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Schwartz, N. H., Scott, B. M., & Holzberger, D. (2013). Metacognition: A Closed-Loop Model of Biased Competition–Evidence from Neuroscience, Cognition, and Instructional Research. In International Handbook of Metacognition and Learning Technologies (pp. 79-94). Springer New York.

Chapter

Schwartz, N. H., Scott, B. M., & Holzberger, D. (2013). Metacognition: A Closed-Loop Model of Biased Competition–Evidence from Neuroscience, Cognition, and Instructional Research. In International Handbook of Metacognition and Learning Technologies (pp. 79-94). Springer New York.

Abstract

In this chapter, we take the position that self-regulation and metacognition reveal an undeniable conceptual core that assumes individuals make efforts to monitor their thoughts and actions, and try to gain some control over them. In the neurosciences, the higher-order processes of monitoring and control are referred to as “executive control processes”—processes that should be evident as neurological activity within known neuroanatomical locations. From this vantage point, we closely examine two predominant cognitive models of working memory—Cowan’s embedded processing model and Baddeley’s model containing a central executive component. We conclude that the former is the best fit with research from neuroscience and explains most efficiently the findings of metacognition in instruction. Thus, we offer a model of monitoring and control as a reciprocal function of the same neurologic processes that excite and inhibit, in a recursive fashion, the regions of the brain responsible for two types of activities involved in learning—the activities involved in processing the information itself relative to the goals of a task and the activities involved in processing (evaluating and correcting) the original activities deployed to seek goal attainment, activities that are metacognitive.
... La memoria de trabajo sería el enlace entre la metacognición y el control ejecutivo del modelo cognitivo, ya que este centro permitiría la recuperación de la información de forma consciente (cuya estimulación y reconocimiento permite conducir el aprendizaje autorregulado), y si es necesario su manipulación y modificación. además, aquí se encontraría la relación con el aprendizaje, ya que si el alumno tuviese siempre el control de su aprendizaje, influenciaría en la forma en que permita o no la recepción de la enseñanza del docente [11,3]. ...
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La presente investigación, realizada entre los años 2014 y 2016, tuvo como objetivo el reconocimiento de las características del razona-miento y de la metacognición que se involucran en las competencias requeridas en el área de matemáticas, en alumnos de nivel secunda-rio de edades entre 13 a 18 años, descubriendo fortalezas y debilida-des en sus procesos de aprendizaje. también buscó evaluar los efec-tos de una intervención psicopedagógica con aportes de las neuro-ciencias. el método fue el relevamiento de funciones ejecutivas y efectividad del razonamiento abstracto en las pruebas académicas, en etapas de pre y post, experimento con un entrenamiento diseñado con pautas autorregulatorias, encontrándose algunas permanencias y desviaciones significativas en los valores de ciertas variables y en el mejoramiento del razonamiento matemático. Un abordaje y trabajo sistematizado en el aula que concomitantemente estimule y desarro-lle la metacognición, la memoria, la flexibilidad cognitiva y la inhibición comportamental en esa área de estudio durante el ciclo escolar, favo-recería mejoras en los procesos psico-cognitivos involucrados. Palabras clave: razonamiento-metacognición-autorregulación-matemáticas. Psychoneuropedagogical Study of Executive Functions in the Process of Mathematical Reasoning in a Secondary School in Buenos Aires this research, carried out between 2014 and 2016, aimed at the recognition of the characteristics of reasoning and metacognition that are involved in the competences currently required for its application in the area of mathematics in secondary level students aged between 13 and 18, discovering strengths and weaknesses in their learning processes. it also focuses on the results of a psychopedagogical intervention with important contributions from the neurosciences. the method was the research of executive functions and abstract reasoning effectiveness in academic tests, in pre and post stages, experiment with a training designed with self-regulatory guidelines, finding some permanence and significant deviations in the values of certain variables and in the improvement of the mathematical reasoning. an approach and systematized work in the classroom that concomitantly stimulates and develops metacognition, memory, cognitive flexibility and behavioral inhibition in that area of study during the school year, would favor the improvements in the psycho-cognitive processes involved in mathematical reasoning.
... self-report surveys, interviews, written responses) do not appear to fully address learners' metacognitive awareness, personal control of cognition, and motivation at a microscale. Some scholars have suggested that metacognition and SRL research could benefit from adopting a neuroscience perspective (Fernandez-Duque, Baird & Posner, 2000;Schwartz, Scott & Holzberger, 2013) and from analyzing multiple data sources from think-aloud protocols, eye tracking, and log files to more fully document metacognitive monitoring and control (Azevedo, Moos, Johnson & Chauncey, 2010;Greene, Dellinger, Tüysüzoğlu & Costa, 2013). Data mining may help model and study sophisticated International Journal of Science andMathematics Education (2016) 14:335-344 DOI 10.1007/s10763-016-9726-x metacognition and self-regulation (Baker, Corbett, Roll, Koedinger, Aleven, Cocea & Hershkovitz, 2013). ...
... Accommodating both behavioral and neuroimaging evidence, the load theory of attention and cognitive control posits that load depletes temporarily a person's self-regulation capacity (Lavie, 2000). Specifically, metacognition research suggests that individuals monitor their thoughts and the mental effort required for processing input, and try to gain some control over them (Schwartz et al., 2013). According to the resource model of self-control (Baumeister et al., 1994), the ability to self-regulate draws on a limited inner resource which is temporarily depleted through acts of self-control. ...
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