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Adjusting to Genocide: The Techniques of Neutralization and the Holocaust

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Adjusting to Genocide: The Techniques of Neutralization and the Holocaust

Abstract

In recent years, as social scientists questioned the intellectual boundaries set by customary perceptions of criminality, their discourse expanded to incorporate more than purely legalistic definitions of crime. In addition to conventional street crimes, some scholars began examining both interpersonal and collective actions and behaviors that were once considered to be outside the scope of commonly accepted definitions of criminality. For example, criminologists now study crime categorized as occupational (Albanese 1987; Cressey 1953; Green 1990; Hollinger and Clark 1983; Horning 1979; Nettler 1974; Tracy and Fox 1989), environmental (Block and Bernard 1988; Brady 1987; Stone 1987; Tallmer 1987), political (Barak 1994; Block 1989; Block and Chambliss 1981; Chambliss 1993; Quinney 1970; Schwendinger and Schwendinger 1970; Tunnell 1993; Turk 1969), and corporate (Clinard and Yeager 1980; Clinard et al. 1979; Coleman 1994; Reiman 1979; Sutherland 1949), using methodology and terminology once reserved for predatory street crime. This trend can be traced to the pioneering work of Thorsten Sellin (1938) and Edwin Sutherland (1940, 1949), who argued for broader, more inclusive definitions of criminality and less conventional approaches to the study of crime.
... These criminals were symbols of extra-legal justice and their crimes were rationalized as part of the fight against unjust authority and those who pervert legal justice (Kooistra, 1990). Alvarez (1997) employed neutralization theory to explain genocide during the Holocaust. Alongside the five original neutralization techniques, Alvarez (1997) identified denial of humanity as another technique used by ordinary German citizens adjusting to the Nazi Holocaust. ...
... Alvarez (1997) employed neutralization theory to explain genocide during the Holocaust. Alongside the five original neutralization techniques, Alvarez (1997) identified denial of humanity as another technique used by ordinary German citizens adjusting to the Nazi Holocaust. This technique focused on depictions of the out-group as subhuman: devoid of any commonalities with the rest of humanity. ...
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A number of key risk factors are associated with racist, sexist, and homophobic practices on North American college campuses. However, one additional determinant that has thus far been overlooked is male aggrieved entitlement. Using exploratory qualitative data gleaned by the Campus Quality of Life Survey administered at a large college in the South Atlantic region of the United States, the main objective of this article is to help fill a major research gap by showing that aggrieved entitlement is a correlate that warrants more attention in future empirical and theoretical work on campus climates.
... These criminals were symbols of extra-legal justice and their crimes were rationalized as part of the fight against unjust authority and those who pervert legal justice (Kooistra, 1990). Alvarez (1997) employed neutralization theory to explain genocide during the Holocaust. Alongside the five original neutralization techniques, Alvarez (1997) identified denial of humanity as another technique used by ordinary German citizens adjusting to the Nazi Holocaust. ...
... Alvarez (1997) employed neutralization theory to explain genocide during the Holocaust. Alongside the five original neutralization techniques, Alvarez (1997) identified denial of humanity as another technique used by ordinary German citizens adjusting to the Nazi Holocaust. This technique focused on depictions of the out-group as subhuman: devoid of any commonalities with the rest of humanity. ...
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We draw from Sykes and Matza's techniques of neutralization theory to interpret how Islamic State and the Levant (ISIL) soft-sympathizers justify violence perpetrated by ISIL. Data come from Tweets associated with ISIL-affiliated accounts that occurred within 24 hours of three high-profile ISIL-attributed attacks: Paris, Nice, and Orlando. Our findings suggest that condemnation of the condemners was a particularly salient neutralization technique used to point out the perverse motives and inconsistent behaviors of Western armed forces, media, and the public. More specifically, we found that the condemnation of the condemners was underlined by three specific claims: (1) comparable violence, (2) selective silence, and (3) differential humanity. Together, these claims intended to display the perceived hypocrisy of ISIL condemners, to undermine the moral credibility of the West, and to serve as the foundation for justifying ISIL-attributed violence. We conclude with theoretical implications and suggestions for policy and practice.
... Mağdurun reddi, suçu faillerden mağdurlara kaydırmak gibi bir etkiye de sahip olabilmektedir. Kurbanlar başlarına gelenleri hak ettiyse, o zaman gerçekte onlar kurban değil, kışkırtıcı konumuna düşmektedirler (Alvarez, 1997). Bu demektir ki, Hutular Tutsileri düşman haline getirdiğinde, soykırım nefsi müdafaa imajına bürünebilir. ...
... 34 Uo. 6. oldal. 35 Korábban is készültek tanulmányok, elemzések a népirtás és a neutralizációs technikák magyarázatáról, például: Alvarez 1997, Neubacher 2006 állítva, hogy saját személye, a családja vagy az azonos etnikai csoportból származó személyek fenyegetettsége miatt és félelem hatására követte el tettét. ...
