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The aims of this study were to test the antibacterial activity and chemical composition of Ziziphus jujuba extract. The extract was obtained using 50% aqueous-ethanol extraction solution to extract Ziziphus jujuba seeds. The extract was prepared and evaluated for antimicrobial activity against six bacterial strains by determining minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The results revealed that the 50% aqueous-ethanol extract is potent in inhibiting bacterial growth of both gram-positive and gram negative bacteria. The chemical composition of fenugreek was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). The 13-Heptadecyn-1-ol (12.95%), 7-Ethyl-4-decen-6-one (9.73%), Lineoleoyl chloride (8.54%), Linoleic acid (6.37%), 2,5-Octadecadiynoic acid, methyl ester (5.57%) and Palatinol A (4.81%) were the highest abundant compounds out of total 20 compounds were identified in the Ziziphus jujuba seeds extract.
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JOURNAL OF PURE AND APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY, Nov. 2013. Vol. 7(Spl. Edn.), p. 379-385
* To whom all correspondence should be addressed.
Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of
Ziziphus jujuba Seeds Extract
Sherif H. Abd-Alrahman1*,
Mounir M. Salem-Bekhit2 and Manal E.A. Elhalwagy3
1Department of Biochemistry, College of Science, King Saud University,
PO Box, 2455, Riyadh, 11451, Saudi Arabia.
2Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University,
P. O. Box 2457, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
3Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Science for Girl's, King Abdulaziz University,
P.O Box 51459, Jeddah,-21453, Saudi Arabia.
(Received: 29 August 2013; accepted: 02 November 2013)
The aims of this study were to test the antibacterial activity and chemical
composition of Ziziphus jujuba extract. The extract was obtained using 50% aqueous -
ethanol extraction solution to extract Ziziphus jujuba seeds. The extract was prepared
and evaluated for antimicrobial activity against six bacterial strains by determining
minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The results revealed that the 50% aqueous -
ethanol extract is potent in inhibiting bacterial growth of both gram-positive and gram
negative bacteria. The chemical composition of fenugreek was analyzed by gas
chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). The 13-Heptadecyn-1-ol (12.95%), 7-Ethyl-
4-decen-6-one (9.73%), Lineoleoyl chloride (8.54%), Linoleic acid (6.37%), 2,5-
Octadecadiynoic acid, methyl ester (5.57%) and Palatinol A (4.81%) were the highest
abundant compounds out of total 20 compounds were identified in the Ziziphus jujuba
seeds extract.
Key words: Ziziphus jujuba, Chemical Composition, GC-MS, Antibacterial activity.
Plants are an essential part of human
society since the civilization started. Plant materials
remain an important resource to combat serious
diseases in the world. The traditional medicinal
methods, especially the use of medicinal plants,
still play a vital role to cover the basic health needs
in the developing countries. The medicinal value
of these plants lies in some chemical active
substances that produce a definite physiological
action on the human body. In the last decades,
various plant extracts have been the focus of great
interest from researchers because they represent
natural resources of new antibacterial agents with
possibly novel mechanisms of action. The potential
use of these products as an alternative for the
treatment of several infectious diseases has been
extensively screened. They are effective in the
treatment of infectious diseases while
simultaneously mitigating many of the side effects
that are often associated with synthetic
antimicrobials5. Therefore, it is of great interest to
carry out a screening of these plants in order to
validate their use in folk medicine and to reveal the
active principle by isolation and characterisation
of their constituents. Systematic screening of them
may result in the discovery of novel active
The Ziziphus species (Rhamnaceae
family) are considered to be multipurpose plants
and have been used as foods, folklore medicines,
the environmental protection plants, etc.1. Ziziphus
jujuba Mill. (Rhamnaceae) mainly distribute in the
tropical and subtropical regions of Asia and have
been employed as essential oriental medicine for
thousands of years. Different parts of the plant
could be used as remedies in insomnia, fever,
diarrhoea, wounds and ulcer, in which the fruits
were claimed to be beneficial to purify the blood
and aid digestion2,3. Also it has been widely
distributed in northern China. Its fruits and seeds
are usually applied in traditional medicine (TCM)
for the treatment of various diseases, such as
anorexia, lassitude, insomnia, anxiety, etc.4, and
many studies about their chemical constituents5-7
as well as pharmacology activities8, 9 have been
A lot of extraction methods and analytical
methods such as spectrophotometry, high
performance liquid chromatography, capillary
electrophoresis, gas chromatography (GC) with
flame ionization detection (FID), gas
chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) are
developed for plant active compounds study. The
combination of an ideal separation technique (GC)
with the best identification technique (MS) made
GC/MS an ideal technique for qualitative and
quantitative for volatile and semi-volatile
compounds. In addition, the use of a proper
extraction method is needed.
