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Hexane, acetone and methanol extracts obtained from Psidium guajava leaves were studied for their antifungal properties against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton tonsurans, Sporotrix schenckii, Microsporum canis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida parapsilosis,and Candida albicans by using the agar disk diffusion technique. Compared to control, hexane extract showed the best antifungal activity, being active against all the tested dermatophytes. Methanol and acetone extracts also showed relevant activity. The phytochemical analysis of the hexane extracts revealed the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids and coumarins, whereas alkaloids, carbohydrates and saponins were not detected. Since the bioactive compounds in the hexane extract inhibit the growth of microorganisms, it could be considered for future development of new anti-skin disease agents.
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Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 6(41), pp. 5435-5438, 25 October, 2012
Available online at
DOI: 10.5897/JMPR12.240
ISSN 1996-0875 ©2012 Academic Journals
Full Length Research Paper
Antifungal activity of Psidium guajava organic extracts
against dermatophytic fungi
Padrón-Márquez Beatriz1, Viveros-Valdez Ezequiel1, Oranday-Cárdenas Azucena1 and
Carranza-Rosales Pilar2*
1Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León,
San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, México.
2División de Biología Celular, Centro de Investigación Biomédica del Noreste, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social,
Monterrey, Nuevo León, México.
Accepted 22 March, 2012
Hexane, acetone and methanol extracts obtained from Psidium guajava leaves were studied for their
antifungal properties against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton tonsurans, Sporotrix schenckii,
Microsporum canis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida albicans by using
the agar disk diffusion technique. Compared to control, hexane extract showed the best antifungal
activity, being active against all the tested dermatophytes. Methanol and acetone extracts also showed
relevant activity. The phytochemical analysis of the hexane extracts revealed the presence of
flavonoids, terpenoids and coumarins, whereas alkaloids, carbohydrates and saponins were not
detected. Since the bioactive compounds in the hexane extract inhibit the growth of microorganisms, it
could be considered for future development of new anti-skin disease agents.
Key words: Antimycotic activity, dermatophytes, inhibition zone, crude extracts, Psidium guajava.
Many skin diseases such as tinea and ringworm caused
by dermatophytes are prevalent in tropical and
subtropical regions. In general, these fungi live in the
dead, top layer of the dermis and in moist areas of the
body. They can penetrate into the cells and cause itching,
swelling, blistering and scaling. Dermatophytes are
important causes of acute or chronic deep-seated human
infections, especially recurrent mucosal, cutaneous, or
nail infections that can be severe in debilitated or
immunocompromised individuals (Debruyne and
Coquerel, 2001; Welsh et al., 2010). However, the toxicity
of currently available antifungal therapies, as well as the
increasing of drug-resistance among the etiologic agents
has driven the research towards the study of new
antimicrobial agents from natural products (Khan et al.,
2012; Ajose, 2007). Based on reports that plants have
*Corresponding author. E-mail: Tel:
52+(81) 8190 4036. Fax: 52+(81) 8190 4035.
developed mechanisms of defense to protect themselves
against biotic and abiotic threats, including infections by
pathogens like fungi, bacteria, and viruses, recent
interest has been focused to the search of plant-derived
fungicides and antimicrobials (Gurgel et al., 2005;
Wojtaszek, 1997).
Medicinal plants are considered a rich source for
antimicrobial agents, with the advantage that most of the
natural products used in traditional medicine are readily
available in rural areas at relatively lower cost than
modern medicines (Mahesh and Satish, 2008; Mann et
al., 2008). Plants generally produce many secondary
metabolites which constitute an important source of
microbicides, pesticides and pharmaceutical drugs. In
relation to this, the common guava tree (Psidium guajava
Linn.), a member of the Myrtaceae family, has been
reviewed extensively by Gutiérrez et al. (2008) in order to
highlight the pharmacologic effects of the extracts
obtained from its fruits, leafs, bark or roots. The
investigators found that extracts from P. guajava have
antispasmodic and antimicrobial properties for the
5436 J. Med. Plants Res.
Table 1. Antifungal activity of P. guajava leave extracts
Zone of inhibition (mm)
Organic extract
Candida albicans
11 ± 2
17 ± 2
45 ± 5
Candida parapsilosis
17 ± 3
10 ± 1
25 ± 5
Cryptococcus neoformans
11 ± 1
18 ± 3
35 ± 3
Microsporum canis
30 ± 4
Microsporum gypseum,
43 ± 5
Trichophyton tonsurans
19 ± 3
44 ± 4
Trichophyton rubrum
10 ± 2
13 ± 1
50 ± 6
Sporotrix schenckii
11 ± 2
47 ± 4
*Ketoconozole was used as positive control.
