ArticleLiterature Review
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Honey is a bee-derived, supersaturated solution composed mainly of fructose and glucose, and containing proteins and amino acids, vitamins, enzymes, minerals, and other minor components. Historical records of honey skin uses date back to the earliest civilizations, showing that honey has been frequently used as a binder or vehicle, but also for its therapeutic virtues. Antimicrobial properties are pivotal in dermatological applications, owing to enzymatic H2 O2 release or the presence of active components, like methylglyoxal in manuka, while medical-grade honey is also available. Honey is particularly suitable as a dressing for wounds and burns and has also been included in treatments against pityriasis, tinea, seborrhea, dandruff, diaper dermatitis, psoriasis, hemorrhoids, and anal fissure. In cosmetic formulations, it exerts emollient, humectant, soothing, and hair conditioning effects, keeps the skin juvenile and retards wrinkle formation, regulates pH and prevents pathogen infections. Honey-based cosmetic products include lip ointments, cleansing milks, hydrating creams, after sun, tonic lotions, shampoos, and conditioners. The used amounts range between 1 and 10%, but concentrations up to 70% can be reached by mixing with oils, gel, and emulsifiers, or polymer entrapment. Intermediate-moisture, dried, and chemically modified honeys are also used. Mechanisms of action on skin cells are deeply conditioned by the botanical sources and include antioxidant activity, the induction of cytokines and matrix metalloproteinase expression, as well as epithelial-mesenchymal transition in wounded epidermis. Future achievements, throwing light on honey chemistry and pharmacological traits, will open the way to new therapeutic approaches and add considerable market value to the product.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Thuja orientalis extracts were also shown to have antiviral efficacy, specifically anti-influenza activity, inducing improved cell viability following influenza infection in an in vitro model [86]. Thuja orientalis displays antioxidant properties [87] in addition to protective capabilities against dermatologic conditions, including atopic dermatitis, through anti-inflammatory activity [106]. These anti-inflammatory properties have also been shown to be beneficial in reducing inflammation of the airway in an asthmatic murine model [88]. ...
... Firstly, honey has been growing in popularity as an effective wound healing agent [103]. In addition to moisturizing and hydration of healing wounds, honey also carries anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antiseptic effects, all critical to wound healing processes [106]. In addition, honey has been shown to have involvement in cellular pathways that increase expression of tissue repair mediators and keratinocyte proliferation [106]. ...
... In addition to moisturizing and hydration of healing wounds, honey also carries anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antiseptic effects, all critical to wound healing processes [106]. In addition, honey has been shown to have involvement in cellular pathways that increase expression of tissue repair mediators and keratinocyte proliferation [106]. Honey has also been shown to have protective benefits in the treatment of acne, by reducing aqueous availability of water in the skin and thus preventing microbial growth [107]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The impact that hair loss has on an individual's psychological wellness, and subsequent quality of life, is widespread and long lasting. The current standard treatments for hair loss include surgery and medications, ranging from over-the-counter treatments to corticosteroid injections and immunosuppressants. Unfortunately, these current treatments are either expensive, invasive, or have extremely negative side effects. Recently, the role of vitamins, minerals, and functional foods with their associated bioactive compounds, have gained increasing recognition as a potential means to address this issue. Some of these compounds have been shown to decrease the risk of specific forms of hair loss, particularly alopecia, a form of balding that results due from an autoimmune disorder. These include experimental studies using black raspberry extract and egg yolks as well as epidemiological studies using Mediterranean diets and various micronutrients. Other compounds have been shown to promote hair growth on a more general scale, including in vivo studies using rice bran extract and mouse models using red ginseng oil and annurca apple polyphenols. This review identifies key hair growth promoting vitamins, minerals, and functional foods, as well as summarizes the relevant mechanisms of action of these compounds that have been elucidated. Knowledge regarding the effects of these nutriceuticals on reducing hair loss is rapidly expanding. However, it is imperative that further research be done in order to delineate mechanisms of actions for all compounds related to managing and treating hair loss and subsequently integrate these dietary modifications into clinical treatment recommendations for hair loss.Keywords: Hair loss, alopecia, berry extract, mediterranean diet, rice bran, ginseng, annurca apple, thuja orientalis, marine supplement, honey, egg yolk, functional foods, bioactive compounds
... Higher concentrations (up to 70%) can be used for combinations of honey with oils, gelling agents, and emulsifiers or in face masks [5,6]. Honey is also used as an alternative to traditional emulsifiers in body lotions for bathing and shampooing, where they make up 50% to 50% surfactants [7]. ...
... The development of bee products for dermal applications may take different directions in the future. Burlando and Cornara [7] see one way in ethnopharmaceuticals surveys focused on significant biological properties in the extraordinary variety of mono-and polyfloral honeys. Another possibility is to carry out chemical and biological research focused on the chemical composition of honey and its pharmacological efficacy, thus opening the way to new medical procedures supporting human health [13]. ...
... This creates a protective non-greasy film on the skin to help maintain water in the skin [18]. Burlando and Cornara [7] in their review extend this knowledge to the influence of other substances present such as amino acids and organic acids, which can supplement the natural moisturizing factors of the horny layer. It is known that the biological properties of a certain type of honey are determined by the nectar-producing plants; therefore, botanical resources are of great importance in cosmetics [19]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Honey, honey extracts, and bee products belong to traditionally used bioactive molecules in many areas. The aim of the study was primarily to evaluate the effect of cosmetic matrices containing honey and bee products on the skin. The study is complemented by a questionnaire survey on the knowledge and awareness of the effects and potential uses of bee products. The effect of bee molecules at various concentrations was observed by applying 12 formulations to the skin of the volar side of the forearm by non-invasive bioengineering methods on a set of 24 volunteers for 48 h. Very good moisturizing properties have been found in matrices with the glycerin extract of honey. Matrices containing forest honey had better moisturizing effects than those containing flower honey. Barrier properties were enhanced by gradual absorption, especially in formulations with both glycerin and aqueous honey extract. The observed organoleptic properties of the matrices assessed by sensory analysis through 12 evaluators did not show statistically significant differences except for color and spreadability. There are differences in the ability to hydrate the skin, reduce the loss of epidermal water, and affect the pH of the skin surface, including the organoleptic properties between honey and bee product matrices according to their type and concentration.
... Newly, proliferated fibroblasts secrete connective tissues elements like collagen fibers and proteoglycan that is leading to restoration of wound edges toward together. Fibroblasts cells are an important part of wound repair because as cells proliferate in the wound, collagen emerges resulting in faster wound healing (21,22). Acidic pH of honey along with its osmotic effects, would stimulate the activity of phagocytes and lymphocytes in the wound and increase the other antibacterial components (23,24). ...
... Growth of blood vessels in the experimental group in comparison with control group had an Increasing trend (Table1). Honey can ac-celerate angiogenesis and granulation tissue formation in wound area (22,29). In this study, the number of Fibroblasts was significantly (P<0.05) ...
... A significant increase of fibroblast cells in the experimental groups showed a positive effect of honey on proliferative phase of wound healing process (22) (Table1). Fibroblasts were synthesized part of the extracellular matrix, such as fibronectin and proteoglycans that they provide suitable migration and proliferation of cells (22,27). Fibroblasts are then synthesized collagen, the proliferation of fibroblasts in the group treated with honey was increased as compared with control group, similarly results we found in this research (27). ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Background: Clinicians have been searching for ways to obtain "super normal" wound healing. Honey is a traditional remedy for the treatment of infected wounds. We aimed to evaluate the wound contraction and antibacterial properties of locally produced Thyme honey on managing full-thickness wounds in vivo. Methods: This experimental study was conducted in 2015, in Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran on 54 adult male Wistar rats weighing 200-250 gr, and ages of 3-4 months. A square 1.5*1.5 wound was made on the back of the neck. The rats were divided into control and two experimental groups. Additionally, the control and experimental groups were separated into three subgroups corresponding to 4, 7, and 14 d of study. The control group did not receive any treatment. For histological studies, samples were taken from the wound and adjacent skin. This tissue was examined using histological staining (H&E). Wound surface and wound healing were evaluated. Data were analyzed by using one-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey test and (P<0.05) was significant. Results: The macroscopic and microscopic evaluations showed that the percentage of wound healing on different days in the control and experimental groups were significant (P< 0.05). Conclusion: Using honey twice a day on open wounds will accelerate the healing process. Keywords: Open cutaneous wound, Honey, Wound healing, Rat
... Honey has been used as one of the oldest used remedies in skin care and management. Histological evidence has revealed that honey has been used for eye cosmetics, vaginal irrigation due to its antibacterial activity, and sweetening breath (Burlando and Cornara 2013). In addition, it has been used as a binder in a paste and vehicle in cream and lotions, skin moisturizer, lip softener, face mask, and hair dye (Cavallo et al. 2008). ...
