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The Myth of Multitasking

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... Little research has been conducted into the actual nature of Asian students' study activities; how much time they spend studying; where, when and with whom; what they actually do while they are studying; and how these activities impact on academic achievement. Media multitasking, the use of technology such as mobile phones, texting, the Internet, iPods and iPads, is on the rise (Rosen 2008), and has become an important factor in the lives of young Asians (Synovate 2010). The impact of this access to electronic equipment has fundamentally changed the way that students study, and research is relatively nascent, particularly in the context of Asian students' study activities. ...
... The term multitasking owes its origin to the advent of the computer age and describes, according to the Oxford online dictionary, the ability to execute more than one program or task simultaneously. Other definitions point to the shifting of attention from one task to another over a short timespan (Oswald, Hambrick and Jones 2007), and a more contemporary interpretation highlights the attempt to do as many things as possible simultaneously, usually with the assistance of technology (Rosen 2008). For the purposes of this research, multitasking is defined as the attempt to complete or make progress on two or more tasks over a short time-span. ...
... A detailed study of over 500 college students by Mokhtari et al. (2009) reported that many of the subjects were multi-tasked while studying. Rosen (2008) talks about a multitasking culture and, experts believe there is a lot of social pressure to multi-task with students twittering, e-mailing and being part of online communities such as Facebook and Hi5 (Ophira, Nass and Wagner 2009). Recent research on young Asians revealed that multitasking is the norm amongst youth in Asia, with youngsters fitting 38 hours worth of activities into a 24-hour day (Synovate 2010). ...
Article
In this paper the influence of study activities on academic achievement at university level in Thailand is examined. Furthermore, the extent to which multitasking and the use of technology have now become determining factors in student study behavior is explored. The study concentrated on a group of 318 students (131 males and 187 females) in their final year at Mahidol University International College (MUIC) in Thailand. Results of this research demonstrate that of the 57 factors assessed, 51 showed no correlation between the activities that students engage in while studying and academic achievement, while 6 factors showed a correlation (Criteria: Sig.< 0.05 Reject null hypotheses). The conclusion highlights the level to which multitasking and technology play a role in study activities at the tertiary level.
... Past research has demonstrated that metacognitive inferences are particularly likely when one's experience differs from expectations (e.g., when it is harder or easier to process information compared to one's expectations ;Schwarz 2004;Whittlesea and Williams 2000). Distraction is an abundant source of violated expectations, as consumers tend to believe that they are able to effectively perform two tasks, or attend to more than one stimulus, simultaneously (Crenshaw 2008;Ophir et al. 2009;Rosen 2008;Sanbonmatsu et al. 2013). In reality, however, consumers are quite prone to being distracted away from focal tasks by background stimuli (Crenshaw 2008;Finley, Benjamin, 2 Although our studies do not provide direct evidence for this argument, we speculate that consumers also likely overestimate the extent to which their attention is voluntary or "top down," as consumers generally believe they have control over their mental processes (Wegner 2002); this underestimation of the degree to which attention can be captured involuntarily is likely also a source for the belief that distraction ¼ interest. ...
... In reality, however, consumers are quite prone to being distracted away from focal tasks by background stimuli (Crenshaw 2008;Finley, Benjamin, 2 Although our studies do not provide direct evidence for this argument, we speculate that consumers also likely overestimate the extent to which their attention is voluntary or "top down," as consumers generally believe they have control over their mental processes (Wegner 2002); this underestimation of the degree to which attention can be captured involuntarily is likely also a source for the belief that distraction ¼ interest. and McCarley 2014;Kahneman 1973;Pashler 1994;Rosen 2008). This mistaken belief that one can effectively attend to multiple stimuli simultaneously is colloquially referred to as "the myth of multitasking" (Crenshaw 2008;Rosen 2008). ...
... and McCarley 2014;Kahneman 1973;Pashler 1994;Rosen 2008). This mistaken belief that one can effectively attend to multiple stimuli simultaneously is colloquially referred to as "the myth of multitasking" (Crenshaw 2008;Rosen 2008). Thus, we predict that when consumers find their attention moving away from a focal task toward a secondary stimulus, this distraction is often unexpected, making the distraction particularly likely to result in a metacognitive inference based on the distraction ¼ interest lay theory. ...
Article
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Consumers often encounter advertisements in the background while primarily fo-cused on other stimuli (e.g., while multitasking). Consumers' perceived level of distraction by these background ads serves as a metacognitive cue from which inferences are drawn. When consumers perceive themselves to be relatively distracted by a background advertisement, they draw on an underlying lay theory that distraction implies interest in the contents of the distracting stimulus to make the metacognitive inference that they have positive evaluations of the advertised brand. Across five studies, we provide evidence for this proposed metacognitive inferential process by demonstrating that perceived distraction does not enhance brand evaluations when the distraction ¼ interest lay theory is not perceived to be (1) diagnostic or (2) applicable to the current context (e.g., when consumers have little interest in the product category being advertised). Thus, this research introduces distraction as a new metacognitive experience from which consumers draw inferences and offers important insights into when and how background ads shape brand evaluations.
... First, multitasking or working on several tasks at a time actually means working on different tasks by alternation instead of working on them strictly at the same time. Simultaneity is not efficient for humans, as it can create interferences between jobs (Gladstones et al., 1989), and can lead to mistakes (Rosen, 2008;Lohr, 2007). ...
... Yet alternation induces inefficiency and time loss related to switching between tasks Rosen (2008). Minimizing such losses requires the limitation to alternation between at most two distinct tasks (Charron and Koechlin, 2010;Dux et al., 2009). ...
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We model the work of a front-line service worker as a queueing system. The server interacts with customers in a multi-stage process with random durations. Some stages require an interaction between server and customer, while other stages are performed by the customer as a self-service task or with the help of another resource. Random arrivals by customers at the beginning and during an encounter create random lengths of idle time in the work of the server (breaks and interludes respectively). The server considers treatment of an infinite amount of back-office tasks, or tasks that do not require interaction with the customer, during these idle times. We consider an optimal control problem for the server's work. The main question we explore is whether to use the interludes in service encounters for treating back-office, when the latter incur switching times. Under certain operating environments, working on back-office during interludes is shown to be valuable. Switching times play a critical role in the optimal control of the server's work, at times leading the server to prefer remaining idle during breaks and interludes, instead of working on back-office, and at others to continue back-office in the presence of waiting customers. The optimal policy for use of the interludes is one with multiple thresholds depending on both the customers queueing for service, and the ones who are in-service. We illustrate that in settings with multiple interludes in an encounter, if at all, the back-office work should be concentrated on fewer, longer and later interludes.
... People are generally slower and less accurate when performing two or more cognitive tasks together than when performing each of the tasks individually, and this ubiquitous phenomenon is important for both practical and theoretical reasons (e.g., Pashler, 1994;Wickens, Goh, Helleberg, Horrey, & Talleur, 2003). From a practical viewpoint, recent technological advances-particularly in communicationoffer greatly increased opportunities for multitasking (e.g., Gleick, 1999;Rosen, 2008). These same advances can also magnify the consequences of performance and thereby increase the costs resulting from any performance decrements due to multitasking. ...
... Such a heavy emphasis on Task 1 could encourage participants to process the tasks serially even if parallel processing were possible (e.g., Meyer & Kieras, 1997a;Schumacher et al., 2001). Advocates of bottleneck models have countered this argument by showing that eliminating the Task 1 emphasis from the PRP paradigm does not produce clear evidence of parallel processing (e.g., Levy & Pashler, 2001, 2008Levy, Pashler, & Boer, 2006;Ruthruff, Pashler, & Hazeltine, 2003b;Ruthruff, Pashler, & Klaassen, 2001). Nonetheless, there are reasons to believe that in many PRP tasks serial processing is simply more efficient than parallel processing as a way to minimize overall mean RT (Hübner & Lehle, 2007;Miller, Ulrich, & Rolke, 2009). ...
