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Relatedness and transversality in spatial paradigms and regimes



Despite the substantial literature on proximity processes and relations, only a few academic works have been devoted to studying the link between regional development and proximity relations. This book Regional Development and Proximity Relations intends to fill this gap. We consider that the integration of the notion of proximity into the framework of regional development analysis provides interesting input due to its plasticity and ability to draw connections between spatial, economic and social dimensions; but also suggests ways of possible changes for regional and territorial policies. The main aim is to try to assess the importance of proximity relations (or obstacles led by proximity relations) in regional development processes, and discuss approaches of different disciplines.
... The positive consequences of proximity are manifested in , for instance , learning processes ( Keeble & Wilkinson , 1999 ) , knowledge creation ( Westlund & Adam , 2010 ) , knowledge spillovers , and innovation ( Boschma , 2005 ) . However , excess proximity could have a detrimental effect because of risks associated with lock - in , undesirable spillovers , lack of flexibility , and inertia , all of which act as barriers to change ( Cooke , 2014 ) , thus reducing entrepreneurship and creativity capital , among other things ( see Boschma , 2005 ; Torre & Rallet , 2005 ) . Therefore , different forms of proximity can activate or deactivate and accelerate or decelerate processes such as spillovers , information exchange , learning processes , social information , competitive dynamics , and institutional dynamics . ...
... The positive consequences of proximity are manifested in, for instance, learning processes (Keeble & Wilkinson, 1999), knowledge creation (Westlund & Adam, 2010), knowledge spillovers, and innovation (Boschma, 2005). However, excess proximity could have a detrimental effect because of risks associated with lock-in, undesirable spillovers, lack of flexibility, and inertia, all of which act as barriers to change (Cooke, 2014), thus reducing entrepreneurship and creativity capital, among other things (see Boschma, 2005;Torre & Rallet, 2005). Therefore, different forms of proximity can activate or deactivate and accelerate or decelerate processes such as spillovers, information exchange, learning processes, social information, competitive dynamics, and institutional dynamics. ...
This paper combines a multi-sectoral approach with a perspective on the geography of transitions. The concept of coevolution is used to bridge these contributions as it allows to see mutual influences and adaptation between sectors while acknowledging spatial embeddedness and its economic, institutional and social aspects. The argument is discussed using the case of the transition to Electric Vehicles (EVs) and the connections between three technologies: EV, battery, and smart grid. Patent citations are used to construct three main paths allowing to geolocate key inventions and to elaborate on the role of cities in supporting knowledge recombination. The case study suggests that a coevolutionary perspective can contribute to understanding the geography of transitions in three ways: by relating emerging socio-technical configurations to changed power relations and opportunities along the value chain, by exposing the spatial embeddedness of interdependent sectors and by clarifying the role of actors and networks.
Rising from a desert coastal village towards a global city in only a few decades thanks partially to a mix of utopian-led, neo-liberal policies that favoured speed superlative economic and urban developments, Dubai was still to compete for its regional cultural positioning through culture-led projects in the early 2000’s.Cultural and art business activities, strongly linked and nurtured by a fertile institutional, cultural setup in the nearby Sharjah, were already on the rise in Dubai. By mid-2000’s, the creative and art businesses (i.e. art and design studios and galleries) saw an abrupt acceleration leading to the emergence of a few clusters that continued to grow to form art and creative districts, namely Alserkal Avenue in Al Quoz Industrial Area, Al Fahidi Historical District, Gate Village at the Dubai International Financial Centre DIFC and later the Dubai Design District, some of which being the result of top-down government-led initiatives. The dynamics of agglomeration of art and culture businesses in Dubai are not only inscribed into neo-classical Marshallian district dynamics but have also profited from multi-facet institutional, business and personal network forces that fit into Porterian and post-Porterian cluster theories. Seeing the emergence of these districts through the lens of historical events calls for evolutionary concepts such as path dependency, co-evolution and selfreinforcement among others. Similarly, the multi-scalar networks leading to such an evolution pronounces a need to examine the complexity of these networks and the role of agents in shaping the overall picture in the space-time continuum. Using complexity theory and evolutionary economic geography concepts we introduce an analytical framework to study the emergence of these clusters. Finally, we search for evidence and examples from our case study considering its particular historical context and the key game changers for the emergence and evolution of art and design districts.
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Today, economic growth is widely understood to be conditioned by productivity increases which are, in turn, profoundly affected by innovation. This volume explores these key relationships between innovation and growth, bringing together experts from both fields to compile a unique Handbook. © Philip Cooke, Bjørn Asheim, Ron Boschma, Ron Martin, Dafna Schwartz and Franz Tödtling 2011. All rights reserved.