L-shell x-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT) imaging of Cisplatin
X-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT) imaging has been focused on the detection of K-shell x-rays. The potential utility of L-shell x-ray XFCT is, however, not well studied. Here we report the first Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of preclinical L-shell XFCT imaging of Cisplatin. We built MC models for both L- and K-shell XFCT with different excitation energies (15 and 30 keV for L-shell and 80 keV for K-shell XFCT). Two small-animal sized imaging phantoms of 2 and 4 cm diameter containing a series of objects of 0.6 to 2.7 mm in diameter at 0.7 to 16 mm depths with 10 to 250 µg mL(-1) concentrations of Pt are used in the study. Transmitted and scattered x-rays were collected with photon-integrating transmission detector and photon-counting detector arc, respectively. Collected data were rearranged into XFCT and transmission CT sinograms for image reconstruction. XFCT images were reconstructed with filtered back-projection and with iterative maximum-likelihood expectation maximization without and with attenuation correction. While K-shell XFCT was capable of providing an accurate measurement of Cisplatin concentration, its sensitivity was 4.4 and 3.0 times lower than that of L-shell XFCT with 15 keV excitation beam for the 2 cm and 4 cm diameter phantom, respectively. With the inclusion of excitation and fluorescence beam attenuation correction, we found that L-shell XFCT was capable of providing fairly accurate information of Cisplatin concentration distribution. With a dose of 29 and 58 mGy, clinically relevant Cisplatin Pt concentrations of 10 µg mg(-1) could be imaged with L-shell XFCT inside a 2 cm and 4 cm diameter object, respectively.
Available from: Moiz Ahmad
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ABSTRACT: X-ray luminescence and X-ray fluorescence computed tomography (CT) are two emerging technologies in X-ray imaging that provide functional and molecular imaging capability. Both emission-type tomographic imaging modalities use external X-rays to stimulate secondary emissions, either light or secondary X-rays, which are then acquired for tomographic reconstruction. These modalities surpass the limits of sensitivity in current X-ray imaging and have the potential of enabling X-ray imaging to extract molecular imaging information. These new modalities also promise to break through the spatial resolution limits of other in vivo molecular imaging modalities. This paper reviews the development of X-ray luminescence and X-ray fluorescence CT and their relative merits. The discussion includes current problems and future research directions and the role of these modalities in future molecular imaging applications.
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