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On the foundations of NeuroIS: reflections on the Gmunden Retreat 2009

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Abstract

This article reflects on the discussions of the fifteen participants (co authors) of a retreat on the "Foundations of NeuroIS" that took place in Gmunden (Austria) in September 2009. In particular, this article offers initial answers to a set of research questions which are important for the foundations of NeuroIS, an emerging subfield within the IS discipline. The key questions discussed during the retreat that are addressed in this article are: (1) What is NeuroIS, and how does it relate to sister disciplines, such as neuroscience, neuroeconomics, and neuromarketing? (2) Which neuroscience tools are relevant for IS research? (3) What can IS researchers learn from the neuroscience literature, and what do we already know about brain activity? (4) What are possible IS research topics that can be examined with neuroscience tools, and what are some promising research areas for NeuroIS? (5) How can NeuroIS be established as a new subfield in the IS literature, and what are the current challenges for NeuroIS? The article concludes by offering the participants' outlook on the future of NeuroIS.

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... (Dimoka et al., 2011, p. 689) 2 "Neuromarketing is the application of cognitive neuroscience theories and functional brain imaging tools to marketing. By understanding how the human brain activates in response to marketing and advertising stimuli (Zaltman 2003), neuromarketing aims to build superior models to understand consumer behavior and market products (Lee et al., 2015;Groeppel-Klein, 2005;Lee et al., 2007;Plassmann et al., in press;Plassmann and Weber, in press;Smidts et al., 2014;Van Praet, 2014;Zaltman, 2003) or Neuroscience Information Systems (NeuroIS) 3 (Astor et al., 2013;de Guinea et al., 2014;Dimoka, 2010;Dimoka et al., 2012;Dimoka et al., 2011;Hu et al., 2015;Riedl et al., 2010a;Tams et al., 2014;vom Brocke and Liang, 2014). ...
... eye tracking, electrodermal measures, facial electromyography or electrocardiogram) (cf. Dimoka et al., 2012;Riedl et al., 2010a), only a small subset is appropriate to address research questions on perception and cognitive processing "in the wild" and at the exact time of external stimuli; that is, they have to be portable, noninvasive and unobtrusive (Astor et al., 2013;Dimoka, 2012). In line with these requirements, and compared to similar tools such as mobile electrocardiograms (Astor et al., 2013) or eye-tracking devices (Serfas et al., 2014), recording electrodermal activity represents the most cost-effective approach for collecting neuroscience data . ...
... The NeuroIS community, though aware of the potential of electrodermal activity Riedl et al., 2010a), has so far neglected its use as a lowcost, noninvasive and unobtrusive in-situ evaluation measure for the design and use of UIS services -for a corresponding literature review, see Section 2.7; therefore, the following research question seems to be worth an investigation: ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Information and communication services have become ubiquitous in our everyday life and, in turn, research on Ubiquitous Information Systems (UIS) has received increasing attention. UIS services can elicit both negative and positive emotions, which are not necessarily perceived consciously by individuals but which may still have an impact on predictors and outcomes of UIS service use. Due to the limitations of psychological self-reports in uncovering these automatic cognitive processes, the current work investigates emotional stimuli of UIS services with neurophysiological data. In particular, we choose electrodermal activity as an indicator of physiological arousal and assess its utility for the design and use of UIS services. To account for the neurophysiological nature of electrodermal activity and to investigate its value in relation to established self-report instruments, we integrate the stimulus-organism-response paradigm with a two-systems view of cognitive processing. Against the background of this theoretical framework, we hypothesise relationships between breakdown events of UIS services (the emotional stimuli), physiological arousal and perceived ease of use (manifestations of the organism's automatic and inferential cognitive processes), and task performance (the response of the organism). We also consider physiological learning processes related to generalisation effects. In order to test the hypotheses, we use empirical data from two studies. Results indicate that electrodermal activity is a useful measure for the design and use of UIS services, even though generalisation effects can reduce its reliability. Moreover, we demonstrate that electrodermal activity is related to perceived ease of use and task performance. We finally discuss the theoretical and practical implications of our results, examine the limitations of the current work and outline future research.
... These studies have found that the cognitive processes of individual team members are inextricably linked to team performance. The recent integration of research tools from cognitive neuroscience into the decision sciences arena enables a deeper understanding of the underlying cognitive processes of individual team members as they work together (Riedl et al., 2010). Neuroscience has examined creative output with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) (Folley & Park, 2005;Gibson, Folley, & Park, 2009), electroencephalography (EEG) (Dietrich & Kanso, 2010), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) (Fink et al., 2010). ...
... The use of cognitive neuroscience in the information systems is relatively new (Riedl et al., 2010). There are a variety of tools in cognitive neuroscience (e.g., fMRI, EEG, NIRS), each having their own strengths and weaknesses. ...
... The use of cognitive neuroscience tools enables novel examination of fundamental IS problems that behavioral studies such as surveys, lab experiments, and field studies are unable to resolve. Cognitive neuroscience research includes localizing neural correlates of IS constructs, capturing mental processes, and complementing existing sources of data with brain data (Riedl et al., 2010). In this study, changes in cognition will be measured using time-frequency analysis of EEG data. ...
Article
We build on prior theory and research on electronic brainstorming to examine how achievement priming influences individual cognition leading to changes in individual behavior and ultimately team performance. We conducted a repeated measures experiment using electroencephalography with 53 subjects performing two brainstorming tasks. We found that priming altered cognition in the left and right regions of the frontal cortex; that is, achievement priming triggered cognition in areas of the brain related to creative and insightful cognition while the placebo treatment led to cognition in areas related to language production. Thus, priming did not induce “more” cognition, but rather triggered changes in the nature of cognition that led to significantly more ideas and more ideas that were highly novel, workable, and relevant. This study makes two contributions: it shows one theoretical pathway by which achievement priming works; and it show that priming using pictures improves idea generation.
... The functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanner is one such tool from the cognitive neuroscience realm, whichcould be used to advance privacy research, particularly, the privacy paradox. The fMRI scanner tracks blood oxygenation in the brain and measures the magnetic properties of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood (Riedl et al., 2010). Researchers could thus see individuals' brain activity associated with various situations, thereby relating the factors that influence decision-making due to the spatial resolution from fMRI scans (Riedl et al., 2010). ...
... The fMRI scanner tracks blood oxygenation in the brain and measures the magnetic properties of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood (Riedl et al., 2010). Researchers could thus see individuals' brain activity associated with various situations, thereby relating the factors that influence decision-making due to the spatial resolution from fMRI scans (Riedl et al., 2010). For this reason, the fMRI is the best suited tool for testing the research model and hypotheses of our study. ...
... Privacy research often uses psychometric measures of self-reported data, which are often limited due to individuals' biases (Dimoka et al., 2007. However, directly measuring individuals' neural activity and/or physiological features provides more accurate and objective data (Riedl et al., 2010). While Smith et al. (2011) indicated that limited insights could be gained from testing research models of perceptions, the tools and techniques of cognitive neuroscience could overcome these constraints, particularly in privacy research. ...
Conference Paper
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The concerns individuals express over the privacy of their personal information could inhibit them from disclosing their personal information, despite the benefits they may attain from doing so. However, while individuals' express privacy concerns, they still continue to disclose personal information. The actions of such individuals, known as the privacy paradox, suggests that there are factors are present which may influence or inhibit individuals from disclosing personal information. The aim of our study is to investigate the privacy paradox to better understand individuals' decisions to withhold or disclose personal information. We argue that individuals disclose personal information based on a cognitive disposition, which includes rational and emotional mental processes. We further posit that by adopting techniques, tools and theories from the cognitive neuroscience will help us better understand the privacy paradox.
