Gestational Diabetes Mellitus GDM in the Republic of Kosovo: a Retrospective Pilot Study

Article (PDF Available)inMedical Archives 67(2):88-90 · December 2013with85 Reads
DOI: 10.5455/medarh.2013.67.88-90 · Source: PubMed
GDM is a condition in which women without previously diagnosed diabetes exhibit high blood glucose levels during pregnancy. Pregnancy causes some insulin resistance in all women, but only a few develop GDM. To test the hypothesis that women with GDM have impaired regulation of blood iron storage and transport, decreased renal function due to decreased glomerular filtration rate and occurrence of urinary tract infection (UTI). Incidence of blood iron storage was investigated in n=30 pregnant kosovar women with GDM after mild of pregnancy and in n=30 pregnant women without GDM (years 2010-2012). Baby weights, both systolic and diastolic BP, creatinine, albumin, lymphocytes, monocytes, WBC and granulocytes in both groups were within their normal ranges in both groups. Compared to control group, glucose was higher in women with GDM (mean +/- SD: 7.43 +/- 2.23 mg/dL vs. 4.33 +/- 0.63 mg/dL; P < 0.001). Women with GDM had also higher RBC (mean +/- SD: 4.4 +/- 0.8% vs. 3.8 +/- 0.3%; P < 0.005) and HGB (mean +/- SD: 13.0 +/- 3.2 g/dL vs. 11.2 +/- 1.4 mg/dL; P < 0.05), and decreased renal functionality (MDRD-GFR: 92.8 +/- 25.8 g/dL vs. 108.2 +/- 38.2 g/dL; P < .05). There is a potential association between iron status and GDM. The role of iron from diet and/or from supplementation in GDM pathogenesis needs still to be examined. In addition we have observed a decrease of glomerular filtration rate in women with GDM. Due to the lack of studies on the relationships between GDM and UTI, and to the retrospective design of the present investigation, it is difficult to establish whether UTI may be a GDM causal factor or a consequence of GDM symptoms, signs and/or of its correlated pathologies.

Full-text (PDF)

Available from: Giangiacomo Beretta
    • "Additionally, RBC alterations have been linked to increased oxidative states and levels of inflammatory markers. A study of 60 pregnant women (30 with GDM and 30 w/o GDM) in Kosovo showed that women with GDM had higher RBC counts compared to those in a control group [27], and a similar conclusion was reported in another study conducted among pregnant women in China [28]. In our current study, significantly increased RBC counts were observed among women with GDM both at fasting and a 1-h OGTT compared to counts in the control group. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: The relationship between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and oxidative stress has not been fully elucidated. This study examined the association between biomarkers of oxidative stress and GDM. Methods: We conducted a case-control study which included 36 women presenting with GDM and 36 asymptomatic matched control subjects who visited Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Centre, China, from June 2012 to December 2012. Pregnant women were prospectively recruited to the study, and blood samples were collected at the time of a routine oral glucose tolerance test. These samples were then analyzed for levels of endocrine and surrogate markers of oxidative stress. Results: Compared to control subjects, women with GDM exhibited elevated values for plasma glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance (IR), and showed reduced HOMA pancreatic β-cell function (HOMA-B), insulin sensitivity index (ISI), insulinogenic index, and corrected insulin response at 24-28 weeks gestation. A bivariate logistic regression analysis showed that levels of high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP) and high fluorescence reticulocytes at fasting, and hs-CRP in a 1-h OGTT, were significantly associated with GDM. A linear regression analysis showed that levels of hs-CRP (P = 0.003) and reticulocytes (P = 0.029) at fasting were associated with IR, and levels of hs-CRP (P = 0.002) and monocytes (P = 0.006) in a 1-h OGTT were associated with ISI. Conclusions: Pregnant women with GDM developed a pathological IR and exhibited β-cell dysfunction. Their decreased ability to compensate for oxidative stress was associated with increased IR and a reduced ISI, which might be important factors in GDM.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015