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Manual de Vinificación: Guía práctica para la elaboración de vinos

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... At harvest time, on 2/12/2015, 60 kg of grapes were manually harvested from each training system for winemaking. Microvinification was performed in the experimental winery of Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina and followed the protocol adapted from Pszczółkowski & Lecco (2011) and Makhotkina et al. (2013). ...
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The objective of this work was to compare the effect of the Y-trellis and vertical shoot position trellis (VSP) training systems on the physicochemical composition and aromatic profile of 'Sauvignon Blanc' (Vitis vinifera) wines in a high-altitude region of the state of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil. The experiment was conducted during the 2015 vintage in a commercial vineyard located in the municipality of São Joaquim. The treatments consisted of the training systems: Y-trellis and VSP pruned in spur cordon. Sixty kilograms of grapes were harvested from each training system to make the wines, which were evaluated as to their chemical and phenolic composition and aromatic profile. There is no effect of the training system on the wine chemical variables pH, total acidity, color, and total polyphenols. The aromatic profile and phenolic composition of the wines are affected by the training systems, being related to the variables ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, 3-methyl-1-butanol, propanoic acid, and gallic acid in the Y-trellis, and to 1-hexanol, isovaleric acid, caprylic acid, capric acid, and catechin in VSP. The Y-trellis system can be an alternative for high-altitude regions of Southern Brazil.
... Starch concentration was determined by interpolation with a standard curve of soluble starch as a function of absorbance. Yeast assimilable nitrogen was determined by the formaldehyde index method [25]. ...
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The seed from the Araucaria araucana (in Spanish, piñon) tree, native to Chile and Argentina, is sold mainly as raw seed. Engineering a process to add value to piñon has the potential to positively impact local indigenous communities with very little ecological impact because it is routinely harvested in the wild. This study evaluated the feasibility of using 100% piñon, or as a blend with barley malt, to produce a beer-like beverage, while also evaluating consumer acceptance of the beverage’s piñon characteristics. Prototypes generated based on 93% piñon and 7% oat (enzymatic treatment of α-amylase, glucoamylase, protease and β-glucanase), as well as 50% piñon and 50% barley (no external enzymatic treatment), were evaluated. Overall acceptability by a consumer acceptance panel (21 consumers) rated the 100% piñon and the piñon–barley malt blend 5/9 and 7/9, respectively. The piñon–barley malt blend prototype stood out for its low level of carbohydrates, high potassium content and banana and clove aromas.
... Growth experiment with each medium component formulation giving the best results was used in subsequent experiments that resulted in the yeast growth base medium for these series of experiments. Optical density (OD) was measured by colorimetry using a HACH DR 5000spectrophotometer at 530-nm wavelength [15]. ...
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To examine the growth of Candida norvegensis (strain Levazoot 15), four experiments were conducted with different sources of energy, nitrogen, vitamins, and microminerals. Optical density was used as an indirect measure of strain growth in a fully randomized factorial design, in which principal factor A was the source of energy, nitrogen, vitamins, or microminerals and principal factor B was the measurement time point (0, 20, or 40 h). The results showed that the yeast strain used glucose (primarily sucrose and lactose) as the energy source and tryptone as the nitrogen source. The addition of B-complex vitamins or microminerals was not necessary for strain growth. It is concluded that the strain Levazoot 15 preferentially utilizes glucose as a source of energy, tryptone as a source of nitrogen and manganese as a mineral source, and that no vitamin source was necessary for growth.
... Wine was made from grapes as described by Pszczólkowski and Ceppi de Lecco (2011). For each replication, 25 kg of grapes were processed in a stainless steel crusher-destemmer. ...
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The effects of irrigation water savings by partial root zone drying (PRD) irrigation, shading or mulching on physiology, growth, yield, and wine quality of 'Syrah' grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) was investigated. The study was conducted in a vineyard at two different sites, each with a different soil type and vegetation index. Plants were subjected to the following four treatments: T0) control, with conventional irrigation regimes used by local growers; T1) shade cloth covering the vine canopy resulting in a 50% reduction in irrigation volume compared to the control; T2) double color plastic mulch (white color facing up and black on the inside facing the soil) resulting in a 50% reduction in irrigation volume compared to the control; and T3) PRD irrigation resulting in a 50% reduction in irrigation volume compared to the control. In general, the use of PRD irrigation, shade cloth or plastic mulch did not significantly affect the physiological, growth or yield variables measured, except for fruit cluster weight, which was lower in T3 than in the other treatments, and wine alcohol and polyphenol content, which were higher in T3 than in the other treatments. Shade cloth and plastic mulch treatments resulted in a 50% reduction in water use with no detrimental effects on plant physiology, yield, or wine quality. In addition to a 50% reduction in the amount of irrigation water applied, PRD irrigation also improved wine quality by increasing alcohol and polyphenol contents.