... Papers in the information systems (IS) literature have revealed the growing importance of integrating neuroscientific and psychophysiological methods and theories into IS research to better understand how the brain, and human neurophysiology in general, operate in IS contexts (e.g., Dimoka, Pavlou, & Davis, 2011;Loos et al., 2010;Riedl et al., 2010a;Riedl, Davis, & Hevner, 2014a). This kind of knowledge about the brain is important because neurophysiological processes influence human perceptions, preferences, beliefs, attitudes, behavioral intentions, and, ultimately, actual behavior (Cacioppo, Tassinary, & Berntson, 2007;Glimcher & Fehr, 2013;Yoon et al., 2012). ...
... This kind of knowledge about the brain is important because neurophysiological processes influence human perceptions, preferences, beliefs, attitudes, behavioral intentions, and, ultimately, actual behavior (Cacioppo, Tassinary, & Berntson, 2007;Glimcher & Fehr, 2013;Yoon et al., 2012). Various conceptual papers have defined the neuroIS field and identified promising research areas, but they have also revealed potential challenges (Dimoka et al., 2012;Riedl et al., 2010a;2014a;vom Brocke & Liang, 2014). Furthermore, empirical neuroIS studies published in the last several years show that functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is an important tool in neuroIS research. ...
... For IS research, one needs to understand how people make decisions in IS-relevant contexts to optimize the interaction between humans and information and communication technologies. Thus, if one accepts that better understanding the human brain means better understanding human decision making, the integration of neuroscientific methods and findings into IS research has the potential to yield important findings (Dimoka, Pavlou, & Davis, 2007;Dimoka et al., 2011Dimoka et al., , 2012Riedl, 2009;Riedl et al., 2010a;2014a;von Brocke & Liang, 2014). We introduce psycho-physiological interaction analysis (PPI) to neuroIS as a methodological extension that enables another form of analyzing fMRI data. ...
Article
The integration of neuroscientific methods in Information Systems (IS) research to better understand how the brain interacts with IS-relevant context has gained in importance. Many papers that highlight the potential of neuroIS and that discuss methodological issues associated with using functional brain imaging already exist. However, neuroIS researchers have to keep in mind that the emergence of complex mental processes such as trust in IS contexts is based on activity in a network of brain regions rather than on activity in one area alone. Accordingly, we introduce psycho-physiological interaction (PPI) analysis, a technique that one can use to analyze fMRI data. Specifically, we review how one can conduct PPI analysis, provide a concrete research example, and show how this analysis can inform IS trust research. Thus, we introduce neuroIS researchers working in the domain of functional brain imaging to advanced fMRI analyses methods and show, based on the example of trust, how these methods can enhance our understanding of the nature of IS constructs.
... The device allows users to see the intensity of their emotions reflected in the form of dynamic lighting patterns. In recent years, the advances in cognitive neuroscience have also gained increasing interest from information systems researchers (vom Brocke et al., 2012; CHAPTER 2. BACKGROUND Dimoka and Banker, 2012;Dimoka et al., 2011;Riedl et al., 2009). As outlined by Dimoka et al. (2011), the nascent field of information systems relying on neuroscience (NeuroIs) is drawing upon the theories, methods, and tools offered by cognitive neuroscience. ...
... As outlined by Dimoka et al. (2011), the nascent field of information systems relying on neuroscience (NeuroIs) is drawing upon the theories, methods, and tools offered by cognitive neuroscience. This also includes psychophysiological tools such as Ecg and Gsr measurements (Riedl et al., 2009). Research in the field of NeuroIs has the potential to provide long-overdue insight into the decision-making processes of users interacting with information technology, where the possibility to map the underlying neural emotional mechanism and activation of Ans exists. ...
... The nascent field of NeuroIS is drawing upon the theories, methods, and tools offered by cognitive neuroscience and psychophysiology (Dimoka et al., 2011, p. 687) (Riedl et al., 2009). For instance, Riedl et al. (2011) showed that deciding whether to trust an avatar induces less intense neurobiological processes than deciding whether to trust an actual person. ...
Thesis
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Emotions are thought to be one of the key factors that critically influence human decision-making. Emotion-regulation can help to mitigate emotion-related decision biases and eventually lead to a better decision performance. Serious games emerged as a new angle introducing technological methods to practicing emotion-regulation, where meaningful biofeedback information communicates player's affective states to a series of informed gameplay choices. These findings motivate the notion that in the decision context of serious games, one would benefit from awareness and regulation of such emerging emotions. This thesis explores the design and evaluation methods for creating serious games where emotion-regulation can be practiced using physiological biofeedback measures. Furthermore, it investigates emotions and the effect of emotion-regulation on decision performance in serious games. Using the psychophysiological methods in the design of such games, emotions and their underlying neural mechanism have been explored. The results showed the benefits of practicing emotion-regulation in serious games, where decision-making performance was increased for the individuals who down-regulated high levels of arousal while having an experience of positive valence. Moreover, it increased also for the individuals who received the necessary biofeedback information. The results also suggested that emotion-regulation strategies (i.e., cognitive reappraisal) are highly dependent on the serious game context. Therefore, the reappraisal strategy was shown to benefit the decision-making tasks investigated in this thesis. The results further suggested that using psychophysiological methods in emotionally arousing serious games, the interplay between sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways could be mapped through the underlying emotions which activate those two pathways. Following this conjecture, the results identified the optimal arousal level for increased performance of an individual on a decision-making task, by carefully balancing the activation of those two pathways. The investigations also validated these findings in the collaborative serious game context, where the robot collaborators were found to elicit diverse affect in their human partners, influencing performance on a decision-making task. Furthermore, the evidence suggested that arousal is equally or more important than valence for the decision-making performance, but once optimal arousal has been reached, a further increase in performance may be achieved by regulating valence. Furthermore, the results showed that serious games designed in this thesis elicited high physiological arousal and positive valence. This makes them suitable as research platforms for the investigation of how these emotions influence the activation of sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways and influence performance on a decision-making task. Taking these findings into consideration, the serious games designed in this thesis allowed for the training of cognitive reappraisal emotion-regulation strategy on the decision-making tasks. This thesis suggests that using evaluated design and development methods, it is possible to design and develop serious games that provide a helpful environment where individuals could practice emotion-regulation through raising awareness of emotions, and subsequently improve their decision-making performance.
... 73-74)). In NeuroIS studies, neurophysiological data are typically collected in combination with self-reported data to study existing systems' use and impact, as well as to inform the design of new systems; hence contributing to both behavioral and design-oriented IS research Loos et al., 2010;Riedl, Banker, et al., 2010). In this new strategy of inquiry, researchers use data from the human body to measure the effects of human interactions with technology more directly; revealing the mechanisms underlying human behavior, particularly affective and other non-conscious processes (Dimoka, Pavlou, & Davis, 2011;Riedl & Léger, 2016;vom Brocke & Liang, 2014). ...
... Over the past decade, the field of NeuroIS has developed rapidly and has made major achievements. Foundational papers, such as those of Riedl, Banker, et al. (2010) and Dimoka et al. (2012), provide important conceptual groundwork and help conceptualize NeuroIS as a discipline. Annual events attract eager researchers, such as the NeuroIS Retreat, which began in 2009 as an academic conference that focuses exclusively on NeuroIS (neurois.org). ...
... In contrast to prior calls for research on neuro-adaptive systems (e.g. Loos et al., 2010;Riedl, Banker, et al., 2010;vom Brocke, Riedl, et al., 2013), here we indicate specific avenues for future research. We identify the following research questions, which serve as grand challenges in order to make high impact contributions to neuro-adaptive systems through NeuroIS: ...
Article
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On the 10th anniversary of the NeuroIS field, we reflect on accomplishments but, more importantly, on the future of the field. This commentary presents our thoughts on a future NeuroIS research agenda with the potential for high impact societal contributions. Four key areas for future information systems (IS) research are: (1) IS design, (2) IS use, (3) emotion research, and (4) neuro-adaptive systems. We reflect on the challenges of each area and provide specific research questions that serve as important directions for advancing the NeuroIS field. The research agenda supports fellow researchers in planning, conducting, publishing, and reviewing high impact studies that leverage the potential of neuroscience knowledge and tools to further information systems research.
