DNA methylation profiling can classify HIV-associated lymphomas

AIDS (London, England) (Impact Factor: 5.55). 12/2013; 28(4). DOI: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000000120
Source: PubMed


HIV-positive patients have a 60-fold to 200-fold increased incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphomas, including Burkitt lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and primary central nervous system lymphoma. HIV-associated lymphomas frequently have features such as extranodal involvement, decreased responses to standard chemotherapy, and high relapse rates, which indicate a poor prognosis. General pathological features do not clearly differentiate HIV-associated lymphomas from non-HIV lymphomas.
To investigate the features of HIV-associated lymphomas, we performed genome-wide DNA methylation profiling of HIV and non-HIV lymphomas using Illumina GoldenGate Methylation Cancer Panel I and Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip microarrays. DNA methylation profiles in HIV-associated and non-HIV lymphomas were characterized using unsupervised hierarchical clustering analyses.
The analyses of promoter regions revealed unique DNA methylation profiles in HIV-associated lymphomas, suggesting profile differences compared with non-HIV lymphomas, which implies specific gene regulation in HIV-associated lymphoma involving DNA methylation. Based on HumanMethylation450 BeadChip data, 2541 target sites were selected as differing significantly in comparisons between HIV-associated and non-HIV-associated lymphomas using Wilcoxon's rank-sum test (P <0.05) and Δβ values more than 0.30. Recurrent cases of HIV-associated lymphoma had different profiles compared with nonrecurrent HIV lymphomas.
DNA methylation profiling indicated that 2541 target sites differed significantly in HIV-associated lymphoma, which may partly explain the poor prognosis. Our data indicate that the methylation profiles of target genes have potential in elucidating HIV-associated lymphomagenesis and can serve as new prognostic markers.

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    ABSTRACT: The incidence of HIV-related lymphomas (HRLs) is increased by 60-100 times in patients with HIV. When compared to the general population, patients with HRLs often present with extranodal lymphoid proliferation, most frequently of the gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system, liver and bone marrow. MicroRNAs (miRs) are non-coding double-stranded RNA molecules of 18-25 nucleotides that regulate post-translational gene expression by inhibiting translation or promoting degradation of messenger RNA complementary sequences. Before their discovery, tumorigenesis was thought to have been caused by the alteration of protein-coding oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes, but once identified in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia, miRs function as either oncogenes or tumor-suppressor genes was confirmed in different types of malignancies. Since miRs are clearly involved in tumorigenesis in many cancers, their role in HRLs is now receiving attention. A few studies have been conducted thus far in some HRLs on the involvement of miR in the pathogenesis of lymphoid malignancies. Since B-cell lymphomas arise from various stages of B-cell development in both HIV-infected and HIV-naïve patients, investigators have tried to determine the different miR signatures in B-cell development. As classic immunohistochemistry staining is sometimes not enough for the differential diagnosis of HRLs, in the present review, we have described the potential use of miRs in the prognosis and diagnosis of these diseases.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences