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Checklist of the Lichens and lichenicolous Fungi of the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands

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Please find an updated online version of this work in the following link: http://botanica.bio.ub.es/checklist.htm Please, find the Summary and a short history of the Iberic lichenology in the downloadable first pages of this work.
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... Many readers will be surprised to learn that there is not a published checklist of the lichenicolous fungi from the Iberian Peninsula, although a seminal contribution would certainly be Santesson (1960). A little more than forty years later after Santesson's work, Llimona and Hladun (2001) summarized the lichenized and lichenicolous fungus biota of the Iberian Peninsula, reporting 2426 lichens and 368 lichenicolous fungi. This first comprehensive accounting of the Iberian lichen and lichenicolous biota covered not only mainland Spain, but also the Balearic Islands and Portugal. ...
... Spain is also a very mountainous country with peaks in the central Pyrenees and Betic belt reaching approximately 3000 meters in elevation. Several doctoral theses and papers have been dedicated to these mountainous areas (Barreno & Pérez-Ortega 2003, Calatayud 1998, Etayo 2010, Rico 1989, Sancho 1986, Terrón 1991) and many more contributions were referenced in Llimona and Hladun (2001). There are also many areas of Mediterranean forest not studied yet. ...
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110 records of lichenicolous fungi are reported from Andorra, Portugal and Spain, (mostly the latter country). One genus and four species are described as new to science: Phaeospora everniae on Evernia prunastri, Polycoccum ibericum on Rinodina sp., Zwackhiomacromyces constrictocarpus gen. et. sp. nov. on Megalospora, and Zwackhiomyces melanohaleae on Melanohalea exasperata. Pronectria septemseptata, is combined into the genus Xenonectriella as X. septemseptata (Etayo) Etayo & van den Boom. Lichenostigma canariense and Sarcopyrenia bacillosa are newly reported for Europe. Further new records for mainland Spain are Neolamya peltigerae, Niesslia cladoniicola, Obryzum corniculatum, Phacopsis fusca, Phoma grumantiana, Polycoccum umbilicariae, Sclerococcum leuckertii, Sphaerellothecium atryneae, Stigmidium cerinae, S. ramalinae and Taeniolella beschiana. A second world record of Pronectria casaresii is reported from northern Spain. The known distributions of many species are extended and discussed.
... Before numerical analysis, we unified species taxonomy and nomenclature. Vascular plants were named according to Euro+Med PlantBase (Euro+Med 2006, bryophytes according to Hodges et al. (2020) and lichens according to The British Lichen Society (2021), with the exception of those taxa not included there: Endocarpon loscosii, Heppia lutosa, Psora saviczii and P. vallesiaca follow Nimis and Martellos (2021), while Buellia zoharyi, Fulgensia poeltii, Lichenochora clauzadei and Toninia massata follow Llimona et al. (2001). We merged several groups of closely related species that cannot always be determined to species level into aggregates (aggr.), ...
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Aims : To clarify the syntaxonomic position of the grasslands in Navarre, with special focus on the dry grasslands, and to characterise the resulting syntaxonomic units in terms of diagnostic species and ecological conditions. Study area : Navarre (northern Spain). Methods : We sampled 119 plots of 10 m ² following the standardised EDGG methodology and analysed them together with 839 plots of similar size recorded in the 1990. For the classification, we used the modified TWINSPAN algorithm, complemented by the determination of diagnostic species with phi coefficients of association, which led to the creation of an expert system. We conducted these steps in a hierarchical manner for each syntaxonomic rank. We visualised the position of the syntaxa along environmental gradients by means of NMDS. Species richness, and structural and ecological characteristics of the syntaxa were compared by ANOVAs. Results : We could clearly identify five phytosociological classes: Lygeo-Stipetea, Festuco-Brometea, Molinio-Arrhenatheretea, Nardetea strictae , and Elyno-Seslerietea . Within the Festuco-Brometea a xeric and a meso-xeric order could be distinguished, with two alliances each, and eight associations in total: Thymelaeo-Aphyllanthetum, Jurineo-Festucetum, Helianthemo-Koelerietum, Prunello-Plantaginetum, Carduncello-Brachypodietum, Helictotricho-Seslerietum, Calamintho-Seselietum and Carici-Teucrietum. Conclusions : The combination of numerical methods allowed a consistent and more objective classification of grassland types in Navarre than previous approaches. At the association level, we could largely reproduce the units previously described with traditional phytosociological methods. By contrast, at higher syntaxonomic level, our analyses suggest significant modifications. Most importantly, a major part of the units traditionally included in the Festuco-Ononidetea seem to fall within the Festuco-Brometea . We could show that bryophytes and lichens are core elements of these grasslands and particularly the Mediterranean ones of Lygeo-Stipetea , both in terms of biodiversity and of diagnostic species. We conclude that the combination of our different numerical methods is promising for deriving more objective and reproducible delimitations of syntaxa in a hierarchical manner. Taxonomic references : Euro+Med (2006–2021) for vascular plants, Hodges et al. (2020) for bryophytes and The British Lichen Society (2021) for lichens, except for Endocarpon loscosii, Heppia lutosa, Psora saviczii and P. vallesiaca , which follow Nimis and Martellos (2021), and Buellia zoharyi, Fulgensia poeltii, Lichenochora clauzadei and Toninia massata , which follow Llimona et al. (2001). Syntaxonomic reference : Mucina et al. (2016), except for those syntaxa specifically treated here and given with authorities. Abbreviations : ANOVA = analysis of variance; EDGG = Eurasian Dry Grassland Group; NMDS: non-metric multidimensional scaling; TWINSPAN = Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis.