treatment of diarrhea and dysentery. Additional
pharmacological properties attributed to extracts from P.
guajava include antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antialler-
gic, antigenotoxic, antiplasmodial, cytotoxic, cardioactive,
anticough, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, hypogly-
cemic and antidiabetic activities, thus, supporting its uses
in traditional medicine. Previous works have also showed
important antifungal activity of the tinctures (Dutta et al.,
2000). Because little is known about the antifungal
properties of organic extracts prepared from P. guajava
leafs, this study was performed to assess the efficacy of
the organic extracts against dermatophyte fungi.
Sample collection and processing
P. guajava (Linn) (Myrtaceae) was collected in San Nicolás de los
Garza, Nuevo León, México, during May and June, 2000; it was
identified in the Department of Botany by Dr. Marcela González
Alvarez. A plant specimen was deposited in the ethnobotanical
collection of the FCB-UANL herbarium (voucher specimen number:
Leaves from the plant were dried at room temperature, and 30 g
of the dry-powdered material were sequentially extracted by
maceration with hexane, acetone and methanol (3 times, 24 h
each). The plant:solvent ratio was 1:5 (w/v). After filtration and
concentration under reduced pressure, the percentage (w/w yield)
of extracts from P. guajava was hexane (5.5), acetone (11.6) and
methanol (19.8).
Microbial suspension
Clinical isolates of Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis,
Cryptococcus neoformans, Microsporum canis, Microsporum
gypseum, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton rubrum, and
Sporotrix schenckii were maintained at 4°C in Sauboraud Dextrose
Agar (SDA) culture medium. The dermatopyhtes were subcultured
on SDA slants and incubated at 35°C for 7 to 14 days, depending
on the microorganism. The mycelial growth was scraped aseptically
and suspended thoroughly in sterile distilled water. The suspension
was standardized spectrophotometrically to an absorbance [also
called optical density (OD)] of 0.600 at 450 nm. These adjusted
suspensions approximately corresponded to 0.5 to 2.5 103
cells/ml and were used as inoculum for antifungal susceptibility
testing (Chandrasekaran and Venkatesalu, 2004).
Antifungal assay
Antifungal activity tests were performed by using the disk diffusion
agar method (Bauer et al., 1966). Test plates were prepared with
20 ml of sterile SDA. The standardized fungal suspension was
applied on the solidified culture medium by using sterile cotton
swabs and allowed to dry for 5 min. A sterile paper disk (Whatman
AA disk, 6 mm) was impregnated with 10 μl of a stock solution (50
mg/ml) from each crude extract. The disks were aseptically
transferred on the inoculated agar plates and incubated for 48 h to
7 days, depending of the tested fungi. Antifungal activity was
determined by measuring clear zones of inhibition around the test
crude extract discs. The clear zones indicated the fungicidal effect
while fungi static effect referred to the unclear zone of inhibition.
Ketoconazole ( 250 μg) disks were used as a standard reference or
positive controls, and the solvent or empty disks were used as
negative controls. All assays were performed in triplicate.
Phytochemical screening
The phytochemical constituents of the plant were determined in
accordance with the methods described by Harborne (1984). The
colour intensity of extracts and/or the appearance of solids in them
during the identification reactions allow a semi-quantitative
evaluation of the presence of secondary metabolites.
Organic extracts from P. guajava leaves were
investigated for their antifungal effect against clinically
important dermatophytes fungi. Compared to control, the
best activity found in our investigation was observed with
the hexane extract, which inhibited all the tested
dermatophytes (Table 1). However, methanol and
acetone extracts showed relevant activity against 70% of
the strains. C. neoformans was the most sensitive fungi,
and the acetone extract was the most active (18 ± 3). M.
gypseum and M. canis were inhibited by the non polar
Beatriz et al. 5437
Table 2. Phytochemical screening of P. guajava leaf extracts.
