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Anger coping strategies and anger regulation

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The present review summarizes the current research on anger coping and experiencing. We proceeded step by step, starting from the structure of anger coping, covering the influence of anger coping on somatic health, the influence of anger coping on psychic health, and finally we discussed the interpersonal domain of anger coping, including dyadic interactions. The main emphasis was given on the shift in the conceptualization of anger coping from the simple descriptions of coping mechanisms towards the dynamic explanations within the interpersonal context. We discussed contextual factors, such as situational specificity, relative status of the individual within the social group, interpersonal targeting of anger expression, perceived level of injustice in anger elicitors, etc. Further, we also focused on the domain of the nonverbal expression of anger. Since nonverbal expression constitutes the essential part of emotional coping, we surveyed some aspects of this subfield, such as facial expression of anger, energetical costs of nonverbal expression of anger, intrapersonal emotional transfer, and emotional transfer of anger between individuals.
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ANGER COPING STRATEGIES AND ANGER REGULATION
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Summary. – The present review summarizes the current research on an-
ger coping and experiencing. We proceeded step by step, starting from the
structure of anger coping, covering the influence of anger coping on somatic
health, the influence of anger coping on psychic health, and finally we dis-
cussed the interpersonal domain of anger coping, including dyadic interac-
tions. The main emphasis was given on the shift in the conceptualization of
anger coping from the simple descriptions of coping mechanisms towards
the dynamic explanations within the interpersonal context. We discussed
contextual factors, such as situational specificity, relative status of the indi-
vidual within the social group, interpersonal targeting of anger expression,
perceived level of injustice in anger elicitors, etc. Further, we also focused
on the domain of the nonverbal expression of anger. Since nonverbal expres-
sion constitutes the essential part of emotional coping, we surveyed some
aspects of this subfield, such as facial expression of anger, energetical costs
of nonverbal expression of anger, intrapersonal emotional transfer, and emo-
tional transfer of anger between individuals.
Past investigation of anger coping focused mainly on the structure of
coping and on the description of coping mechanisms within the individual. Cur-
rently, some scholars pointed out that anger is a socially censored emotion, and
that it should be investigated in the context of social interactions and interpersonal
relationships (Keltner & Kring, 1998; Kring, 2000). Therefore, we will also later
discuss several contextual factors such as relative status in a social group and in-
terpersonal targeting of anger expression.
Anger Coping Strategies
and Anger Regulation
Radek Trnka and Iva Stuchlíková
6
This work was supported by the Czech Science Foundation (GAČR 406/09/0294).
In: Re-Constructing Emotional Spaces: From Experience to Regulation
Trnka R., Balcar K., Kuška M. (Eds.)
2011, Prague College of Psychosocial Studies Press: Prague
ANGER COPING STRATEGIES AND ANGER REGULATION
90
Further, Deffenbacher, Oetting, Lynch, & Morris (1996) noticed that previous
research of anger coping neglected the domain of nonverbal expression of anger.
Since this nonverbal expression constitutes the essential part of emotional coping,
we will pay attention to some aspects of this subfield, such as facial expression of
anger and energetical costs of nonverbal expression of anger.
To meet the mentioned aims we try to put together pieces of information from
different scientific fields. The present study aims to integrate relevant informati-
on from the research of stress and coping, clinical psychology, medical research,
social psychology, emotion research, and gender studies. A brief definition of the
emotion of anger is provided at the beginning of the chapter. Further, we focus on
the methods used for the assessment of anger coping and to the structure of anger
coping. In the following two parts, the impact of anger coping on physical and
mental health is briefly surveyed. The following part focuses on the interpersonal
domain of anger coping including gender differences. Finally, several possible
insights for future research are discussed.
STRUCTURE OF ANGER COPING
Anger is defined as an emotional state characterized by “feelings of outrage and
annoyance” (Pérez-Nieto, Camunas, Cano-Vindel, Miguel-Tobal, & Iruarrizaga,
2000, p. 291). Hostility and aggression represent related constructs to anger, and
together they are sometimes considered as a triad: anger-hostility-aggression
(Pérez-Nieto et al., 2000). Aggression refers to “overt behavior defined by at-
tacking, destructive, or hurtful actions” (Harburg, Julius, Kaciroti, Gleiberman,
& Schork, 2003, p. 588), whereas hostility is defined as a “persistent negative
attitude towards others” (Pérez-Nieto et al., 2000, p. 291).
How can we approach anger from the methodological point of view? Seve-
ral typologies of anger coping strategies have emerged during past empirical re-
search. Anger-In/Anger-Out or suppressed/expressed anger belongs to the one of
the most discussed concepts. Anger-Out is defined as “the tendency to overtly
express anger, typically in negative, aggressive ways”, Anger-In as “the tendency
to experience but suppress the overt expression of anger” (Deffenbacher et al.,
1996, p. 576). These categories are usually assessed by subjective self-report mea-
sures such as the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory - STAXI (e.g., Forgays,
Forgays, & Spielberger, 1997; Pérez-Nieto et al., 2000; Martin & Dahlen, 2005;
originally developed by Spielberger, 1988), or the Anger Expression Scale (Burns,
Evon, & Strain-Saloum, 1999; Musante & Treiber, 2000; originally developed
by Spielberger, Johnson & Russell, 1985). Another category, Anger-Control, is
present in these instruments, and is defined as “the tendency to be patient, calm,
ANGER COPING STRATEGIES AND ANGER REGULATION
91
and modulate emotional and behavioral expression of anger” (Deffenbacher et
al., 1996, p. 576). Bartz, Blume, & Rose (1996) pointed out the limitations of
such self-report measures due to possible social desirability response bias. He also
proved (Bartz et al., 1996) that the level of Anger-Out is dependent on the level
of social desirability measured by the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale
(Crowne & Marlowe, 1964).
Previous research paid only little attention to the context where Anger-In/An-
ger-Out strategies are performed in daily life. Therefore, our team conducted a
study employing STAXI with innovated context-dependent scales (Stuchlíková
& Man, 2003). This innovated inventory was administrated to 215 Czech col-
lege students (119 females, 96 males). Participants reported different performance
of Anger-In/Anger-Out strategies in the home, work, and leisure time settings.
Interestingly, some gender-specific effects were found (see Figure 6.1). Women
reported more Anger-Out than men in the home and leisure time settings. Further,
women suppressed their anger in the work more than men. These results are con-
sistent with findings of Bongard & al’Absi (2003), where women reported greater
anger control and less overt anger expressions in the work than in the home set-
tings. In this study women also described themselves as having generally greater
Anger-Out then men. Interestingly, the gender differences were absent when anger
expression was measured by the simple anger expression STAXI scale, irrespec-
tively to social domains. Similar findings were reported also by others who did not
distinguish between social context or aggregated the data for all situations (e.g.,
Spielberger, 1988; Kopper & Epperson, 1991; Porter, Stone, & Schwartz, 1999).
Further, previous research has also demonstrated behavioral differences in the
coping of hostility and aggression between home and work settings (Bongard &
al’Absi, 2003). These contexts differ in the level of privacy, relations to potential
anger targets, and in power distance, all of which are the factors that influence the
expression of anger (Matsumoto, 1990; Underwood, Coie, & Herbsman, 1992).
Porter et al. (1999) also found that university students reported more open anger
expression in the private settings compared to the public settings.
In comparison with suppressed and expressed anger, researchers paid less at-
tention to another general category called “repressed anger”. Anger repressors de-
nied their strong experience of anger both to themselves and to others (Burns et al.,
1999). However, such anger repressors showed very high physiological reactivity
during stress situations (Jorgensen, Gelling, & Kliner, 1992; Miller, 1993). This
intrapersonal defense mechanism represents very interesting anger coping strategy
that can have also negative influence on the one’s state of health (Greer & Watson,
1985). Repressors describe themselves as more controlling and expressing anger
to a lesser extent. Those who repress anger proved the smallest changes in cardio-
vascular reaction when working in mild mental stress condition (Stuchlíková &
ANGER COPING STRATEGIES AND ANGER REGULATION
92
Man, 2002). Egloff & Krohne (1996) showed that repressors reported less fear, sad-
ness and hostility after failure. Some studies demonstrated that repressors have diffi-
culty with the open expression of anger (e.g., Kiecolt-Glaser & Greenberg, 1983;
Taylor, 1970). Pauls & Stemmler (2003) showed that highly defensive copers
showed low levels of negative affect in their behavior during anger induction. Thus,
the repressor’s reactivity to negative feedback or social disaproval depends on the
context.
Several researchers considered the Anger-In/Anger-Out dichotomy too nar-
row. The self-report instrument, the Behavioral Anger Response Questionnaire
– BARQ (Hogan & Linden, 2004; Hogan & Linden, 2005; Miers, Rieffe, Ter-
wogt, Cowan, & Linden, 2007; originally developed by Linden et al., 2003), is
built on the previous measures, STAXI, but it works with the more precise diver-
sification of anger coping strategies. This model with six factors consists of Di-
rect Anger-Out, Assertion, Diffusion, Avoidance, Rumination, and Support-Seek-
ing.
Another self-report instrument was developed by Zeman, Shipman, & Penza-
Clyve (2001) specifically for children. The Children’s Sadness and Anger Man-
agement Scale (CSMS) includes three anger and sadness coping strategies - In-
hibition, Dysregulated Expression, and Emotion Regulation Coping. Inhibition
assesses the “masking or suppression of emotional expression”, Dysregulated
Expression measures “culturally inappropriate expression of anger and sadness”,
and Emotion Regulation Coping examines “perceptions of the ability to cope with
anger and sadness” (Zeman, Shipman, & Suveg, 2002, p. 395).
Anderson & Lawler (1995) used the Anger Recall Interview (ARI) for deter-
mining anger expression coping strategies. Participants were asked to recall a time
when they had become very angry. Four categories were later created based on
Figure 6.1 Gender differences in Anger-Out/Anger-In in various contexts (Source:
Stuchlíková & Man, 2003).
Anger-Out scale Anger-In scale
Home Home
gender: women men
Lesure time Lesure timeWork Work
15,0
14,5
14,0
13,5
13,0
12,5
12,0
11,5
19,0
18,5
18,0
17,5
17,0
16,5
ANGER COPING STRATEGIES AND ANGER REGULATION
93
the analysis of their responses in these semi-structured interviews - suppression,
cognition, assertion, and aggression.
The Anger Strategies Scale (Ronan, Keeney, Date, & Ronan, 1996; Ronan,
Dreer, Dollard, & Ronan, 2004) assessed 17 effective and 17 ineffective coping
strategies that are used by people for dealing with high-conflict situations. Ef-
fective coping strategies involve, e.g., accepting responsibility, compromising,
describing the problem, paraphrasing/reflecting, or describing past positive be-
haviors. Ineffective coping strategies cover, e.g., denying responsibility, comp-
laining, interrupting, criticizing, describing past negative behaviors, or name-call-
ing.
Eight other anger coping strategies were assessed by Willner, Brace, & Phillips
(2005) using the Profile of Anger Coping Skills - PACS. These categories in-
volved using relaxation skills, walk away, do something else, ask for help, rethink
the situation, use humor, be assertive, and count to 10 (pausing before expressing
anger, giving the individual time to think).
Goodwin (2006) used a series of open, self-report questions for assessment of
anger coping behaviors (e.g., “What do you usually do when you get angry?”).
Reported activities were later grouped into four general categories - substance use
(alcohol, drugs, cigarettes), physical activities (exercise, biking, walking), emo-
tional coping (talking to someone, praying, listening to music) and aggressive be-
havior (fighting with someone, arguing).
ANGER COPING, HEALTH, AND ILLNESS
There is an increased interest in anger coping strategies in current medical re-
search due to their impact on the risk of coronary heart disease (e.g., Fava, An-
derson, & Rosenbaum, 1990) and cancer susceptibility and recurrence (Greer &
Watson, 1985). Generally, anger causes a higher risk of cardiovascular disease,
because of the exaggerated cardiovascular reactivity to stress (Houston, 1994;
Suarez, Kuhn, Schanberg, Williams, & Zimmerman 1998), especially in the situ-
ations of interpersonal provocation (Suarez et al., 1998). Both the influence of
Anger-In/Anger-Out coping strategies and the influence of different personality
types were investigated in previous studies with respect to the health risk in anger
emotional processing and anger emotional expression.