This study aimed to evaluate the
antimicrobial activity of Z. jujuba extracts and
identify the active compounds of Z. jujuba seeds
extract. To our knowledge this is first report on the
study of antimicrobial components extracted from
Z. jujuba seeds against the clinical Pathogens
action. The assessment might provide a basis for
searching the potent active compounds for the
antimicrobial related search and improve the
therapeutic application of Ziziphus species.
Preparation of extracts
The Fresh Ziziphus seeds, was
purchased from a local market at Riyadh, Saudi
Arabia. About 100 g of fenugreek seeds were
crushed in a mortar. Exactly 10 g of fenugreek seeds
powder were soaked in 100ml of 50% ethanol water
with agitation at 40oC. The EtOH:H20 extract was
then filtered, evaporated under steam of nitrogen
using sample concentrator model Techne DB.3
(Techne, UK). The yield of the aqueous-ethanol
extract was 1.8g. Aliquot of the extract was resolved
in ethanol to a final concentration of 1.0 mg/mL.
Analysis and identification of compounds
The chemical composition of fenugreek
extract was identified according to Priya et al.10.
Chemical identification of components was
assigned by matching their mass spectra with Wiley
and NIST library data, standards of the main
components and comparing their Kovats Retention
Indices (KRI) with reference libraries11,12 and from
the literature. The component concentration was
obtained by semi-quantification by peak area
integration from GC peaks and by applying the
correction factors.
Six bacterial strains used in this study,
including Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus
as Gram positive bacterium. Escherechia coli,
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella
peunomonia and Listeria monocytogenes as Gram
negative bacterium. These organisms were
obtained from ATCC (American Type and
Collection Center). The bacteria rejuvenated in
Mueller-Hinton broth MHB (Difco, USA) at 37°C
for 18 h and then stocked at 4oC in Mueller-Hinton
Agar MHA (Sigma, USA).
Antibacterial assay
The method reported by Baqir et. al.
198513 has been adopted. The tests were run in
triplicate. Petri plates (23x23 mm) were prepared
with Trypticase soy agar and an adequate amount
of inoculum was flooded onto each plate, excess
inoculum was removed and the plates were dried
for 30 min at 37°C. Holes (6 mm diameter) were
made in the inoculated agar and filled with samples
of plant extracts, plates were incubated for 24 h at
37°C. Inhibition zones when present were
measured in millimeter (Table 2).
Antimicrobial activity assay
The Antimicrobial activities were
determined by Kirby Bauer Disc diffusion method
described by Bauer et al. 196614. The extracts were
prepared and the sterile blotting paper disc (5 mm)
was soaked in the diluted extract in two different
final concentrations (50 µl and 100 µl/disc). The
prepared disc were dried in controlled temperature
(at 37 oC overnight) to remove excess of solvent
and used for study.
Determination of Minimum Inhibitory
Concentrations (MIC)
The antimicrobial activity of the Ziziphus
jujuba extract, that shows antimicrobial activity,
were determined using microdilution broth method
as described by Brantner and Grein, 199415.
Different antibiotics [Ampicillin, amikacin,
gentamicin, kanamycin, and tetracycline (10–32 g/
ml)] were used as reference standards (CLSI, 2011).
The Ziziphus jujuba extract solution was prepared
to obtain final concentrations of 0.25-2.0 mg/ ml
for antibacterial testing. One microliter of an
overnight culture of each bacterial strain,
containing approximately 104 CFU, was applied
onto a 96-well microtiter plate in the presence of
MHB. The microtiter plates were incubated at 35°C
for 18 h. Observations were performed at least in
replicate and results were expressed as the lowest
concentration of plant extracts that produced a
complete suppression of colony growth, MIC.
With the increase in the incidence of
resistance to antibiotics, alternative natural
products of plants could be of interest. Some plant
extracts and phytochemicals are known to have
antimicrobial properties, which could be of great
importance in the therapeutic treatments. In the
last years, various studies have been conducted
in different countries, demonstrating the efficacy
of this type of treatment16. The chemical
composition of Ziziphus jujuba seeds is given in
Table 1. These seeds are a rich source of fiber and
protein. The fiber may be further classed as gum
(gel fiber) and neutral detergent fiber. The protein
fraction contains the amino acid 4-
hydroxyisoleucine, which has been proven to
stimulate insulin production. Whole Fenugreek
seeds also contain 4.8% saponins. Fenugreek seed
saponins are of steroidal nature (type
furostanolsaponins) with diosgenin as the principal
steroidal saponin.