Organic extract
Alk, Alkaloid; Flav, flavonoids; Coum, coumarins; Sap, saponins; Sesq, sesquiterpene lactones; CHO, carbohydrates; Terp, terpenoids;
(++), abundant; (+), present; (), absent.
extract, whereas C. parapsilosis was the most resistant,
with inhibition zones of 25 ± 5 mm showed by the positive
control (Ketoconozole) and 17 ± 3 mm by the methanol
The secondary metabolites that were identified in the
non-polar extract were flavonoids, terpenoids and
coumarins; only the methanol and acetone extracts
showed carbohydrates and saponins; no alkaloids were
detected in any extracts (Table 2).
Previous studies have shown the fungicidal effect of
organic extracts derived from plants, and also has been
shown that the activity of secondary metabolites may
vary depending on the type of solvent used. In
accordance with the last, antifungal activity has been
reported in polar compounds such as glycosilated
flavonoids, and saponins isolated from polar extracts
(Kim et al., 2010; Lanzotti et al., 2012), and, in non-polar
compounds, like terpenoids (Wang et al, 2011; Singh et
al., 2011).
In the present study, methanol and acetone extracts
showed comparable activity against the fungal strains;
similar results were obtained by Nair and Chanda (2007),
with inhibition zone diameters of 7.5 to 18 mm against
Candida spp and C. neoformans (9 ± 1.15), the best
antifungal activity was showed by the hexane extract.
With regard to our results, diverse authors have found
that antifungal activity relies on the organic solvents
used. For example, Machado et al. (2009) demonstrated
antimicrobial activity in the methanol extracts, while Tay
et al. (2004) and Cardoso et al. (2010) reported activity
with acetone and hexane extracts, respectively. The
observed activity for the hexane extract is acceptable,
considering that a crude extract was used, and the active
compound could be diluted. It is possible that isolating
the active compound or compounds will provide better
fungicide activity. The above results suggest that P.
guajava could be an important source of non-polar com-
pounds with antimicrobial activity. Regarding to the last,
reports about antibacterial and antifungic compounds
isolated from leaves of P. guajava showed that in the
polar extract (alcoholic), flavonoids such as quercetin and
its glycosides derivates are responsible of the strong
antibacterial activity, including against C. albicans (Arima
and Danno, 2002; Metwally et al., 2010). In the non-polar
extract (toluene), the terpenoids betulinic acid and lupeol
were isolated; these compounds showed antifungal
activity against Colletotrichum camelliae, Fussarium
equisitae, Alternaria alternate, Curvularia eragrostidies
and Colletrichum gleosproides (Ghosh et al., 2010). Both
triterpenoids have been previously reported possessing
antifungical activity against S. schenckii, M. canis, C.
albicans and C. neoformans (Shai et al., 2008). Taking
the lasts reports into account, and the similitude of our
results, it can be possible that the same compounds
could be responsible for antidermatophyte activity of the
P. guajava leaves.
The results of this study indicate that the leaves of P.
guajava contain bioactive compounds, like flavonoids and
terpenoids which inhibit the growth of dermatophytic fungi
thereby providing an additional alternative source of
antifungal compounds.
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... Most studies on the antifungal activity of P. guajava have been carried out with preparations of the leaf from the plant. Thus, extracts from this part of the plant obtained with various organic solvents or hot water elicited broad and meaningful activity against species in the genera Candida, Saccharomyces, Cryptococcus, Trichosporon, Aspergillus, Sporothrix, and Microsporum [198][199][200][201][202][203]. The antifungal activities in the leaf preparations potentiated that of fluconazole [203,204] and have been attributed to phenolic compounds including tannins, coumarins, and flavonoids such as quercetin, and/or terpenoids [198,201,203,361]. ...
... Thus, extracts from this part of the plant obtained with various organic solvents or hot water elicited broad and meaningful activity against species in the genera Candida, Saccharomyces, Cryptococcus, Trichosporon, Aspergillus, Sporothrix, and Microsporum [198][199][200][201][202][203]. The antifungal activities in the leaf preparations potentiated that of fluconazole [203,204] and have been attributed to phenolic compounds including tannins, coumarins, and flavonoids such as quercetin, and/or terpenoids [198,201,203,361]. The former supposition is supported by the activity of tannic and flavonoid fractions from the leaf against several species of Candida [204] and the inhibitory effects of plant phenolic compounds on the biosynthesis of ergosterol for assembling the fungal plasma membrane [365]. ...