The longitudinal study of Harburg et al. (2003) assessed anger-coping types
based on the responses to two hypothetical anger-provoking situations involving
injustices perpetrated by a power figure (unjustified “attack” of a policemen and
unjustified “attack” of a spouse). Responses were evaluated as either the expres-
sion of anger or the suppression of anger, analogically to Anger-In/Anger-Out
ANGER COPING STRATEGIES AND ANGER REGULATION
94
coping strategies. Results showed that Anger-In strategy predicted earlier mortal-
ity for women, but not for men (Harburg et al., 2003). Heart rate, cardiac output,
and changes in peripheral resistance were measured as responses to experimen-
tally induced unjust situations in another study (Girdler, Turner, Sherwood, &
Light, 1990). Women showed greater increases in heart rate, cardiac output, and
decreased peripheral resistance than men (Girdler et al., 1990). Gallacher, Yarnell,
Sweetnam, Elwood, & Stansfeld (1999) showed that individuals with higher levels
of Anger-In were more stricken by coronary heart disease than others.
Few studies also pointed out the influence of different personality types to an-
ger coping responses and health (Greer & Watson, 1985; Anderson & Lawler,
1995). Women were asked to “recall a time when they become very angry“ in the
study of Anderson & Lawler (1995). Their responses were later coded into four
anger coping responses: suppression, cognition, assertion, and aggression. Heart
rate and blood pressure were monitored at the baseline and after the interview.
The relation of type-A and type-B personality to systolic blood pressure in anger
coping condition was investigated. Women using the suppressed mode of anger
coping showed higher systolic blood pressure. Women using the assertive mode
of anger coping had the lowest level of systolic blood pressure. Further, type-
A women using the suppressed mode of anger coping showed the highest sys-
tolic blood pressure. The lowest level of systolic blood pressure was found in
type-B women using the assertive mode of anger coping (Anderson & Lawler,
1995).
Special effects related to anger coping were observed in the individuals with
type-C personality (Greer & Watson, 1985). The typical behavioral pattern of “be-
ing pathologically nice“ is represented in the type-C individuals (Buck & Powers,
2005), because of their excessive and exaggerated levels of kindness expressed
towards their social environments. Type-C individuals deny their anger feelings
and expressions (Buck & Powers, 2005), and this pattern was associated with
cancer susceptibility and recurrence (Greer & Watson, 1985). Such repressed
coping strategy is an interesting phenomenon when seen from the functionalist
perspective. One of the most important functions of emotions is their signal func-
tion (Nakonečný, 2000). This signal function works on both the intrapersonal and
the interpersonal level (Thoits, 1989). The repression of anger in the mind would
strongly reduce the intrapersonal signal function of anger. However, on the other
hand, it is known from anxiety research that repressors avoid only medium threats.
When the level of threat is highly significant, they process the threat with the
similar allocation of attention as non-repressors (Calvo & Eysenck, 2000). Causes
of anger repression are not always clear. Repression might occur, for example, as
an outcome of evoked anxiety when negative consequences are assumed, includ-
ing social disapproval, which is especially threatening for repressors (Zeman &
ANGER COPING STRATEGIES AND ANGER REGULATION
95
Garber, 1996). However, possible influences of social regulatory pressures such as
specific social rules for expressing anger (display rules) and specific expectations
for anger experience (feeling rules) can be assumed as well.
ANGER COPING, DEPRESSION,
AND SUBSTANCE USE
Anger coping strategies have impact not only on physical health, but they can
also influence on the development of some mental problems, especially depression
and internalizing disorders. The suppressed mode of anger coping and stressful
life events were independent predictors of depression in the study of Clay, An-
derson, & Dixon (1993). Similarly, the inhibition of anger predicted internalizing
symptoms in children (Zeman, Shipman, & Suveg, 2002). Experiences of anger
and sadness represent two emotional states which are often associated with the
development of depression in children (Zahn-Waxler, Klimes-Dougan, & Slattery,
2000).
Alcohol abuse was reported as an one of the most anger-provoking elicitors
for women in the study of Buss (1989). Women reported greater anger than men
as a reaction to their partner’s alcohol abuse (Buss, 1989). One can see alcohol
abuse in two different roles in relation to anger experience and anger coping. First,
alcohol abuse could be a possible strategy of coping with anger for men, although
Goodwin (2006) considered drinking alcohol as a less productive coping behav-
ior. Second, alcohol abuse could be also one of the strongest anger-provoking
elicitors for women (Buss, 1989). Such gender differences would have further
implications on dyadic intimate relationships between males and females. We can
construct a hypothetical situation where the male partner wishes to cope with his
anger experience with alcohol consumption. This may elicit further anger feelings
in his female partner, who may also externalize her feelings in mutual interactions
and emotional communication. Previous research revealed that negative emotional
reactions of women represent generally one of the strongest anger-provoking elici-
tors for men (Kring, 2000). We can discuss a hypothetical “loop effect” in this
sense. The anger coping of one person creates anger experience in another. Such
interindividual emotional transfer of negative arousal seems to be quite specific
because of its self-enhancing effect. A similar effect at the intraindividual level
was described for happiness by Ryan & Deci (2001). Happiness is proposed to
cause positive cognitions, which in turn contribute to further happiness in the in-
dividual.