... In addition, it has been used as a binder in a paste and vehicle in cream and lotions, skin moisturizer, lip softener, face mask, and hair dye (Cavallo et al. 2008). Honey has also been used to maintain wrinkles; in softening and cleaning cream for pimples; and in anti-age face mask with other ingredients like yogurt, lemon, avocado, and egg yolk (Oumeish 1999;Burlando and Cornara 2013). According to traditional Chinese medicine, honey has been used to remove discoloration, freckles, and scars and improve the general appearance of the skin (Oumeish 1999). ...
... The dermatological characteristics of honey are mainly due to the presence of hydrogen peroxide and methylglyoxal. Honey is special for would dressing and is also useful in the treatment of dandruff, diaper dermatitis, pityriasis, tinea, seborrhea, hemorrhoids, psoriasis, and anal fissure (Burlando and Cornara 2013). In cosmetic formulations, honey acts as humectant, soothing, emollient, hair conditioning effects, retards wrinkle formation, keeps the skin juvenile, prevents pathogen infections, and regulates pH. ...
Article
Full-text available
Honey is a bee-derived supersaturated solution composed of complex contents mainly glucose, fructose, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals. Composition of honey may vary due to the difference in nectar, season, geography, and storage condition. Honey has been used since times immemorial in folk medicine and has recently been rediscovered as an excellent therapeutic agent. In the past, honey was used for a variety of ailments without knowing the scientific background and active ingredients of honey. Today, honey has been scientifically proven for its antioxidant, regulation of glycemic response, antitumor, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and cardiovascular potentiating agent. It can be used as a wound dressing and healing substance. Honey is different in color, flavor, sensory perception, and medical response. Apart from highlighting the nutritional facts of honey, we collected the finding of the published literature to know the mechanism of action of honey in different diseases. This review covers the composition, physiochemical characteristics, and some medical uses.
... They have prebiotic properties, much like that of fructo-oligosaccharides. The oligosaccharides had been mentioned in reports to cause rise in population of some beneficial bacteria like bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, which are in charge of keeping up a sound intestinal microflora in human beings [18,19]. In actuality, Lactobacillus spp. ...
... A strong correlation has been reported between the antioxidant activity and its total phenolic contents, including between antioxidant activity and the color of honey. The antioxidant activity according to many researchers may be located in both the water and ether fractions, which shows that the flavonoid contents of honey might be accessible to different compartments of the human body, wherein they may exert diverse physiological impacts [19,36,40]. ...
... Also of importance to note are the productions of highly inflammatory substances such as exotoxins (α, β, γ, and δ cytolysins) and enterotoxins (SEA to SEE), which may play the role of superantigens as well as worsen the ongoing inflammation. Due to challenges in the management of the disease, natural remedies are opted for by many patients, and the topical use of honey on the lesions showed overall improvement in their symptoms [19,55]. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Honey has been used traditionally for ages to treat infectious diseases. These amazing properties of honey are complex as a result of the involvement of various bioactive compounds. Honey is becoming sustainable as a reputable and effective therapeutic agent to practitioners of conventional medicine and to the general public. Its beneficial role has been endorsed due to its antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflam-matory, and antioxidant activities as well as boosting of the immune system. Also, other medical conditions discussed here which can be treated with honey include but not limited to diarrhea, gastric ulcer, canine recurrent dermatitis, diabetics, tumor, and arthritis, and honey can also be used for skin disinfection and wound healing. Most of the known factors that give honey these properties include its acidity, high sugar, hydrogen peroxide, and other non-peroxide properties. Some factors may affect the therapeutic properties of honey such as exposure to heat and light.
... They have prebiotic properties, much like that of fructo-oligosaccharides. The oligosaccharides had been mentioned in reports to cause rise in population of some beneficial bacteria like bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, which are in charge of keeping up a sound intestinal microflora in human beings [18,19]. In actuality, Lactobacillus spp. ...
... A strong correlation has been reported between the antioxidant activity and its total phenolic contents, including between antioxidant activity and the color of honey. The antioxidant activity according to many researchers may be located in both the water and ether fractions, which shows that the flavonoid contents of honey might be accessible to different compartments of the human body, wherein they may exert diverse physiological impacts [19,36,40]. ...
... Also of importance to note are the productions of highly inflammatory substances such as exotoxins (α, β, γ, and δ cytolysins) and enterotoxins (SEA to SEE), which may play the role of superantigens as well as worsen the ongoing inflammation. Due to challenges in the management of the disease, natural remedies are opted for by many patients, and the topical use of honey on the lesions showed overall improvement in their symptoms [19,55]. ...
... More often the concentration of honey in cosmetics is up to 10%. Higher concentrations (up to 70%) are obtained by dispersing in oils, gels or polymer entrapment [40]. ...
... Honey inhibits the growth of bacteria and fungi by reducing their development on the skin surface. Honey is particularly suitable as a dressing for wounds and burns, and has also been included in treatments against pityriasis, tinea, seborrhea, dandruff, diaper dermatitis, psoriasis, hemorrhoids, and anal fissure [40]. Pinocembrin and lysozyme are responsible for antifungal properties. ...
... Honey is used in balms and bath products because of its toning, relaxing, conditioning effects related to the high content of simple sugars, the presence of essential oils, and bioelements [53]. Due to the presence of flavonoids, honey can also play an important role in sun protection by preventing skin irritation [40]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Honey, propolis, bee pollen, bee bread, royal jelly, beeswax and bee venom are natural products which have been used in medicine since ancient times. Nowadays, studies indicate that natural bee products can be used for skin treatment and care. Biological properties of these products are related to flavonoids they contain like: chrysin, apigenin, kaempferol, quercetin, galangin, pinocembrin or naringenin. Several pharmacological activities of phenolic acids and flavonoids, and also 10-hydroxy-trans-2-decenoic acid, which is present in royal jelly, have been reported. Royal jelly has multitude of pharmacological activities: antibiotic, antiinflammatory, antiallergenic, tonic and antiaging. Honey, propolis and pollen are used to heal burn wounds, and they possess numerous functional properties such as: antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, disinfectant, antifungal and antiviral. Beeswax is used for production of cosmetics and ointments in pharmacy. Due to a large number of biological activities, bee products could be considered as important ingredients in medicines and cosmetics applied to skin.
... The use of hydrogels based on natural saccharides and disaccharides, such as honey and sucrose can increase mechanical strength, biocompatibility, and water uptake of the wound dressing [11,12]. Honey as natural substances has been traditionally used to stimulate wound regeneration and has pharmacological characteristics, including antioxidant, anti-microbial, and anti-inflammatory effects [13][14][15][16]. The combination of PVA and honey (H/PVA) interestingly has been used in the wound; however, development of a wound dressing of H/PVA hybrid hydrogel is difficult, due to structural instability and low mechanical strength of hydrogel. ...
... Hydrogen peroxide with its insulin-like properties in honey is released slowly into the wound bed and induced cell proliferation, leading to angiogenesis in the wound bed [24]. On the other hand, honey with antioxidant activity prevents the generation of free radicals, and accelerate the inflammation phase [13,15]. Our result indicated that H/PVA when combined with erythromycin, not only promotes antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity in wound dressings but also demonstrates the high levels of vascularization and promotes fibroblast proliferation. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Skin wounds are a significant public health risk, and treatment of wound remains a challenging clinical problem for medical teams and researchers.Materials and Methods: In the present study, we aimed to investigate the healing effects of honey/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel loaded with erythromycin as wound dressing on skin wounds in rats, based on histological studies. In this study, 60 male Wistar rats, with a 1.5 ×1.5 cm2 diameter full-thickness wounds on the backs were divided into four groups: honey/PVA with the erythromycin hydrogel group, honey group, PVA group, and the control group, with no treatment. Skin biopsies were prepared at days 4, 7, and 14 for microscopic analyses. The stereological analysis, including the mean area of the wound, length of vessels, numerical density of fibroblast, macrophage, basal cell and volume of the epidermis, dermis, and fibrous tissue were performed. Result: Wounds area in the honey/PVA hydrogel with the erythromycin group were significantly (P<0.05) smaller than in the other group. The numerical density of fibroblast, macrophage, basal cell and volume of the epidermis in the honey/PVA hydrogel with the erythromycin group were significantly higher than other groups.Conclusion: According to our results, honey/PVA hydrogel with erythromycin may promote early wound healing and has a positive influence on fibroblast proliferation and re-epithelialization, and its administration is recommended after further validation of clinical data.[GMJ. 2019;8:e1362]
... O mel de abelha ativa a reparação tecidual [15] e vem sendo utilizado na composição de medicamentos para o tratamento de diversos tipos de ferimentos, queimaduras de primeiro e segundo grau, úlceras, pé diabético, feridas infectadas, atuando como antimicrobiano natural e cicatrizante [16]. ...