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Fungi are unicellular or multicellular thick-walled eukaryotic organisms that are not capable of photosynthesis and are placed in a biological kingdom of their own. They are ubiquitous in our environment, and include tens of thousands, perhaps even millions of species of yeasts, rusts, smuts, mildews, molds, and mushrooms. Together with bacteria, fungi are the principal decomposers of plant materials such as cellulose and lignin, fulfilling vital ecological functions in all terrestrial habitats. Some species of fungi are also of major importance in households (for instance, as foods such as edible mushrooms), medicine (for instance, as producers of antibiotics such as penicillin), and industry (for instance, for making bread, wine, and cheese). About 300 fungal species cause infections in humans, varying from relatively harmless skin complaints such as pityriasis versicolor to potentially life-threatening systemic syndromes such as candidiasis. Fortunately, a broad armamentarium of efficacious antifungal drugs has been developed, ranging from topical nystatin to parenteral amphotericin B. In addition, most, if not all traditional medical systems throughout the world have identified a large assortment of plant-based remedies for treating these infections. This also holds true for the multi-ethnic and multicultural Republic of Suriname (South America), where plant-based traditional medicines are abundantly used, either alone or in conjunction with allopathic medications. This monograph extensively addresses nine plants that are traditionally used for treating fungal infections in Suriname, and explains the phytochemical and pharmacological rationales for these applications. These sections are preceded by some general observations about the Fungal Kingdom; a few words about the characteristics of fungi, their taxonomy, and their significance to humans; information about fungal infections as well as the available forms of treatment; and some details about Suriname including health aspects, the health care structure, and the main fungal infections in the country. The monograph is concluded with an evaluation of the status of the Surinamese herbal antifungal substances and the previsions of developing them into mainstream antifungal formulations.
... The leaves show presence of tannins, saponins, terpenoids, alkaloid, phenol compounds which mostly act as the antifungal compounds which can help in treating fungal infections can be favourable for some of the formulations topically. 6 Guava leaves shows antibacterial and antifungal activity on gram positive and gram negative bacteria [7] . ...
... When 10 mg/ml (wt/v) of crude aqueous mixture was premixed with ORS in the ratio of 1:7 (volume extract/volume ORS), V. cholerae growth in rice ORS was fully inhibited. Interestingly, Agar disc diffusion method was used to analyze antifungal property of guava leaf extracts against Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton rubrum, Candida albicans, Sporotrix schenckii, Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans and Microsporum canis (43). Results revealed that the hexane extract showed the strongest antifungal activity, being active against all the dermatophytes tested. ...
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Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), also known as guava, is a medicinal tree native to tropical America that has been introduced and is widely available in many countries. Almost all plant parts of P. guajava have a long history of being used to treat a variety of ailments, in addition to applications as foods. Guava leaves are used as both medicine and food purposes, and there are numerous scientific reports on their medicinal uses, chemical composition and pharmacological properties. Cancer, blood pressure, diarrhea, bowel irregularities, diabetes, cough, cold, constipation, dysentery, scurvy, weight loss, improves skins tonicity are some of the diseases treated with guava leaves. Polyphenols, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, terpenoids, glycosides, flavones, cardiac glycosides, cardenolides, phlobatanins, steroids and other classes of bioactive compounds have been identified from the leaves. The primary chemical constituents of guava leaves are phenolic compounds, iso-flavonoids, gallic acid, catechin, quercetin, epicathechin, rutin, naringenin, kaempferol, caryophyllene oxide, p-selinene etc. Several studies have demonstrated its pharmacological activities including antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antitumor, anticancer, antidiarrheal, healing, cytotoxic, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antimalarial/ anti-plasmodial, dental plaque, antiglycative and many more. This review is aimed on compiling all the literature reported on pharmacological activities and phytochemical compositions of guava leaves as a support to the scientific community for further studies and to provide scientific data to validate its traditional uses.
... Bactericidal and bacteriostatic action against Gram-positive bacteria was also demonstrated for P. cattleyanum Sabine (Alvarenda et al. 2015). The observed antifungal effect was also relevant, since all the extracts evaluated in the disk diffusion assay had an inhibitory effect for the yeast C. albicans with inhibition halos of up to 24.4 mm, which is even greater than the inhibition halos of up to 17 mm observed for P. gaujava (Padrón-Marquez et al. 2012). The strong action against C. albicans was also evidenced by the low MIC of 31.25 µg mL −1 of the extracts derived from the leaf of P. bahianum, which is less than the 50 µg mL −1 reported for the methanolic extract of leaves of P. guajava (Dhiman et al. 2011). ...