Problems with excessively externalized anger seem to be possibly related with
the development of depression as a consequence of suppressed anger. Chronically
ANGER COPING STRATEGIES AND ANGER REGULATION
96
or problematically angry individuals are often unable to deal with stress (Lench,
2004). This inability leads to an increase of frustration and this frustration con-
sequently leads to increased anger (Grieger, 1986; Edmondson & Conger, 1996;
Cox, Stabb, & Bruckner, 1999). Such individuals might then perform, for exam-
ple, acts of domestic violence or child abuse (Lench, 2004).
INTERPERSONAL CONTEXT OF ANGER
COPING AND GENDER DIFFERENCES
As is apparent from the previous text, anger may often elicit conflicts in social
interactions. Thoits (1989) pointed out that emotional functions are key mecha-
nisms which form the social structure and the behavior of individuals. Negative
emotions, like anger, might harm group harmony and smooth social interactions
(Biehl et al., 1997). This could be the reason why people with chronic anger ten-
dencies maintain poorer social relationships (Monnier, Stone, Hobfoll, & Johnson,
1998). Suitable coping with anger emotional processing, and especially coping with
anger emotional expression, is therefore crucial for smooth social functioning.
Interestingly, previous research revealed some gender differences relating to the
interpersonal context of anger expression. Men experienced and expressed anger
generally more often than women (Plant, Hide, Keltner, & Devine, 2000; Plant,
Kling, & Smith, 2004). Further, men were also better in expressing anger via facial
expressions than women (Coats & Feldman, 1996). We may posit the question
about the causes of such differences. Although biologically based, anger is chiefly
a socially constructed emotion (Strongman, 2003). Anger is a conflictive emotion
that also has relations to the systems of aggression, social living, symbolization,
and self-awareness (Strongman, 2003). Based on these theoretical considerations,
one can construct two views of anger utility in daily social interactions for both
men and women. The first view assumes that the expression of anger toward one’s
social environment may have negative consequences for the individual. The sec-
ond view searches for the positive effects of overtly expressed anger. Anger might
negatively influence social interactions (Biehl et al., 1997). Women are gener-
ally highly motivated to maintain and refine their social relationships with others,
rather than to elicit conflict situations by overt anger expression (Madden, Barrett,
& Pietromonaco, 2000). From this point of view, one of possible explanations
might be that women’s competence not to express anger overtly is rooted in their
high pro-social motivation. They can perceive overt anger expression as “socially
harmful”, which might be a result of gender-specific socialization.
Can an overt expression of anger be also beneficial? Previous empirical evidence
showed that expression of anger elicits an attribution of dominance and power to
ANGER COPING STRATEGIES AND ANGER REGULATION
97
the individuals who expressed this anger (Marsch, Adams, & Kleck, 2005). Marsch
et al. (2005) stated that the expression of anger communicates the relative status in
social groups. From the functionalist perspective, one of the functions of anger is
to energize the person for defense (Strongman, 2003). Izard & Ackerman (2000)
pointed out that experience and expression of anger mobilize and sustain energy at
a high level, and that the increased motor activity sustained for a long time period
is typical for the emotion of anger. This readiness for action may also prevent the
aggressive behavior of another person (Izard & Ackerman, 2000).
Anger is expressed by specific facial expressions, intensive and fast speech, and
by very fast, expansive, and awkward movements (Wallbott & Scherer, 1986). It
seems that anger expression might be energetically very costly for the individual.
Our team conducted research where eight basic facial expressions of emotion were
compared according to their energetic costs (Trnka, 2007). Energetic costs were ana-
lyzed according to the range of structural facial changes, signal duration, duration
of communication sequence, and presence/strength of vocalization. Based on this
assessment, the expression of anger was considered as the second most energetically
expensive facial signal compared to other facial expressions (see Figure 6.2).
