Late onset of clinically apparent central vein stenosis due to previous central venous catheter in a patient with inherited thrombophilia
Hemodialysis International (Impact Factor: 1.24). 12/2013; 18(2). DOI: 10.1111/hdi.12122
We describe a case of a patient with a functional kidney transplant who was admitted to our department with clinically evident central vein stenosis (CVS) 7 years after the removal of a central venous catheter (CVC) from the right internal jugular vein. The catheter was used as a hemodialysis access for a 2-month period. In the interval before his last admission, the patient suffered two episodes of deep vein thrombosis. Investigation revealed heterozygosity for factor V Leiden, the most common inherited thrombophilia encountered in 5% of Caucasians, and anticoagulation treatment was started. Magnetic resonance angiography showed stenosis just after the convergence of the right subclavian vein with the internal jugular vein to the innominate vein. Transluminal angioplasty restored venous patency and right upper arm edema resolved. Coexistence of CVS, accompanied by hemodynamic changes and endothelial dysfunction, with thrombophilia fulfill all the elements of the Virchow's triad. Therefore, the patient was at great risk for central vein thrombosis, from which he was possibly protected by the early administration of anticoagulant treatment. This case indicates that CVS can be asymptomatic for several years after CVC removal and also raises the question if thrombophilia workup and investigation for CVS may be beneficial in every patient with CVC placement in order to avoid any harmful outcomes.
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the role of wall shear stress in aspects of the formation of fibrin sheath and intimal thickening in a dog model. Tunneled silicone 14.5-F catheters were inserted into the left internal jugular vein in eight dogs. The dogs were separated into two groups according to catheter indwelling time of 14 and 28 days. All dogs underwent extracorporeal circulation three times a week. Multidetector computed tomography venography (MDCTV) examination was used to examine the catheter tip thrombus. After the animals were sacrificed, histological and immunohistochemistry evaluations were performed to confirm specific cell populations. We used computer modeling to generate wall shear stress profiles for the blood flow through the catheter. Catheter-related sheaths were identified in all catheter specimens, but there was no fibrin sheath around the catheter tip. There were also differences in wall shear stress between the different venous wall sites. Differences in vein wall thickening at different sites have been found at both 14 days (intima to media (I/M) ratio S1 vs S2: p = 0.01, S3 vs S4: p<0.01) and 28 days (I/M ratio S1 vs S2: p<0.01, S3 vs S4: p<0.05). After catheter placement, fibrin sheath formation partially covered the catheter. Meanwhile, focal areas of intimal thickening were also seen in the venous wall adjacent to the sites of high wall shear stress. These findings indicate an important role of wall shear stress profiles in fibrin sheath formation and intimal thickening.
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