The 50% aqueous-ethanol extract of
Ziziphus jujuba seeds were screened for their
antimicrobial activity at three different
concentration (50,250 and 1000 µg/ml) against
Staphylococcus aureus, K. pneumonia and
Listeria monocytogenes. The results showed that
the growth of B. cereus and S. aureus was inhibited
at a MIC value of 72.5 and 41.25µg/ml respectively,
followed by E. coli, P. vulgaris and K. pneumonia,
while Ps. aeruginosa showed highest MIC value
of 89.25µg/ml. The poor activity of the 50 %
ethanol/water extract against most bacterial strains
investigated in this study is in agreement with
previous reports17, 18. This could be due to the
insolubility of the active compounds in water or
the hot water could have caused denaturation of
the active compounds. It is also observed from the
results that the ethanol/water extract had wide
antibacterial activity (Table 2) against both gram
positive and gram negative bacteria S. aureus and
S. typhi, respectively, (Table 4). The activity of the
Table 1. Proximate Composition
(%) of Ziziphus jujuba seeds extract
Component Seeds
Moisture (%) 87.5
Total Soild 12.32
Ash 5.1
Carbohydrate (%) 15.45
Protein 3.31
lipid 1.3
Total Sugar (%) 12.9
Table 2. Mean inhibition zone diameter (mm) of
50% aqueous-ethanol of Ziziphus jujuba on tested
microorganisms by disc diffusion method with
respect to various concentrations in µg/ml
Bacteria 50 % Eth./H2O Extract
50 250 1000
Bacillus cereus 7.0 6.0 13.0
Staphylococcus aureus - - 10.0
Escherichia coli 6.0 8.0 17.5
Pseudomonas aeruginosa -- -
Klebsiella pneumonia - 9.0 17.0
Listeria monocytogenes - 7.0 16.5
Table 3. Minimal inhibitory concentration
(MIC) of 50% ethanolic extract of Ziziphus jujuba
seeds against different strains (µg/ml)
Bacteria MIC
Bacillus subtilis 72.5
Staphylococcus aureus 41.25
Escherichia coli 52.5
Pseudomonas aeruginosa 89.25
Klebsiella pneumonia 42.5
Listeria monocytogenes 51.25
extracts against the Gram negative bacteria is
noteworthy as these bacteria are known to exhibit
high degree of resistance to conventional
antibiotics19. The few variations in results between
the disc diffusion and MIC results can be due to
the different susceptibility of the bacterium to the
plant extract, the rate of growth of bacteria,
solvents used to extract the plant compounds and
the rate of seeds extract diffusion20.
Table 2, A side from concerns with food
quality degradation, these microorganisms may be
causal agents of intestinal infections in humans.
According to the values of microbial growth rate
in the presence of different extract concentrations,
Ziziphus jujuba extract was presented antimicrobial
capacity following the order: E. coli ~Ps.
Aeruginosa> B. cereus ~K. pneumonia> S.
aureus> E. coli and Ps. aeruginosa (Gram-
negative) were the most sensitive microorganisms
even at lower concentration. Pseudomonas
aeruginosa was the most resistant microorganism
even at higher concentration.
The MIC as low as g mL-1 of a semi-
purified fraction against gram negative and positive
bacteria is suggestive of good antibacterial
potential of the compounds of Ziziphus jujuba.
Hence Ziziphus jujuba may yield potential
molecules in the treatment of infections caused by
pathogenic bacteria which have developed
resistance against the known antibiotics, Singleton,
Chemical composition of Ziziphus jujuba seeds
Figure 1 presented the typical GC/MS
chromatogram of a total of 20 compounds were
recorded in solvent extracts as indicated in Table
4. Most of these identified compounds are playing
a role in the biological activity of natural extracts.