... As a consequence of the increased availability of brain imaging tools, however, the past decade has increasingly included economists, ergonomists, and computer scientists, as well as academics in other scientific fields, among those who have discovered neuroscience as an important reference discipline, informing research in each discipline. Current thinking in this range of fields supports knowledge of neurobiology (e.g., brain anatomy and functioning) as having the potential to significantly advance scientific progress, including IS research (Dimoka et al. 2007(Dimoka et al. , 2011(Dimoka et al. , 2012Riedl 2009;Riedl et al. 2010aRiedl et al. , 2014; a list of selected NeuroIS publications is available on NeuroIS.org). ...
... A number of research fields and disciplines are important reference disciplines for NeuroIS research (see also Riedl et al. 2010a). These reference disciplines include biology and medicine, as well as engineering and computer science, and are summarized in Fig. 1.1 (disciplines relevant to IS research in general, including psychology and specific subfields such as evolutionary psychology, management, and sociology, are not explicitly illustrated). ...
... In line with contributions in neuroeconomics and other related fields, recent theorizing in IS research (e.g., Ortiz de Guinea and Markus 2009; Ortiz de Guinea and Webster 2013; Dimoka and Davis 2008;Léger et al. 2014;Riedl et al. 2010a) suggests that technology acceptance is significantly driven by unconscious (affective) rather than conscious (deliberate) information processing. Thus, research on technology acceptance, as well as research in many other IS domains in which emotion and its potential interplay with cognition play a role, can be informed by research in the fields of neuroeconomics, decision neuroscience, and social neuroscience. ...
Chapter
This chapter provides an introduction to Neuro-Information-Systems (NeuroIS). Building from a brief reflection on the nature of IS research, the chapter begins with a description of relevant historical developments in brain research. An overview of the reference disciplines of NeuroIS follows, including research fields such as neuropsychology, cognitive neuroscience, neuroeconomics, and affective computing, as well as disciplines that provide more fundamental knowledge, such as biology, medicine, engineering, and computer science. Next, this chapter answers the question of why NeuroIS is important for IS research by discussing ten major contributions that neuroscience makes to IS research. Through this discussion, the potential of NeuroIS for both fundamental research (e.g., theory test) and applied research (e.g., systems design) becomes evident. We close this chapter with a comment on expectations for the future of the NeuroIS field.
... Information systems research examines human decision-making and behavior in several interactive e-commerce contexts. Neuro-Information Systems (NeuroIS) is a relatively new subfield in information systems literature that is based on the idea of using cognitive neuroscience theories, methods and tools in information systems research Davis 2011, 2007;Riedl et al. 2010). NeuroIS contributes to the theoretical understanding of the design, development, use, and impact of information technologies and practically relevant variables (Müller-Putz, Riedl, and Wriessnegger 2015). ...
... One of the neuroscience tools proposed by NeuroIS researchers is the EEG, which is regarded as a valuable usability metric, when used effectively in appropriately designed experiments (Riedl et al. 2010). An EEG measures electrical activity from the brain using non-invasive electrodes placed on the scalp (see Müller-Putz, Riedl, and Wriessnegger 2015 for more information on the tool). ...
Conference Paper
There is a request for research to examine consumer-purchasing behavior in online grocery retailing. By definition, behavior includes both cognition and observable responses. Neuro-Information Systems (NeuroIS) is a framework that offers a reliable measurement of consumer behavior, through direct observation of the brain using neuroscientific techniques. This paper discusses a potential application of using electroencephalography (EEG) to measure approach-avoidance motivation in online grocery retail contexts. A review of the literature on approach-avoidance, web atmospherics, and frontal asymmetry is conducted, to form appropriate linkages between theory and its application to the online grocery context. Additionally, this paper provides an example for exploring the potential of NeuroIS in an online setting, to demonstrate potential benefits when it comes to understanding and predicting consumer motivation in an online grocery retail context.
... In addition to self-report measures, many studies in the reviewed sample frequently applied biological measures (22 of 103 studies). This finding is, at least from an IS perspective, surprising due to the practical challenges related to collecting and analyzing the involved measures (e.g., high data-collection costs or required expertise to analyze data; Dimoka et al., 2012;Riedl et al., 2010;Riedl et al., 2014). Ten of these studies collected biological samples from blood (4 studies), urine (4 studies), and/or saliva (4 studies) to detect the excretion of stress hormones, such as cortisol (e.g., or alpha-amylase (e.g., . ...
... For this purpose, we use technostress as an exemplary, multidisciplinary topic, which is already a domain for frequent collaboration among researchers from varying disciplines but could also still benefit from additional efforts in this regard. In favor of such collaborations, we also highlight that they can lead to the establishment of new, thriving domains, such as neuroIS (Dimoka, Pavlou, & Davis, 2007), a research discipline that applies methods and knowledge from neuroscience in IS research (e.g., Dimoka et al., 2012;Riedl et al., 2010;Riedl & Léger, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Because technostress research is multidisciplinary in nature and therefore benefits from insights gained from various research disciplines, we expected a high degree of measurement pluralism in technostress studies published in the Information Systems (IS) literature. However, because IS research, in general, mostly relies on self-report measures, there is also reason to assume that multi-method research designs have been largely neglected in technostress research. To assess the status quo of technostress research with respect to the application of multi-method approaches, we analyzed 103 empirical studies. Specifically, we analyzed the types of data collection methods used and the investigated components of the technostress process (person, environment, stressors, strains, and coping). The results indicate that multi-method research is more prevalent in the IS technostress literature (approximately 37% of reviewed studies) than in the general IS literature (approximately 20% as reported in previous reviews). However, our findings also show that IS technostress studies significantly rely on self-report measures. We argue that technostress research constitutes a nurturing ground for the application of multi-method approaches and multidisciplinary collaboration.
... Determining a user's Cognitive Workload is often mentioned as a fundamental problem in information systems research (Evaristo et al. 1995;Johannsen et al. 1992;Stassen et al. 1990), particularly in NeuroIS (de Guinea et al. 2014;Dimoka et al. 2012Dimoka et al. , 2011Riedl et al. 2010). It is remarkable that scholars have traditionally investigated a Cognitive Workload and its derivatives (Cain 2007) primarily based on userperceived/nonobjective measures (Ayyagari et al. 2011;Gupta et al. 2013;Ragu-Nathan et al. 2008;Tarafdar et al. 2010) or even discussed the need for more objective Cognitive Workload measurements without any measurement proposal (Evaristo et al. 1995;Wastell 1999). ...
... It is remarkable that scholars have traditionally investigated a Cognitive Workload and its derivatives (Cain 2007) primarily based on userperceived/nonobjective measures (Ayyagari et al. 2011;Gupta et al. 2013;Ragu-Nathan et al. 2008;Tarafdar et al. 2010) or even discussed the need for more objective Cognitive Workload measurements without any measurement proposal (Evaristo et al. 1995;Wastell 1999). The discourse on this topic has shown the need to quantify Cognitive Workload based on objective physiological parameters (Dimoka et al. 2011(Dimoka et al. , 2012Riedl et al. 2010). ...
Conference Paper
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To empirically evaluate the ambitious NeuroIS visions in this paper we asked the brain and its owner, using 10 psychophysiological NeuroIS instruments and traditional subjective assessments during the execution of Microsoft Excel tasks that took place within a realistic large-scale experimental setup. To simultaneously elicit perceptive, psychophysiological and if possible objective data, we chose a multi-method research approach. By strictly following the NeuroIS guidelines we found evidence that NeuroIS measures are more objective and that a combination of various NeuroIS tools increases validity – supporting the corresponding NeuroIS claims. In addition we found that worst performers had a much greater workload during their task performance compared to top performers, which was coherently measurable by every single NeuroIS indicator – supporting the NeuroIS claim of effective triangulation.
