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A review of the nomenclature and typification of Canary Islands endemic palm, Phoenix canariensis (Arecaceae).

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... Canary Island date palms (Phoenix canariensis Wildpret ex Chabaud) are endemic to the Canary Islands off of the west coast of Africa [48]. In its natural setting, P. canariensis will grow to about 18-20 m in height, with a stem usually of 0.6 to 0.8 m, but can grow up to 1.2 m diameter. ...
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Canary Island date palms (Phoenix canariensis) have been planted as a landscaping feature plant throughout warm, temperate, and subtropical climates. The physical amenity provisioning of this species (shade effects, microclimate amelioration, water usage, etc.) has so far not been systematically assessed. This paper reports on temperature and humidity measurements in both a suburban and a rural location in SE Australia. The study demonstrates the effects of the palm canopy as regulator of humidity and provider of shade and, thus, amenity values in urban landscape settings. Drawing on published energy savings and growth requirements of the plant, the paper argues that Canary Island date palms are landscaping plants suitable to ameliorate the microclimate in urban neighborhoods with varied socio-economic conditions.
... Phoenix canariensis H.Wildpret) (family Arecaceae) (Rivera et al., 2013), the Canary Island Date Palm, is endemic to the Canary Islands (Lipnitz & Kretschmar, 1994;Sosa et al., 2016). It entered the nursery trade in the mid-1860s and soon found wide acceptance on a global scale, first as an indoor and warm-house plant, and soon after as a landscaping feature in private and public spaces (Spennemann, 2018d(Spennemann, , 2019bZona, 2008). ...
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The recruitment processes and resulting distribution pattern of bird-dispersed Canary Island Date Palm, Phoenix canariensis (family Arecaceae) in a riverine forest setting are described. All palms on a near-urban peninsula of the Murrumbidgee River near Hay, New South Wales were GPS mapped and classified into height-dependent age categories. The distribution of the plants was examined spatially in relation to possible source palms and in relation to elevation with regard to flooding levels. Successful recruitment is subject to a range of environmental parameters, primarily palatability to vectors and seedling mortality due to lack of moisture, frost or grazing by herbivores. If a seedling survives that critical period of the first 18 months, long-term success is (almost) guaranteed, unless catastrophic events (bushfires, prolonged flooding) intervene. Based on the findings, a conceptual model for the recruitment of Phoenix canariensis palms is provided. Even though the palms produce fruit for much of the year (March-December), the time window for successful recruitment is restricted to a period from August to mid-September with short shoulder periods on either side.
... Seed morphology of P. canariensis is also peculiar, with seeds ellipsoidal or ellipticoblong, length 11-17(20) mm, breadth 7-11 mm, smooth, apex and base usually obtuse and bearing longitudinal striations, bearing a close resemblance to the fossil seeds from the Miocene Epoch of the Czech Republic named P. bohemica (Rivera et al. 2014b(Rivera et al. , 2020. Over decades, P. canariensis has attracted significant horticultural interest worldwide, and as a result, thousands of seeds and plants have been collected from the wild for private collections and botanical gardens (Zona 2008;Rivera et al. 2013b;Martínez-Rico 2017;Spennemann 2019a, b). The ease with which mature palm specimens can be transplanted makes them eminently suitable for "instant" gardens. ...
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The Canarian date palm, Phoenix canariensis, is one of the most representative endemic plant species of the Canary Islands, although it is better known for its significant horticultural interest because it is one of the most appreciated ornamental trees of the subtropical and tropical worlds for its ability to grow on a wide range of site types. The naturally-occurring Canarian palm groves are the most important genetic reservoir of the species. This review aims to bring together the most important advances reached in the past three decades relative to the distribution, genetics and reproductive biology patterns of this species. Currently, P. canariensis palm groves are experiencing conservation problems such as the high pressure of human activities, and invasive pests, so it is appropriate to summarize all the current knowledge to make it available for incorporation into conservation strategies.