Some of these compounds are reported for the first
time in Ziziphus jujuba seeds. The major
compounds characterized were 13-Heptadecyn-1-
ol (12.95%), 7-Ethyl-4-decen-6-one (9.73%),
Lineoleoyl chloride (8.54%), Linoleic acid (6.37%),
Table 4. Identified compounds of 50% aqueous-ethanol extract of Ziziphus jujuba
# Retention Compound name Mol. Molecular % of Total
Time (min.) wt. Formula
1 4.475 Linoleic acid 280 C18 H32O26.37
2 5.765 AC1LC4P9 556 C34H36O73.13
3 6.657 7-Ethyl-4-decen-6-one 182 C12H22O 9.73
4 7.346 1-Oxaspiro[2.5]octane, 5,5-dimethyl-4-
(3-methyl-1,3-butadienyl)- 206 C14H22O 5.57
5 8.1 13-Heptadecyn-1-ol 252 C17H32O 12.95
6 8.549 3,5-Heptadienal, 2-ethylidene-6-methyl 150 C10H14O 3.45
7 8.641 2,5-Octadecadiynoic acid, methyl ester 290 C19 H30O24.81
8 9.502 AC1LCD4M 334 C20H30O43.28
9 10.222 Icosapentaenoic acid 302 C20H30O21.64
10 10.945 Z-(13,14-Epoxy)tetradec-11-en-1-ol acetate 268 C16H28O34.40
11 11.804 Androstan-17-one, 3-ethyl-3-hydroxy-, (5±)- 318 C21H34O21.29
12 12.067 [5,9-Dimethyl-1-(3-phenyl-oxiran-2-yl)-deca-4,
8-dienylidene]-(2-phenyl-aziridin-1-yl)-amine 414 C28H34N2O 0.98
13 12.352 Doconexent 328 C22H32O22.42
14 12.904 Columbin 358 C20H22 O61.75
15 13.465 Ethyl para-ethoxybenzoate 194 C11H14O33.75
16 15.106 Palatinol A 222 C12H14O43.84
17 24.108 Ethyl palmitate 284 C18H36O21.40
18 26.813 Linolenin, 1-mono- 352 C21H36 O43.83
19 27.37 Lineoleoyl chloride 298 C18H31ClO8.54
20 27.912 Cervonic acid 328 C22H32O20.65
- NI 16.25
seedsNI: Not identified
Fig. 1.Typical GC/MS chromatogram of Ziziphus jujuba seeds extract
Fig. 2. Chemical structure of the highest abundant compounds were identified in the Ziziphus jujuba
seeds extract. 13-Heptadecyn-1-ol (12.95), 7-Ethyl-4-decen-6-one (9.73), Lineoleoyl chloride (8.54),
Linoleic acid (6.37), 2,5-Octadecadiynoic acid, methyl ester (5.57), Palatinol A (4.81)
2,5-Octadecadiynoic acid, methyl ester (5.57%),
Palatinol A (4.81%).
The structure of the highest compounds
were identified in Ziziphus jujuba seeds extract
given in Table 4 and figure 2.13-Heptadecyn-1-ol
(12.95%), is phenolic compound and one of the
major flavour compounds. phenolic compounds
were found to inhibit the cell growth and
fermentation and used as antioxidant12,21.
Furthermore, its derivatives have also been used
for therapeutic purposes. For instance,
Hydroxymethylfurfural is a potential candidate for
treating sickle cell anemia11. Lineoleoyl chloride,
has been found to possess many interesting
pharmacological and physiological activities, such
as anti-inflammatory effects. Lineoleoyl chloride
results from the hydrolysis degradation of Linoleic
acid during extraction22. 7-Ethyl-4-decen-6-one
(9.73%), Lineoleoyl chloride (8.54%), Linoleic acid
(6.37%), 2,5-Octadecadiynoic acid, methyl ester
(5.57%) also play a role in the activity of Ziziphus
seeds extracts. While for the first time we identified
Palatinol A (4.81%) in Ziziphus seeds extracts.
Ziziphus jujuba seeds extract were found to contain
small amounts of other compounds, this in line
with other investigators23,24.
In conclusion, our study was one of very
few studies have confirmed that the antimicrobial
activity of Ziziphus jujuba seeds extract against
certain microorganisms. Results of this study
showed that the have found for the first time that
Ziziphus jujuba extracts are effective in inhibiting
the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia
coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella
pneumonia and Listeria monocytogenes.
Remarkably, they elicited no effects on
immortalized normal human foreskin fibroblasts
cells and nonmalignant epithelial breast cells.
Triterpenic acids resulted the bioactive compounds
present in the most effective extracts (ZE2 and
ZE4). Our data provide a strong rational base for
the use in Traditional Chinese Medicine of Ziziphus
extracts in the treatment of cancers. Moreover, our
results highlight that Ziziphus jujuba are valuable
fruits rich in bioactive compounds with potential
human health benefits. More experiments are in
progress to understand the molecular targets and
pathways affected by Ziziphus jujuba.
This project was supported by King Saud
University, Deanship of Scientific Research,
College of Science Research Center.
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... The highest antibacterial activity was identified against Staphylococcus aureus with 2 mg/mL (methanolic extract of jujube) minimum inhibitory concentration. Similarly, Abd-Alrahman et al. [53] and Ahmad and Beg [54] have stated that jujube extracts have antimicrobial effects on gram positive bacteria such as S.aureus. On the other hand, no or poor antimicrobial effects on gram negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli was reported by Abd-Alrahman et al. [53] and Ahmad and Beg [54]. ...
... Similarly, Abd-Alrahman et al. [53] and Ahmad and Beg [54] have stated that jujube extracts have antimicrobial effects on gram positive bacteria such as S.aureus. On the other hand, no or poor antimicrobial effects on gram negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli was reported by Abd-Alrahman et al. [53] and Ahmad and Beg [54]. ...