... Keywords for the literature search were mainly derived from landmark publications that offer an introduction to the field of NeuroIS (Dimoka et al., 2012;Riedl et al., 2010a;Riedl and Léger, 2016). NeuroIS (Neuro-Information-Systems) ''relies on neuroscience and neurophysiological knowledge and tools to better understand the development, use, and impact of information and communication technologies. ...
... NeuroIS (Neuro-Information-Systems) ''relies on neuroscience and neurophysiological knowledge and tools to better understand the development, use, and impact of information and communication technologies. NeuroIS seeks to contribute to the development of new theories that enable possible accurate predictions of IS-related behaviors, and the design of information systems that positively affect economic and non-economic variables (e.g., productivity, satisfaction, adoption, well-being'', (Riedl et al., 2010a); for further details see www.NeuroIS.org). Considering the NeuroSE definition in the Introduction, we argue that NeuroIS is the thematically closest research field with the prefix ''neuro''. ...
Article
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In the past decade, brain and autonomic nervous system activity measurement received increasing attention in the study of software engineering (SE). This paper presents a systematic literature review (SLR) to survey the existing NeuroSE literature. Based on a rigorous search protocol, we identified 89 papers (hereafter denoted as NeuroSE papers). We analyzed these papers to develop a comprehensive understanding of who had published NeuroSE research and classified the contributions according to their type. The 47 articles presenting completed empirical research were analyzed in detail. The SLR revealed that the number of authors publishing NeuroSE research is still relatively small. The thematic focus so far has been on code comprehension, while code inspection, programming, and bug fixing have been less frequently studied. NeuroSE publications primarily used methods related to brain activity measurement (particularly fMRI and EEG), while methods related to the measurement of autonomic nervous system activity (e.g., pupil dilation, heart rate, skin conductance) received less attention. We also present details of how the empirical research was conducted, including stimuli and independent and dependent variables, and discuss implications for future research. The body of NeuroSE literature is still small. Yet, high quality contributions exist constituting a valuable basis for future studies.
... Keywords for the literature search were derived from landmark publications that offer an introduction to the field of NeuroIS. In particular, we drew upon Dimoka et al. (2012Dimoka et al. ( , 2007Dimoka et al. ( , 2011, Riedl, Banker et al. (2010), and Riedl and Léger (2016). We used generic terms representing the field as a whole such as "NeuroIS," "Neuroscience," and "Nervous system" for our literature search, but also terms that are representative of the tools that are highlighted in these landmark publications such as "eye" (for eyetracking techniques) or "heart" (for cardiovascular measures). ...
... Since its inception, the field has faced several challenges, as highlighted by Dimoka et al. (2012) and Riedl, Banker et al. (2010), that were addressed to varying degrees. ...
Article
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NeuroIS is a field in Information Systems (IS) that makes use of neuroscience and neurophysiological tools and knowledge to better understand the development, adoption, and impact of information and communication technologies. The fact that NeuroIS now exists for more than a decade motivated us to comprehensively review the academic literature. Investigation of the field's development provides insights into the status of NeuroIS, thereby contributing to identity development in the NeuroIS field. Based on a review of N=200 papers published in 55 journals and 13 conference proceedings in the period 2008-2017, we addressed the following four research questions: Which NeuroIS topics were investigated? What kind of NeuroIS research was published? How was the empirical NeuroIS research conducted? Who published NeuroIS research? Based on a discussion of the findings and their implications for future research, which considers results of a recent NeuroIS survey (N=60 NeuroIS scholars), we conclude that today NeuroIS can be considered an established research field in the IS discipline. However, our review also indicates that further efforts are necessary to advance the field, both from a theoretical and methodological perspective.
... uttal, 2011). A number of recent breakthroughs have been made due to tools that allow neuroimaging during cognitive and behavioural tasks, such as those often employed in neuroiS studies (Dimoka et al., 2012;Riedl, Banker, Benbasat, Davis, & Dennis, 2010). yet many of the most groundbreaking insights for unravelling the functional specialisation and interconnectivity of the brain have come from observations of brain lesions (Chatterjee, 2005;fellows et al., 2005). in such studies, researchers examine individuals who have encountered brain damage through accidents, lesions introduced as part of medical treatment, or lesions introduced intentionally in sacrificial animals. ...
Article
This study presents a qualitative design thinking technique to help system designers explore hidden influences on users’ decision-making processes. This technique targets context-specific influences that have accumulated in the absence of conscious reflection, and hence may exist without users’ awareness. Such processes may lie outside the reach of traditional discursive approaches; thus, our technique augments existing approaches with a method for ‘lesioning’ information sources, i.e. removing specific information sources and observing how and when users’ decision-making behaviour breaks down. This deconstruction allows dependencies to be exposed, allowing a better understanding of hidden influences, which can then be assimilated into design ideation. The lesioning technique is tested and demonstrated over multiple experimental iterations in the context of Twitter, a leading social media service. These iterations present several insights and design opportunities surrounding how users determine what connections to form and how those users make sense of information on busy content feeds.
... NeuroIS then used that verification of the trust-distrust distinction through neural correlates to argue that because neuroscience could do so while questionnaire data research could not, to advance a key argument for the importance of such neuroscience research (Riedl et al., 2010a;Dimoka et al., 2012). The same argument may be applicable to text analysis and to linguistic correlates too. ...
... were conducted on June 30, 2015 andFebruary 15, 2017. 5,000 c 4,500 3 50 z 20002001200220032005200620082009 Growth of research applying neuroscience to marketing over time, Source: Adapted from Plassmann, Ramsøy, and Milosavljevic (2012). ...
... The emerging research field of neuroIS, which applies neuroscience theories and tools to IS research, has the potential to provide improved ways to clarify process model comprehension and evaluate visual notations in this context (Riedl et al. 2010;Riedl 2009;Dimoka et al. 2010). Neuroimaging tools that measure brain activation (e.g., functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, EEG)) could be used to measure process model comprehension more objectively and in a more fine-grained way than can the rating scales and multiple-choice tasks that many comprehension studies currently use. ...
Article
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Visual process models are meant to facilitate comprehension of business processes. However, in practice, process models can be difficult to understand. The main goal of this article is to clarify the sources of cognitive effort in comprehending process models. The article undertakes a comprehensive descriptive review of empirical and theoretical work in order to categorize and summarize systematically existing findings on the factors that influence comprehension of visual process models. Methodologically, the article builds on a review of forty empirical studies that measure objective comprehension of process models, seven studies that measure subjective comprehension and user preferences, and thirty-two articles that discuss the factors that influence the comprehension of process models. The article provides information systems researchers with an overview of the empirical state of the art of process model comprehension and provides recommendations for new research questions to be addressed and methods to be used in future experiments.
... To explore our research questions, the evolving neuroIS field provides several neurocognitive tools by which to gain insight into the presence and role of fear in fear appeal assessment and into the elements of a fear appeal that most impact security-response intentions. Based on the insights that Riedl et al. (2010) and Dimoka et al. (2012) provide, we conducted a lab experiment and analyzed the responses of subjects through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) tools to observe and evaluate the reactions of insiders' neural structures to IS security-focused fear appeals and their cognitive and affective neural responses. ...
Article
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Information security management programs have long included “fear appeals”, managerial communiqués designed to promote secure behaviors among organizational insiders. However, recent research has found a conflict between the predictions of contemporary fear appeal theory for how we expect individuals to experience fear appeals and what actually occurs in IS security situations. Using the opportunity presented by neuroimaging tools to examine cognitive and affective reactions to fear appeals, we take a comparative look at the contentions of fear appeal theory and the realities of what insiders experience neurologically when exposed to ecologically relevant IS security fear appeals. Our fMRI results suggest that fear appeals elicit threat and threat response assessments, which partially supports fear appeal theory but does not support the presence of an actual fear response. Furthermore, appraisals of recommended threat responses had a stronger impact on intentions to enact security behaviors than appraisals of the threat itself, which suggests that a focus on threats might be misplaced. Instead, focusing on ways to make the responses to the threats more appealing to users might work better. These controversial findings suggest future research that should explore how fear appeals play out in IS security and in what ways.