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Plant species of the genus Psidium L. (family Myrtaceae) metabolize a wide range of secondary metabolites. These are reflected in the variety of biological activities expressed by extracts and isolated components from these plants, which have aroused the interest of several researchers. The chemical and pharmacological potential of Psidium bahianum Landrumn & Funch, a species endemic to eastern Bahia State, Brazil, has, until now, not been reported. This work investigates the chemical composition and antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of extracts obtained from P. bahianum in solvents of different polarities by antimicrobial inhibition, free radical capture, Arthemia salina Leach viability, and hemolytic activity essays, respectively. Phytochemical assays revealed the presence of alkaloids, triterpenoids, steroids, saponins, anthraquinones, phenols and flavonoids. The extracts showed antimicrobial activity for the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus Rosenbach and Micrococcus luteus Schroeter and for the Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa Schroeter and Salmonella choleraesuis Smith, in addition to antifungal activity against Candida albicans Robin Berkhout. Ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts also showed high free radical reducing capacities the DPPH (≥ 80%). The samples did not demonstrate toxic potential by means of hemolytic assay, but the leaf extracts in ethyl acetate and ethanol, which presented moderate toxicity for A. salina with CL50 values of 489.80 and 323.60 µg mL−1, respectively. These findings show for the first time the chemical and biological profiles of P. bahianum extracts, contributing to the safety of their traditional use, as well as, in the long term, to the preparation of herbal medicines.
... revealed that this plant not only contains insect repellent or insecticidal compounds but also compounds with antimicrobial properties (α -Pinene, Nerolidol, Eucalyptol, Terpinene, Guiaol;Chan et al., 2016;Choudhary et al., 2007;Gilles et al., 2010;Iacobellis et al., 2005;Maciel et al., 2010;Nissen et al., 2010). In addition, the closely related tree species, Psidium guajava, has antifungal and antibacterial properties(Morais-Braga et al., 2017;Padrón-Márquez et al., 2012; ...
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Birds host a wide range of ectoparasites and have developed behavioural strategies to combat them, such as preening, dust bathing and water bathing. In addition, a wide range of avian taxa anoint their feathers with insects or plants that have pharmaceutical properties, though most observations on anointing are anecdotal. Darwin's finches preen with leaves of an endemic tree (Psidium galapageium) and a previous laboratory study has shown that this plant has compounds that repel both mosquitoes and the invasive parasitic fly Philornis downsi, whose larvae suck blood from nestlings and incubating females and cause high nestling mortality. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that preening with P. galapageium leaves serves to repel these parasites with an indirect approach. Mosquitoes and P. downsi affect their hosts mainly during the bird breeding season and P. downsi only affects breeding females, but not adult males. To test our hypothesis, we gathered quantitative data on leaf‐preening behaviour in Darwin's finches during their breeding and non‐breeding season and also investigated the influence of time of day and humidity, as humid conditions facilitate the release of volatile organic compounds. Contrary to our predictions, anointing occurred significantly more often during the non‐breeding season when mosquito and P. downsi numbers are lower. Four Darwin's finch species anointed their feathers habitually, and during the non‐breeding season, 56% of all preening events were with leaves. We found no effect of sex, but preening with leaves occurred predominately in the morning when leaves were wet. Our study is the first to provide quantitative data on anointing behaviour in birds and the high percentage of preening with leaves in the non‐breeding season suggests that the behaviour has an adaptive value. However, further studies are needed to test whether it reduces the negative impact of parasites other than mosquitoes and P. downsi.
... Methanol is the most widely used solvent in the process of isolation of organic compounds of natural ingredients as it can dissolve almost all of secondary (polar) metabolites, such as flavonoids (Sulaiman et al. 2011). Beatriz et al. (2012) report that methanol extract of Psidium guajava leaf contains flavonoids, coumarins, saponins, sesquiterpene lactones, carbohydrates, and terpenoids while the n-hexane extract of P. guajava leaf contains fewer flavonoids, coumarins, sesquiterpene lactones, and terpenoids. Therefore, the result obtained from methanol extraction was more amount than that of from the n-hexane extraction. ...
