у Южных Курил, с указанием для сахалинских вод и прилегающей южной части Охотского моря 6 [55], в которой авторы обобщили данные по хрящевым России, включая Охотское море, и монографию Н. В. Парина с соавторами [78], в которой в том числе представлена информация по хрящевым видам прибрежных вод о. Сахалин. ...
Article
Full-text available
Based on a critical analysis of literature data, archival materials and our own research over the past 100 years, an overview of the history of the studies of cartilaginous fish: sharks, rays and chimeras (Chondrichthyes: Elasmobranchii, Holocephali) of Sakhalin Island and adjacent water areas are presented for the first time. A number of “disputable” species and their current taxonomic status are discussed.
... The genus was originally described by Ishiyama (1958) as a subgenus of Breviraja Bigelow & Schroeder, 1948, but later elevated to generic rank by . Most species of Bathyraja occur in deep water, with at least 25 species being distributed in the North Pacific (e.g., Japan to California) Ishiyama & Ishihara, 1977;Ishihara & Ishiyama, 1985, 1986Stehmann, 1986;Ebert & Compagno, 2007;Orr et al., 2011;Grigorov & Orlov, 2013;Last et al., 2016;Weigmann, 2016). The genus is characterized by a combination of several morphological characters: pelvic fin moderately incised, with anterior and posterior lobes; tail with two small dorsal fins and caudal fin; rostral cartilage slender with small appendices, unsegmented at base; snout tip without a small fleshy process; anteriormost portion of pectoral-fin skeleton almost reaching snout tip; tail thorns in a single series (Ishiyama, 1958(Ishiyama, , 1967McEachran & Miyake, 1990;McEachran & Dunn, 1998;Jeong & Nakabo, 2009;Last et al., 2016). ...
Article
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A new snailfish, Paraliparis flammeus , is described on the basis of 18 specimens collected off the Pacific coast of Tohoku District, northern Japan at depths of 422–890 m. The new species is distinguished from 28 species of Paraliparis described from the North Pacific by the following combination of characters: mouth oblique; uppermost pectoral-fin base below horizontal through posterior margin of maxillary; 60–63 vertebrae, 54–58 dorsal-fin rays, 50 or 51 anal-fin rays, six principal caudal-fin rays, and 17–20 pectoral-fin rays. A maximum likelihood tree based on 106 COI gene sequences (492 bp) of Paraliparis recovered a monophyletic group comprising P. flammeus , Paraliparis cephalus , and Paraliparis dipterus . Paraliparis cephalus is similar to P. flammeus in having an oblique mouth, but it has four caudal-fin rays (vs six rays) and the uppermost pectoral-fin base above a horizontal through the maxillary posterior margin. Paraliparis dipterus differs from P. flammeus in having a horizontal mouth, 12–14 pectoral-fin rays, and lacking pyloric caeca (present in P. flammeus ). Paraliparis flammeus is most similar to the eastern North Pacific Paraliparis mento in having an oblique mouth and the uppermost pectoral-fin base below a horizontal through the posterior margin of the maxillary. However, P. flammeus differs from P. mento in having six caudal-fin rays (vs five rays) and greater preanal length (29.9–35.3% SL vs 26.7–28.5% SL). A poorly known species, Paraliparis mandibularis , previously known from only two specimens collected from Tosa Bay, southern Japan, is redescribed based on the holotype and seven newly collected specimens. It is also similar to the new species but has 27–30 pectoral-fin rays and a shorter pectoral-fin lower lobe (13.8–15.9% SL in P. mandibularis vs 16.7–23.4% SL in P. flammeus ).