... O mel de abelha é uma solução supersaturada composta principalmente de frutose e glucose, além de conter proteínas e aminoácidos, vitaminas, enzimas, minerais e outros componentes minoritários. O mecanismo de ação nas células da pele é condicionado à fonte botânica e inclui atividade antioxidante, indução da expressão de citocinas e metaloproteinases de matriz [15]. ...
Article
Full-text available
O processo inflamatório participa de todos os estágios do desenvolvimento da lesão acnéica. As plantas medicinais produzem compostos bioativos que lhes conferem ações terapêuticas, podendo ser utilizadas no tratamento de afecções da pele. Este trabalho teve como objetivo elaborar e testar a eficácia anti-inflamatória não-clínica de uma formulação contendo extratos glicólicos de Aloe vera, Ginkgo biloba L., Panax ginseng, Matricaria recutita e mel de abelha. Foram realizados estudos preliminares de estabilidade. As amostras foram analisadas com respeito às propriedades organolépticas, pH, centrifugação e gelo-degelo, durante 8 semanas. Foi realizada a avaliação do efeito anti-inflamatório tópico do gel-creme em modelo experimental de inflamação cutânea utilizando camundongos Swiss e C57BL⁄6J. Os animais receberam aplicações tópicas de óleo de Croton, durante 9 dias e, a partir do 5º dia, foram tratados com o gel-creme teste ou com gel-creme base (controle), duas vezes ao dia. A formulação apresentou boa estabilidade físico-química, para aos ensaios realizados. O gel-creme teste inibiu o edema de orelha após o tratamento, tendo seu efeito anti-inflamatório mais evidente nos camundongos da linhagem C57BL⁄6J. Este resultado sugere que o gel-creme é eficaz como agente anti-inflamatório tópico no processo inflamatório crônico, o que justificaria o seu uso no tratamento da acne vulgaris.
... Honey has been used in cosmetics and medicines as an antimicrobial, emollient, and humectant since ancient times, and is still used extensively in a variety of modern cosmetics, with some recent licensing of sterilized honey for clinical use [7]. The antimicrobial effects of honey have been reported for a wide range of fungi [8] and bacteria [9][10][11]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Superficial dermatophyte infections, commonly known as tineas, are the most prevalent fungal ailment and are increasing in incidence, leading to an interest in alternative treatments. Many floral honeys possess antimicrobial activity due to high sugar, low pH, and the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) from the activity of the bee-derived enzyme glucose oxidase. Australian jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) honey produces particularly high levels of H2O2 and has been found to be potently antifungal. This study characterized the activity of jarrah honey on fungal dermatophyte species. Jarrah honey inhibited dermatophytes with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 1.5–3.5% (w/v), which increased to ≥ 25% (w/v) when catalase was added. Microscopic analysis found jarrah honey inhibited the germination of Trichophyton rubrum conidia and scanning electron microscopy of mature T. rubrum hyphae after honey treatment revealed bulging and collapsed regions. When treated hyphae were stained using REDOX fluorophores these did not detect any internal oxidative stress, suggesting jarrah honey acts largely on the hyphal surface. Although H2O2 appears critical for the antifungal activity of jarrah honey and its action on fungal cells, these effects persisted when H2O2 was eliminated and could not be replicated using synthetic honey spiked with H2O2, indicating jarrah honey contains agents that augment antifungal activity.
... Honey is produced by honey bees (mainly Apis mellifera) and is considered a valuable food commodity due to its good taste, nutrients, availability and health-giving properties [1]. There are several reports of ancient uses of honey, not only as food but also for medicinal purposes [2]. Moreover, numerous recent studies reported that honey possess antimicrobial, antioxidant and In addition, a pesticides screening of the samples was performed in order to verify possible chemical threats to human health and honey bees. ...
Article
Full-text available
Honey is one of the oldest sweetening foods and has economic importance, making this product attractive to adulteration with cheap sugars. This can cause a critical problem in the honey industry and a possible health risk. The present work has the aim of evaluating the authenticity of honey commercialized in two different provinces of Ecuador (Pichincha and Loja) by performing physicochemical and spectroscopic analyses. For this study 25 samples were collected from different places and markets and characterized by water, sucrose, reducing sugars and electric conductivity measurement. Also, their Raman and Infrared (IR) spectra were recorded and analysed using a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) in order to verify the quality of the honeys. In addition, a screening of several pesticides was performed in order to verify possible chemical threats to human health and honey bees. It was found that 8 samples have a deviation from the Standard established parameters. Two of them have a high difference in the content of sucrose and reducing sugars, which are located deviated from all the other samples in the PCA of the applied vibrational spectroscopy (IR/Raman), shaping two clear clusters. The results show that Raman and IR spectroscopy is appropriate techniques for the quality control of honey and correlates well with the physicochemical analyses.
... Several biological properties have been detected in honeybee products by a wide series of scientific studies, while different reviews have been dedicated to summarize therapeutic properties and uses as nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic ingredients (Viuda-Martos et al., 2008;Burlando and Cornara, 2013). Various attempts at introducing some of these products in clinical settings have been made, but their pharmacological and medicinal standardization is made difficult by the high chemical variability, depending on honeybee varieties and botanical sources. ...
Article
Full-text available
Honeybees produce honey, royal jelly, propolis, bee venom, bee pollen, and beeswax, which potentially benefit to humans due to the bioactives in them. Clinical standardization of these products is hindered by chemical variability depending on honeybee and botanical sources, but different molecules have been isolated and pharmacologically characterized. Major honey bioactives include phenolics, methylglyoxal, royal jelly proteins (MRJPs), and oligosaccharides. In royal jelly there are antimicrobial jelleins and royalisin peptides, MRJPs, and hydroxy-decenoic acid derivatives, notably 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA), with antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, neuromodulatory, metabolic syndrome preventing, and anti-aging activities. Propolis contains caffeic acid phenethyl ester and artepillin C, specific of Brazilian propolis, with antiviral, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. Bee venom consists of toxic peptides like pain-inducing melittin, SK channel blocking apamin, and allergenic phospholipase A2. Bee pollen is vitaminic, contains antioxidant and anti-inflammatory plant phenolics, as well as antiatherosclerotic, antidiabetic, and hypoglycemic flavonoids, unsaturated fatty acids, and sterols. Beeswax is widely used in cosmetics and makeup. Given the importance of drug discovery from natural sources, this review is aimed at providing an exhaustive screening of the bioactive compounds detected in honeybee products and of their curative or adverse biological effects.
... Honey is efficacious in the treatment of wounds, burns, infections and rosacea. [8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15] There is also preliminary evidence supporting its use in the treatment of HSV from a small randomised controlled trial (RCT) in 16 adult patients with recurrent attacks of herpetic lesions in which topical application of a multiflora honey appeared to be more effective than 5% aciclovir cream for HSL and genital herpes. 16 The mean healing time for HSL and genital herpes was 3 days shorter for honey compared with aciclovir, 2.6 compared with 5.9 days (95% CI 1.6 to 3.52, p<0.05). ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Worldwide, about 90% of people are infected with the herpes simplex virus, 30% of whom will experience recurrent herpes simplex labialis, commonly referred to as ‘cold sores’, which can last up to 10 days. The most common treatment is aciclovir cream which reduces healing time by just half a day compared with no specific treatment. This is a protocol for a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to determine the efficacy of medical grade kanuka honey-based topical treatment (Honevo) in reducing the healing time and pain of cold sores, compared with topical aciclovir treatment (Viraban). Methods and analysis This open-label, parallel-group, active comparator superiority RCT will compare the efficacy of medical grade kanuka honey with 5% aciclovir cream in the treatment of cold sores in the setting of a pharmacy research network of 60 sites throughout New Zealand. Adults presenting with a cold sore (N=950) will be randomised by pharmacy-based investigators. The pharmacy-based investigators will dispense the investigational product to randomised participants and both study groups apply the treatment five times daily until their skin returns to normal or for 14 days, whichever occurs first. In response to a daily SMS message, participants complete an assessment of their cold sore healing, with reference to a visual guide, and transmit it to the investigators by a smartphone eDiary in real time. The primary outcome variable is time (in days) from randomisation to return to normal skin. Secondary endpoints include total healing time stratified by stage of the lesion at onset of treatment, highest pain severity and time to pain resolution. Ethics and dissemination New Zealand Ethics Registration 15/NTB/93. Results will be published in a peer-reviewed medical journal, presented at academic meetings and reported to participants. Trial registration number Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12615000648527, pre-results. SCOTT Registration: 15/SCOTT/14 Protocol version 4.0 (12 June 2017)
... Honey has been termed a value added product ever since the initial studies confirmed that the antioxidant properties of polyphenols lie at the heart of their cosmetic [21][22][23], medical [24][25][26] and alimentary applications [27]. Indeed, antioxidant supplementation is beneficial in preventing certain diseases. ...