Article
Four experiments investigated the extent to which a limited pool of resources can be shared between different tasks performed simultaneously when it is efficient to do so. The experiments used a prioritized processing paradigm, in which stimuli for both a primary task and a background task were presented in each trial. If the primary-task stimulus required a response in a trial, participants made only that response. If the primary-task stimulus did not require a response, participants responded to the background task. The main manipulation was the relative probability that a response would be required to the primary versus background task. In some blocks, the majority of trials required responses to the primary task (Experiments 1 and 2: 80%; Experiments 3 and 4: 60%), whereas in other blocks the majority required responses to the background task. Background-task responses were substantially faster in blocks where they were more likely to be required, consistent with the idea that more capacity was allocated to them in these blocks. Backward compatibility effects on primary-task responses and stimulus-onset asynchrony effects on background-task responses provided further evidence of greater capacity allocation to the background task when there was a higher probability of responding to it. The results support the view that two tasks can be processed in parallel, with resources divided between them, when it is efficient to do so.
... Ugyanis már az is párhuzamos feladatvégzésnek számít, ha sétálás közben beszélgetünk egy barátunkkal. Több egymással átfedésben lévő tevékenységet végzünk anélkül, hogy ennek tudatában lennénk (Rosen, 2008). Számos párhuzamosan történő munkavégzés mentálisan nem megterhelő, mint például a focilabdát elrúgni és odakiáltani a sporttársnak. ...
... Amikor az ember figyelmét megzavarják, más agyi területek felelősek az új információk elsajátításáért és tárolásáért. Kutatások azt mutatják, hogy a megzavart vagy párhuzamos feladatvégzésben lévő emberek aktivitást mutatnak a striátumban, mely agyi régió az új készségek elsajátításában vesz részt; míg azoknál a személyeknél, akiket nem zavarnak meg, az információ tárolásával és előhívásával foglalkozó régió, a hippokampusz mutat fokozott aktivitást (Rosen, 2008). A multitasking nincs kedvező hatással az elmélyült figyelmi képességre, ugyanis rontja a feladatváltásos helyzetekben nyújtott teljesítményt, valamint az új információk megjegyzési képességét (Tari, 2015). ...
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A Digitális Tanulás és Tanítás kötet a 2017. február 27-én, Debrecenben, a Pszichológia Napján megrendezett azonos című workshop válogatott tanulmányait tartalmazza. Ezen a rendezvényen mutatkozott be az MTA-DE Idegen Nyelvi Oktatás Kutatócsoport, amely a hátrányos helyzetű tanulók digitális idegen nyelvi fejlesztését tűzte ki célul. Jelen kötet a fenti téma különböző as-pektusait bontja ki részletesebben.
... In a world of hustle and bustle, switching back and forth between tasks-''task switching"-has become the work style of countless individuals (e.g., Hallowell, 2005;Perlow, 1999). Bombarded with emails, phone calls, and meetings, managers and employees alike constantly shift their attention from one task to another (Rosen, 2008). Task switching is especially common among senior executives due to their numerous responsibilities (Bandiera, Prat, Sadun, & Wulf, 2014;Dean & Webb, 2011;Ocasio, 1997). ...
... As a result, the current findings offer a more balanced way of conceptualizing the effects of task switching. Second, although many modern employees increasingly switch among multiple tasks (Rosen, 2008) and although creativity is increasingly valuable to organizations (IBM, 2010), the scholarly literature is nearly silent about whether and how a task-switching approach shapes people's http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.obhdp.2017.01.005 0749-5978/Ó 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. ...
... This study shows the shortest segments observed in the literature, although two others show similar results (Mark et al., 2014;Yeykelis et al., 2014). This timeframe is significantly shorter than most popular discussions about task-switching and multitasking, which often describe switching between tasks at a scale of minutes rather than seconds (Gasser & Palfrey, 2009;Rosen, 2008;Tugend, 2008). Notably, the fast switching pace implies a paradigm shift in media consumption. ...
Article
Personal computers allow multitasking among a greater variety of content than has ever been possible on a single device. We logged all switches made for 4 days for 30 people on personal computers used in natural environments. The median time before a switch occurred was 11 sec, shorter than previously observed. We also measured individual differences in appetitive versus defensive motivations to switch. Those people high on both motivations (Coactives) had the most switches per session. Risk takers had the shortest content segment lengths; risk avoiders and inactives were lower on the number of switches and anticipated arousal. Different patterns of content selection, in addition to switching behavior, were also observed for the different motivation activation groups. Results highlight how threads of experience that mix radically different short media segments may better define how people now search, process, and evaluate information. Implications in light of technological trends and individual differences are discussed.
... In reality, studies have shown that multitasking is an ineffective way to complete work. Most people are more productive when they focus on one activity at a time [16]. It is important to compartmentalize one's time into teaching, research, service, and personal activities. ...
... Positive or negative game feedback was a smiling or sad avatar (facial expression), confirming or adverse sounds, joyful shouts for every 10 reached points (vocal/sound feedback), score visualization, a basket that was filling up (progress bar), and temporarily slowing down movements (instant negative feedback on a players' action). Gunawardena and Waiguny (2014) and Rosen (2008) manipulated cognitive load by increasing the presence of extra stimuli that competes for the participant's visual attention. Furthermore, according to LC4MP and flow theory, if a challenge is too difficult for the available skill set, cognitive overload may occur. ...
Article
Several studies on in-game advertising have shown that, in line with flow theory, enjoyment increases brand recall. Others, in line with Lang's LC4MP, have yielded opposite results, suggesting that higher cognitive load associated with the interactive nature of digital games have an adverse effect. A between-subjects experiment (N = 561) demonstrates the important impact of visual and auditory feedback on enjoyment and its subsequent effects on brand recall. Players experience more enjoyment when the character's facial expression, vocal sounds, and a progress bar confirm their achievement. The results showed a negative effect of enjoyment on recognition and a negative effect of cognitive load on implicit recall. A negative interaction effect of enjoyment and cognitive load on free recall was found.
... While the ability to multitask has traditionally been viewed as a positive attribute and multitasking behavior seems to be on the rise in terms of popularity, several studies have been questioning how multitasking impact learning in a higher education context, taking into consideration that "doing more than one task at a time, especially more than one complex task, takes a toll on productivity" (APA, 2006). Distractionor shared attentionis key in this assessment, since "when we talk about multitasking, we are really talking about attention: the art of paying attention, the ability to shift our attention, and, more broadly, to exercise judgment about what objects are worthy of our attention" (Rosen, 2008), which can be affected when new digital technologies are introduced in the classroom. A reduced efficiency in task completion has been reported when one multitasks in the classroom, with several studies pointing out that tasks performed concurrently require more time for completion and are conducted less accurately than tasks performed sequentially. ...
Article
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The use of digital technology in the learning process and teaching practices in formal teaching is highly dependent on the ability of teachers of introducing it without jeopardizing the richness of the classroom environment, namely the attention that students need to follow the flow of argumentation and to guarantee the quality of the inquiring. Although several studies value the importance of technologies in our media-enriched world and the "learn anytime and anywhere" motto associated with mobile learning, we argue that the classroom dynamics are becoming more and more at risk with the addictive dimension brought about by the ubiquitous presence of digital devices and social media in students’ lives. In this article, we will make a critical review of the literature related to mobile learning because there is still a need of more extensive research on the interference of technology in the classroom, especially on how multitasking affects the teacher role in-class as a media orchestrator and learning facilitator. Finally, we will discuss the use of technology in the formal classroom environment, mainly to stimulate a much-needed discussion about the bright-not-so-bright impacts of technology in the teaching and learning process.