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Saryono, Octarina N, Yuharmen, Pratiwi NW, Ardhi A. 2017. Antifungal activity of the extracts and fractions of dahlia tuber (Dahlia variabilis) against pathogenic skin fungi. Nusantara Bioscience 9: 146-151. Dahlia plant (Dahlia variabilis) can be easily found in the highlands in Indonesia and its tuber has been reported to have some bioactive compounds which are potential to be utilized as an antimicrobial agent. This study aimed to determine antifungal activity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of n-hexane and methanol extracts and fractions of red-flowered dahlia tubers against pathogenic skin fungi Candida albicans and Microsporum gypseum using disc diffusion method. The n-hexane and methanol extracts and fractions of dahlia tuber showed their antifungal activity against C. albicans and M. gypseum, with the larger activity, was found in both extracts and fractions of methanol. The best fractions of n-hexane and methanol were chosen and determined their minimum inhibitory concentration; which the F5 n-hexane fraction and the F2 methanol fraction gave the MIC of 1.50% and 0.50% against C. albicans respectively, whereas both F1 n-hexane and F2 methanol fraction gave the MIC of 0.50% against M. gypseum. The high antifungal activity of F2 of methanol extract against C. albicans and M. gypseum allowed this fraction to be utilized as a medicinal drug for candidiasis and other fungal skin infections.
... The antimicrobial activity was also displayed against pathogenic bacteria associated with wound, skin, and soft-tissue infections [87]. Furthermore, antifungal properties have also been studied by Padrón-Márquez et al. [88]. The acetone and methanol extracts displayed relevant activity against dermatophytic fungi, and thus could be considered as new agents against skin disease. ...
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Today, there is increasing interest in discovering new bioactive compounds derived from ethnomedicine. Preparations of guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaves have traditionally been used to manage several diseases. The pharmacological research in vitro as well as in vivo has been widely used to demonstrate the potential of the extracts from the leaves for the co-treatment of different ailments with high prevalence worldwide, upholding the traditional medicine in cases such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and parasitic infections. Moreover, the biological activity has been attributed to the bioactive composition of the leaves, to some specific phytochemical subclasses, or even to individual compounds. Phenolic compounds in guava leaves have been credited with regulating blood-glucose levels. Thus, the aim of the present review was to compile results from in vitro and in vivo studies carried out with guava leaves over the last decade, relating the effects to their clinical applications in order to focus further research for finding individual bioactive compounds. Some food applications (guava tea and supplementary feed for aquaculture) and some clinical, in vitro, and in vivo outcomes are also included.
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Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) caused by Candida albicans and other Candida species is a high-risk event in patients admitted to hospital. Ziziphus genus is a rich source of medicinal compounds, effective for the treatment or prevention of some diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the antifungal effect of topical microemulsion containing Ziziphus spina-Christi L (ZSC) extracts against Candida spp. Z. Spina-Christi was collected and extracted in a Soxhlet apparatus using the ethanol and methanol solvents. Microemulsions were formulated by the composition of surfactant (Tween 80) along with cosurfactant (propylene glycol), oil, and water and were characterized regarding their stability. The The in vitro antifungal study was performed by measuring and comparing the diameter of zones of inhibition (in mm) against C. albicans (ATCC 3153), C. parapsilosis (ATCC 2195) and C. krusei (ATCC 573) using agar well diffusion test, for the various formulations (without extract and containing ZSC extract). The optimal microemulsion was analyzed for the average diameter of droplets, pH, viscosity and zeta potential. The microemulsion containing Ziziphus spina-Christi ethanolic extract had a significant inhibitory effect on the different species of Candida, but the most inhibitory effect was found against C. albicans. The result showed that the ethanolic extract in microemulsion was Light green and, average globule size was 2.93 mm, no separation after centrifugation at 3000 rpm for 30 min, pH at 3.8, and viscosity was 8.523cps. The results of this study indicate that the ethanolic extract has interesting antifungal properties and can used for the treatment of fungal infections. More research is required to check this plant performance to treat the patients with Candidiasis.
Psidium guajava L. is a plant widely used for food and in folk medicine all over the world. Studies have shown that guava leaves have antifungal properties. In this study, Flavonoid and Tannic fractions were tested to investigate their chemical composition and antifungal potential in vitro.21 compounds in the two fractions, presenting a higher content of phenolic compounds. The antifungal assays were performed against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei by microdilution to determine the IC50 and the cell viability curve. Minimal Fungicidal Concentration(MFC) and the inhibitory effects of the association of the fractions with Fluconazole, as well as the assays used to verify any morphological changes were performed in microculture chambers based on the concentrations from the microdilution. The IC50 of the isolated fractions and the fractions associated with each other were calculated, varying from 69.29 to 3444.62 μg/mL and the fractions associated with fluconazole varied from 925.56 to 1.57 μg/mL, it was clear that the association of the natural product with the antifungal presented a synergism. The fractions affected pleomorphism capacity and have a potential antifungal activity as they caused fungal inhibition in isolated use, potentiated the action of Fluconazole, reducing its concentration and impeding morphological transition, one of the virulence factors of the genus.