... Future research may extend these preliminary results by adding further control variables , testing new contexts, and extending the sample size. In addition, future research may use neurophysiological methods, such as capturing and analyzing the participants' gaze fixation, to gain deeper insights and provide a stronger test of the hypothesized relationships [17,18]. Likewise, research in the context of decision making has shown that the analysis of event-related potentials can be used to study individual differences in susceptibility to different heuristics or biases [e.g., 19,20,21] ; accordingly , EEG may be used to detect the role of biases in the formation of biases and the mechanisms behind the debiasing process. ...
Chapter
Online reviews, often considered more credible and less biased than marketing information, have become an important aspect of making purchase decisions. Yet, online star ratings can be affected by reviewers’ heuristic evaluations, potentially leading to suboptimal purchase decisions. For example, star ratings may be biased due to the availability heuristic, i.e., users giving disproportionate weight to one—often negative—attribute. As research has demonstrated that even minor modifications of the presentation of options can have a large influence on people’s behavior, we test the effects of prior attribute rating on overall star rating. An experiment (n = 56) conducted in the context of restaurant ratings showed that merely asking people first to rate individual attrib- utes can significantly influence overall ratings. These findings can have important implications, as uncovering the effects specific design parameters of re- view forms have on people’s evaluation results will allow for reducing unintended biases in review form design.
... In this chapter, we have presented a number of tools that are useful and relevant for NeuroIS research. However, we must also note that as the field develops, other tools suitable for measurement of the central and peripheral nervous systems will become relevant (lesion studies or other tools may serve as an example; Dimoka et al. 2012;Riedl et al. 2010b). ...
Chapter
This chapter provides an introduction into neurophysiological tools that we consider to be relevant in IS research. We focus on tools that have been used in NeuroIS research or that hold use potential for future studies. Specifically, we discuss measurement of the central nervous system (fMRI, MRI, fNIRS, EEG), measurement of the peripheral nervous system (electrocardiogram, galvanometer, electromyography, oculometry), and measurement of the hormone system (e.g., cortisol, adrenaline, oxytocin). We outline the major advantages and disadvantages of each tool, and provide an example research study to give an authentic impression of each tool in the context of IS research.
... This approach has also been recently used to study informationseeking behaviour in the process of information retrieval in users. Since 2010, studies in the area of NeuroIS have been conducted [33], mainly focusing on the effects and use of information technologies [34]. ...
Article
The aim of this study was to identify the variables that can potentially affect information-seeking behaviour in mental health service providers using a quasi-experimental research design. The sample included 30 mental health professionals (with minimum 2 years of experience) to each of whom a scenario was presented in which signs and symptoms of three patients were presented, simulating an actual diagnostic interview. Stress response evaluation (SRE), questionnaires, behavioural observation by the Morae software, and semi-structured interviews were used as means of data collection. Our findings showed that variables such as demographic (e.g. field of study, level of education, work experience and age), psychological (e.g. state and trait anxiety, and therapist’s self-assessment) and skill level (e.g. information literacy and expert knowledge) had significant effects on information-seeking behaviour. These results can hopefully provide insights to designers and librarians who seek to create novel or optimise the existing physician-assisted systems.
... In response, IS researchers have adapted cognitive neuroscience and named it NeuroIS, a subfield within IS. In a research commentary, Riedl et al. (2010a) concluded that cognitive neuroscience literature can be used to motivate new studies and question existing paradigms. Brocke and Liang (2014) developed a NeuroIS research framework which we follow in this study. ...
Article
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As we become more and more connected, the number of technology interruptions are increasing as well. The mechanisms by which a technology interruption takes attention away and ongoing task performance decreases need more investigation. This paper explores how technologies can interrupt concentration, focus and attention of knowledge workers through neuroimaging. Subjects were given reading tasks and subjected to a series of randomly timed audio interruptions. Using an electroencephalogram (EEG) measurement device, we recorded their brain waves. Consistent with the literature, we found interruptions significantly increased task completion time and decreased task performance. Neuroimaging analysis showed activity in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe and insular cortex of the participants due to interruptions. The paper also investigates differences due to gender and age. The results suggest application developers should consider underlying mechanisms of processing interruptions.
... However, development is informed by a neuroIS perspective (c.f. Dimoka et al., 2010;Loos et al., 2010;Riedl et al., 2010) that draws on existing cognitive neuroscience research on change detection as 'justificatory knowledge' (Gregor & Jones, 2007). For clarity, the following sections are organised primarily around the nominal design science research methodology presented by Peffers, Tuunanen, Rothenberger, and Chatterjee (2007). ...
Article
Healthcare systems have been evolving towards more decentralised, patient- empowered, and holistic approaches. This places a greater expectation on patients to monitor and report changes in their general wellness so they can make decisions as to when to seek clinical interventions. However, findings from this study suggest individuals find it challenging to detect deteriorations in wellness, due to the vast and multifaceted nature of the concept, the gradual onset of symptoms, and the difficulty in articulating change. Thus a mobile application is developed to help users with these issues. The design of this mobile application draws upon existing cognitive neuroscience research on change detection, both for external stimuli and internal ‘interoceptive’ sensations. This highlights several key factors to be considered, if wellness-related decision-making is to be supported. In particular, this identifies the role of patients’ top-down (attentional) and bottom-up (less-voluntary) processes for detecting wellness deteriorations.
... Thus, focused attention sustained attention, selective attention, alternating attention, and divided attention are considered different types of attention and can be monitored depending on the task to be performed. Attention, thus, might be managed in the educational virtual settings, which in this study is done with the support of NeuroIS, a relatively recent branch of information system which allows one to establish a close and fast correspondence between the variables of a problem specification and those of the solution space [3]. Behind that correspondence are the devices that allow one to monitor student attention which is well framed and delineated in the NeuroIS approach. ...
Chapter
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A Learning Management Systems (LMS) can benefit from the inclusion Computer-Mediated-Communications (CMC) software for delivering materials. Incorporating CMC tools in virtual classrooms or implementing educational blogs, can be very effective in e-learning platforms. In such student-centered interaction scenarios, it is important to monitor and manage student attention in a precise way to enhance student performance. Sensing with precision through 6G/7G technology allows to include electronic and software devices to produce such monitoring. This chapter contextualizes and describes an abstraction application scenario of sensing and monitoring student attention with high precision in Learning Management System with new communication systems. In that context, technology (e.g. sensors), is used to perform automatic attention monitoring, helping to manage students in e-Learning. Additionally, the document presents a possible scenario which supports intelligent services to the monitoring of student attention during e-learning activities in the context of Smart HEI (Higher Education Institutes).
... den Neuro-Information-Systems (NeuroIS) ein neues Forschungsfeld (vgl. Dimoka et al. 2007;Loos et al.;Riedl et al. 2010a). Die Neurowissenschaften, die sich mit der Erforschung des menschlichen Gehirns und der menschlichen Physiologie befassen, bieten ein erhebliches Erkenntnispotenzial für die Wirtschaftsinformatik und nehmen damit auch Einfluss auf künftige Informationssysteme (vgl. ...
Article
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... NeuroIS then used that verification of the trust-distrust distinction through neural correlates to argue that because neuroscience could do so while questionnaire data research could not, to advance a key argument for the importance of such neuroscience research (Riedl et al., 2010a;Dimoka et al., 2012). The same argument may be applicable to text analysis and to linguistic correlates too. ...