Article
Full-text available
Honey samples (n = 126) from Castilla-La Mancha (Central Spain) were characterized based on their physicochemical properties and a melissopalynological analysis. The latter showed that Echium pollen type was the dominant palynomorph in most samples, representing at least 30% of the pollen in each sample. As anticipated, a relationship was observed between the proportion of this pollen and the properties of the honey. One goal of this study was to set a threshold that defines the percentage of pollen necessary for Viper’s bugloss honey to be considered monofloral or multifloral. This is a mandatory requirement in light of the publication of the European Directive 2014/63/EU establishing the regulations governing the labelling and control of honey to eradicate fraud (BOE n° 147, June 2015). By analyzing how the proportions of Echium pollen type affected the physicochemical and sensory parameters of the honey, the honeys analyzed could be segregated into multifloral and monofloral honeys. The data indicates that the proportion of pollen necessary to discriminate monofloral Viper’s bugloss honey lies at 70%.
... Recent studies have shown that, like other hive products, honey has various benefits for human health, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and bacteriostatic effects [4][5][6][7]. For these reasons, honeybee products are already widely used as ingredients in the field of cosmetics and nutraceuticals [3,8,9]. In the last few years, high consumer demand for natural healthy products has increased research interest in the antibacterial activity of honey for its possible clinical applications [6,[10][11][12][13]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Methylglyoxal (MGO) is recognized as being the bioactive component responsible for the antibacterial activity of mānuka honey. MGO content was investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV), in isocratic elution, to assess the occurrence of this compound in mono- and multi-floral honey samples representative of different botanical and geographic origins in Italy. Specifically, 110 honey samples from sweet cherry tree (Prunus avium L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), almond tree (Prunus amygdalus L.), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), cornflower (Centaurea cyanus L.), thistle (Silybum marianum L.), acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia L.), citrus, honeydew and multifloral honey were considered. The amount of MGO found in different types of honey was ranging from 0.4 to 24.1 mg/kg. This study provides, for the first time, data on MGO levels in Italian cherry and almond honey, which showed higher concentrations of MGO compared to honeys from other botanical species.
... In traditional Chinese and Arabic medicine, honey is used to improve the general appearance of skin and for fungal infections. Likewise, in Northern Pakistan, creamy honey is used for eyelid and face protection as well as the treatment of freckles and white spots [7,8]. Honey is present as a component of a wide number of cosmetics like hand creams, lipsticks, and shampoos due to its moisturizing, emollient, nourishing, and antiseptic properties [9]. ...
Article
Sardinian honeys obtained from different floral sources (Arbutus, Asphodelus, Eucalyptus, Thistle, and Sulla) were evaluated for their ability to inhibit tyrosinase and xanthine oxidase enzymes and for their antioxidant activity. Physicochemical parameters, total phenolic, and flavonoids content were also determined. Honey from Arbutus flowers had the highest antioxidant activity followed by Eucalyptus and Thistle ones. These three honeys showed good tyrosinase and xanthine oxidase inhibition properties. Thus, these Sardinian honeys could have a great potential as antioxidant sources for pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications.
... Ohmenhaeuser et al. described in 2013, that the average ratio is 56% fructose to 44% glucose (Ohmenhaeuser et al., 2013). Due to its composition, honey has several functions such as antioxidant, antibacterial, antitumoral, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and anti-browning agent (Viuda-Martos et al., 2008;Burlando and Cornara, 2013). Furthermore, it has a hydrating effect, keeping the skin juvenile and retarding wrinkle formation (Crane, 1980;Jiménez et al., 1994). ...
Article
Full-text available
Honey and agave syrup are high quality natural products and consist of more than 80% sugars. They are used as sweeteners, and are ingredients of cosmetics or medical ointments. Furthermore, both have low water content, are often liquid at room temperature and resemble some known sugar-based deep eutectic solvents (DES). Since it has been shown that it is possible to synthesize sugar esters in these DESs, in the current work honey or, as vegan alternative, agave syrup are used simultaneously as solvent and substrate for the enzymatic sugar ester production. For this purpose, important characteristics of the herein used honey and agave syrup were determined and compared with other available types. Subsequently, an enzymatic transesterification of four fatty acid vinyl esters was accomplished in ordinary honey and agave syrup. Notwithstanding of the high water content for transesterification reactions of the solvent, the successful sugar ester formation was proved by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and compared to a sugar ester which was synthesized in a conventional DES. For a clear verification of the sugar esters, mass determinations by ESI-Q-ToF experiments and a NMR analysis were done. These environmentally friendly produced sugar esters have the potential to be used in cosmetics or pharmaceuticals, or to enhance their effectiveness.
... 23 A number of measures have been proposed for the prevention of infection in burn wounds, such as: early debridement, frequent local irrigation, using H2O2, geranium oil, honey, topical antibiotics, biofilm disrupting agents and plastic wrap, acetic acid, and early excision and skin grafting. 11,20,24,25,26,27,28,29,30 Moreover, it is mentioned that prophylactic antibiotics are not recommended. 31 In unfortunate situations when infection occurs, it may find its way to other tissues and organs, 2,5,7,12,14,32 and more invasive infection has been seen 7 days after injury. ...
Article
Full-text available
The study of burn flora is helpful in determining current antibiotic susceptibilities and locating development of multidrug resistant bacterial strains among the unit’s usual flora. In this study, we aimed to determine the bacteriological pattern of blood, urine and sputum infections and their correlation with burn wound infections. We used data from our burn registry program. All data on demographics, burn wounds and burn wound infection, bacteria isolated, sensitivity to different antibiotics, burn wound culture, sputum culture, urine culture and catheter tip culture were recorded. We had 1721 hospitalized burn patients. Mean age was 26.3+/-20.25 years old. Mean hospital stay was 14.41 days (range 0-64 days). Mean (SD) TBSA was 16.48 (20.67) years. Mortality rate was 5.9%. Burn wound infection was present in 38.54%. The most frequent species was Staphylococcus spp. (55.1%), followed by Pseudomonas (14.29%), Enterococcus (12.24%), E. coli (4%), Klebsiella and Proteus (both 2%). Urine culture was positive in 27.9%, sputum culture was positive in 1.14%, catheter tip culture was positive in 12.3% and blood culture was positive in 7.6% of the cases. There were correlations between positive wound culture and blood and urine culture, most of them with one bacteria species. The most frequent disseminated bacteria was Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the most sensitive antibiotic was Amikacin. More than 39.2% of our positive culture patients had 3 or more positive cultures, and 36.5% had similar culture results for one bacteria, which was a sign of disseminated infection. © 2017 Annals of Burns and Fire Disasters. All rights reserved.
... The antioxidant activity of honey is attributed mainly to its polyphenols (e.g., flavonoids and phenolic acids), antioxidant enzymes (e.g., catalase and peroxidase), vitamins (e.g., vitamin C), Maillard reaction products (e.g., melanoidins), and carotenoids and amino acids (e.g., proline). Several studies have reported that the antioxidant compounds of honey may prevent oxidative stress-induced pathological conditions (18,19). ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the present study was to examine the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of 21 types of honey derived from Mount Olympus (Mt. Olympus), a region with great plant biodiversity. The antibacterial activity was examined against the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) by the agar well diffusion assay and the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The antioxidant activity was assessed by using the 2,2‑diphenyl‑1‑picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'‑azino‑bis(3‑ethylbenzothiazoline‑6‑sulphonic acid (ABTS•+) free radical scavenging assays. These activities were compared to Manuka honey which is used as an alternative medicine. The results revealed that all tested honey types exhibited antibacterial activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. The MIC of the tested honey types against S. aureus ranged from 3.125 to 12.5% (v/v), while MIC of Manuka honey was determined to be 6.25% (v/v). The MIC values of the tested honey types against P. aeruginosa ranged from 6.25 to 12.5% (v/v) and the MIC of Manuka honey was determined at 12.5% (v/v). Moreover, the results suggested that the presence of hydrogen peroxide and proteinaceous compounds in the honey types accounted, at least in part, for the antibacterial activity. In addition, the total polyphenolic content (TPC) of the honey types seemed to contribute to the antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, some of the tested honey types exhibited potent free radical scavenging activity against DPPH and ABTS•+ radicals, which was greater than that of Manuka honey. The results indicated that not only the quantity, but also the quality of the polyphenols were responsible for the antioxidant activity. Moreover, four honey types exhibiting great antioxidant activity were converted to powder using a freeze drying method. The results indicated that following conversion to powder all honey types, apart from one, retained their antioxidant activity, although their TPC was reduced. On the whole, and at least to the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first that extensively examined the bioactivities of different types of honey derived from Mt. Olympus.