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Az igazságszolgáltatási szervek, valamint a média és a közvélemény egyaránt gyakran bocsátkozik áldozathibáztatásba, amikor sérülékeny kisebbségek tagjai válnak bűncselekmény sértettjévé. Az áldozathibáztatást a másodlagos viktimizáció egyik formájának tekintjük. Ilyenkor a társadalom a bűncselekmények sértettjeit másodszor is cserben hagyja, sérelmüket bagatellizálva, valamint az elkövetők felelősségét kisebbítve, a velük szembeni állami rosszallást – akár büntető szankció formájában – nem kellően kifejezve. A tanulmány első részében ismertetjük az áldozathibáztatás fogalmának történetét, és bemutatjuk az áldozathibáztatás széleskörűen elterjedt társadalmi jelenségét. Mivel az áldozathibáztatást magyarázó elméletek sorából kiemelkedik a feminista irodalom, áttekintjük ennek tanításait a nőkkel szembeni elnyomás és a szexuális jellegű bűncselekmények vonatkozásában. Ezután általában a kisebbségi csoportokkal szembeni intézkedésekkel és erőszakoscselekményekkel foglalkozunk. Tanulmányunk második felében régi és új elméletek fényében térképezzük fel az áldozathibáztatás lehetséges magyarázó okait és húzóerejét, abban a reményben, hogy a megértés hozzásegít az áldozatokra és az egész társadalomra nézve rendkívül káros jelenség leküzdéséhez.
... Розглядаючи злочин геноциду як історичне явище, доводиться визнати, що він має демонструвати певні універсальні особливості, однаковою мірою характерні для кожного з усіх окремих випадків геноцидних дій. Як влучно зауважив російський та американський соціолог П.Сорокін (1889-1968 рр.), «неповторюваний у цілому історичний процес складається з повторюваних елементів» 1 . Так само, як усі революції, що відбулися у світі впродовж ХІХ-ХХ ст., мали помітні спільні риси, усі геноциди ХХ ст. ...
... Aus der Kriminologie wissen wir, dass Täter dazu neigen, ihre eigene Verantwortung zu minimieren und Unrecht wie Opfer zu leugnen. In diesem Zusammenhang sind die "Neutralisationstechniken" von Sykes & Matza zu erwähnen (Sykes & Matza 1957;Alvarez 1997;Neubacher 2006a). Diese umfassen das Leugnen der Verantwortung ("denial of responsibility"), das Leugnen des Unrechts ("denial of injury"), das Leugnen des Opfers ("denial of victim") und die Anrufung höherer Verbindlichkeiten ("appeal to higher loyalties"). ...
... And McDoom (2011) determines, through a study of 3,426 residents from one Rwandan community, that participants often lived in the same neighborhood or household as other participants, suggesting intra-Hutu social influence as the driving mechanism for murder here, too. Similar arguments have been made in studies of other cases, including the former Yugoslavia (Gagnon 1995;Kuran 1998;Somer 2001), Cambodia (Hinton 1998(Hinton , 2004, and the Holocaust, particularly Browning's (1998) The final approach requires the dehumanization of a victim group predating the violence (Alvarez 1997;Fein 1979;Hagan and Rymond-Richmond 2008;Hilberg 1992). Classically defined by Fein (1979Fein ( , 1993 as the construction of others as outside the "moral universe of obligation," dehumanization is said to explain genocide because those doing the killing do not see their neighbors as people anymore. ...
Preprint
Preprint, final version in Sociological Theory available at: http://stx.sagepub.com/content/33/2/148.fullThis article is about behavioral variation in genocide. Research frequently suggests that violent behaviors can be explained by or treated as synonymous with ethnic categories. This literature also tends to pre-group actors as perpetrators, victims, or bystanders for research purposes. However, evidence that individuals cross boundaries from killing to desistance and saving throughout genocide indicates that the relationship between behaviors and categories is often in flux. I thus introduce the concept of behavioral boundary crossing to examine when and how Hutu in 1994 Rwanda aligned with the killing behaviors expected of them and when and how they did not. I analyze interviews with 31 Hutu, revealing that transactional, relational, social-psychological, and cognitive mechanisms informed individuals’ behaviors during the genocide. The result is a dynamic theory of action that explains participation without homogenizing individual experience due to presumptions about behavioral and categorical alignment.
Article
Music plays an important role in both the right-wing extremist and the Salafi jihadist scenes as a unifying and radicalizing factor. It is used to share propaganda and highlight specific ideologies. Music is disseminated by various means, e.g. via social media, and used strategically to attract potential new members. The aims of right-wing extremist music and the Salafi jihadist nasheeds are, among other things, to inspire the youth, reach out to a worldwide audience of potential sympathizers, and disseminate their absolutist worldview. To achieve these goals, seemingly objective depictions of negative everyday experiences, of oppression, and the need for resistance are utilized. The songs are usually associated with violent content, and in conjunction with videos, they illustrate the perceived need to defend oneself. In this article, we will take a closer look at the content of four selected extremist songs. Our analysis of the content is based on a triangulation of sequential text analysis methods and identifies the differences and comparable elements of the ideologies in a final step. In addition to the content, the research aims to examine the possible effects of extremist groups’ music.
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A criminologia tradicional responde à soberania e trabalha em defesa da ordem social, de modo que obediência ao Estado é a norma, e anarquismo é o inimigo. Mas o genocídio, como no Holocausto, apresenta um terreno diferente. Esse artigo olha para os atos e julgamentos de, respectivamente, Otto Ohlendorf e Julius Schmahling através do nomos nazista. A teoria criminológica deve estar viva, humana e particular, mas ciente de sua situação no mundo, de modo que o artigo se une à escritora judia brasileira Clarice Lispector para colocar um cachorro (ou dois) para encontrar a visão do coelho que perseguiu Julius Schmahling e, assim o fazendo, questionar sobre a pedagogia do que é e/ou deveria ser a Criminologia. Se isso parece historicamente concentrado, o final nos retorna ao presente, um tempo onde terroristas clamam por lutar guerras globais em nome da pureza e da segurança, seguindo credos interpretativos não diferentes de Ohlendorf, sendo a imagem final contra soberana a da Madonna Negra.