... Bordo wine was obtained from vini cation process by the coupled dispositive to the crushing machine that is called dewaxing. In winemaking of red wine, grape skin remains inside tanks during fermentation for extraction of anthocyanin pigments [24]. ...
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Few studies investigated the biological effects of American grape cultivars. We investigated the metabolic response after acute consumption of grape juice or wine from Bordo grapes ( Vitis labrusca ) in a placebo-controlled crossover study with fifteen healthy volunteers. Blood samples were collected 1 hour after the intake of 100 mL of water, juice, or wine to measure TBARS, ABTS, FRAP, glucose, and uric acid levels. To evaluate differences in cellular response, intracellular reactive species production (DCFH-DA) and metabolic mitochondrial viability (MTT) were assessed after exposure of human neuron-like cells (SH-SY5Y) to juice or wine. Glycemia was reduced after juice or wine consumption, whereas blood levels of uric acid were reduced after juice consumption but increased after wine consumption. Juice and wine consumption reduced plasma lipid peroxidation and increased plasma antioxidant capacity (ABTS and FRAP assays). Furthermore, juice inhibited H 2 O 2 -induced intracellular production of reactive species (RS) and increased the viability of SH-SY5Y cells. In contrast, wine (dealcoholized) exhibited a per se effect by inducing the production of RS and reducing cell viability. These results indicate a positive impact of acute consumption of Bordo juice and wine on human oxidative status, whereas only juice had protective effects against oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity.
... From each field replication one wine making process was performed in a total of eight batches. A micro scale wine making processing technology was made as preconized by Pszczólkowski and Lecco (2011) with some modifications. Must was placed in micro fermenters (2 L) and added of 50 mg/L sulphite, pectolytic enzymes (5g of each enzyme preparation/100 Kg of must, Lafase ® He Grand Cru and Lafase ® fruit, Laffort ® Company, Bordeaux, France), yeast (20g yeast preparation/hL, Zymaflore ® FX10, Laffort ® ), and probiotic additives (30g additive preparation/hL Superstart ® and 40g additive preparation/hL Bioactiv ® , respectively, Laffort ® ). ...
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Thermaculture is applied in vineyards for fungus diseases prevention. However, it can also induce plant to thermal stress, modulating the secondary metabolism. Thus, it was determined the role of thermaculture on 'Cabernet sauvignon' wine sensory properties and anthocyanin profile by the application on the vineyard. A total of 19 applications from flowering to harvesting were made. After winemaking and aging (12 months), physicochemical analysis, anthocyanin characterization by high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC-PDA-MS/MS), and sensory descriptive analysis were done. Treatment on grapes has increased 4.5% of total anthocyanins monomers, 29.4% of pyranoanthocyanins, and 29.5% of direct condensation products that were formed in wine. Thermaculture affected the sensory quality of wine since judges have perceived significant differences in visual (tear, red color) and gustatory (woody flavor) attributes. Finally, thermaculture is an innovative technology and a promising tool to increase anthocyanins in 'Cabernet Sauvignon' wines.
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O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes temperaturas durante a fermentação malolática espontânea e o efeito nas características químicas do vinho 'Cabernet Sauvignon', proveniente de regiões de elevada altitude de Santa Catarina, Brasil. O presente trabalho foi realizado no Laboratório de Enologia da Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina. A uva foi proveniente do vinhedo da Estação Experimental de São Joaquim. Para elaboração do vinho foram utilizados 80kg de uva ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’. As garrafas contendo os vinhos elaborados foram colocadas em BOD’s e submetidas às diferentes temperaturas para realização da fermentação malolática: 10°C, 20°C, 30°C, 40°C e 60°C. Em cada coleta foram avaliados os teores de antocianinas, polifenóis totais e a coloração dos vinhos. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e comparados pelo Teste Tukey a 5% de probabilidade de erro. A temperatura da fermentação malolática tem influência na composição química do vinho Cabernet Sauvignon, sendo que o aumento da temperatura reduz o teor de antocianinas, além de reduzir a coloração vermelha do vinho, representando pelo aumento da tonalidade de coloração dos vinhos. A temperatura da fermentação malolática não influenciou o conteúdo de polifenóis totais do vinho Cabernet Sauvignon.