... The genus was originally described by Ishiyama (1958) as a subgenus of Breviraja Bigelow & Schroeder, 1948, but later elevated to generic rank by . Most species of Bathyraja occur in deep water, with at least 25 species being distributed in the North Pacific (e.g., Japan to California) Ishiyama & Ishihara, 1977;Ishihara & Ishiyama, 1985, 1986Stehmann, 1986;Ebert & Compagno, 2007;Orr et al., 2011;Grigorov & Orlov, 2013;Last et al., 2016;Weigmann, 2016). The genus is characterized by a combination of several morphological characters: pelvic fin moderately incised, with anterior and posterior lobes; tail with two small dorsal fins and caudal fin; rostral cartilage slender with small appendices, unsegmented at base; snout tip without a small fleshy process; anteriormost portion of pectoral-fin skeleton almost reaching snout tip; tail thorns in a single series (Ishiyama, 1958(Ishiyama, , 1967McEachran & Miyake, 1990;McEachran & Dunn, 1998;Jeong & Nakabo, 2009;Last et al., 2016). ...
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... Bathyraja spinosissima (Beebe and Tee-Van 1941), the Pacific White Skate, is a rare arhynchobatid skate known from only a few specimens around the world, ranging from the type locality off Cocos Island, Costa Rica, and the Galapagos Ridge to Waldport, Oregon, in the 37 Citation eastern Pacific (Beebe 1926; Provost and others 2015; Last and others 2016; Eschmeyer and others 2017; Salinas-de-Lé on and others 2018). It has also been reported from the Sea of Okhotsk off Kamchatka (Dudnik and Dolganov 1992;Dolganov 1999;Dolganov and Tuponogov 1999;Sheiko and Fedorov 2000;Parin 2001;Fedorov and others 2003;Grigorov and Orlov 2013;Parin and others 2014;Ebert and others 2017) and the northern Kuril Islands (Pitruk and Fedorov 1990) in the western Pacific, although these records may represent a different species (Ebert 2003;Provost and others 2015;Last and others 2016). Living at depths of 800 to 2938 m, B. spinosissima is thought to be one of the deepest-dwelling skates worldwide (Ebert 2003; Salinas-de-Lé on and others 2018), second only to B. microtrachys. ...
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Издание состоит из шести тематических глав по физической географии, океанологии, гидрометеорологии, фауне и экологии, истории исследований и экономической освоенности акватории моря Лаптевых и прилегающих территорий. В атласе отражена подробная информация о типизации берегов моря Лаптевых, а также приведены актуальные сведения о морских млекопитающих и птицах, основанные на пятилетних результатах научно-исследовательской деятельности ПАО НК Роснефть в Арктике.
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Приведены результаты многолетних (1963–2015) исследований пространственного и вертикального распределения, динамики численности и размерного состава фиолетового ската Bathyraja violacea в северной части Тихого океана. Данный вид наиболее многочислен на глубинах 100–400 м; в холод- ное время года мигрирует на бóльшие глубины на зимовку, в тёплое – нагуливается на меньших глу- бинах. В уловах отмечены особи длиной 12–132 см с преобладанием скатов длиной 50–80 см. Самцы от самок по массе и длине тела существенно не отличаются. Упитанность особей понижается от ян- варя к августу, а с сентября начинает увеличиваться. Среди скатов длиной до 30 см преобладают самцы, в размерных группах 30–60 и >70 см – самки, почти равное соотношение полов наблюдается в размерной группе 60–70 см. Динамика уловов фиолетового ската в разных районах различается: в западной части Берингова моря и в Охотском море в течение периода исследований уловы последо- вательно росли, в прикурильских и прикамчатских водах Тихого океана увеличение уловов до сере- дины 1980-х – начала 1990-х гг. сменилось снижением их величины, в восточной части Берингова моря пик уловов пришёлся на середину 1970-х гг. с последующим снижением.