... For the present study, 'date palm' is not a single species (Rivera et al., , 2019bCarreño, 2017); it is mainly represented by P. theophrasti in Crete, surrounding islands and continental areas of Asia and Europe (Fig. 1E), P. reclinata Jacq. in Africa south of 15°N (Fig. 1H), P. canariensis H.Wildpret in the Canary Islands ( Fig. 1B; this species became widespread as an ornamental palm after 1850; Zona, 2008; Rivera et al., 2013), the P. dactylifera 'western cluster' in the western Mediterranean and North-West Africa [including P. iberica D. Rivera,S.Ríos & Obón (Fig. 1C) and P. excelsior Cav. (Fig. 1D) in the Iberian Peninsula and P. atlantica Cheval. in the Cape Verde Islands (Fig. 1A)], P. arabica Burret (Fig. 1H) and P. caespitosa Chiov. in Somalia and Southern Arabian Peninsula, and the P. dactylifera 'eastern cluster' in North-East Africa and Western Asia (Fig. 1G). ...
Article
Our aim in this study is to build a model for the expansion of date palms (Phoenix spp., Arecaceae) that can be linked to domestication processes. Palaeontological and archaeobotanical evidence concerning date palm is extremely diversified around the Mediterranean Basin and in West Asia, mainly consisting of date fruit remains, but also including leaf fragments and other plant remains. This biological evidence is further compared with cultural evidence (coins, pottery, ancient texts) and the present distribution of Phoenix spp. in the area. Bayesian methods working with likelihood and conditional probabilities are successfully applied to generate a model for displaying in maps the ancient distribution of palm groves in terms of probabilities. The model suggests that the domestication of Phoenix dactylifera occurred mainly east of 30°E, probably in the Jordan Valley area, starting before 7 kya and, in a westward shift, that this was gradually superposed onto pre-existing local western populations of the same genus, especially in the Nile valley. It appears that this mainly affected the P. dactylifera western cluster (P. excelsior, P. atlantica, P. iberica). However, other taxa persisted as independent species (P. theophrasti, P. canariensis).
... Canary Island date palms (Phoenix canariensis Wildpret ex Chabaud) are endemic to the Canary Islands off the west coast of Africa (Rivera et al., 2013). Introduced into the European nursery trade in the 1860s (Spennemann, 2019a), they found ready acceptance as feature trees in private and urban parks and were employed for effect as linear plantings in streets and on promenades (e.g. at Nice or Cannes) during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century (Spennemann, 2018a;Zona, 2008), so much so that they are now distributed throughout the warm temperate climates (Spennemann, 2018b). ...
Technical Report
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There are no comprehensive published studies that document the growth rates of Phoenix canariensis palms in south-eastern Australia. The opportunity arose to measure a commercial plantation of 110 Phoenix canariensis palms near Wodonga (Victoria) which was planted as a retirement investment, to be harvested only when the palms have a sizeable, 5 m tall stem. The aim of this document is to place on record the heights of the palms as they present themselves in March 2020, in order to allow for a re-documentation in five years’ time
... Distributed by the horticultural industry since the mid 1860s, and planted out in the open from the 1890s until the present, the Canary Island date palm (Phoenix canariensis Wildpret ex Chabaud) (Arecaceae) ( Rivera et al., 2013) has become a common landscaping element favoured by those wishing to give their area an exotic feel (Spennemann, 2018a(Spennemann, , 2019bZona, 2008). They have been employed as feature trees in private and public gardens as well as in the form of street trees lining avenues and boulevards. ...