... or are able to develop strategies to pay continuous partial attention (Rosen, 2008) to a variety of information sources without fully focusing on any of them. ...
Article
Background: The emergence of multi-function devices has created a perceived need to always be connected to multiple media devices, which is called media multitasking. This phenomenon is linked to deficits in cognitive control affecting executive function and learning and academic achievement in adolescents. The present study aimed to explore the relationship of MM, executive functions and academic performance. Method: The sample comprised 977 students aged between 11 and 18 from 6 schools. Media multitasking while doing homework was assessed by the media multitasking index (MMI); executive function was assessed using the DEX-SP and three WISC-IV Subscales; participants' current school marks for mathematics and Spanish language were used to assess academic performance. Results: Media multitasking in adolescents is negatively related to executive function and academic achievement. Adolescents who media multitask more while doing homework report more dysexecutive problems. The results of a subsample (n=114) show worse cognitive functioning of the components related to working memory and process speed and lower academic achievement in language and mathematics. Conclusions: In the current environment of technology overload, where MM is increasingly frequent, it is necessary to develop adaptive strategies that allow adolescents to focus their attention on tasks and avoid distractions.
... Being multitasking creates the illusion of saving time but, on the contrary, recent research has shown that the consequences of shifting attention to different tasks are negative, because it requires a cost in terms of time, energy, commitment and effectiveness during information processing [46,61]. The belief of being able to carry out multiple activities simultaneously without cognitive costs seems to have no foundation [3,62]. In fact, in most of the cases, dividing the attention between multiple tasks makes the cognitive process slower and more complex, in addition to decrease the quality of processing and the quantity of information learned [63]. ...
... Reinsch, Turner, and Tinsley (2008) argued that multitasking team members in a meeting will communicate more efficiently by initiating concurrent live-chat conversations among themselves. Rosen (2008) estimated that lost productivity caused by extreme multitasking information overload costs an average of 650 billion US dollars per year in the United States. Seshadri and Shapira (2001), and Monsell (2003) indicated that multitasking would incur costs in job switching. ...
Article
We consider the multitasking scheduling problem on unrelated parallel machines to minimize the total weighted completion time. In this problem, each machine processes a set of jobs, while the processing of a selected job on a machine may be interrupted by other available jobs scheduled on the same machine but unfinished. To solve this problem, we propose an exact branch‐and‐price algorithm, where the master problem at each search node is solved by a novel column generation scheme, called in‐out column generation, to maintain the stability of the dual variables. We use a greedy heuristic to obtain a set of initial columns to start the in‐out column generation, and a hybrid strategy combining a genetic algorithm and an exact dynamic programming algorithm to solve the pricing subproblems approximately and exactly, respectively. Using randomly generated data, we conduct numerical studies to evaluate the performance of the proposed solution approach. We also examine the effects of multitasking on the scheduling outcomes, with which the decision maker can justify making investments to adopt or avoid multitasking.
... Yet, context switching between tasks incurs cognitive-switching costs for interrupting one task and resuming another [6], [7]. When switching costs are high, multitasking leads to mental congestion and decreased productivity; workers become overloaded [5], increasingly slower, and error-prone [8], [26]- [28]. ...
... That said, completing these multiple tasks may reduce learning effectiveness as the human cognitive architecture is not evolutionarily ready for the simultaneous execution of physical and cognitive tasks (Salvucci 2005). Excessive cognitive efforts may decrease the effectiveness of the short-term memory, leading to less flexible learning experiences and reducing the chances of effective transfer of learning (Rosen 2008). Accordingly, empirical investigations are needed to analyze the types and features of the multiple tasks that lead to such ineffectiveness. ...
Article
Multitasking refers to the simultaneous execution of two or more tasks. Perceived multitasking superiority of the digital natives and gifted students in the popular education literature need to be investigated with robust studies. In this regard, the effect of different multitasking scenarios on multimedia learning was investigated with 93 gifted and 121 non-gifted middle school students. The respondents were assigned randomly to three different scenarios: Monotasking (i.e. watching an instructional video without interruption), concurrent multitasking (i.e. texting during an instructional video) and sequential multitasking (i.e. watching instructional and distractive videos successively). In addition to content learning, the students’ scores on topic interest, daily multitasking habits, subjective cognitive load and working memory capacity were considered. Working memory capacity correlated positively with learning outcomes. After it was included as a covariate, the results of a two-way between-groups ANCOVA revealed that multitasking conditions interfered with learning. Gifted students were consistently more successful than non-gifted students, but suffered during concurrent multitasking. Therefore, organizing instructional interventions according to an empirically questionable multitasking superiority seems problematic.
... Multitasking through the smartphone creates the illusion of saving time but on the contrary, recent research has shown that the consequences of the shift of attention between different tasks have negative outcomes, as they are a cost in terms of time, energy, commitment and effectiveness during information processing. The conviction of being able to perform more activities simultaneously without additional cognitive costs seems to have no foundation [4,5], as in most cases dividing the attention between tasks makes the process slower and more complex, and leads to a decrease of the quality of the processing and the amount of information learned [6][7][8][9][10]. ...
... For example, in health care, 21% of hospital employees' working time is spent on more than one activity [3] while, in information consulting, information workers usually engage in about 12 working spheres per day and the continuous engagement with each working sphere before switching lasts only 10.5 minutes on average [4]. As pointed out by Rosen [5], multitasking might have significant effects on the economy: it is estimated that extreme multitasking information overload costs the US economy $650 billion per year owing to the loss of productivity. Although many multitaskers state that multitasking has made them more productive [6][7][8], many studies have indicated that multitasking may lower productivity [9,10]. ...
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Multitasking scheduling problems with a deterioration effect incurred by coexisting behavioral phenomena in human-related scheduling systems including deteriorating task processing times and deteriorating rate-modifying activity (DRMA) of human operators are addressed. Under the assumption of this problem, the processing of a selected task suffers from the joint effect of available but unfinished waiting tasks, the position-dependent deterioration of task processing time, and the DRMA of human operators. Traditionally, these issues have been considered separately; herein, we address their integration. We propose optimal algorithms to solve the problems to minimize makespan and the total absolute differences in completion time, respectively. Based on the analysis, some special cases and extensions are also discussed.
... The second dimension is Weekly Focus, that is useful to distinguish how evenly developers divide their attention among their projects. This differentiation from projects per day is important because it has been found that more narrowly focused developers have less cognitive burden, resulting in higher productivity and quality [9,13]. ...
Preprint
Background: Multitasking is usual in software development. It is the ability to stop working on a task, switch to another, and return eventually to the first one, as needed or as scheduled. Multitasking, however, comes at a cognitive cost: frequent context-switches can lead to distraction, sub-standard work, and even greater stress. Aims: This paper reports a replication experiment where we gathered data on a group of developers from a software development company from industry on a large collection of projects stored in GitLab repositories. Method: We reused the developed models and methods from the original study for measuring the rate and breadth of a developers' context-switching behavior, and we study how context-switching affects their productivity. We applied semi-structured interviews, replacing the original survey, to some of the developers to understand the reasons for and perceptions of multitasking. Results: We found out that industry developers multitask as much as OSS developers focusing more (on fewer projects), and working more repetitively from one day to the next is associated with higher productivity, but there is no effect for higher multitasking. Some commons reasons make them multitask: dependencies, personal interests, and social relationships. Conclusions: Short context change, less than three minutes, did not impact results from industry developers; however, more than that, it brings a feeling of left the previous tasks behind. So, it is proportional to how much context is switched: as bigger the context and bigger the interruption, it is worst to come back.