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Protoparmeliopsisgarovaglii is a widely distributed placodioid lichen, which develops a distinctly rosette thallus, composed of elongated and strongly inflated to sinuous-plicate lobes. The taxon is characterised by high morphological plasticity and varied composition of secondary metabolites. However, the epithet was never typified. As such, the identity of P.garovaglii , in its strict sense, was unknown for a long time. Our phylogenetic ITS rDNA analyses, including newly generated sequences, show that European (Austria, Poland), North American (USA) and South American (Bolivia, Peru) specimens of P.garovaglii are placed in a strongly supported monophyletic clade, sister to P.muralis . We provide the first molecular evidence of the occurrence of P.garovaglii in South America (Bolivia and Peru) and the second record in Central Europe (Poland) was also provided. Furthermore, we neotypify P.garovaglii and it is reported here for the first time from Poland.
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Based on morphometric and molecular methods, the taxonomy of the infraspecific taxa of Fuscidea cyathoides (Ach.) V. Wirth & Vězda, var. corticola (Fr.) Kalb and var. sorediata (H. Magn.) Poelt, has been assessed. No formal taxonomic recognition should be attributed to the morphological and ecological variation. Accordingly, var. corticola and var. sorediata are synonymized with F . cyathoides var. cyathoides . New synonyms at the specific level are Fuscidea fagicola (Zschacke) Hafellner & Türk and F . stiriaca (A. Massal.) Hafellner.
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Asexual species with vegetative propagation of both symbiont partners (soredia) in lichens may harbor lower species diversity because they may indeed represent evolutionary dead ends or clones. In this study we aim to critically examine species boundaries in the sorediate lichen forming fungi Parmotrema reticulatum–Parmotrema pseudoreticulatum complex applying coalescent-based approaches and other recently developed DNA-based methods. To this end, we gathered 180 samples from Africa, Asia, Australasia, Europe, North and South America and generated sequences of internal transcribed spacer of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS) and DNA replication licensing factor MCM7 (MCM7). The dataset was analysed using different approaches such as traditional phylogeny–maximum likelihood and Bayesian–genetic distances, automatic barcode gap discovery and coalescent-based methods–PTP, GMYC, spedeSTEM and *Beast–in order to test congruence among results. Additionally, the divergence times were also estimated to elucidate diversification events. Delimitations inferred from the different analyses are comparable with only minor differences, and following a conservative approach we propose that the sampled specimens of the P. reticulatum–P. pseudoreticulatum complex belong to at least eight distinct species-level lineages. Seven are currently classified under P. reticulatum and one as P. pseudoreticulatum. In this work we discuss one of only few examples of cryptic species that have so far been found in sorediate reproducing lichen forming fungi. Additionally our estimates suggest a recent origin of the species complex–during the Miocene. Consequently, the wide distribution of several of the cryptic species has to be explained by intercontinental long-distance dispersal events.
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The paper presents information about new localities of
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Gyalecta canariensis, a corticolous lichen species related to G. ulmi and resembling the corticolous, lignicolous and saxicolous G. truncigena, is described from the Canary Island, La Palma. This is the first report of a species with more than 8 spores per ascus for the genus.
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The morphological data with taxonomical value and the distribution maps of ten taxa of the genus Cladonia supergroup Crustaceae is reported from the Iberian Peninsula. With the exception of Cladonia mediterranea and C. ciliata, all of them show an optimal distribution in the Eurosiberian Region with some occurrences in suboceanic territories of the submediterreanean area. There are many new provincial records and its distributional areas are enlarged.
  • Aguirre
Aguirre (1984); Fiol (1984).
Pedrelio (1985-1987*); Mus (1985-1990*)
  • Renobales
Renobales (1985-1996*); Lopez de Silanes (1985); Pedrelio (1985-1987*); Mus (1985-1990*); Garcia-Molares (1986); Navarro-Rosines (1986); Giralt (1986);
  • Arroyo
Arroyo (1988); Atienza (1989); Sanz (1989-1992*); Monso (1989); Alonso (1989).
  • Sanchez-Biezma
The third wave: Barbero (1990); Manzanero (1990*); Valcarcel (1991); Canals (1992); Sanchez-Biezma (1992); Calatayud (1993); Sarrion (1993); Gutierrez- Carretero (1993-1994*); Paz-BermAdez (1994); Martinez (1994); Arag6n (1994);
  • Arifio
Arifio (1994); Fos (1994); Azuaga (1996); Gaya (1996); Longan (1998).
such as physiology, ultrastructure, ecophysiology In their works, floristic-taxonomic data are occasional: Bustinza (1951-1947), Ascaso
Let us also mention some Spanish lichenologists working in other fields, such as physiology, ultrastructure, ecophysiology. In their works, floristic-taxonomic data are occasional: Bustinza (1951-1947), Ascaso (1975, etc), Vicente-Cordoba (1975), Estevez (1976), Legaz (1980), Tarazona (1980), Orus (1982), Cifuentes (1983), Rapsch (1983), Valladares (1984), Saiz-Gimenez (1991), Molina (1992), Sanders (1992-1997), Wierzchos (1994).
Lazar° (1896, 1906), all of them uncritical compilations. Llimona, Hladun et coll
  • Amo
Amo (1870), Lazar° (1896, 1906), all of them uncritical compilations. Llimona, Hladun et coll. (1987, polycopiated catalogue of the Catalan Countries, distributed at the VII Symp.