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Abstract: Essential oils (EOs) were extracted from the leaves of two Psidium guajava (P. guajava) cultivars (white and pink fruit forms) from the local fields of Faisalabad, Punjab Pakistan. Essential oils were analyzed by GC/MS and the antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-haem biocrystallisation activities were assessed. GC/MS profiles revealed 40 and 57 compounds with total percentage composition 92.55 % and 86.89 % in P. guajava white and pink cultivars, respectively. The major compounds (>5 %) found in EO of P. guajava white were caryophyllene (9.08 %), dihydrocarveol acetate (7.04 %), nerolidol (6.69 %) and caryophyllene oxide (6.18 %) whereas α-phellandrene (11.66 %), eucalyptol (10.01 %), α-terpineol (7.78 %) and spathulenol (5.71 %) in P. guajava pink. Essential oils showed moderate antioxidant potential. The P. guajava pink cultivar had comparatively high antioxidant potential than P. guajava white while both had comparable antimicrobial potential. Essential oils from both of the cultivars of P. guajava exhibited poor anti-haem biocrystallization activity. Results revealed that the EO of P. guajava pink cultivar has high phenolic content as compared to P. guajava white and thus the greater antioxidant potential. Whereas the antimicrobial potential of both was almost equal. The results also revealed that both EOs have poor antimalarial activity in comparison of standard drug. Both qualitative and quantitative variations were observed in chemical composition of both EOs.
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The methanol, acetone and N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF) fractions of leaves of Psidium guajava L. were evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activity. Piperacillin and gentamicin were used as standards for antibacterial assay, while nystatin and flucanazole were used as standards for antifungal assay. 91 clinically important strains were used for the study which were both clinical isolates as well as identified strains. The antibacterial activity was more pronounced against gram-positive bacterial and fungal strains. Moderate activity was shown against the gram-negative bacterial strains studied.
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This study evaluated the in vitro antifungal activity of the chloroform extract of Plumeria bicolor and its phytoconstituents plumericin and isoplumericin against Candida species and Cryptococcus neoformans by measuring the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC). Plumericin's consistently high activity against Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis and Cryptococcus neoformans was more potent than isoplumericin and the standard antifungal drug nystatin suggesting its potential as a drug candidate for candidiasis and cryptococcosis.
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Therapy for candidiasis is becoming problematic due to the toxicities of currently available antifungal agents and the increasing prevalence of resistance among the etiologic agents. Therefore, new antifungals and alternative approaches are needed. In this study, 20 fluconazole-resistant strains of Candida albicans were found to have varying levels of resistance to other azoles, i.e., itraconazole (MIC of 4–128 μg/ml) and ketoconazole (2–256 μg/ml). In addition, 13 of these isolates appeared resistant to amphotericin B (32–128 μg/ml). A total of 21 plant essential oils were screened for their antifungal activity against these multi-drug resistant isolates. The oils of Cymbopogon martini, i.e., citral and cinnamaldehyde, exhibited strong inhibitory activity with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC50) ranging from 90–100 μg/ml. The test oils were more effective than fluconazole and amphotericin B in inhibiting azole- and amphotericin B-resistant, as well as amphotericin B-susceptible isolates. The test oils and especially eugenol, exhibited significant synergy with fluconazole or amphotericin B against the test isolates. These findings suggest the possible effective use of certain oils alone or in combination with fluconazole or amphotericin B, against multi-drug resistant isolates of C. albicans.
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In continuation of our studies on the phytochemical investigation of medicinal plants available in the foothills of Darjeeling and Teri, we report herein the isolation of two triterpenoids betulinic acid and lupeol from the leaf extract of Psidium guajava and their potential antimicrobial and phytotoxic activities. All the structures of the isolated compounds were confirmed by spectral (IR, NMR) analysis and by comparison with the literature reports.