... Zizyphus jujuba Mill. (Rhamnaceae family) commonly known as jujube or Chinese red date has several medicinal properties, it is used as foods and remedies for insomnia, fever, diarrhea, wounds, and ulcers (Abd-alrahman et al., 2013). In previous phytochemical studies of jujube fruits, the results have highlighted a lot of their biological impacts, including the anticancer, anti-inflammatory, sedative, immunostimulating, antioxidant, antimicrobial and hepatoprotective; these effects are mainly related to the richness of this species in various constituents, including Alkaloids (Zizyphine C, D, and E) flavonoids (quercetin, catechin, rutin), terpenoids (Betulinic acid), amino acids (proline, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid), lipids (oleanolic acid, betulonic acid, oleanonic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid) sugars (glucose, galactose, and sucrose) and polysaccharides (Jiang et al., 2007;San & Yildirim, 2010;Daneshmand et al., 2013a;Elaloui et al., 2014;Elaloui et al., 2015;Damiano et al., 2017;Adjdir et al., 2019b). ...
... (Daneshmand et al., 2013a). The hydro-ethanolic extract of seeds inhibits S. aureus (41.25µg/mL; 10mm), E. coli (52.5µg/mL; 17.5mm), and K. pneumonia (42.5µg/mL; 17mm) (Abd-alrahman et al., 2013). Moreover, alphitolic acid a triterpenoid identified from leaves is a significant antibiofilm against S. mutans, a causative agent of human dental caries (Damiano et al., 2017). ...
... The result of susceptibility of bacterial isolates to leaf extracts of Z. jujuba were comparable to ciprofloxacin (positive standard) which highlighted the possibility of using the Z. jujuba leaf as either an alternative or complementary antibacterial agent in order to minimize the issue of bacterial vaginal infection of women who are resistant to the antibiotic The selected bacterial isolates used in this study has showed good susceptibility to aqueous and ethanol extracts of Z. jujuba at varied concentrations. This indicated that the activities of the extracts were dose dependent, thus showing concordance with Dubey et al. (2010) and Abd-Alrahman et al. (2013) which may be attributed to the fact that E. coli is usually resistant to most antibiotics due to permeability barriers afforded by its outer membrane that is composed of lipopolysaccharides. This was also in line with the work of Yahia et al. (2020), where higher zone of inhibition was observed on Gram positive bacteria compared to Gram negative bacteria, but contradicted the work of Abubakar et al. (2018) where Gram negative bacteria (E. ...
Full-text available
Ziziphus jujuba from the family of Rhamnaceae is widely distributed in both tropical and subtropical countries. Different parts of the plant have been used traditionally for several biological purposes including fungal and antibacterial and antidiarrheal. This study was aimed to assess the antibacterial activity of Ziziphus jujuba leaf extract against bacteria isolated from vaginal swab. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the leaves extract of Ziziphus jujuba was carried out using standard analytical methods. The aqueous and ethanol extracts of Ziziphus jujuba leaf were screened for antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli isolated from vaginal swabs using agar well diffusion and broth dilution assay. The results of the phytochemical constituents revealed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, tannins, phenols, cardiac glycosides, and terpenes in the ethanol extract while alkaloids, steroids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, phenols, and saponins were present in the aqueous extract. The inhibitory zones of the ethanol extract against S. aureus ranged between 13.00- 15.00 mm while that of E. coli ranged between 7.00- 10.00 mm at 50 and 100 (mg/ml) respectively. The inhibitory zone of the aqueous extract against the clinical isolates of S. aureus ranged from 9.00- 11.00 and 6.00-8.00 (mm) for E. coli at 50 and 100 (mg/ml) respectively. However, S. aureus was more susceptible to the extract with an MIC of 100 mg/ml. The observed inhibitory activities of the leaf extract against the clinical isolates could be due to phytochemical constituents present in the plant extracts of Ziziphus jujuba.
... Therefore, it is of great interest to carry out a screening of these plants to validate their use in folk medicine and to reveal the active principle by isolation and characterization of their constituents. Systematic screening of them may result in the discovery of novel active compounds [1]. ...
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This study aimed to determine the preliminary phytochemical component, the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of the leaves and bark extracts of Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) (Rhamnaceae) against two clinical isolates (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli species) using the standard method of analysis. The test for the phytochemical component revealed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, steroids, terpenoids and glycosides. The result of antibacterial activity showed that the bark ethanolic extract exhibit a higher zone of inhibition against all the clinical isolates; Escherichia coli species showed zones of inhibition of 22mm followed by Staphylococcus aureus 15mm. The antioxidant activity of the leaves and bark extracts was evaluated using the standard 2,2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) 0.5 ml. The antioxidant activity of the leaves water and ethanolic extracts was 30 ± 0.05 and 91 ± 0.02 respectively and the antioxidant activity of the bark water and ethanolic extracts was 44 ± 0.03 and 70 ± 0.02 respectively.
