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    ABSTRACT: A shift has occurred in the diagnostic and therapeutic modalities considered for patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs). Early diagnosis remains the mainstay in appropriate management and remarkably influences the prognosis. More specific diagnostic tests as well as therapeutic modalities have been introduced in the last few decades. Nonetheless, the importance of a thorough history taking and physical examination should not be neglected. Novel diagnostic modalities including genetic sequencing have led to the recognition of previously unknown defects underlying PIDs. In addition, newborn screening is being advocated as an imperative diagnostic test. In terms of treatment, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is considered the optimal treatment modality for many cases and has dramatically improved the outcome. Gene transfer into hematopoietic stem cells prior to transplantation has improved the efficacy of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In this article, the latest advances made in terms of diagnosis and treatment of PIDs are reviewed.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Severe combined immunodeficiency disorders represent pediatric emergencies due to absence of adaptive immune responses to infections. The conditions result from either intrinsic defects in T-cell development (ie, severe combined immunodeficiency disease [SCID]) or congenital athymia (eg, complete DiGeorge anomaly). Hematopoietic stem cell transplant provides the only clinically approved cure for SCID, although gene therapy research trials are showing significant promise. For greatest survival, patients should undergo transplant before 3.5 months of age and before the onset of infections. Newborn screening programs have yielded successful early identification and treatment of infants with SCID and congenital athymia in the United States.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Immunology and allergy clinics of North America