... They found that Kanuka was well tolerated and effective in significantly reducing rosacea severity as assessed by a blinded clinical examination [6]. Other reports show success with use of honey in dermatitis and pityriasis [14]. Subsequently, a large trial is now underway, comparing the use of topical aciclovir to Kanuka honey for treatment of active cold sores [15]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Actinic keratoses form as rough, scaly plaques on sun-exposed areas; they can be an important step in premalignant progression to squamous cell cancer of the skin. Currently, pharmacological treatments consist of topical immunomodulatory agents with poor side effect profiles. Use of honey has been common in both ancient and modern medicine, where it is now a key therapy in the management of wound healing. In vitro studies show the New Zealand native Kanuka honey to have immunomodulatory and antimitotic effects, with recent evidence suggesting efficacy of topical application in a variety of dermatological contexts, including rosacea and psoriasis. Here, we present a case report of a 66-year-old gentleman with an actinic keratosis on his hand, which had been present for years. Regular application of Kanuka honey over three months resulted in remission immediately following the treatment period with no signs of recurrence at nine months.
... Hepsi antik zamanlardan beri beslenme ve tedavi amacıyla insanlar tarafından kullanılmıştır. Dünyada arı ürünleri, bir ya da daha fazla hastalığın önlenmesi ya da iyileştirilmesi amacıyla kullanılmaktadır (5). ...
Article
Introduction: Beekeeping is known in some developing countries as an important form of employment in agriculture. Beekeeping and honey production is carried out in order to provide income or hobby in Turkey. Bee produce honey, bee milk, propolis, bee venom, bee pollen and wax. All three of the allergic, inflammatory and infectious diseases are related to immunity. Allergy is an extreme and abnormal immune response to an allergen that most people easily accept. Inflammation is response of living tissue to internal or external damage to protect or heal the tissue. Antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulator, neuromodulator, metabolic syndrome inhibitor and anti-aging properties of bee products have been demonstrated. In this study, it was aimed to investigate allergy, inflammatory diseases and infectious conditions in beekeepers more frequently exposed to bee stings and more easily accessible to bee products. Method: A total of 50 beekeepers who were members of the Bingol Association of Bee Farmers in Eastern Anatolia Region, were included in the study. Participants were questioned about the demographic characteristics, the frequency and amount of exposure to bee and products. A questionnaire was prepared by the researchers in the light of the literature, in which allergy, inflammatory disease and infectious-related parameters were questioned. Questionnaires were filled using face-to-face interview method. Results: The average age of the beekeepers included in the study was 47,84 ± 11 years (min-max: 27 – 78 years). 94% (n = 47) of the participants were male and 6% (n = 3) were female. None of the participants were obese. When a known systemic disease entity was questioned, it was determined that 4% (n = 2) had thyroid pathology, 6% (n = 3) diabetes and 12% (n = 6) hypertension. It was learned that all of the cases were regularly filtered or honeycomb honey, 88% pollen, 50% propolis and 50% bee milk. All of the beekeepers are exposed to bee stings at least once a month. In addition, 34% of the beekeepers were found to be willing to self-destruct. Conclusion: We think that beekeeping is a positive contribution to health because it is not an indoor activity, requires physical activity, is away from the western type of life, and lives with nature. It has been concluded that beekeepers can more easily reach bee products outside of honey, and that more consumption may be effective in protecting and improving health from allergic, rheumatologic and infectious diseases.
... Madu juga menstimulasi sekresi sitokin yang menginduksi penyembuhan luka, tumor necrosis factor-á (TNF-á), interleukin-1 (IL-1) dan interleukin-6 (IL-6) yang mengaktivasi respon imun terhadap infeksi (Molan, 2002). Studi secara in-vitro menemukan bahwa tingkat toksisitas madu terhadap keratinosit dan fibroblast sangatlah rendah (Burlando & Cornara, 2013). Mekanisme madu dalam penyembuhan luka dapat dilihat pada gambar 1. ...
Article
Full-text available
Luka bakar dapat didefinisikan sebagai luka yang disebabkan oleh api, air panas, kontak dengan material panas atau dingin, bahan kimia dan aliran listrik yang melewati jaringan. Luka bakar adalah tempat yang ideal bagi bakteri untuk berkembang biak karena lingkungan nutrisi yang hangat dan lembab.Pengobatan modern untuk mencegah timbulnya infeksi menggunakan silver sulfadiaze (SSD) namun beberapa penelitian menemukan bahwa penggunaan SSD dapat memperpanjang waktu penyembuhan luka. Sebagai pengobatan alternatif, madu dapat digunakan untuk mencegah infeksi tanpa memperpanjang waktu penyembuhan luka. Madu mengandung sejumlah besar karbohidrat, lipid, asam amino, protein, vitamin dan mineral yang memiliki peran penting dalam penyembuhan luka. Madu juga mengandung beberapa senyawa organik, yang telah terindentifikasi antara lain seperti polyphenol, flavonoid, dan glikosida. Mekanisme madu sebagai antibakteri dapat diklasifikasikan secara langsung dan tidak langsung. Mekanisme secara langsung didasarkan pada kemampuan komponen madu untuk membunuh bakteri. Mekanisme secara langsung meliputi mekanisme terbentuknya hidrogen peroksida (H2O2), osmolalitas tinggi, pH rendah, faktor non - peroksida, dan fenol. Mekanisme tidak langsung adalah respon antibakteri dari host yang dirangsang oleh madu terhadap bakteri. Mekanisme antibakteri tidak langsung meliputi limfosit dan produksi antibodi, sitokin dan respon imun, dan nitrit oksida. Kata Kunci : Madu, Luka Bakar, Pertumbuhan Bakteri
... In remote locations H 2 O 2 production from H 2 and O 2 (both H 2 and O 2 can be produced from water electrolysis using cheaper renewable electricity) would be economically viable alternative in the near future if direct H 2 O 2 process is developed successfully. [23][24][25][26] Chemical Synthesis As a powerful and environmentally benign oxidizing agent, H 2 O 2 has many applications in chemical industry [27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37] Cosmetics & Medicine H 2 O 2 is used in cosmetics and personal care products as an antimicrobial agent and as an oxidizing agent [38][39][40] Electronics H 2 O 2 is used for pickling of metal surfaces as well as for cleaning of silicon discs in the production of printed circuit boards [41][42][43][44] Environmental Applications Ecological friendliness properties of H 2 O 2 are utilized in a variety of environmental applications [45][46][47][48][49][50] Food Processing Due to its remarkable chemical properties and biological degradability, H 2 O 2 is often utilized in food processing applications [51][52][53][54][55] Mining H 2 O 2 is used as an oxidizing agent and oxygen source in various metallurgical process steps [56][57][58][59] Pulp & Paper In pulp & paper industry H 2 O 2 is employed as a versatile bleaching agent [60][61][62][63] Recycling In recycling of solid municipal waste H 2 O 2 is used as oxidant and bleaching agent [64][65][66][67][68] Textile Bleaching H 2 O 2 is used as bleaching agent for the treatment of natural and synthetic fibers [69][70][71][72][73] ...