... • "Attentional residue" between switching focus from one job demand to another suggests that multi-tasking may erode work quality [31,88,89]. ...
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Background: There is a need to unpack the empirical, practical, and personal challenges within participatory approaches advocated to optimize implementation. The unpredictable, chaotic nature of participatory approaches complicates application of implementation theories, methods, and strategies which do not address researchers' situatedness within participatory processes. As an implementation scientist, addressing one's own situatedness through critical reflection is important to unearth how conscious and unconscious approaches, including ontological and epistemological underpinnings, influence the participatory context, process, and outcomes. Therefore, the aim of this exploratory work is to investigate the heretofore blind spot toward the lived experience of implementation researchers within the participatory process. Methods: We developed an integrated research-practice partnership (IRPP) to inform the implementation of a gestational weight gain (GWG) control program. Within this IRPP, one investigator conducted a 12-month autoethnography. Data collection and triangulation included field notes, cultural artifacts, and systematic timeline tracking. Data analysis included ethnographic-theoretical dialogue and restorying to synthesize key events and epiphanies into a narrative. Results: Analysis revealed the unpredicted evolution of the GWG program into a maternal health fair and three themes within the researchers' lived experience: (1) permeable work boundaries, (2) individual and collective blind spots toward the ontological and epistemological underpinnings of implementation paradigms, and (3) maladaptive behaviors seemingly reinforced by the research culture. These themes contributed to the chaos of implementation and to researchers' experience of inadequate recovery from cognitive, emotional, and practical demands. These themes also demonstrated the importance of contextual factors, subjectivity, and value-based judgments within implementation research. Conclusion: Building on extant qualitative research guidelines, we suggest that researchers anchor their approach to implementation in reflexivity, intentionally and iteratively reflecting on their own situatedness. Through this autoethnography, we have elucidated several strategies based on critical reflection including examining philosophical underpinnings of research, adopting restorative practices that align with one's values, and embracing personal presence as a foundation of scientific productivity. Within the predominant (post-) positivism paradigms, autoethnography may be criticized as unscientifically subjective or self-indulgent. However, this work demonstrates that autoethnography is a vehicle for third-person observation and first-person critical reflection that is transformative in understanding and optimizing implementation contexts, processes, and outcomes.
... When defining multiple tasks, the importance of attention becomes clear. While the individual can pay attention to the action s/he wants, s/he cannot give the same importance to the secondary tasks taking place in the same time period (Rosen, 2008). Thus, among the tasks recently performed by the individual, a lower performance can be seen in the second and subsequent tasks compared to the initial task. ...
Article
Bu çalışmanın amacı, alanyazında sıklıkla yüksek zeka, güçlü çalışan bellek kapasitesi, yüksek hafıza gibi üst bilişsel yetenekleri doğrudan veya dolaylı olarak gösterdiği ifade edilen üstün yetenekli öğrencilerin ve üstün yetenekli olmayan öğrencilerin çoklu görev performansları hakkında ebeveyn görüşlerinin belirlenmesidir. Görüşme formu ile öğrencilerin gündelik hayattaki çoklu görev performansları, öğrenme süreçlerinde dijital araçların etkisi ve çoklu görev uğraşının başarıya etkisine yönelik veriler toplanmıştır. 12 üstün yetenekli, 13 üstün yetenekli olmayan öğrenci ebeveyni ile görüşülmüştür. Elde edilen nitel veriler için söylem ve içerik analizi uygulanmıştır. Çoklu görev performansında başarıya yönelik olumlu görüşe sahip bireyler çoğunlukla üstün yetenek tanısı almış öğrenci ebeveynleri olmuştur. Üstün yetenekli çocuklarının çoklu görev performanslarında başarısız olduğunu ifade edenler olduğu gibi çocuklarının bu performanslarını olağanüstü bulan anne-babalar da olmuştur. Üstün yetenekli olmayan öğrenci aileleri, çocuklarının çoklu görev çabalarına sıklıkla olumsuz veya kuşkuyla yaklaşmışlardır. Her iki grupta, çoklu görev çabasına ılımlı yaklaşarak sonuçları hakkındaki belirsizliği araştırmacıyla paylaşan ebeveynler olmuştur.
... In the attention economy [2], multiple online and offline activities compete for an alternative share of attention [3]. This trend is expected to grow in the face of increasing communication complexity and information overload [4], which is becoming even more prevalent partially due to the vast online accessibility, immediacy and convenience of smartphones, acting as a major motivational pull for engagement [5] and prompting constant multitasking and frequent attentional loss [6]. There are currently more than 3.5 billion smartphone users [7] and smartphone use is an emergent area of research [8][9][10]. ...
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Evidence suggests a growing call for the prevention of excessive smartphone and social media use and the ensuing distraction that arises affecting academic achievement and productivity. A ten-day online randomized controlled trial with the use of smartphone apps, engaging participants in mindfulness exercises, self-monitoring and mood tracking, was implemented amongst UK university students (n = 143). Participants were asked to complete online pre- and post-intervention assessments. Results indicated high effect sizes in reduction of smartphone distraction and improvement scores on a number of self-reported secondary psychological outcomes. The intervention was not effective in reducing habitual behaviours, nomophobia, or time spent on social media. Mediation analyses demonstrated that: (i) emotional self-awareness but not mindful attention mediated the relationship between intervention effects and smartphone distraction, and (ii) online vigilance mediated the relationship between smartphone distraction and problematic social media use. The present study provides preliminary evidence of the efficacy of an intervention for decreased smartphone distraction and highlights psychological processes involved in this emergent phenomenon in the smartphone literature. Online interventions may serve as complementary strategies to reduce distraction levels and promote insight into online engagement. More research is required to elucidate the mechanisms of digital distraction and assess its implications in problematic use.
... Likewise, media multitasking-simultaneously attending to several media sources, such as TV, text messages, and websites-is becoming more and more common among not only younger people but also older people (C. Rosen, 2008). Studies of high school and university students showed that the typical student could not stay focused on a task for more than 3 to 5 min without checking their messages or browsing the Web (L. ...
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The Internet has evolved into a ubiquitous and indispensable digital environment in which people communicate, seek information, and make decisions. Despite offering various benefits, online environments are also replete with smart, highly adaptive choice architectures designed primarily to maximize commercial interests, capture and sustain users’ attention, monetize user data, and predict and influence future behavior. This online landscape holds multiple negative consequences for society, such as a decline in human autonomy, rising incivility in online conversation, the facilitation of political extremism, and the spread of disinformation. Benevolent choice architects working with regulators may curb the worst excesses of manipulative choice architectures, yet the strategic advantages, resources, and data remain with commercial players. One way to address some of this imbalance is with interventions that empower Internet users to gain some control over their digital environments, in part by boosting their information literacy and their cognitive resistance to manipulation. Our goal is to present a conceptual map of interventions that are based on insights from psychological science. We begin by systematically outlining how online and offline environments differ despite being increasingly inextricable. We then identify four major types of challenges that users encounter in online environments: persuasive and manipulative choice architectures, AI-assisted information architectures, false and misleading information, and distracting environments. Next, we turn to how psychological science can inform interventions to counteract these challenges of the digital world. After distinguishing among three types of behavioral and cognitive interventions—nudges, technocognition, and boosts—we focus on boosts, of which we identify two main groups: (a) those aimed at enhancing people’s agency in their digital environments (e.g., self-nudging, deliberate ignorance) and (b) those aimed at boosting competencies of reasoning and resilience to manipulation (e.g., simple decision aids, inoculation). These cognitive tools are designed to foster the civility of online discourse and protect reason and human autonomy against manipulative choice architectures, attention-grabbing techniques, and the spread of false information.
