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Abstract

Academic business start-ups have great importance for economic development. However, only a small number of such new firms are founded by women. In light of this phenomenon, it is a great relevance whether entrepreneurial intentions of university students differ between genders and which contingency factors are suitable to explain these differences. To shed a light thereon, we analysed data of 1,038 German students. Results indicate that males have higher entrepreneurial intentions than females. From the potential contingency factors applied in our research, the entrepreneurial social environment showed the strongest influence on female students. The career choice motivations of male students on the other hand are characterised by the pursuit of influence, power, social recognition and status whereas the objective to achieve work-life-balance can have impedimental effects on their path towards entrepreneurship. Furthermore, both males and females seek autonomy and independence. Our endeavour is to provide arguments for educators and policy-makers to take these and other gender-specific particularities into account.

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... However, despite the fact that EI might be seen as the best predictor of future entrepreneurship, authors such as Gurel et al. (2010) and Altinay et al. (2012) are of the opinion that there are several or even hundreds of variables that may influence the EI of the individual. These variables range from the personal-level such as cognitive variables (Liñán et al. 2011a;Farashah 2015), personal and psychological variables (Gurel et al. 2010;Padilla-Meléndez et al. 2014), socio-demographic variables (Franco et al. 2010;Haase et al. 2012), and personal motivators and deterrents (Sebjan et al. 2016;Sesen and Pruett 2014), to entrepreneurship education (Buli and Yusuf 2015;Peterman and Kennedy 2003) or to the influence of contextual variables such as social capital (Fernández-Pérez et al. 2017;Trivedi 2016), or institutional factors (Farashah 2015). These variables can have a positive, negative, direct or indirect influence, or no influence, depending on many factors such as the context, the type of sample employed, etc. ...
... A) With regard to gender, numerous studies conclude that it has a direct, moderating, or mediating influence on EI; the conclusion being that women usually have a lower EI than men (see Tables 2 and 5). Some reasons for this difference are the absence of female role models (Davidsson 1995;Haase et al. 2012), the fear of failure (FF) (Camelo-Ordaz et al. 2016;Fuentes and Sánchez 2010), or the family role of women, closely linked to domestic chores. Others argue that is because women feel less valid Langowitz and Minniti 2007) or have a lower ability to detect opportunities (Camelo-Ordaz et al. 2016;Fuentes and Sánchez 2010). ...
... Regarding previous experience in entrepreneurship (P_EE), Quan (2012) states that it has an influence on impulsive EI intention to start a business at some future time and on deliberate EI. This result is shared by others who show that the fact of having P_EE influences the EI of individuals directly and positively (Birch et al. 2017;Gird and Bagraim 2008;Haase et al. 2012;Pfeifer et al. 2016;Sebjan et al. 2016;Vuković et al. 2017) or indirectly through PBC, self-efficacy, or SN (Siu and Lo 2013;Soria-Barreto et al. 2017;Zhao et al. 2005). ...
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The purpose of this paper is to review existing literature and show the state of the art regarding the factors that influence the entrepreneurial intention (EI) of individuals. It provides a synthesis/integration of previous research on the topic as a framework to identify shortcomings, new lines of research, and practical insights. The analysis conducts a systematic review of 177 papers in the SCOPUS database from 1994 to 2017. The findings highlight three themes regarding the factors that influence EI: personal-level variables, entrepreneurship education (EE), and contextual factors and institutional variables. Within each of these themes, cognitive factors such as self-efficacy; personality and psychological variables such as propensity/adversity to risk; and socio-demographic variables such as age, gender, and human capital seem to exert an influence, in addition to personal motivations and/or deterrents. EE appears to have the greatest influence in most cases; at least it helps to develop greater self-efficacy or a more favorable attitude toward entrepreneurship, among others. Finally, with regard to contextual and institutional variables, cultural and social contexts seem to have a clear influence on EI, along with informal institutions through the normative dimension. Although there are many studies on the “factors that influence EI,” this study is the first attempt to make a qualitative presentation on the state of the art. It makes practical suggestions to encourage entrepreneurship in universities and in retired individuals. It also makes recommendations for improvement and suggests new lines of research such as the importance of linking these three categories of factors that influence EI, with the evaluation of an international entrepreneurship.
... The hypothesised model elaborates the structural relationships between the antecedents and outcome (see Figure 1). In addition, while the number of female entrepreneurs are increasing all around the world (Hasse et al., 2012;Ramadani et al., 2013), it stays important to understand female students' entrepreneurial intention level compared to male students. The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (2004) reported that women represented more than one-third of all people involved in entrepreneurial activity. ...
... The number of self-employed relatives, friends and colleagues is seen as influential for women's decision to be self-employed after graduation, but there is no detectable effect on men. This finding underpins the usefulness of family, friends and a general support network to enlarge the confidence of women (Hasse et al., 2012). ...