... Meanwhile, carbohydrate aid body metabolism by supplying the energy needed. The amount of carbohydrate in Z. mauritiana seed from Malaysia was found to be higher while the crude fat was similarly reported in Z. spinachristi and Z. jujuba seed (Amoo and Atasie, 2012;Abd-Alrahman et al., 2013). Hence, the seed can be a great source of energy and fiber needed for body function. ...
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Ziziphus mauritiana plant also known as Bidara in Malaysia is well-known since ancient for their usage especially in Islamic traditional medicine due to health beneficial effect. However, the nutraceutical potential of this plant remains unrevealed scientifically. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to analyse the proximate composition and to read characteristic like pH, titratable acid (TA) and total soluble solids (TSS) of Z. mauritiana fruit, leaves and seed. Based on the proximate analysis, the highest percentage of ash (9.06%) and crude protein (14.59%) were found in the leaves. Moisture content (88.32%) was the highest in fruit, while the crude fiber (48.12%), fat (1.89%), carbohydrate (63.24%) and calorific value (411.61 kJ) were the highest in the seed. Physicochemical characteristic of Z. mauritiana has shown that the fruit possess the higher value of 11.70°Brix TSS and 0.32% TA than the leaves with 0.97°Brix TSS and 0.09% TA. While the pH of the leaves and fruit are 5.47 and 4.77 respectively. Interestingly, Z. mauritiana plant can be an excellent source of carbohydrate, protein and its fiber. This study suggested that leaves, fruit and seed of Z. mauritiana can find potential applications in food and pharmaceutical product as nutraceutical ingredients.
... It is therefore our interest to report the antimycobacterial activity of these two plants which are medicinally used to treat various ailments in Tanzania including bacterial infections. The antimycobacterial activity observed from these two plants might be due tothe presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, long chain fatty acid, quinone, tarpenoids, phenols and steroids reported to exist in many Sterculia and Canthium species [17,[29][30][31][32], which according to Celis et al. [33], Meenakshi et al. [34] and Abd-Alrahman et al. [35] the mentioned compounds had shown the antimicrobial activity. Likewise, Brine shrimp lethality test which is used as preliminary test of extract cytotoxicity conducted by Wilson et al. [21] indicated that, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether and methanolic leaf extracts of the two plants are not toxic to brine shrimp cell. ...
This study aimed at investigating the insecticidal, repellent, genotoxic, and cytotoxic effects of Colocasia esculenta leaf extract (CELE). The crude extract obtained by maceration followed by fractionation was screened for the presence of phytochemicals.Insecticidal and repellent testings against colonies of Sitophilus zeamais maintained on Tropical zea Nigerian population B (TZB) Gusau POOL16 insect-free maize variety using a residual exposure method were evaluated. Brine shrimp lethality and genotoxicity assays were carried out against Artemia salina and Allium cepa respectively. Phytoconstituents were identified using GC-MS. Qualitative analyses revealed the presence of various phytochemicals. Highest total phenolic (30.16 ± 0.34 mg GAE/g), tannin (4.37 ± 0.04 mg GAE/g), flavonoid (5.10 ± 0.18 mg QUE/g) and alkaloid (11.37 ± 0.26 APE/g) contents were obtained in the ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) followed by an insecticidal LC50 value of 6.20 ± 0.57 μg/ml and a repellency rating of 6.6 ± 0.50 after 24 h exposure period making it the most biotoxic. The repellency rating was 5.5 ± 0.1, whereas the mitotic index was 16.37 with a significant (p < 0.05) chromosomal aberration value of 6.42%. The GC-MS of the EAF identified 25 compounds such as bicycle (3.1.1)heptane-2,6,6-trimethyl (17.23%), octadecanoic acid (15.10%), hexadecenoic acid ethylester (15.10%), 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid- (Z,Z,Z)- (14.09%) and ethyl-9,12,15-octadecatrienoate (14.09%). The study concluded that the potent fraction of CELE possessed bioactive phytoconstituents suggesting its use as natural alternative control agents in the integrated pest management of staple.