... Moreover, permanent multitasking contributes to stress and fatigue (evidence discussed below). 9 In a paper entitled "The Myth of Multitasking", Rosen (2008) presents a gloomy picture about the relationship between multitasking and productivity. She writes that "infomania" (a concept closely related to multitasking, defined as "an effort to miss nothing") is "a serious threat to workplace productivity" (p. ...
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As a consequence of lockdowns due to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and the resulting restricted social mobility, several billion people worldwide have recently had to replace physical face-to-face communication with computer-mediated interaction. Notably, the adoption rates of videoconferencing increased significantly in 2020, predominantly because videoconferencing resembles face-to-face interaction. Tools such as Zoom, Microsoft Teams, and Cisco Webex are used by hundreds of millions of people today. Videoconferencing may bring benefits (e.g., saving of travel costs, preservation of environment). However, prolonged and inappropriate use of videoconferencing may also have an enormous stress potential. A new phenomenon and term emerged, Zoom fatigue, a synonym for videoconference fatigue. This paper develops a definition for Zoom fatigue and presents a conceptual framework that explores the major root causes of videoconferencing fatigue and stress. The development of the framework draws upon media naturalness theory and its underlying theorizing is based on research published across various scientific fields, including the disciplines of both behavioral science and neuroscience. Based on this theoretical foundation, hypotheses are outlined. Moreover, implications for research and practice are discussed.
... The idea that multitasking has detrimental effects on performance became a dominant claim in recent decades. Whether you chat with friends or browse the public media, the consensus is that multitasking doesn't actually work and is, thus, more harmful than useful (e.g., MacMillan, 2016;Rosen, 2008;Schindler, 2015). Arguments favoring this claim emerge from a still ongoing debate: Can we really process and perform tasks "in parallel?", ...
Article
In multitasking research, a central question revolves around whether humans can process tasks in parallel. What "in parallel" refers to, however, differs between research perspectives and experimental approaches. From a task-level perspective, parallel processing can be conceived as to whether complete tasks are processed in an overlapping manner and how this impacts task performance. In contrast, a large body of literature solely focuses on the central stage of response-selection and whether it can run in parallel with other processing stages, an approach we refer to as the stage-level perspective. Importantly, although each perspective addresses related topics and highlights interindividual differences, they evolved through independent lines of research. In 2 experiments, we have taken a first step to investigate if individuals' tendencies for an overlapping versus serial processing mode on the task level are related to vulnerabilities for task interference on the stage level. Individual preferences for either task processing mode were assessed in the task switching with preview (TSWP) paradigm. Individuals' vulnerability for task interference was assessed with the backward crosstalk effect (BCE) in a classical dual task. Our results suggest that individuals who prefer overlapping relative to serial task processing at the task level are less vulnerable to task interference during response selection, indicated by a smaller BCE. This difference, however, only emerged in the second experiment with an increased sample size and with task-stimuli that facilitate a bottom-up separation of tasks in the dual-task. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... The more time we spend on social media, our attention bounces from one decontextualized piece of information to another--completely detached from our physical and lived reality. Distractions are covered by the myth of multitasking, even when research shows how multitasking is not a productive or constructive strategy (Rosen, 2008). Even in rare situations when we are not working with internet-based devices or social media, our minds and bodies have been conditioned to expect the next new thing with a sense of urgency. ...
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In this introduction to the special issue on “A pedagogy of care”, we, the special issue editors, share our own critical approaches to humanizing teaching with technology in the past few years – going back to before the pandemic – that led to the special issue. As the world “pivoted online”, and technology was taken for granted as essential in education, we, along with critical scholars, pushed back against dominant assertions about how central technology would be in teaching and learning contexts. Identifying the need to address care in a time when neoliberalism has normalized the involvement of big tech in education, reflecting on the pandemic, this issue includes seven articles (including this introduction) covering a range of national and international perspectives on care, including critiques of digital technology; recognition of emotional labor; connecting/curating resources for teachers; the importance of cultivating a sense of purpose; moving past binary thinking; and linking care and equity. Across all seven articles, we focus on the act of caring–imagining education as a process of love, community, and attention.
... Pinning multitasking on just the younger generation is a myth because older generations had different devices like radios and televisions, allowing them to do multiple things while consuming media. The attention spans have gotten shorter, so the task switching between various content is more frequent (Rosen, 2008). ...
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During the second week of March 2020, work shifted from the county extension office to home during the Coronavirus pandemic. During COVID-19, workers were shifted into new all-digital work environments without establishing boundaries that melded the work and home environment into one (Katsabian, 2020). While this shift to remote work was possible due to technology, work-life boundaries became even blurrier. Professionals who do not have good boundaries find themselves always connected to both spheres of work and home because of their digital devices (Richardson & Rothstein, 2008). OSU Extension professionals not only made the switch to remote work from home, but they had to adjust to an all-digital 4-H program delivery at the same time. By rapidly shifting to digital work, 4-H professionals had to adapt to this change. The Change Style Indicator (Musselwhite & Ingraham, 1998) assessment classifies a person as a Conserver, Pragmatist, or Originator. Conservers prefer gradual change. Pragmatists desire change that serves a function. Originators are the most adept to change and favor quicker, more expansive change. These preferences to change would have impacted their approach to dealing with the pandemic and remote work. This study explored the adaptation of county-based OSU Extension 4-H Youth Development professionals to an all-digital environment during the virtual work period of COVID-19. Specific objectives included: (a) to describe the population by their Change Style Preferences, (b) to describe the adaptations to the all-digital work environment, (c) to describe the types of digital tools used, (d) to describe the types of digital skills learned, (e) to describe the types of digital youth development programming implemented, to describe the types of digital youth development strategies generated, and (f) to explore these selected variables (a-e) and their relationship to the Change Style Preferences. Data were gathered in two parts. The Change Style Indicator assessment was used to sort how each employee ordered along the change preference scale in part one. A follow-up survey assessed adaptations to remote work, digital tools, skills, programs, and strategies used by staff during the all-digital period. The population of 98 Ohio 4-H professionals completed both parts of the survey. There were several key findings found during the remote work period during COVID-19. Over half of the population had a Change Style Preference of a Conserver. Change Style Preferences had little or no relationships with how 4-H professionals adapted to this all-digital environment. Colleagues indicated that they depended upon each other for support. Almost all of the 4-H professionals used time during the spring to learn new skills or improve existing skills. Staff also waited to alter 4-H programming due to the constant changes related to the pandemic. A majority of the respondents indicated that they could reach new youth audiences and collaborate with other colleagues because of remote work. Ohio 4-H professionals would continue using digital youth development strategies beyond the pandemic. This research played a unique role in capturing an all-digital 4-H programming period when there was no in-person programming or access to the physical office. The shift to a digital-only environment was one of the most significant changes to the work environment for Ohio 4-H Professionals and around the world. The focus on this period does not limit future research opportunities. Technology does not go away in the future, as new digital innovations will replace the present ones.