Article
Accelerating human intervention has seen the creation of novel ecosystems through intentional planting and adventitious establishment of exotic species. One hundred and fifty years after its commercialisation by the horticultural industry, the Canary Island date palm (Phoenix canariensis) has become one of the most ubiquitous ornamental palm species throughout all temperate zones. Even though it has become naturalised in many parts of the world, colonising natural as well as managed landscapes, little is known about the vectors responsible for dispersal. This paper reviews the state of knowledge of vertebrate species utilising P. canariensis as habitat and those that feed on the palm’s drupes and disperse their seeds. Globally, P. canariensis forms a major urban habitat for invasive species. The significant dispersers are canids and three families of larger volant birds (Artamidae, Columbidae, and Corvidae). The review demonstrates that the majority of vectors consume the fruit on the tree or on a close-by perch, thereby contributing little to medium or long range dispersal. A few avian and terrestrial species facilitate long-distance dispersal, even though they too deposit the majority of seed close to the source. The paper postulates a conceptual model where effective dispersal success of a horticultural plant is governed not only by the established factors of distance of dispersal quantity of seeds dispersed and seed viability, but significantly also by the ability of a vector species to span several habitat boundaries (e.g. from urban to production landscapes or remnant vegetation) and to deposit multiple seeds at tightly defined locations.
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Five new alien taxa are here recorded from Tunisia. Reported taxa (Livistona chinensis, Phoenix canariensis, P. reclinata, P. theophrasti and Washingtonia robusta) belong to the subfamily Coryphoideae (Arecaceae). Updated nomenclature, brief descriptions, general and national distributions are provided for each species. Livistona chinensis and Phoenix theophrastiare here reported for the first time in North Africa. Identification keys are also provided.
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Phoenix palms cover more than 1.3 million hectares in the Mediterranean, Middle East, and North Africa regions and they represent highly valued assets for economic, environmental, and cultural purposes. Despite their importance, information on the number of palm trees and the palm distribution across different scenes is difficult to obtain and, therefore, limited. In this work, we present the first region-wide spatial inventory of Phoenix dactylifera (date palm) and Phoenix canariensis (canary palm) trees, based on remote imagery from the Alicante province in Spain. A deep learning architecture that was based on convolutional neural networks (CNN) was implemented to generate a detection model able to locate and classify individual palms trees from aerial high-resolution RGB images. When considering that creating large labeled image datasets is a constraint in object detection applied to remote sensing data, as a strategy for pre-training detection models on a similar task, imagery and palm maps from the autonomous community of the Canary Islands were used. Subsequently, these models were transferred for re-training with imagery from Alicante. The best performing model was capable of mapping Phoenix palms in different scenes, with a changeable appearance, and with varied ages, achieving a mean average precision (mAP) value of 0.861. In total, 511,095 Phoenix palms with a probability score above 0.5 were detected over an area of 5816 km2. The detection model, which was obtained from an out-of-the-box object detector, RetinaNet, provides a fast and straightforward method to map isolated and densely distributed date and canary palms—and other Phoenix palms. The inventory of palm trees established here provides quantitative information on Phoenix palms distribution, which could be used as a baseline for long-term monitoring of palms’ conditions. In addition to boosting palm tree inventory across multiple landscapes at a large scale, the detection model demonstrates how image processing techniques that are based on deep learning leverage image understanding from remote sensing data.
Article
With drupes too acrid for human consumption, Canary Islands Date Palms (Phoenix canariensis) are primarily known for their use as ornamental palms in private and public settings. Little is known about the non-food uses of the leaves, stems and roots of Canary Islands Date Palms. This paper summarises the provisioning services of Canary Island Date Palms.
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With the increasing expansion in urban areas, many species have adapted to utilising horticulturally used plants as alternate or augmentary food sources, in particular, during winter – when native foods are largely absent. Ornamental palms, particularly Canary Island Date Palms, fruit continuously during most of the year and thus provide a stable food supply. Based on observational, metric and bio-chemical data, this paper examines the role Canary Island Date Palms can and do play in the nutrition of frugivorous animals, in particular, for birds. It demonstrates that with its nearly year-round provisioning of drupes, the palm plays a major role as a ‘staple’ and backup food source for several species.
Article
Thirteen species are treated including one new species from the Andaman Islands, P. andamanensis, and two varieties within P. loureiri, var. loureiri and var. humilis. Species limits and distributions are defined, and aspects of morphology and lamina anatomy are examined in relation to ecology. Systematic analyses of the genus combine data from studies of morphology and lamina anatomy with DNA sequence data of the 5S spacer region (nuclear ribosomal DNA). The origin of P. dactylifera is discussed in the light of the results of the systematic analysis.
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