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Background and Purpose: Today, with increasing resistance to synthetic drugs, the demand for natural and safe alternatives to these drugs increases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial effect of ethanolic extracts of Ziziphus Jujuba, Medicago sativa, Reum ribes and Hyssopus officinalis on some standard bacteria. Materials and Methods:: This experimental study was performed in the Microbiology Laboratory of Islamic Azad University, Ahar Branch. Plants were identified by botanists after being collected from natural habitats. Extraction was performed by Soxhlet extractor and the antimicrobial effects of the extracts were determined by agar well diffusion and determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) on standard bacteria in vitro. Results: Z. Jujuba and M. sativa plant extracts have been effective on gram-negative bacteria and extracts of R. ribes and H. officinalis plants have been effective on gram-positive bacteria, with increasing the concentration of extracts, the antibacterial property increases significantly. MBC / MIC results showed that Z. Jujuba and M. sativa plant extracts were most susceptible to P. aeruginosa and E. coli and R. ribes and H. officinalis extracts were most susceptible to S. aureus and B. cereus. Conclusion: Z. Jujuba, M. sativa, R. ribes and H. officinalis plants had significant antibacterial effects, but to introduce these plants as antibacterial drugs requires more complete and comprehensive studies in vivo.
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The aims of the present study were to test the antibacterial activity and chemical composition of Trigonella foenum-graecum extract. The extract was obtained using 50% aqueous-Ethanol extraction solution to extract T. foenum-graecum seeds. The extract was prepared and evaluated for antimicrobial activity against six bacterial strains by determining minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The results revealed that the 50% aqueous-Ethanol extract is potent in inhibiting bacterial growth of both gram-positive and gram negative bacteria. The chemical composition of fenugreek was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). The hydroxymethyl furfural, gingerone, oe-curcumene, bergamotene, and gingerol were the highest abundant compounds out of total 31 compounds were identified in the fenugreek extract.
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Solanum aculeastrum. Dunal (Solanaceae) is used in traditional medicine to treat various human and animal diseases, specifically stomach disorders and various cancers, in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. The fruit and leaf extracts of this plant were investigated for in vitro. antimicrobial activity against 10 selected bacterial and 5 fungal strains. The methanolic extracts of both the fruits and the leaves showed appreciable activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria ranging from 4.0 to 10.0 mg/ml. Whereas the methanol extracts were the most active material, the water extracts showed the least activity against the bacteria. The methanol extracts were particularly inhibitory to the growth of the fungi with percentage inhibition ranging from 60.26% to 100% and 56.0% to 100% on Aspergillus flavus. and Pencillium notatum., respectively. The acetone extracts were active against Aspergillus flavus. (100%) and Pencillium notatum. (64.81%), and the water extract of the fruit significantly inhibited the growth of P. notatum. (69.89%). The most resistant organisms were Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans., and Fusarium oxysporum..
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The objective of this study is to assess the resistance status and yearly changes involved for house fly populations from six cities in Turkey. Field strains of house fly (Musca domestica L. Diptera: Muscidae) were collected in 2004-2006 from cow farms (Antalya, İzmir) and garbage dumps (Adana, Ankara, İstanbul, Şanlıurfa) in Turkey. The resistance levels of first and two generation offspring were determined against five insecticides (cypermethrin, cyphenothrin, deltamethrin, permethrin and fenitrothion). While the highest resistance level for pyrethroid was determined for Antalya 2005 strain (851.97 Cypermethrin) and lowest resistance level for Şanlıurfa 2004 strain (2.06 Permethrin), the highest fenitrothion resistance was found in Şanlıurfa 2004 strain (50.37) and lowest fenitrothion resistance was found in Adana 2004 strain (6.45). Our results showed that pyrethroid resistance levels were very high and determined a decreasing trend for Antalya and İstanbul strains and an increasing trend for Adana and Şanlıurfa strain for all tested pyrethroid insecticides from 2004 to 2006. Although cypermethrin and cyphenothrin resistance showed a decreasing trend, deltamethrin and permethrin showed an increasing trend for the Izmir strain from 2004 to 2006. The same trend was also determined for the Ankara strain except for permethrin. Fenitrothion resistance was determined to be lower than pyrethroids, but these levels were still high. Flies from cow farms were generally more resistant than those from garbage dumps. Our results also revealed the presence of strong selective pressure on the populations.
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Cleft lip and palate is a common congenital defect. It is one of the most common facial deformities occurring in major racial and ethnic groups. The aim of the present study was to record the post-surgical dentofacial deformities in operated cleft lip and palate children, as well as to assess the multitude and magnitude of their dental and other related problems so as to formulate an appropriate treatment plan for complete oral rehabilitation of these children. The present in vivo study was conducted on 50 operated cleft lip and palate children (23 males and 27 females) ranging from 3 to 14 years of age in an attempt to evaluate the post-surgical dentofacial abnormalities in these children. The study revealed that the distribution of cleft deformity is shown out of 23 male children, 11 children with unilateral cleft lip, 9 children with bilateral cleft lip palate, and remaining 3 children were with cleft palate. Out of 27 female children, 19 children with unilateral cleft lip palate, 3 children with bilateral cleft lip palate, and 5 children with cleft palate. This study showed a wide range of surgical, dental, and functional problems in all operated cleft lip and palate patients. Hence, the study concluded that the effect of timing of the cleft repair on the overall development of facio skeletal-dental structures showed insignificant differences among the various operated cleft-lip-palate children.