... However, it was driven mostly by bigger industries and higher trade in non-core items. In turn, the opponents are of the opinion that the information processing system of human beings has a limited capacity resulting in errors at work, higher stress and thus, lower productivity and worse performance (e.g., Rosen, 2008;Bowman et al., 2010). Regardless of the approach, there are individual differences in effective multitasking, resulting from a variety and complexity of activities people perform, nature of tasks and even relations between individuals (Pollard & Courage, 2017). ...
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The nature of procrastination is usually analysed from the angle of the psychological mechanism, in the aspects of demotivating factors; however, there are not many studies emphasizing procrastination provoked by mismanagement. A similar situation is also observed with regard to multitasking analysed in this article, which is recorded at work not because employees naturally like to multitask but because they have no other way out. The purpose of this article is to present the results of the empirical study revealing the nature of procrastination and multitasking in the workplace. The study involved 995 employees of Polish (N = 500) and Lithuanian (N = 495) private sector organizations. It has been found that a share of employees are forced to become procrastinators and multitaskers due to management flaws. In addition, procrastination and multitasking are related by medium strength statistical relationships, regardless of the country. The value of the research is presupposed by the fact that it presents new and original data showing the situation of multitasking and procrastination in Lithuanian and Polish organizations. These results improve the literature on procrastination by providing additional confirmatory evidence on how more flexible work organization can serve for better understanding of causes of multitasking and procrastination. First published online 28 February 2022
... The centrality of task switching behaviours in studies of digital distraction has aligned the domain with the more general bodies of research on multitasking (Carrier et al., 2015;Rosen, 2008;Salvucci & Taatgen, 2010;), and media multitasking (Beuckels et al., 2021;Uncapher et al., 2017) in particular. However, it is important to note that multitasking does not, in principle, imply shifts in attention. ...
Chapter
The chapter investigates digital distraction in college classrooms from the perspective of self-regulation theory. To this end, the chapter commences with a brief analysis of the distinction between behavioural and cognitive shifts in attention, the role of intentionality in digital distraction, and the concept of online vigilance. Thereafter the general premises of self-regulation theory are described, and prominent theoretical models that have emerged in this domain are briefly outlined. Two models deemed particularly applicable to digital distraction are selected from these. The first is the value-based choice model which frames self-regulation as a process of deliberative decision-making which foregoes action taking. The second is the process model which emphasises the strategies individuals employ to prevent goal conflict. Both models are described before being applied as interpretive lenses to analyse key findings from empirical studies of digital distraction.
... But even this requires a conscious effort and the abandonment of other, parallel types of activity. The question of whether the phenomenon of multitasking exists remains highly controversial, and according to some studies (Rosen, 2008;Salvucci et al., 2009), it does not. Instead, when performing two or more tasks, our brain constantly switches between them, thus giving much less time to both. ...
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The article deals with the initial stage of training simultaneous interpreters and developing their professional skills. The authors single out and analyse a number of abilities and skills that learners are expected to develop in order to successfully obtain the qualification of simultaneous interpreters and offer a system of exercises and tasks that is intended to assist their acquisition. The article tackles the following issues typically arising at the early stages of student training: inability of unprepared students to concentrate and keep a lasting focus on the meaning and the structure of the source speech utterance, inability to control their short-term memory, the unfamiliar situation where the student is required to listen and speak at one and the same time, a lack of control over intonation and structure of his or her own speech during the interpreting process. In terms of language, particular attention is paid to the crucial role of collocations and fixed expressions in teaching simultaneous interpreting, as well as processing information that requires precision. The study is based on a textbook on political, economic, and legal translation which has been successfully used during several years at the Department of Theory and Practice of Translation at Lomonosov Moscow State University as a key training input. The methods of the current research include contextual and comparative analysis, information synthesis as well as experimental student training. The latter showed that learners’ performance substantially improved, both immediately after some of the preparatory exercises (particularly those aimed at short-term memory and anticipation skills development) and in the long run. The authors believe that exercises described here can form a sound basis for developing skills necessary for simultaneous interpreters.
... According to cognitive psychology, people's attentional resources are limited, and they cannot simultaneously process two or more activities (e.g. Rosen, 2008). Therefore, switching between different tasks requires considerable cognitive effort and is controlled by the executive function networka top-down mental process (Rothbart and Posner, 2015). ...
Article
Purpose The longitudinal impact of media multitasking on the development of executive function has been understudied, as most of the existing studies are cross-sectional. This longitudinal study addresses this research gap and uses multiple measures, i.e. behavioral and self-reported, to explore the impact of media multitasking on the executive function of Chinese adolescents. Design/methodology/approach This study followed 99 Chinese adolescents (M age = 14.41, SD = 1.10; 42 boys and 57 girls) for one year using both behavioral (2-back, Stroop Color and Number-letter tasks) and self-reported (questionnaire) measures. The adolescents were categorized as either heavy/high media multitaskers (HMMs; 19 boys and 29 girls) or light/low media multitaskers (LMMs; 23 boys and 28 girls). They were tested at baseline, 6 months later and 12 months later. Findings The results indicated that the accuracy scores for all cognitive tasks differed with age, but the switch-cost in the shifting task and the self-reported measures of executive function did not. And there were consistent differences between the HMMs and LMMs in the self-reported measures and 2-back accuracy. However, the interaction effect was found only in shifting ability, indicating a decline in the LMMs' self-reported problematic shifting behavior in daily life. Originality/value This study used behavioral and self-reported measures to confirm the longitudinal impact of media multitasking on executive function. The impact of media multitasking on executive function is more apparent in daily-life behavior than in cognitive task performance.
... When individuals attempt to spend time working on both routine and creative tasks, cognitive limitations can also impair their ability to do so effectively. First, individuals tend to believe that they are effective multitaskers and may attempt to work on both routine and creative tasks simultaneously rather than sequentially (Rosen 2008). However, research demonstrates that individuals are less efficient and productive when attempting to perform multiple tasks simultaneously (Pashler 1984). ...
Article
In an environment where employees have the freedom to direct some time away from their day-to-day routine tasks to work on creative endeavors, we examine whether nonbinding targets for the amount of time to spend (input target) and/or the amount of output to produce (output target) on the routine task affects creative task performance. Results of a laboratory experiment demonstrate that providing both an input and an output target on the routine task leads to greater creative task performance relative to providing one or none of these targets. This result is consistent with theory suggesting that individuals need guidance as to how much routine work to complete in order to achieve the cognitive closure necessary for them to think creatively. However, individuals also need guidance that encourages them to limit time on their relatively comfortable routine work and spend time on more open-ended creative endeavors. By setting expectations as to what employees need to achieve on their more routine day-to-day responsibilities, organizations can increase the efficacy of the growing practice of allowing employees to spend a portion of their work week on creative endeavors. Data Availability: Contact the authors.
... Is that a stereotype? Recent science demonstrates that the human brain does not multitask, but instead shifts from one task to another (Rosen, 2008). ...
... There are two models of multitasking [9,38,46]. One is the concurrent mode, i.e. to perform two or more tasks at the same time, for example, media multitasking [40] and [32]. The other is the sequential mode, i.e. to perform tasks by interleaving and switching from one task to other tasks [29]. ...
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This paper studies a single-machine multitasking scheduling problem together with two-agent consideration. The objective is to look for an optimal schedule to minimize the total tardiness of one agent subject to the total completion time of another agent has an upper bound. For this problem, a branch-and-bound method equipped with several dominant properties and a lower bound is exploited to search optimal solutions for small size jobs. Three metaheuristics, cloud simulated annealing algorithm, genetic algorithm, and simulated annealing algorithm, each with three improvement ways, are proposed to find the near-optimal solutions for large size jobs. The computational studies, experiments, are provided to evaluate the capabilities for the proposed algorithms. Finally, statistical analysis methods are applied to compare the performances of these algorithms.