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Antifungal activities of Eugenia umbelliflora Berg. (Myrtaceae) were tested in vitro against a panel of standard and clinical isolates of human fungal pathogens (dermatophytes and opportunistic saprobes). Methanol extracts of leaves and fruits of E. umbelliflora were separately prepared and partitioned, to yield dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and aqueous fractions (Aq). Three compounds (1-3) were obtained from the DCM extract using chromatographic procedures. Antifungal assays were performed using agar dilution techniques. Both extracts (fruits and leaves), their DCM and EtOAc fractions, and compound 2 (betulin and betulinic acid) presented selective antifungal activity against dermatophytes (Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes), with MIC values between 200 and 1000 microg/mL, and interestingly, inhibited 4/5 species with MIC values of < or = 500 microg/mL. The aqueous fractions of fruits and leaves, and compounds 1 (alpha, beta amyrin) and 3 (taraxerol) were inactive up to the maximum concentrations tested (1000 microg/mL).
The purpose of this investigation was to establish the antifungal property of Punica granatum, Psidium guajava, Syzygium Cumini and Emblica Officinalls. Their leaf and bark tinctures was subjected to in vitro sensitivity tests by serial dilution at concentration ranging from 5% to 15% against six test dermatophytes viz. Trichophyton tonsurans, T. rubrum, Trichosporon belgeill, Microsporum fulvum, M. gypseum and Candida albicans. Bark tinctures exhibited higher efficacy in controlling the mycelial growth of dermatophytes than their respective leaf tinctures. All the tinctures showed fungicidal properties in different concentrations but exhibited only fungistatic property in case of Candida albicans.
The methanol leaf extracts of Acacia nilotica, Sida cordifolia, Tinospora cordifolia, Withania somnifer and Ziziphus mauritiana showed significant antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Staphylococcus aureus and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum and antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus, Dreschlera turcica and Fusarium verticillioides when compare to root/ bark extracts. A. nilotica and S. cordifolia leaf extract showed highest antibacterial activity against B. subtilis. and Z. mauritiana leaf extract showed significant activity against X. a. pv. malvacearum. Root and leaf extract of S. cordifolia recorded significant activity against all the test bacteria. A. nilotica bark and leaf extract showed significant antifungal activity against A. flavus , Ziziphus mauritiana and Tinospora cordifolia recorded significant antifungal activity against D. turcica The methanol extract of Sida cordifolia exhibited significant antifungal activity against F. verticillioides.
A preparative overpressure layer chromatography (OPLC) method was successfully used for the separation of two new natural compounds, 4-hydroxy-5,6-dimethoxynaphthalene-2-carbaldehyde (1) and 12,13-didehydro-20,29-dihydrobetulin (2) together with nine known compounds, including 7-methyljuglone (3), diospyrin (4), isodiospyrin (5), shinanolone (6), lupeol (7), betulin (8), betulinic acid (9), betulinaldehyde (10), and ursolic acid (11) from the acetone extract of the roots of Diospyros virginiana. Their identification was accomplished by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy and HR-ESI-MS methods. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their antifungal activities against Colletotrichum fragariae, C. gloeosporioides, C. acutatum, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum, Phomopsis obscurans, and P. viticola using in vitro micro-dilution broth assay. The results indicated that compounds 3 and 5 showed high antifungal activity against P. obscurans at 30 μM with 97.0 and 81.4% growth inhibition, and moderate activity against P. viticola (54.3 and 36.6%). It appears that an optimized OPLC system offers a rapid and efficient method of exploiting bioactive natural products.
Psidium guajava L. leaves were subjected to extraction, fractionation and isolation of the flavonoidal compounds. Five flavonoidal compounds were isolated which are quercetin, quercetin-3-O-α-L-arabinofuranoside, quercetin-3-O-β-D-arabinopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside and quercetin-3-O-β-D-galactoside. Quercetin-3-O-β-D-arabinopyranoside was isolated for the first time from the leaves. Fractions together with the isolates were tested for their antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial studies showed good activities for the extracts and the isolated compounds.
The antimicrobial activity of the hexanic extracts and fractions of fruits of Campomanesia pubescens pubescens (D.C) O. Berg and Campomanesia adamantium (Cambess.) O. Berg were assayed against six microorganisms. The hexanic extracts of C. pubescens and C. adamantium fruits were also investigated in their composition by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The results of this study showed the presence of 34 volatile compounds and flavonoids in the hexanic extract of C. pubescens and 33 volatile compounds and flavonoids in the hexanic extract of C. adamantium.