Article
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Trust and distrust are crucial aspects of human interaction that determine the nature of many organizational and business contexts. Because of socialization-borne familiarity that people feel about others, trust and distrust can influence people even when they do not know each other. Allowing that some aspects of the social knowledge that is acquired through socialization is also recorded in language through word associations, i.e., linguistic correlates, this study shows that known associations of trust and distrust can be extracted from an authoritative text. Moreover, the study shows that such an analysis can even allow a statistical differentiation between trust and distrust—something that survey research has found hard to do. Specifically, measurement items of trust and related constructs that were previously used in survey research along with items reflecting distrust were projected onto a semantic space created out of psychology textbooks. The resulting distance matrix of those items was analyzed by applying covariance-based structural equation modeling. The results confirmed known trust and distrust relationship patterns and allowed measurement of distrust as a distinct construct from trust. The potential of studying trust theory through text analysis is discussed.
... Moreover, the sample size of n=25 participants might be, especially in regard to the questionnaire-based utilized mean value distribution, a limitation. However, the current standard sample size in neuroscientific and fNIRS studies, which is known to incorporate sufficient statistical power, consists of 20 participants (Riedl, Banker, et al. 2010;Vassena et al. 2019). In comparison to these research findings, we included a larger sample to gain more statistical power. ...
Conference Paper
The investigation of user behavior in IS contexts is often conducted by utilizing self-report measurements. To complement these measurements, neuroscientific methods have indicated their potential for IS research. Most pioneering research work utilized fMRI as neuroimaging method, which is associated with a decreased ecological validity. To investigate whether mobile fNIRS-an innovative, portable and lightweight neuroimaging method-can overcome the limited ecological validity of fMRI, reproducing existing neuroscientific research results, this study aims to explore whether mobile fNIRS could be used as a valid neuroimaging method for IS research, or more precisely for ecommerce research. Preliminary research findings revealed that fNIRS is capable of partly reproducing pioneering research results. Consequently, fNIRS is found to be a reliable and valid neuroimaging method to increase the ecological validity in IS research in certain situations and circumstances, providing a fruitful new avenue to investigate IS research relevant scenarios.
... One field that holds great promise in contributing to the above area of IS design science is neuroscience, which is the science that explains how human brain works. NeuroIS is the emerging field that focuses on the integration of neuroscience and IS [30,31]. And especially in IS design science, for which human cognitive perceptions and decision making play a critical role, neuroscience provides great potential in contributing to the enhancement of IS design science methodology. ...
Article
In this paper, we proposed a neuroscience-based general framework for IS visual systems design that uses neuroscience as the bridge that systematically integrates the principles of design aesthetics and principles of positivistic functionalities into a comprehensive model. Based on our general conceptual model, we also provide a detailed typological framework for the practical IS visual systems design.
... More precisely, we used the Event-related Potential (ERP) method, which was developed based on EEG (Léger et al., 2014). EEG measures the activity of a large group of neurons firing at the same time, and therefore, it is difficult to separate a specific cognitive process associated with that neural activity (Riedl et al., 2010). The ERP method overcomes this problem by presenting stimuli several times and measuring users' response to them. ...
Conference Paper
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One of the most important goals of information systems is to minimize users' mental effort during decision making. Product sorting is a common way of displaying information for online consumers, which is designed to help them in order to find their desired products more efficiently. Product sorting may help users to make their product decision more conveniently depending on the criteria they have for choosing their product. Our goal in this study was to investigate how different product sorting (i.e., alphabetical, price) may decrease users' cognitive load during product evaluation phase depending on users' goal (i.e., product name, price). We expect that a match between goal and sorting type will decrease the amount of mental workload necessary for making a product decision compared to a mismatch condition. A two-factor (Product sorting X Users' goal) within-subject experiment was designed to test the hypotheses. Contributions to research and implications for practice are discussed.
... Uttal 2011]. Many recent breakthroughs have been made in terms of understanding the brain using tools that allow neuroimaging during cognitive and behavioural tasks, such as those often employed in neuroIS studies [Dimoka et al. 2012, Riedl et al. 2010]. Yet many of the most ground-breaking insights -in terms of unravelling the functionality of the brain -have come from observations of brain lesions [Chatterjee 2005, Fellows et al. 2005]. ...
Conference Paper
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This study presents a design thinking technique that facilitates the discovery and exploitation of tacit processes in advanced system users. The design thinking technique targets tacit processes that have accumulated over prolonged periods of technology use, in the absence of conscious reflection. Such tacit processes may be impossible for users to verbalize, as the manner in which they have been learned means that users may be unaware that they exist. This makes them difficult or even impossible to uncover with traditional discursive and participatory approaches. For this reason, the proposed technique offers a means of 'lesioning' information sources, i.e. removing aspects of the information system and observing how and when behavior breaks down. This deconstruction allows dependencies to be exposed, resulting in a better understanding of tacit processes, and consequently, improved assimilation of them into design ideation. This technique is tested over multiple experimental iterations in the context of Twitter, a social network and micro-blogging service. These iterations present several insights regarding how users determine which users to follow, as well as how information is consumed on a user's content feed.
... In recent years, an increasing number of studies have been conducted in Information Systems (IS) research using neuroscience tools and theories. This emergent field of research, known as NeuroIS, aims to refine and better understand the cognitive and affective mechanisms underlying interactions with IT artifacts [1][2][3][4]. In one of the first NeuroIS studies, Dimoka and collaborators [5] investigated the neural correlates of the technology acceptance model (TAM) [6,7]. ...
Article
Full-text available
One of the founding experiments in the field of Neuro-Information-Systems (NeuroIS), which aims at exploring the neural correlates of the technology acceptance model, suggests that perceived ease of use (PEoU) is associated with activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) while perceived usefulness is associated with activity in the insula, caudate nucleus and anterior cingulate cortex. To further assess the link between DLPFC and PEoU, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) was applied over bilateral DLPFC (F3 and F4) immediately before an online shopping task. Forty-two participants were divided in three stimulation groups: left anodal/right cathodal, left cathodal/right anodal and sham. No change in PEoU was observed post stimulation but participants in the left anodal/right cathodal stimulation group took longer to make a purchase compared to sham stimulation and had different visual fixation patterns over the buy buttons. This is, to our knowledge, the first use of non-invasive brain stimulation in the field of NeuroIS. Although the involvement of DLPFC in PEoU could not be confirmed, the present study suggests that non-invasive brain stimulation may be a useful research tool in NeuroIS.
... In response, IS researchers have adapted cognitive neuroscience and named it NeuroIS, a subfield within IS. In a research commentary, Riedl, et al. [10] concluded cognitive neuroscience literature can be used to motivate new studies and question existing paradigms. Brocke and Liang [11] developed a NeuroIS research framework which we follow in this study. ...
... Still, I show that even a crude classification of valence on a continuum from negative to positive can predict individuals' tendency to share knowledge. Importantly, I perform this classification by observing physiological responses of humans (for a review on the use of neurophysiological tools in information systems, see, for example, Dimoka et al., 2012;Riedl et al., 2010a;Riedl, Davis, & Hevner, 2014a), which is important for our research perspective because much research in the literature doubts that questionnaires can capture gender differences in emotions because of social desirability response behavior. As such, Manstead (1992, p. 364) contends: "it is entirely possible (or even likely) that the way in which males and females respond to [emotion] questionnaires will, consciously or unconsciously, be influenced by their knowledge of sex stereotypes". ...
Article
Faces are important in both human communication and computer-mediated communication. In this study, I analyze the influence of emotional expressions in faces on knowledge-sharing decisions in a computer-mediated environment. I suggest that faces can be used for affect infusion and affect detection, which increases the effectiveness of knowledge-management systems. Using the affect infusion model, I discuss why emotions can be expected to influence knowledge-sharing decisions. Using the two-step primitive emotional contagion framework, I found that emotional facial expression attached to a knowledge-sharing request influenced knowledge-sharing decisions. This influence was mediated by the decision maker’s emotional valence in the facial expression tracked by Face Reader technology and held for females but not males. I discuss implications for designers of emotionally intelligent information systems and research.