As seen above, the expression of anger is an energetically demanding behavior.
We can speculate about two hypothetical causes of the above-mentioned gender
differences from this perspective. First, it would be beneficial for women to save
energy by expressing anger to a lesser extent. The saved energy would be hypo-
thetically used for improving and maintaining their interindividual relationships
through pro-social communication or for child care. The second hypothesis takes
in mind the relation of anger to the status hierarchy. Men are more often targets of
the anger expression of others than women (Dosser, Balswick, & Halverson, 1983;
Harris, 1994; Brody, Lovas, & Hay, 1995). It seems that men are challenged to de-
fend their status more often than women. Frequency of anger expressions towards
friends increases generally with age during childhood (Underwood et al., 1992;
Underwood, 1997), as their social relationships become more complex and com-
Figure 6.2 Energetic costs of eight basic facial expressions. (Source: Trnka, 2007).
Cheap Medium Expensive
contempt
low cost high cost
smile disgust
sadness
fear
anger
surprise
laughter
ANGER COPING STRATEGIES AND ANGER REGULATION
98
plicated. It seems plausible that with the increasing complexity of social bonds,
status rivalry may cause gender-specific direction of overt anger expressions. Men
are hypothesized to be exposed to more conflict social interactions with others.
Higher frequency of overt anger expressions might then reflect either the more
pronounced status rivalry in men, or the generally higher occurrence of aggressive
interactions in men.
CONCLUSIONS
The previous text briefly summarized the current research of anger coping. We
proceeded step by step starting from the structure of anger coping and covering the
influence of anger coping on health and illness. Further, we explored area of im-
pact of anger coping on mental health, and finally we discussed the interpersonal
domain of anger coping including dyadic interactions.
Current research revealed several loop effects of previous expression or coping
of anger on the current anger experience. These effects emerged both on the in-
terpersonal level (Buss, 1989; Burman, Margolin, & John, 1993; Goodwin, 2006)
and intrapersonal level (Grieger, 1986; Edmondson & Conger, 1996; Cox, Stabb,
& Bruckner, 1999; Harburg et al., 2003). These effects prove to be not only im-
mediate, but they may cause reexperiencing anger after long time period (Harburg
et al., 2003). The well-known facial feedback hypothesis (e.g., Izard, 1991; Ek-
man, 1993; McIntosh, 1996; Blairy, Herrera, & Hess, 1999) posits that changes
in the nonverbal expression of the individual can elicit physiological changes, and
consequently also an emotional experience consistent with the expressed emotion.
However, researchers recently agree that such proprioreceptive feedback may elic-
it a similarly valenced experience (pleasant/unpleasant), but no specific emotional
experience such as disgust, anger, contempt, etc. (Burgoon, Buller, & Woodall,
1996; Andersen & Guerrero, 1998). On the contrary, the above mentioned “anger
self-enhancing loop effect” seems to be just specific. Anger experience and expres-
sion often elicit further anger experience or expression in another person or within
the same individual. Since anger has an immediate initial phase with a strong
experience and limited potential to manage it, further research should address the
following phases, where display rules start to work and self-strengthening effects
contrary cause repeated reexperiencing of anger, to a greater extent.
From the methodological point of view, anger coping strategies were assessed
by self-report measures in most cases (see “Structure of Anger Coping”). How-
ever, such measures are often criticized because of social desirability response
bias and other limitations (Bartz et al., 1996; Kring, 2000; Miers et al., 2007).
Measuring coping under real-life conditions is possible, especially in the domain
ANGER COPING STRATEGIES AND ANGER REGULATION
99
of the emotional expression of anger. Future research may be inspired by research
in human ethology (see, e.g., Eibl-Eibesfeldt, 1989) where observational meth-
ods are well-defined and standardized. However, the main limitation of such an
approach is the possible negative observer bias, when the observer is physically
present during data collecting and thus may interrupt natural expressions of anger.
Further methodological development should focus on the reducing of such nega-
tive observer bias to a permissible level.
Finally, we may conclude that some of the already-developed instruments have
not yet been sufficiently utilized for assessing gender differences in anger coping.
Using the Profile of Anger Coping Skills - PACS (Willner et al., 2005) and the
Anger Recall Interview – ARI (Anderson & Lawler, 1995) can bring new insights
into possible gender-specific coping mechanisms in future research.
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