Article
21 st century global market place is moving towards subtainable development and without this approach our future would be at risk. Today's chemical industries need to give more focus for the planet through improving the environmental footprints of fuels and chemicals manufacturing processes. Oxidation and hydro-genation processes are widely used in the production of chemicals and fuels. Oxidation processes are especially important to convert petroleum-based materials to useful petrochemicals of higher oxidation state. Many existing oxidation processes, however , still rely on the use of stoichiometric oxidants, such as dichromate/sulfuric acid, permanganates, periodates, chromium oxides, osmium oxide etc., and remain a major source of environmental pollution. Therefore, oxidation processes using eco-friendly oxidizing agents such as molecular oxygen, ozone and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2) are incresingly becoming important to improve the environmental sustainability. Hydrogen peroxide is especially attractive for the liquid-phase oxidation due to the presence of high percentage of active oxygen and the production of water as only by-product. As a result, H 2 O 2-based eco-friendly oxidation processes are gradually replacing some well-established processes such as production of propy-lene oxide, caprolactam, phenol etc. Moreover, recent advances in the area of oxidation catalysis is promoting H 2 O 2-based technologies to emerge as a frontline, eco-friendly sustainable processes. H 2 O 2 is also finding greater applications in pulp/paper industries and waste water treatment as a substitute of chlorine-based oxidizing agents. Herein, we have analyzed various reactions using H 2 O 2 as an oxidant and their recent advancement to bring important aspects of H 2 O 2-based oxidation processes and catalysis. Moreover, various aspects of using H 2 O 2 toward development of sustainable oxidation processes have been analyzed with respect to factors affecting the end uses in chemical industry such as efficiency, catalyst and reaction pathways. We have reviewed manufacturing trends of H 2 O 2 and emerging applications of H 2 O 2 in sustainable oxidation processes. Critical discussions have also been made on the opportunities and challenges with emerging H 2 O 2 based oxidation processes in the production of bulk as well as specialty chemicals.
... As a food, it is known by ancient years, and still nowadays is employed as a sweetener, but more interesting is its very versatile, safe, and low-cost curative aspect [5,6]. Noteworthy is the use of honey as a wound-healing agent, due to the biofilm-removing ability [7][8][9][10][11]. The debridement is a surgical painful procedure that is indispensable to remove biofilm before apply any healing medication [12,13]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The healing of skin wounds and particularly chronic wounds, such as diabetic foot ulcers, is still a clinical emergency. Despite the many therapeutic tools that are available so far, none seems to be really effective and safe. In this context, we highlighted the renewed wound healing activity of honey, a viscous aromatic and sweet food, by way of in vitro wound-healing assays, using the HaCaT cell line. Specifically, we investigated five monofloral or multifloral honeys from different Calabrian provinces using them as such or extracted (by Amberlite® or n-hexane and ethyl acetate). The chemical composition of honeys was ascertained by 1H NMR spectroscopy and by the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Amongst the five tested honeys, BL1 and BL5 honeys showed the most promising healing properties. Pinocembrin, which was revealed in BL1 (multifloral) and BL5 (orange) honey samples, is a flavanol that is already known to possess interesting biological activities, including healing. This study aims to investigate how a traditional food such as honey, which is appreciated for its nutritional value and used in folk medicine, can be enhanced as an effective modern remedial to promote a multifaceted and safe healing activity for all skin wounds.
... and in healing of wounds and ulcers89,90 as an antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral agent.91 In the cosmetic formulations, it exerts emollient, humectant, soothing, and hair conditioning effects, keeps the skin youthful, retards wrinkle formation, regulates pH, and prevents infections by pathogens,92 especially in combination with other materials listed above.93 ...
Article
Full-text available
Skin health is an important aspect of aesthetics. Dermatologists and scientists try to develop novel methods and materials to fulfill this aim. Facial cosmetics keep skin moist and remove sebum from the skin to maintain proper skin health. The use of suitable cosmetics according to the facial skin type results in healthy skin. Facial masks are the most prevalent cosmetic products utilized for skin rejuvenation. Facial masks are divided into four groups: (a) sheet masks; (b) peel‐off masks; (c) rinse‐off masks; and (d) hydrogels. Each of these has some advantages for specific skin types based on the ingredients used. The following article presents the available information about the facial mask. Also, we have focused on the facial masks available in the market. Despite several developments in this field, extensive research is required for performing successful and precise clinical trials in the future. Further improvements would enable the researchers to develop new products in this field. In this review, we present the most recent breakthroughs in the field of skin care and rejuvenation by cosmeceutical facial mask. This information is valuable to get the picture of the latest trends and also helpful for clinicians and related manufacturing companies.
... Honey, RJ, and propolis have multiple uses for skin care and remedies (Burlando and Cornara, 2013;Kurek-Gorecka et al., 2020). Traditional uses of honey in commercial and homemade cosmetics include for skin softening and for unesthetic conditions. ...
Chapter
At the starting of recorded history are descriptions of the uses of bee products as nutraceuticals and as remedies for various maladies. Honey, beeswax, propolis, royal jelly, and bee venom are the most commonly used products. These nutraceuticals are used to improve wellness, in skin care, mouth care, dental surgery, and in the management of wounds, burns, and skin conditions. Bee products have antimicrobial activity and are used in treating Helicobacter pylori, candidiasis, herpes infections, and fungal infections of the skin and genitalia. Bee products are being investigated in ophthalmology as replacements for the prophylactic use of antibiotics, treatment of keratoconjunctivitis, and their use in artificial tears. In reproduction, bee products are used as supplements to increase fertility. They are being investigated to replace antibiotics in semen extenders and for their use in vitrification of embryos. Bee products are being used as a treatment for premenstrual syndrome, mensural distress, reduction of birthing pain, and to reduce the genitourinary syndrome in postmenopausal women. Bee products are being used in the management of complications from antineoplastic treatments and as supplements to reduce fatigue in cancer patients. Bee venom is being investigated for its use in autoimmune diseases, especially osteoarthritis. Individuals can have allergic reactions to bee products. Profit margins on bee products, especially honeys, can be increased by adulterating them with various substances. Environmental contaminants can be present in bee products. Honey can contain phytotoxins. Phytotoxins in nectar are concentrated in the honey-making process. Nutraceuticals are being studied in bees to replace the use of antimicrobial prophylactics. Nutraceuticals and probiotics are being investigated and used to increase the health of bees.
... Preparations of honey have been used since ancient times. It has been demonstrated to provide antimicrobial control by enzymatic release of H 2 O 2 or the presence of active components like methylglyoxal (MGO) [73]. Honey has been shown to have broad spectrum bacteriologic coverage and has been shown to be synergistic with linezolid against S. aureus [74]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose of Review The purpose of this review is to discuss commonly used dressings for burn treatments, including short-acting topicals and long-acting silver dressings. Recent Findings Recent literature supports the use of long-acting silver dressings over traditional daily use topical treatments. Longer acting topical dressings result in less frequent dressing changes, less pain, and greater ease of use, but have similar results in wound healing and infection prevention. Summary There are many topical agents on the market for use on burn wounds. Short-acting topicals can be divided into 3 generalized classes: antiseptics, antimicrobials, and enzymatic debridement agents. Longer acting applied dressings include silver-bonded nylon and fiber (Silverlon® Argentum, Clarendon Hills, IL); multilayer rayon, polyester silver-coated mesh polyethylene (Acticoat™ Smith & Nephew London, UK); silver sodium carboxymethylcellulose (Aquacel® Ag, ConvaTec, Greensboro, NC); silver-containing soft silicone foam (Mepilex® Ag; Mölnlycke Health Care, Gothenburg); soft silicone silver (Mepitel Ag® Mölnlycke Health Care, Gothenburg). Tradition and surgeon preference are major influences on frequency of use. While recent literature supports using long-acting silver-based dressings over short-acting topicals, more research, particularly randomized controlled trials, is needed to provide evidence-based recommendations regarding their use.