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This work is the sequel to a paper by Parin (2001), treating the species composition of the orders Myxiniformes-Gasterosteiformes, represented in marine waters of Russia by 95 families, 226 genera and 361 species. The present investigation deals with 12 families of the order Scorpaeniformes - Sebastidae (2 genera / 20 species), Scorpaenidae (1/2), Dactylopteridae (2/2), Triglidae (3/5), Anoplopomatidae (2/2), Hexagrammidae (2/8), Cottidae (43/102), Hemitripteridae (4/6), Psychrolutidae (5/13), Agonidae (17/27), Cyclopteridae (6/20), and Liparidae (20/96); in total 102 genera and 303 species. References to original descriptions of all valid genera, species and subspecies are provided (according to Eschmeyer, 1998), along with synonymized names. Bibliography of particular species mainly includes review articles and regional lists of species, as well as works introducing new binomial combinations or concrete data on records of rare species.
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Six years of bottom-trawl survey data, including over 6000 trawls covering over 200 km2 of bottom area throughout Alaska's subarctic marine waters, were analyzed for patterns in species richness, diversity, density, and distribution of skates. The Bering Sea continental shelf and slope, Aleutian Islands, and Gulf of Alaska regions were stratified by geographic subregion and depth. Species richness and relative density of skates increased with depth to the shelf break in all regions. The Bering Sea shelf was dominated by the Alaska skate (Bathyraja parmifera), but species richness and diversity were low. On the Bering Sea slope, richness and diversity were higher in the shallow stratum, and relative density appeared higher in subregions dominated by canyons. In the Aleutian Islands and Gulf of Alaska, species richness and relative density were generally highest in the deepest depth strata. The data and distribution maps presented here are based on species-level data collected throughout the marine waters of Alaska, and this article represents the most comprehensive summary of the skate fauna of the region published to date.
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The sea ice cover decreases and human activity increases in Arctic waters. Fisheries and bycatch issues, shipping and petroleum exploitation (pollution issues) make it imperative to establish biological baselines for the marine fishes inhabiting the Arctic Ocean and adjacent seas (AOAS). Species richness, zoogeographic affiliations and Red List statuses among chondrichthyan fishes (Chondrichthyes) were examined across 16 AOAS regions as a first step towards credible conservation actions. Published literature and museum vouchers were consulted for presence/absence data. Although many regions are poorly sampled, 49 chondrichthyan species have been reported from the AOAS. Skates and rays are the most species-rich taxon, represented by 27 species in family Rajidae and one species in family Dasyatidae. The sharks comprise 20 species in 13 families and the chimaeras one species in family Chimaeridae. The Norwegian Sea (28), Barents Sea (19) and Bering Sea (18) are particularly species-rich, and despite similar species numbers the two latter seas have no species in common. The remaining AOAS regions are inhabited by six species or less. Large-scale commercial fisheries for chondrichthyans are yet to be developed in the AOAS, but the precautionary principle should be implemented as abundances, basic taxonomy and biology are still largely unknown.
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The generic status of many skate species has been revised during the past six decades by various authors having introduced new diagnostic morphological and anatomical characters. As a consequence, the original family Rajidae and its very diverse type genus Raja Linnaeus, 1758 have been split into several families, subfamilies, genera and subgenera which were in several cases provisionally established due to the lack of specific material required. However, quite a number of species originally in Raja remained incompletely studied and still assigned to Raja sensu lato, because, e.g., mature males were not yet available for studies of their relevant clasper features. One of these species is the northern North Atlantic Raja lintea Fries, 1839 which Stehmann (1970, 1973) and Stehmann and Bürkel (1984) could not assign definitively to the updated diagnosis of any revised rajid genus, because a mature male was not available. McEachran and Miyake (1990) and McEachran and Dunn (1998) reallocated Raja lintea to the subgenus/genus Dipturus Rafinesque, 1810, respectively, without evidence or explanation given. Since a mature male of R. lintea became available, the author has reinvestigated the species, presents here its so far unknown diagnostic characters of clasper morphology and skeleton, scapulocoracoid and pelvis, and assigns the species on this basis to the genus Rajella Stehmann, 1970.
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