Chapter
This chapter provides an introduction to neurobiology and the brain. Specifically, it summarizes basic knowledge on human physiology for IS researchers who want to become familiar with basic concepts and mechanisms from neurobiology and neuroscience. We start with a description of fundamental concepts in genetics. A description of the human nervous system follows, including an account of the major components and basic functioning of the nervous system. Next, we discuss the human brain. Specifically, we outline important brain structures along with their major functions. We also summarize basic terminology used in neuroscience to describe locations in the brain. Due to its usefulness for IS research, this contribution also describes fundamentals of the structure and functioning of the autonomic nervous system. We close the chapter with a brief reflection on brain plasticity.
Chapter
User-generated online reviews are an important input into purchase decisions, but are susceptible to cognitive biases, which ultimately undermine the reviews’ value. As even minor changes to the design of online environments (such as Web pages) can influence people’s behavior, design modifications to online review forms could help reduce biases. We hypothesize that design modifications to online forms can help reduce three common sources of biases (availability, anchoring, and response style), and propose an experiment that employs eye tracking and recording of mousing behavior to test the hypotheses.
Article
Users are vital to the information security of organizations. In spite of technical safeguards, users make many critical security decisions. An example is users' responses to security messages - discrete communication designed to persuade users to either impair or improve their security status. Research shows that although users are highly susceptible to malicious messages (e.g., phishing attacks), they are highly resistant to protective messages such as security warnings. Research is therefore needed to better understand how users perceive and respond to security messages. In this article, we argue for the potential of NeuroIS - cognitive neuroscience applied to Information Systems - to shed new light on users' reception of security messages in the areas of (1) habituation, (2) stress, (3) fear, and (4) dual-task interference. We present an illustrative study that shows the value of using NeuroIS to investigate one of our research questions. This example uses eye tracking to gain unique insight into how habituation occurs when people repeatedly view security messages, allowing us to design more effective security messages. Our results indicate that the eye movement-based memory (EMM) effect is a cause of habituation to security messages - a phenomenon in which people unconsciously scrutinize stimuli that they have previously seen less than other stimuli. We show that after only a few exposures to a warning, this neural aspect of habituation sets in rapidly, and continues with further repetitions. We also created a polymorphic warning that continually updates its appearance and found that it is effective in substantially reducing the rate of habituation as measured by the EMM effect. Our research agenda and empirical example demonstrate the promise of using NeuroIS to gain novel insight into users' responses to security messages that will encourage more secure user behaviors and facilitate more effective security message designs.
Article
Internet auction sites frequently employ images as design elements on their websites in order to either induce a sense of community or competition among the bidders. In this paper, we investigate the impact of such affective images on bidding behavior in a controlled laboratory experiment during which participants' emotional processes are assessed through psychophysiological measurements. Immediately before placing a bid in a first-price sealed-bid auction, bidders are presented a) pictures of competitive sports scenes, b) pictures of families or children, or c) a blank screen. Participants place significantly lower bids when they were exposed to pictures that induce competition emotions as opposed to pictures that induce community emotions. This relationship is moderated by the bidders' emotion regulation strategy. In particular, we find that the more participants try to suppress their emotional responses to the presented images, the more they are affected in their bidding behavior. Our results entail valuable insights about the coherence of emotional stimuli on Internet auction marketplaces and customers' decisions. They also question recent marketing strategies by the market leader.
Chapter
This chapter provides a publications retrospective of NeuroIS topics, and outlines potential themes for future NeuroIS studies. We begin with a description of topics from 2007 NeuroIS publications, and then, based on research agendas and discussion papers, we present topics that can be investigated by applying neuroscience approaches. Next, we analyze the topics of one specific publication—the proceedings of the Gmunden Retreat on NeuroIS. Our identification of the research topics, and the neuroscience methods and tools presented in the proceedings, is based on analysis of 85 papers published between 2011 and 2014. We end the chapter by reflecting on applying neuroscience reference theories in NeuroIS research. Because current NeuroIS research rarely addresses the use of reference theories from neuroscience, this chapter suggests a taxonomy for neuroscience theories to promote such a discourse in NeuroIS research.
Chapter
Although information systems (IS) scholars have been applying neurophysiological tools for decades, a renewed call for drawing on the brain sciences as a reference discipline for the IS field took place in December 2007, at the International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS) and at two pre-ICIS meetings (see Riedl and Léger 2016, p. 73, for details on the genesis of NeuroIS). Angelika Dimoka, Paul A. Pavlou, and Fred D. Davis coined the term NeuroIS.
Thesis
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Cloud computing is a technology that has gained increasing attention because of its considerable benefits, which include reduced costs, reduced complexity and increased flexibility. To obtain these benefits, cloud computing utilizes existing technologies, such as grid computing, virtualization and web services, for online delivery of scalable information technology (IT) services, frequently on the basis of a pay-per-use pricing model. In 2008, the Gartner Group predicted that cloud computing would reach the mainstream within two to five years. However, in their latest hype cycle for emerging technologies, they stated that cloud computing had not yet reached the plateau of productivity but rather was still in the trough of disillusionment. The reason for this situation may be that cloud computing continues to face skepticism because of various concerns regarding, e.g., data privacy and security. In particular, (enterprise) customers transfer (sensitive) data to cloud computing providers, and the end-user rents the right to use cloud computing services via a web browser with minimal need to interact or even without the necessity of interacting directly with a sales assistant. These two aspects result in a strong unilateral dependency and require a high degree of trust in the provider. Additionally, publicity regarding the PRISM program has brought these aspects to the forefront of public interest. Consequently, specific requirements regarding, e.g., security, privacy, accountability, and auditability, must be met to fulfill the expectations of business partners and to build long-term business relationships. Thus, overcoming information asymmetry, enhancing transparency and eradicating behavioral uncertainty is of high importance to build trust between cloud computing providers and their (prospective) customers. Therefore, although most research to date has focused on technical aspects and aimed to improve the actual security of cloud computing services, there is also an urgent need to understand the factors that affect the adoption of cloud computing services from the points of view of both private users and companies. If cloud computing is to reach its full potential, a clear understanding of the factors that influence its adoption is mandatory to improve both present and future cloud computing services. Motivated by these considerations, the aim of this doctoral thesis is to explore, describe, analyze and explain the factors that influence the adoption of cloud computing using various qualitative and quantitative research methods, i.e., by employing a mixed-methods analysis. As a first step, a serious game is conducted to explore various factors that influence the adoption of cloud computing services. Based on these initial findings, the factors explored during the serious game and some additional factors are described and analyzed in detail. These factors include the cloud computing market, costs, trust, affectedness, shadow IT, and sustainability. Furthermore, the factor of information asymmetry, especially regarding bridging the information asymmetry with various information presentation methods, is explained. Following these findings, a research agenda, which contains a recommended research design and lists the theories that are relevant in the context of the adoption of cloud computing, is proposed. Subsequently, a synthesis of the research findings in terms of their implications for practice and research, including limitations, are discussed.
Book
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This book shows how information systems (IS) scholars can effectively apply neuroscience expertise in ways that do not require neuroscience tools. However, the approach described here is intended to complement neuroscience tools, not to supplant them. Written by leading scholars in the field, it presents a review of the empirical literature on NeuroIS and provides a conceptual description of basic brain function from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. Drawing upon the cognitive neuroscience knowledge developed in non-IS contexts, the book enables IS scholars to reinterpret existing behavioral findings, develop new hypotheses and eventually test the hypotheses with non-neuroscience tools. At its core, the book conveys how neuroscience knowledge makes a deeper understanding of IS phenomena possible by connecting the behavioral and neural levels of analysis.