... Additionally, online social spaces are influencing users with persuasive design (i.e., rolling feeds), prompting high cue reactivity and prolonged use of and overreliance on digital devices (8)(9)(10)(11). Multitasking, multiple device use, and frequent attentional shifts are salient behaviors potentially leading to digital information overload (12)(13)(14). ...
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Background: Distraction is a functional emotion regulation strategy utilized to relieve emotional distress. Within the attention economy perspective, distraction is increasingly associated with digital technology use, performance impairments and interference with higher-order cognitive processes. Research on smartphone distraction and its association with problematic smartphone use is still scarce and there is no available psychometric assessment tool to assess this cognitive and emotive process parsimoniously. Method: The present study reports the development and evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Smartphone Distraction Scale (SDS) through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, construct validity, gender invariance, and latent mean differences. The study was conducted in a sample of British university students (N = 1,001; M = 21.10 years, SD = 2.77). Results: The 16-item SDS was best conceptualized in a four-factor model solution comprising attention impulsiveness, online vigilance, emotion regulation, and multitasking. Construct validity was established using relevant psychosocial and mental health measures, with SDS scores being moderately associated with deficient self-regulation and problematic social media use. Gender measurement invariance was achieved at the configural, metric, and scalar levels, and latent mean differences indicated that females had significantly higher means than males across all four SDS latent factors. Discussion: The SDS presents with several strengths, including its theoretical grounding, relatively short length, and sound psychometric properties. The SDS enables the assessment of distraction, which appears to be one of the pathways to problematic smartphone use facilitating overuse and overreliance on smartphones for emotion regulation processes. The assessment of distraction in relation to problematic use in vulnerable populations may facilitate interventions that could encourage metacognition and benefit these groups by allowing sustained productivity in an increasingly disrupted work and social environment.
... Research shows, for instance, that those who engage in media multitasking might be the ones who are bad at it-the "multitasking paradox" (e.g., Ophir et al., 2009). People increasingly multitask, especially with digital technologies, despite the fact that doing so causes their performance to deteriorate-the so called "myth of multitasking" (Rosen, 2008;Wang and Tchernev, 2012). ...
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In the digital world of today, multitasking with media is inevitable. Research shows, for instance, that American youths spend on average 7.5 h every day with media, and 29% of that time is spent processing different forms of media simultaneously (Uncapher et al., 2017). Despite numerous studies, however, there is no consensus on whether media multitasking is effective or not. In the current paper, we review existing literature and propose that in order to ascertain whether media multitasking is effective, it is important to determine (1) which goal/s are used as a reference point (e.g., acquiring new knowledge, obtaining the highest number of points in a task, being active on social media); (2) whether a person's intentions and subjective feelings or objective performance are considered (e.g., simultaneous media use might feel productive, yet objective performance might deteriorate); and finally (3) whether the short-or long-term consequences of media multitasking are considered (e.g., media multitasking might help attain one's present goals yet be conducive to a cognitive strategy that leads to lesser attentional shielding of goals). Depending on these differentiations, media multitasking can be seen as both a strategic behavior undertaken to accomplish one's goals and as a self-regulatory failure. The article integrates various findings from the areas of cognitive psychology, psychology of motivation, and human-computer interaction.
Article
Background and purpose: To explore the experience of committing medical error from the perspective of nurse practitioners (NPs). Overall, the purpose of the study is to discern NPs' behaviors, perceptions, and coping mechanisms in response to having made a medical error. Methods: Qualitative research based on two face-to-face audio-recorded semistructured interviews with 10 NPs who had made medical errors in practice. The analysis was guided by concepts in phenomenology. Conclusions: During iterative analyses, four overarching themes were identified: (a) The paradox of error victimization, (b) primacy of responsibility and mindfulness, (c) yearning for forgiveness and a supportive other, and (d) coping with a new reality is context dependent. The narratives strongly suggest that NPs who err experience "second victim" phenomena. Implications for practice: Reminiscing about the experience of living through an error, NPs shared meaningful insights into their need for a safe environment in which they could candidly share feelings, reflect on the experience, and ascertain the etiology of the mistake. Debriefing in a formal manner might prevent the development of permanent psychological injuries. Hence, inherent to the care of "second victims" is the notion of co-workers' fairness, compassion, and recognition of appropriate caring responses that contribute to effective coping and healing.
Chapter
Advergaming serves as a new and valuable form of online advertising, especially for companies that target young consumers. This study examines the impacts of cognitive overload with placement prominence on respondents' brand recall, recognition and brand attitudes. An experiment was conducted on a group of university students with an exposure to an advergame under low and high cognitive load stimulus. Results showed that brands that are placed prominently are better recalled in high cognitive load condition. However, cognitive overload doesn't have any significant effect on the recognition of the main brand in which the advergames is specifically designed. Moreover, there is no difference in recall of subtly placed products in low and high cognitive load conditions. However, there is a significant difference in brand attitude in different cognitive loads. The study both investigated the context of advergames and as well in-game advertising (IGA) situations. The results of the study have both practical and theoretical implications.
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Multidimensional tasks are often characterized by goal conflict as individuals struggle to simultaneously balance and monitor multiple performance goals. Motivated by the recent psychology research on conscious and nonconscious goal pursuit, we hypothesize that conveying the importance of one performance goal consciously while priming the other performance goal nonconsciously will help individuals more effectively pursue multiple performance goals simultaneously and ultimately improve overall task performance. We conduct a laboratory experiment, using a real-effort multidimensional task, to test our hypotheses and find evidence to confirm our predictions. Our research contributes to the scant accounting research on nonconscious processes. It also provides a novel solution to the goal conflict problem in a multidimensional task setting.
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In questo lavoro, gli autori hanno voluto analizzare la novità e gli aspetti fondamentali positivi e negativi, di quella che è stata chiamata "Rivoluzione digitale" e della società tecnoliquida, mettendo in luce come queste esaltano e plasmano alcune caratteristiche dell'uomo liquido: il narcisismo, la velocità, l'ambiguità la ricerca di emozioni e il bisogno di infinite relazioni "light". Gli autori si sono concentrati sull'impatto che la Rete detiene sulle cognitive functions, in particolar modo su attenzione, memoria e apprendimento. Rispetto all'apprendimento, studi longitudinali hanno messo in luce come l'utilizzo del computer a scuola determini un calo dei risultati sia nella scrittura che nella lettura non dando la possibilità all'alunno di stimolare tracce mnemotecniche motorie che si attivano nella percezione della lettura e che ne facilitano il riconoscimento visivo. Inoltre vengono brevemente descritte le manifestazioni patologiche conseguenti all'eccessivo utilizzo della tecnologia digitale: ansia, depressione, fobie sociali, insonnia ed altre.Parole chiave: rivoluzione digitale, cognitive functions, psicopatologia
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n this paper, using the concepts related to the information theory, the model of interaction between human and machine in a standard simulator of piloting tasks is created. For this purpose, the baud rate generated in all subsystems of the simulator is calculated and by summing them, the total baud rate is obtained. Next, the output baud rate produced by the human during working with the simulator is computed and subsequently, a unique index facilitating human performance investigation is proposed. Finally, the capability of this index is examined in the simulator of piloting tasks via a practical test performed by some subjects for different levels of workload (low, medium, and high). Results demonstrate that when a substantial growth in the workload level occurs, subjects try to show extra effort through increasing their generated output baud rate. On the other hand, according to the statistical analysis, it can be concluded that there is a significant difference between performance of subjects across low, medium, and high levels of workload, i.e. a severe growth in the workload level causes considerable drop in performance index.