Effect of the aqueous extract of fresh coriander (Coriandrum sativum) seeds has been studied on female fertility in rats. Parameters included effects on oestrus cycle, implantation, foetal loss, abortion, teratogenicity and serum progesterone levels on days 5, 12 and 20 of the pregnancy. The extract at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg orally produced a dose-dependent significant anti-implantation effect, but failed to produce complete infertility. Treatment of animals during day-8 to day-12 and day-12 to day-20 of the pregnancy did not produce any significant abortifacient activity. There was no significant change in the weight and length of the foetuses delivered by rats treated with the extract and no abnormalities were seen in the organs of the offsprings. The extracts produced a significant decrease in serum progesterone levels on day-5 of pregnancy which may be responsible for the anti-implantation effect observed in this study.
The essential oil of the aerial parts of Trigonella foenum-graecum has been studied by means of GC and GC/MS. The main components of the oil were found to be ω-cadinene (27.6%), α-cadinol (12.1%), γ-eudesmol (11.2%) and α-bisabolol (10.5%).
In order to determine on the anti-complement activity of triterpenes, following eleven triterpenoides were isolated from the fruits of the Zizyphus jujuba MILL: ceanothane-type triterpenes: colubrinic acid (1), zizyberenalic acid (11); lupane-type triterpenes: alphitolic acid (2), 3-O-cis-p-coumaroyl alphitolic acid (3), 3-O-trans-p-coumaroyl alphitolic acid (4), betulinic acid (7), betulonic acid (9); and oleanane-type triterpenes: 3-O-cis-p-coumaroyl maslinic acid (5), 3-O-trans-p-coumaroyl maslinic acid (6), oleanolic acid (8), oleanonic acid (10). These compounds were examined for their anti-complement activity against the classical pathway of the complement system. Among them, compounds 5, 6, and 8 exhibited significant anti-complement activity with IC50 values of 101.4, 143.9, and 163.4 μM, respectively, whereas the ceanothane-type and the lupane-type triterpenes were inactive. This suggests that the oleanane-structure plays an important role in inhibiting the hemolytic activity of human serum against erythrocytes.
Hemicellulose residues can be hydrolyzed into a sugar syrup using dilute mineral acids. Although this syrup represents a potential feedstock for biofuel production, toxic compounds generated during hydrolysis limit microbial metabolism. Escherichia coli LY01, an ethanologenic biocatalyst engineered to ferment the mixed sugars in hemicellulose syrups, has been tested for resistance to selected organic acids that are present in hemicellulose hydrolysates. Compounds tested include aromatic acids derived from lignin (ferulic, gallic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, syringic, and vanillic acids), acetic acid from the hydrolysis of acetylxylan, and others derived from sugar destruction (furoic, formic, levulinic, and caproic acids). Toxicity was related to hydrophobicity. Combinations of acids were roughly additive as inhibitors of cell growth. When tested at concentrations that inhibited growth by 80%, none appeared to strongly inhibit glycolysis and energy generation, or to disrupt membrane integrity. Toxicity was not markedly affected by inoculum size or incubation temperature. The toxicity of all acids except gallic acid was reduced by an increase in initial pH (from pH 6.0 to pH 7.0 to pH 8.0). Together, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that both aliphatic and mononuclear organic acids inhibit growth and ethanol production in LY01 by collapsing ion gradients and increasing internal anion concentrations. © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 66: 203–210, 1999.
Eight flavonoid compounds were isolated from the seeds of Ziziphus jujuba Mill var. Spinosa. On the basis of chemical and spectral analyses their structures were elucidated as swertish (1), puerarin (2), 6‴-feruloylspinosin (3), apigenin-6-C-β-d-glucopyranoside (4), spinosin (5), 6‴-feruloylisospinosin (6), isospinosin (7), and isovitexin-2″-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (8). Flavonoids 6 and 7 are novel compounds. Rotamers exist for compounds 1, 3 and 5, which are reported for the first time. Compounds 2, 4 and 8 were isolated from this plant for the first time. Spinosin and swertish possess significant sedative activity.
This is the first report about the antibacterial activity of Hyptis martiusii Benth. In this study the ethanol extract of H. martiusii was tested for its antimicrobial activity against strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The growth of all bacterial strains tested was inhibited by the extract. The diameter of inhibition zones varied from 13 to 20 mm for the extract. The MIC and MBC values ranged from 128 to > 1024mg/mL and 256 to > 1024 mg/mL, respectively. It is therefore suggested that extracts from H. martiusii could be used as an anti-Staphylococcus agent. Compared with methicillin and gentamicin, the extract was more effective, being a promising antibacterial agent.