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... When looking at performance differences between male and female entrepreneurs it can be argued that the traditional (masculine) perspective focuses on profit and, or growth, whereas these are not the focus of the feminine perspective. Many studies show that males tend to focus more on profit, wealth, social recognition, power, and achievement (Baumol, 1993;Hasse et al., 2012;McClelland, 1961;Ronen, 1983;Stevenson et al., 1994). In the gender perspective of entrepreneurship, Bird and Brush (2002), summarized many of the existing literature on this topic. ...
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This study examines the role of gender on entrepreneurial marketing (EM) and Bangladeshi Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) performance relationship. A self-administered questionnaire was conducted. A total of 220 owners of SMEs in Bangladesh were selected randomly as respondents from the list of active SMEs in Dhaka and Narayanganj city. The data were analyzed by using SEM-AMOS package 25.0. This study finds that there was a significant and direct effect of entrepreneurial marketing on firm performance. In addition, there was a significant effect of gender as a moderating variable in this relationship. At the corporate level, this study provides insights for the SMEs in making decisions related to gender and firm performance. The implications of the above findings are discussed.
... When looking at performance differences between male and female entrepreneurs it can be argued that the traditional (masculine) perspective focuses on profit and, or growth, whereas these are not the focus of the feminine perspective. Many studies show that males tend to focus more on profit, wealth, social recognition, power, and achievement (Baumol, 1993;Hasse et al., 2012;McClelland, 1961;Ronen, 1983;Stevenson et al., 1994). In the gender perspective of entrepreneurship, Bird and Brush (2002), summarized many of the existing literature on this topic. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the role of gender on entrepreneurial marketing (EM) and Bangladeshi Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) performance relationship. A self-administered questionnaire was conducted. A total of 220 owners of SMEs in Bangladesh were selected randomly as respondents from the list of active SMEs in Dhaka and Narayanganj city. The data were analyzed by using SEM-AMOS package 25.0. This study finds that there was a significant and direct effect of entrepreneurial marketing on firm performance. In addition, there was a significant effect of gender as a moderating variable in this relationship. At the corporate level, this study provides insights for the SMEs in making decisions related to gender and firm performance. The implications of the above findings are discussed. .
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In hard times when educated persons can't get jobs, it is becoming challenge for states. It is rather harder for least and under developed countries, like Pakistan, where governments are not having sufficient resources to support the unemployed workforce. Self employment and Entrepreneurship is referred as the best solution. But entrepreneurship is not the function that might be outcome of simple efforts. It requires a regular and permanent attitude as part of personality. Attitude can be based on personality traits and demographic characteristics; it can also be reshaped with education. This research aims to study the impact of personal traits, demographic characteristics and entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial intentions of university students of Pakistan. This research will be a value addition in Pakistani scenario as it will provide knowledge base for entrepreneurship in the country. Out of the entrepreneurial traits, Innovativeness is considered to be one of the core traits of entrepreneurs and is widely discussed by researchers. Data was collected from the sample of 276 university students. Results show strong relation between innovativeness and entrepreneurial intentions, however some demographical characteristics i.e. Gender and age, were insignificant with the intentions to become entrepreneurs, but prior experience, family exposure to business and level of exposure inclines students to become entrepreneur.
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Small firms provide and create a large proportion of jobs in Germany. Are these jobs worse than jobs in larger firms? The mosaic picture that emerges from a review of several recent empirical studies using German individual or firm level micro data shows that, all in all, wages are lower, non-wage incomes (fringes) are lower, job security is lower, work organisation is less rigid, institutionalized possibilities for workers' participation in decision making are weaker, and opportunities for skill enhancement are worse in small firms compared to large firms. The weight of evidence, therefore, indicates that, on average, small firms offer worse jobs than large firms. It is argued that there is no need for policy measures targeted to improve job quality in small firms, because higher incomes in large firms can in part be seen as compensating differentials for more rigid work organisation, and can follow from wage policies to reduce shirking and turnover that is more costly in large than in small firms. Furthermore, a lower level of remuneration, less protection against dismissals, a lower level of workers' participation, and less opportunities for further training all contribute to lower costs in small firms that might be needed to compensate for size-related cost disadvantages compared to large firms. Economic policy should concentrate on keeping barriers to entrepreneurs' entry to markets low to foster new firm formation and creative destruction.
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It is well established in the literature that Australian unions raise their members' wages relative to those of otherwise comparable nonmembers by some amount in the range 7-15 percent. However, it is also known that firm size is positively associated with union density and that firm size is positively associated with relative wages independent of unionism. Using a new, large and rich set of data from the Training and Education Survey 1993, the authors show that the estimated union relative wage effect is largely comprised of bias due to the omission of firm size as a variable in the wage equations usually estimated. Copyright 1996 by The Economic Society of Australia.