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This article summarizes Sidgman, Brown, and Brazel (2021) which demonstrates that, when multitasking, the performance of audit teams communicating in-person is greater than the performance of teams using computer-mediated communication (discussion boards and chatrooms). In the audit setting, multitasking is unavoidable and pervasive; in-person communication is not always an option. To facilitate multitasking, engagement team communications have extended in-person interactions to computer-mediated communication (CMC) technologies. However, little is known about the performance of multitasking teams under these alternative modes of communication (in-person, discussion boards, and chatrooms). Contrary to expectations, we find that participants' familiarity with, and preference for, chatroom features (similar to text messaging) may have offset the benefits previously attributed to discussion boards (similar to email). This finding is timely, given the pandemic-induced environment of remote and hybrid work, as it informs practitioners on audit teams' multitasking effectiveness while using CMC.
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Aim/Purpose: This study aims to explore whether instructors and educators should segment portions of instructional video that can be loaded and executed independently of other portions, and how long the segment portion of instructional video should be to effectively influence students’ learning, perception, and interaction. Background: Instructional videos are widely used in higher education for pedagogy purposes, and students expect their face-to-face and online courses to include video for effective instructional and learning outcomes. The literature indicates that researchers suggested that segmented video might assist learning and reduce cognitive burden; however, empirical research does not provide sufficient guidance about how to do it. Methodology: This mixed-methods study included quantitative data from an online experiment, followed by qualitative data from focus groups to help explain and expand on the quantitative findings. This study compared a 14-minute instructional video with the same content split into three segments, ranging from four to five minutes in length, to explore how segmenting affects students’ learning and how students perceive and interact with the video. The quantitative portion of the study used an experimental design with random assignment to control and experimental groups. Participants were randomly assigned by Qualtrics to one of two conditions where they watched either a single long (14-minute) video (the control group) or the same content split into three video segments (the experimental group). Participants in both groups were asked to watch the video(s), take a content knowledge quiz, and respond to an opinion questionnaire. The qualitative portion of the study consisted of focus groups where participants were asked to reflect on their overall perceptions of using online instructional video. Contribution: This study contributes to the literature knowledge on how students interact with instructional video and how, and if, longer instructional videos should be divided into shorter segments. Findings: Results from this study indicated that there is no significant difference between the Long Video Group (control group) and the Segmented Video Group (experimental group) on measures of learning, interaction with or perceptions of the video. However, participants who engaged in multitasking activities other than texting performed worse on the learning measure. The focus group participants described a variety of behaviors and preferences for watching the instructional video but expressed a preference for videos that were about 20 minutes long. Recommendations for Practitioners: For the purpose of building declarative knowledge, the number and length of instructional video segments may be less important than the other instructional materials and strategies instructors and educators provide to support students’ interaction with the instructional video. Recommendation for Researchers: The qualitative findings suggest that while preferred instructional video length may differ based on context, a 20-minute instructional video may be preferred, or at least accepted, in a typical academic setting, though this possibility needs further study. Impact on Society: Results from this study may help instructors and educators to create high quality instructional video content by acknowledging that decisions about instructional video length and segmenting require professional discretion rather than arbitrary rules regarding video length. Future Research: Future researchers and practitioners can further evaluate and enhance the importance and design of instructional videos for pedagogical purposes, and additional research is needed before instructors, educators, and the educational field can accept the thought that any video over five or six minutes is considered too long for students’ attention span.
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This study further explores the myth of media multitasking: that is, why people increasingly media multitask despite its known harmful effects on performance. Building on previous research on the emotional gratifications of media multitasking and guided by the dynamic motivational activation (DMA) approach, this study specifies emotional gratifications in terms of positive and negative emotions, as well as their underlying appetitive and aversive motivational changes. Using a dynamic panel analysis of longitudinal experience sampling data collected from 71 adolescents (ages 11–17; 61% girls) over 2 weeks, this study identifies several dynamic reciprocal impacts of media multitasking and the dual motivational systems. As predicted by DMA, media multitasking coactivates both the appetitive and aversive motivational systems, and increases both positive and negative emotions; interestingly, only the appetitive system goes on to determine subsequent media multitasking.
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Despite the considerable evidence suggesting multitasking reduces performance, multitasking is unavoidable and pervasive in the audit setting. Members of engagement teams are often required to work on multiple engagements simultaneously and their work on one engagement is frequently interrupted due to the demands of another engagement. In hopes of facilitating multitasking, engagement team communications have extended beyond face-to-face interactions to computer-mediated communication technologies. However, little is known about the performance of multitasking teams under these alternative modes of communication (face-to-face, discussion board, and chatroom). Our study demonstrates that, when multitasking, the performance of audit teams communicating face-to-face is greater than the performance of teams using computer-mediated communication. While we expected enhanced team performance with discussion boards, additional analyses reveal that participants’ familiarity with, and preference for, chatroom features (which are similar to texting) may have offset the benefits prior studies have attributed to discussion boards (which are similar to emailing).
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The growing prevalence of continuous media use among university students in lecture environments has potential for detrimental effects. In this study we investigate the relationships between in-lecture media use and academic performance. Previous studies have shown that students frequently engage with digital media whilst in university lectures. Moreover, multitasking imposes cognitive costs detrimental to learning and task execution. We propose, accordingly, that the constant distractions created by digital media, interrupt the thought and communication processes of students during lectures and, subsequently, obstruct their ability to learn. To test this proposition we conducted a survey-based empirical investigation of digital media use and academic performance among un- dergraduate university students. A significant negative correlation was found between the number of in-lecture media use instances and academic performance. Furthermore, this effect was found to be pervasive independent of individual demographic factors and the intention with which a medium was used.
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During the early adoption of e-books, this unfamiliar digital format was made more palatable through analogy to the printed book. Texts were divided into ‘pages’ that could turn on screen, and e-book repositories were referred to as ‘libraries’. However, as digital texts have increasingly taken on characteristics of digital systems, the metaphor of the printed book has lost currency. Given the limitations of this conventional metaphor for the digital text, I propose an alternative conception, one that is as archaic in origin as the printed-book metaphor, yet surprisingly robust for describing the customizable texts of today’s Academy: the metaphor of movable text. The image derives from German printer Johannes Gutenberg’s 15th-century innovation for the mass production of books, a mechanical system that used paper, ink and the relatively cheap and reusable display of cubed, metal letters that could be arranged and rearranged into words on a tray ready to be pressed into print. This metaphor of book-as-movable text is useful in that it captures how the form of the academic textbook is now entangled with its process, as much as its context. But, how does this metaphor apply to the academic text in particular? If a movable academic book asks to be interpreted, does the mobility of meaning that it creates defy such interpretative engagement? In this article, I argue that when automated texts are effectively scaffolded by cultural critiques, they can support deep research processes. To become more effective, these searches demand focus as much as evaluation and thus drive towards the crafts of collation, synthesis and eventual reconfiguration.
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Digital distractions are an important and prevalent aspect of college students' lives. Using a self-regulated learning perspective, this chapter provides an in-depth understanding of students' digital distractions in academic settings and highlights how college instructors can empower their students to manage digital distractions and self-regulate their own learning. In particular, the chapter discusses both the causes and consequences of engaging in digital distractions with a focus on the impact of multitasking. In addition, the chapter argues that students' engagement in digital distractions is closely connected to their motivation and emotions. This chapter highlights how college students can regulate their digital distractions throughout the learning process during each phase of self-regulated learning. Finally, the chapter reviews the ways college instructors can support students' management of distractions through their instructional approaches.
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