Chapter
Online reviews, often considered more credible and less biased than marketing information, have become an important aspect of making purchase decisions. Yet, online star ratings can be affected by reviewers’ heuristic evaluations, potentially leading to suboptimal purchase decisions. For example, star ratings may be biased due to the availability heuristic, i.e., users giving disproportionate weight to one—often negative—attribute. As research has demonstrated that even minor modifications of the presentation of options can have a large influence on people’s behavior, we test the effects of prior attribute rating on overall star rating. An experiment (n = 56) conducted in the context of restaurant ratings showed that merely asking people first to rate individual attributes can significantly influence overall ratings. These findings can have important implications, as uncovering the effects specific design parameters of review forms have on people’s evaluation results will allow for reducing unintended biases in review form design.
Chapter
The field of NeuroIS has made advancements during the recent past.
Chapter
In the following, we present major statements in the NeuroIS literature on the importance of becoming familiar with the neuroscience literature in a given study context and the application of neuroscience knowledge in IS research without necessarily using neuroscience tools.
Chapter
Application of our approach implies identification, processing, and use of neuroscience knowledge. In particular, the IS researcher must acquire knowledge on the neural correlates of the constructs of his or her study.
Chapter
First, two studies (Sidorova et al. 2008; Steininger et al. 2009) identified trust as one of the major topics in both North American and European IS research. Sidorova et al. (2008), investigating the intellectual core of the IS discipline, analyzed 1615 abstracts of articles published in three North American IS journals from 1985 to 2006, and found that trust is among the most important research topics in the time period 2002–2006, thereby demonstrating that the topic is up-to-date.
Chapter
While all domains in neuroscience might be relevant for NeuroIS research to some degree, the field of cognitive neuroscience has been identified as the major reference discipline (e.g., Dimoka et al. 2011).
Article
This authored volume presents the fundamentals of NeuroIS, which is an emerging subfield within the Information Systems discipline that makes use of neuroscience and neurophysiological tools and knowledge to better understand the development, use, and impact of information and communication technologies. This book is an initial guide to this new research domain. The target audience primarily comprises PhD students and researchers, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students and practitioners.
Book
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This book presents the proceedings of the Gmunden Retreat on NeuroIS 2016, reporting on topics at the intersection of Information Systems (IS) research, neurophysiology and the brain sciences. Readers will discover the latest findings from top scholars in the field of NeuroIS, which offer detailed insights on the neurobiology underlying IS behavior, essential methods and tools and their applications for IS, as well as the application of neuroscience and neurophysiological theories to advance IS theory.
Article
The IS research has long centered on HCI solely from the perspective of cognition. The research of metacognition has not kept pace with the demand for new knowledge, especially in the domain of e-commerce. This research attempts to open the "Black box" of metacognition by combination of fMRI-based neurophysiological methodology and traditional psychometric measures. Focusing on Comparison Shopping Engine (CSE) and general search engine, the study examines how IT artefacts stimulate consumer's neural activities in the region of interest (ROI) related to metacognition during online shopping experience. An fMRI experiment and a pilot behavioral study are planned to compare consumer's responses in distinct experimental environments. Consumer's evaluation of e-commerce websites is measured to explore its correlation with metacognition. We will advance our work in the further steps.
Article
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The internet makes it easier for buyers to purchase goods from distant sellers. However, the inability of the buyer to examine the merchandise results in asymmetry of information. This paper develops a theoretical model to analyze the relationship between quality and price in a setting of asymmetrical information. In the spirit of Akerlof (1970), the model predicts that higher quality goods are less likely to be sold in the market. Since buyers have difficulty distinguishing quality, sellers would have to accept lower prices for their highest quality items. The model is tested using data from internet coin auctions. The results show that coins that are claimed to be of higher quality are less likely to sell and when they do sell do so at lower prices relative to their market value.
Article
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We compare EER and OO data models from the point of view of design quality. Quality is measured in terms of (a) correctness of the conceptual schemas being designed, (b) time to complete the design task, and (c) designers' preferences of the models. Result of an experimental comparison of the two models reveal that the EER model surpasses the OO model for designing unary and ternary relationships, it takes less time to design EER schemas, and the EER model is preferred by designers. We conclude that even if the objective is to implement an OO database schema, the recommended procedure is to: (1) create an EER conceptual scheme, (2) map it to an OO schema, and augment the target schema with behavioral constructs that are unique to the OO approach.
Article
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The aim of the paper is to discuss the use of knowledge models to formulate general applications. First, the paper presents the recent evolution of the software field where increasing attention is paid to conceptual modelling. Then, the current state of knowledge modelling techniques is described where increased reliability is available through the modern knowledge-acquisition techniques and supporting tools. The knowledge structure manager (KSM) tool is described next. First, the concept of knowledge area is introduced as a building block where methods to perform a collection of tasks are included together with the bodies of knowledge providing the basic methods to perform the basic tasks. Then, the CONCEL language to define vocabularies of domains and the LINK language for methods formulation are introduced. Finally, the object-oriented implementation of a knowledge area is described and a general methodology for application design and maintenance supported by KSM is proposed. To illustrate the concepts and methods, an example of system for intelligent traffic management in a road network is described. This example is followed by a proposal of generalization for reuse of the resulting architecture. Finally, some concluding comments are made regarding the feasibility of using the knowledge modelling tools and methods for general application design.
Conference Paper
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This paper introduces the idea of drawing upon the cognitive neuroscience literature to inform IS research (herein termed "NeuroIS"). Recent advances in cognitive neuroscience are uncovering the neural bases of cognitive, emotional, and social processes, and they offer new insights into the complex interplay between IT and information processing, decision making, and behavior among people, organizations, and markets. The paper reviews the emerging cognitive neuroscience literature to propose a set of seven opportunities that IS researchers can use to inform IS phenomena, namely (1) localizing the neural correlates of IS constructs, (2) capturing hidden mental processes, (3) complementing existing sources of IS data with brain data, (4) identifying antecedents of IS constructs, (5) testing consequences of IS constructs, (6) inferring the temporal ordering among IS constructs, and (7) challenging assumptions and enhancing IS theories. The paper proposes a framework for exploring the potential of cognitive neuroscience for IS research and offers examples of potentially fertile intersections of cognitive neuroscience and IS research in the domains of design science and human-computer interaction. This is followed by an example NeuroIS study in the context of e-commerce adoption using fMRI, which spawns interesting new insights. The challenges of using functional neuroimaging tools are also discussed. The paper concludes that there is considerable potential for using cognitive neuroscience theories and functional brain imaging tools in IS research to enhance IS theories.
Article
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This study examines virtual community quality through sociolinguistics theory. According to sociolinguistics, in oral discourse men communicate to establish superior social standing, while women communicate with the undertone of rapport, compassion, and empathy. The study shows that these differences carry over to the asynchronous written environment of virtual communities and affect men's and women's respective perceptions of community quality. Women go to virtual communities to give and to get social support and have a more favorable assessment of the capability of others. This pattern generally holds even when comparing mostly single-gender communities and mixed-gender communities. However, a closer look at these differences reveals a more complex picture, with undertones in mixed-gender communities being less than in their respective mostly single-gender communities.
Article
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The Technology Acceptance model (TAM) is one of the most influential theories in Information Systems. However, despite the model's significant contributions, the intense focus on TAM has diverted researchers’ attention away from other important research issues and has created an illusion of progress in knowledge accumulation. Furthermore, the independent attempts by several researchers to expand TAM in order to adapt it to the constantly changing IT environments has lead to a state of theoretical chaos and confusion in which it is not clear which version of the many iterations of TAM is the commonly accepted one. The present commentary discusses these concerns, speculates on the possible contributions to the current state of affairs, and makes several suggestions to alleviate the problems associated with TAM and to advance IT adoption research to the next stage.
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