... The composition of RJ varies depending on seasonal and regional conditions; it may contain different amount of proteins, lipids, sugars, vitamins and essential amino acids, particularly cystine, lysine and arginine (1). From the healthcare point of view, RJ is considered as an efficient supplement for treatment of diabetes and metabolic syndrome (2), acne (3), and premenstrual syndrome (4). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Royal jelly is an exclusive diet of the queen larvae of honeybee, Apis mellifera, which affect the body size, development time, lifespan and reproductive output of queen relative to workers. The composition of royal jelly is complex with diverse pharmacological activities. In addition to chemical composition of royal jelly, other indirect parameters such as color, viscosity, sugar and protein contents have also been proposed to evaluate quality of royal jelly. Objective and methods: The present study described total phenolic compounds, proteins, and polysaccharide contents of two samples of royal jelly using spectrophotometric methods along with their total lipid, ash and moisture by gravimetric analysis. Results: The results showed that similar amounts of phenol and polysaccharide were present in the commercial and raw samples of royal jelly (phenol; 22.98±0.34 and 21.99±0.41 µg/mg gallic acid equivalent, polysaccharide; 12.67±0.00 and 12.63±0.00%, respectively). Whereas, lipid (12.00±0.00%) and protein (11.57±0.00%) content of raw sample calculated to be significantly higher compared to those of the commercial sample but the commercial sample has a higher moisture than raw specimen (61.03±0.00 and 59.01±0.00%, respectively. The similar amounts of ash were analyzed in the tested samples. Discussion: Although, the content of analyzed components were differ in analyzed sample, both of them contain comparable amounts of desired compounds. Therefore, Iranian raw sample of royal jelly could be a suitable source to produce commercial preparations. Keywords: Royal jelly,physicochemical properties,spectrophotometry,protein content,polysaccharide content
... Kai kurie medaus produktai, naudojami žaizdoms gydyti, ir kosmetikos gaminiai 66 taip pat veiksmingas pleiskanoms, nagų grybeliui, hemorojui ir psoriazei gydyti (Burlando ir Cornara, 2013). Nustatyta, kad iš moterų, turinčių ikivėžinių gimdos kaklelio pažeidimų, tris mėnesius medumi tepusių makštį ir gimdos kaklelį, 95 % pacienčių tepinėliai atitiko normą. ...
... It has a neuroprotective effect, it supports the functioning of the circulatory system, 1,2 and it helps with respiratory system disorders 3 and skin problems. 4 It is a product with complex chemical content, of which 80% is sugar. Most of the sugar, about 90%, includes glucose and fructose, which are easily assimilated monosaccharides. ...
Article
Full-text available
Honey is the most popular bee product consumed by humans. It is known for its nutritional properties and health benefits, which include neuroprotective effects, the support of the circulatory system, and a beneficial influence on skin and respiratory system disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of water temperature used for the preparation of honey solutions on fluoride (F) content. The study material included buckwheat honey, black locust honey, and two varieties of rapeseed honey. Honey solutions (10%) were prepared using distilled water with the following temperatures: 25°C, 70°C, 80°C, and 90°C. The content of F was between 0.019 and 0.384 mg/L. The buckwheat honey solutions had higher F concentrations than those prepared from black locust honey and rapeseed honey. The F content was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the buckwheat honey solution prepared with water at a temperature of 80ºC compared to the buckwheat honey solutions prepared at 25ºC, 70ºC, and 90ºC.
... L. Wei, et al. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 264 (2021) 113096 be monitored back to the earliest civilizations (Burlando and Cornara, 2013) and was reported to be used for a variety of diseases including asthma, throat infections, thirst, fatigue, hepatitis and constipation in traditional medicine (Samarghandian et al., 2017). In this study honey may have helped to dissolve the active ingredients from the extracts of the rhubarb powder and to facilitate its absorption through the thin skin layer of the navel into the paraumbilical small veins. ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Constipation is a functional gastrointestinal disorder and one of the most prevalent conditions encountered in primary care settings. Rhubarb navel dressings have been used for more than 2,000 years in Chinese medicine to treat constipation. However, the effect of topical rhubarb administration has still not been well recognized and this strategy is not yet established as an evidence-based approach. Aim of the study: In this study, we performed a prospective multicentric randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of rhubarb navel plasters for patients with chronic constipation. Materials and methods A total of 374 patients from six teaching hospitals were prospectively included between 09/2016 and 10/2017 in the study based on Rome III criteria. All participants were randomly assigned (1:1) into verum/placebo group and given either Rheum officinale rhubarb powder or a placebo flour stick on the navel for 6 h/day/8 days. Primary outcome measures were the Cleveland Constipation Score (CCS) for the feces condition and Bristol Stool Scale (BSS) for stool consistency and 24 h defecation frequency. Results The groups demonstrated no statistical differences in demographic data, clinical diagnoses and concomitant medication at baseline. In patients treated with the verum CCS was 5.61 (day 8, 95% CI 5.15–6.07) compared to 8.62 (95% CI 8.07–9.18) in placebo-treated controls (P < 0.001). The mean change of CCS at the end of treatment (day 8 versus [vs] day 0) was 6.04 in verum-treated vs 2.73 in placebo-treated controls (P < 0.001). Also 24 h defecation frequency (BSS) showed superior results (day 5: 0.84 vs 0.62, 95% CI 0.67–0.80, P < 0.001; day 6: 0.82 vs 0.60, 95% CI 0.64–0.78, P < 0.01 and day 8: 0.82 vs 0.60, 95% CI 0.64–0.78, P < 0.01) and better BSS type classification during treatment than controls (P < 0.05). No significant differences in adverse events between both groups became obvious. Conclusion Rhubarb navel plaster administration over an 8-day-treatment period resulted in significantly improved bowel function as demonstrated by the CCS, 24 h defecating frequency and BSS. Our results suggest that rhubarb navel plasters represent a feasible, safe and efficient application route for the treatment of patients suffering from chronic constipation.
... Honey has many health benefits. It has a neuroprotective effect, it supports the functioning of the circulatory system [16,21], and it helps in the case of respiratory system disorders [12] and skin problems [7]. It is a product with complex chemical content, of which 80% is sugar. ...
Article
Full-text available
Honey is the most popular bee product consumed by humans. It is known for its nutritional properties and health benefits, which include neuroprotective effects, the support of the circulatory system, and the beneficial influence it has on skin and respiratory system disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of water temperature used for the preparation of honey solutions on their antioxidant potential. Material and methods. The study material included buckwheat honey, black locust honey, and rape honey. Honey solutions (1%) were prepared using distilled water with the temperatures: 25°C, 70°C, 80°C, and 90°C. The antioxidant activity of samples was measured with spectrophotometric method using synthetic radical DPPH. The antioxidant activity of honey was between 0.29 to 78.50% of DPPH inhibition, depending on the type of honey and the temperature of water used for the preparation of solutions. Buckwheat honey was characterised by the highest antioxidant potential. A significant, directly proportional correlation was observed between the antioxidant potential and the temperature of buckwheat and rape II honey solutions. In the case of buckwheat honey, rape honey I and black locust honey, the highest antioxidant potential was achieved in solutions prepared using distilled water at 90°C, whereas in the case of rape honey II, the highest values were observed at 80°C and 90°C. The lowest inhibition of the DPPH radical was observed in solutions at 70°C in all of the honey types. In the case of the studied honeys, it is even advisable to prepare water solutions at 80°C or 90°C in order to increase its antioxidant potential, e.g. by adding honey to tea or milk.
... To demonstrate the robustness of our nanofiber-based interface, we selected honey as a new and more complex electron donor than those tested up to now in MFCs. The use of honey by humans traces back to ancient times, and today honey is a crucial ingredient in several products ranging from foods to beverages, as well as in medical products and cosmetics [32,33]. Honey can be classified as a natural sweetener with a complex composition [34]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are bio-electrochemical devices able to directly transduce chemical energy, entrapped in an organic mass named fuel, into electrical energy through the metabolic activity of specific bacteria. During the last years, the employment of bio-electrochemical devices to study the wastewater derived from the food industry has attracted great interest from the scientific community. In the present work, we demonstrate the capability of exoelectrogenic bacteria used in MFCs to catalyze the oxidation reaction of honey, employed as a fuel. With the main aim to increase the proliferation of microorganisms onto the anode, engineered electrodes are proposed. Polymeric nanofibers, based on polyethylene oxide (PEO-NFs), were directly electrospun onto carbon-based material (carbon paper, CP) to obtain an optimized composite anode. The crucial role played by the CP/PEO-NFs anodes was confirmed by the increased proliferation of microorganisms compared to that reached on bare CP anodes, used as a reference material. A parameter named recovered energy (Erec) was introduced to determine the capability of bacteria to oxidize honey and was compared with the Erec obtained when sodium acetate was used as a fuel. CP/PEO-NFs anodes allowed achieving an Erec three times higher than the one reached with a bare carbon-based anode.
... 39,40 Published data suggest that honey is suitable as a remedy for skin conditions including wounds and burns. 41,42 Apart from bioactives including amino acids, vitamins, minerals, and phenolics, some honey, for example, Manuka honey, has been reported to contain MGO, which partially contributes to its antimicrobial activity. 43 To date, the skin protective effects of maple syrup, a plant derived natural sweetener, are unknown. ...