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The objective of this work was to evaluate the phenolic composition of wine from 'Cabernet Sauvignon' (Vitis vinifera) grapes subjected to leaf removal management at different timing, in a high-altitude region. The experiment was carried out in the 2015 and 2016 vintages, in a vineyard located in the municipality of São Joaquim, in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The treatments consisted of different periods of leaf removal in the clusters, at five phenological stages ‒ full bloom, buckshot berries, pea-sized berries, veraison, and 15 days after veraison ‒, and of a control without leaf removal. At harvest, 50 kg of each treatment were collected for winemaking. The contents of gallic acid, catechin, p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, resveratrol, quercetin, rutin, and kaempferol were evaluated. The results showed the importance of leaf removal before veraison, to obtain wine with a higher concentration of phenolic compounds, which favors wine quality. The leaf removal management promotes the increase of gallic acid, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, resveratrol, quercetin, and kaempferol in wine. The early leaf removal before veraison results in increases in vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, resveratrol, quercetin, and kaempferol. The wine made from grapes not subjected to leaf removal shows higher values of catechin and rutin
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RESUMO Tem-se como objetivo deste trabalhar avaliar o potencial de cultivo e enológico de oito variedades viníferas destinadas a elaboração de vinhos finos brancos em regiões de elevada altitude de Santa Catarina. O trabalho foi realizado no município catarinense de São Joaquim, na Estação Experimental de São Joaquim-EPAGRI. A variedades avaliadas foram: Viognier, Sauvignon Blanc, Bianca, Riesling Renano, Bronner, Manzoni Bianco, Vermentino, Verdecchio. Foram avaliadas: duração dos principais estádios fenológicos, produtividade, massa de cachos, peso de 50 bagas, sólidos solúveis, acidez total e polifenóis das baga, além da composição química dos vinhos. As variáveis foram submetidos à análise de variância (ANOVA). Sendo detectadas efeitos de tratamento, procedeu-se o teste de comparação de médias pelo Teste Scott Knott a 5% de probabilidade de erro. A variedade Riesling Renano apresentou a brotação mais precoce, seguida pelas variedades Bronner, Viognier, Verdecchio, Bianca, Manzoni Bianco, Sauvignon Blanc e Vermentino. Já para a data de colheita, as variedades Bianca e Bronner são as que atingem mais rapidamente os índices adequadas de colheita, enquanto as variedades Vermentino e Verdecchio são as que atingem mais tardiamente os índices de maturação. Para a composição química das bagas das variedades avaliadas, observou-se que as variedades apresentam características adequadas para a elaboração de vinhos finos de elevada qualidade, sendo a variedade Vermentino a mais produtiva. Assim como as uvas, os vinhos apresentaram composição química adequada, portanto, estas variedades apresentam potencial de cultivo nas regiões de elevada altitude de Santa Catarina.
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Avant propos et glossaire Goûts : de façon simple, on peut définir les goûts comme des sensations gustatives qui nécessitent une expérience spécifique pour les identifier et les mémoriser. En d'autres termes, on ne peut définir un goût précisément par d'autres termes usuels. Si on essaye de définir l'amer par : « Qui produit au goût une sensation sui generis le plus souvent désagréable » (Dictionnaire Robert), on ne progresse pas dans sa définition opérationnelle. En effet, d'autres sensations peuvent correspondre à cette description : un autre goût comme l'acidité peut aussi correspondre, ou d'autres sensations comme par exemple « brûlant ». En plus, une telle définition introduit une notion d'hédonisme (« désagréable ») qui n'est pas correcte dans une définition de paramètre analytique. Sensations : les sensations sont toutes les autres perceptions tactiles en bouche qu'on pourra en général décrire précisément et mesurer par des indicateurs usuels. Les goûts sont des sensations particulières. Les autres sensations sont tout aussi pertinentes, à partir du moment où leur définition permet une mesure dans les règles de la métrologie, en particulier avec une bonne répétabilité et reproductibilité.
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