Article
Introduction Reactive carbonyl species including methylglyoxal (MGO) are oxidation metabolites of glucose and precursors of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). They are important mediators of cellular oxidative stress and exacerbate skin complications. Published data supports that certain phenolic compounds can exert cellular protective effects by their antioxidant activity. A phenolic‐enriched maple syrup extract (MSX) was previously reported to show protective effects against AGEs‐ and MGO‐induced cytotoxicity in human colon cells but its skin protective effects remain unknown. Objective The protective effects of MSX were evaluated against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)‐ and MGO‐induced cytotoxicity in human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells). Methods Cellular viability and antioxidant activity were evaluated by the luminescent cell viability CellTiter‐Glo® assay and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay, respectively. A single‐cell gel electrophoresis (Comet assay) was used to measure the strand breaks in the DNA of HaCaT cells. Results MSX (at 50 μg/mL) ameliorated H2O2‐ and MGO‐induced cytotoxicity by increasing cell viability by 21.5 and 25.9%, respectively. MSX reduced H2O2‐ and MGO‐induced ROS production by 69.4 and 56.6%, respectively. MSX also reduced MGO‐induced DNA damage by 47.5%. Conclusion MSX showed protective effects against H2O2‐ and MGO‐induced cytotoxicity in HaCaT cells supporting its potential for dermatological and/or cosmeceutical applications. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Honey-based cosmetic products include cleansing milks, lip ointments, hydrating creams, body lotions, facial creams shampoos and conditioners, balms, masks and ointments after bathing. In cosmetics, it exerts emollient, soothing, humectants, hair conditioning effects, retains the skin juvenile and hinders wrinkle formation and prevents pathogen infection [121,122] . Some honey based lipsticks are created for lip treatments and shampoo with honey is considered as it acts like a moisturizer for hair fiber [121,123] . ...
Article
Full-text available
The natural honey is one of the most valued and appreciated nutraceutical known to mankind since ancient times. It is produced by bees from the nectar of flowers, which bees collect, transform and, store in the honey comb to ripen and mature. It is used for functional food, medicinal and industrial purposes and has been listed as remarkable commodity in the foreign exchange. This review spotlights the physical, biochemical and therapeutic properties of honey, which were discovered by various researchers since last forty years. The review broadly discusses composition, nutritional and therapeutic, and Yogavahi properties of honey. The relation of ophthalmology and Honey was also included along with cosmetic properties of honey. Its effectiveness on reproductive system and safety measures to be followed while using honey showed the path of future research. It is composed mainly from carbohydrates, lesser amounts of water and many minor components. It is rich in enzymes, phenolic acids, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, organic acids, amino acids, proteins and minerals. The knowledge about physicochemical parameters determines nutritional value, microbial safety, acceptability and commercial quality assessment of honey.
Article
Herbs in cosmeceuticals have been exploring segment in skin and personal care industry. Commonly used herbs in cosmeceuticals are Aloe vera, borage, calendula, chamomile, comfrey, cucumber, dandelion, elderflower, fennel, ivy, lady's mantle, lavender, lemon, marshmallow, orange flower, peppermint, rose, rosemary, sage, thyme and yarrow. They provide healing, softening, soothing, astringent and moisturizing effect. This review explored some important herbs i.e. saffron, amla, raw honey, banana, neem, aloe vera, palash, garlic and papaya which have been used for skin treatment in cosmetic industry. Macroscopically characters, chemical constituents, cultivation and collection, uses and benefits of these herbs have been detailed.
Chapter
Nowadays the use of hair products to modify the look has become unavoidable. Hair products like shampoos, hairstyling gels, straight iron, curling iron etc. induce damage to the hair follicle as well as the hair shaft making them brittle, dry and causing split ends. One way of treating this is to stop the use of these harmful hair products or another way is to restore hair shine and softness by replenishing the lost/damaged sebum and keratin from the hair. This can be done with the use of conditioners. In this chapter few natural sources which can be used as hair conditioners along with their chemistry are described.
Chapter
Apitherapy is a branch of complementary and alternative medicine that uses naturally derived bee products, such as honey, propolis, and bee venom, for their potential health benefits. Historical uses of these agents date back centuries and can be found embedded in the traditions of many cultures and groups. While the mechanism behind each of these products is still poorly understood, a unified theme of antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties appears to exist. Given their increasing popularity for skin care, many studies are currently investigating the use of bee products in common skin conditions. Although additional research and evidence is needed, it appears there is some potential application for use of these products in the treatment of acne and rosacea. In this chapter, we provide a brief review of the current literature discussing the efficacy of bee products, how they compare to today’s standard medical therapeutic options, as well as discuss potential side effects, risks, and harms that one ought to be aware of when using these agents.
Article
Full-text available
La disminución en el número de colmenas de Apis mellifera en diversos países de la Unión Europea y en los Estados Unidos ha preocupado a apicultores, agricultores, ambientalistas, gobiernos y empresas transnacionales. Entre los factores considerados se encuentran: una nutrición deficiente de las abejas, a suplementos artificiales y en menor grado a una disminución de la abundancia y diversidad de flores en las especies de plantas silvestres todo lo cual hace a las abejas susceptibles a enfermedades causadas por virus, bacterias y microsporidios los cuales, a su vez, son considerados cofactores del Desorden del Colapso de las Colonias (DCC). Asimismo, se ha señalado que los ácaros como Acarapis woodi y Varroa destructor pueden ser causantes del DCC al alimentarse de la hemolinfa de las larvas y adultos disminuyendo así sus defensas y favoreciendo la proliferación de enfermedades infecciosas. Otra hipótesis señala un debilitamiento general en las poblaciones de abejas debido a la baja diversidad genética por la producción de grandes cantidades de colonias a partir de un conjunto restringido de abejas reinas y a la inseminación artificial de las mismas. Pero de entre todos los factores señalados, los pesticidas, principalmente los llamados neonicotinoides, son considerados como una de las principales causas de la desaparición de las abejas a nivel mundial en los últimos años. En el presente artículo examinamos la evidencia existente acerca de los efectos de estas sustancias químicas sobre la supervivencia de las más de 20 000 especies conocidas de abejas cultivadas y silvestres. ABSTRACT The decline in the number of hives of Apis mellifera in many countries of the European Union and the United States has worried beekeepers, farmers, environmentalists, governments and corporations. Among the factors considered are: poor nutrition of bees, artificial supplements and to a lesser extent to a decrease in the abundance and diversity of flowers in the wild plant species all of which makes bees susceptible to diseases caused by viruses, bacteria and microsporidia which, in turn, are considered cofactors for the Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD). It also noted that the mites as Acarapis woodi and Varroa destructor may be causing the CCD by feeding on the hemolymph of larvae and adults thus lowering their defenses and favoring the spread of infectious diseases. Another hypothesis points to a general weakening in bee populations due to low genetic diversity by producing large amounts of colonies from a restricted set of queen bees and artificial insemination of the same. But of all the above factors, pesticides, primarily the so-called neonicotinoids, are considered as one of the main causes of the disappearance of bees worldwide in recent years. In this article we examine the evidence about
Article
Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is linked to the development of the majority of peptic ulcers and some types of gastric cancers, and its antibiotic resistance is currently found worldwide. Objective: This study is aimed at evaluating the anti-H. pylori activity of Korean acacia honey and isolating the related active components using organic solvents. Material and methods: The crude acacia honey was extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and n-butanol. The EtOAc extract was subjected to octadecyl-silica chromatography. The extracts and fractions were then examined for anti-H. pylori activity using the agar well diffusion method. The antimicrobial activity of abscisic acid against H. pylori was investigated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), and by performing a time-kill assay. Results: Abscisic acid related to the botanical origins of acacia honey from Korea has been analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. The MICs and MBCs of abscisic acid were 2.7 ± 1.3 and 6.9 ± 1.9 μg/mL, respectively. The bactericidal activity of abscisic acid (at 10.8 μg/mL corresponding to 4 × MIC) killed the organism within 36-72 h. These results suggest that abscisic acid isolated from Korean acacia honey has antibacterial activity against H. pylori. Conclusion: Abscisic acid isolated from Korean acacia honey can be therapeutic and may be further exploited as a potential lead candidate for the development of treatments for H. pylori-induced infections. Summary: The crude acacia honey was extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, EtOAc, and n-butanolThe EtOAc extract yielded eight fractions and four subfractions were subsequently obtained chromatographicallyAbscisic acid was isolated from one subfractionAll the solvent extracts and fractions showed antibacterial activity against H. pyloriAbscisic acid exhibited antibacterial activity against H. pylori. Abbreviations used: MeOH: Methanol; EtOAc: Ethyl acetate; TSB: Trypticase soy broth; MIC: Minimum inhibitory concentration; MBC: Minimum bactericidal concentration; CFU: Colony-forming units; UPLC: Ultra-performance liquid chromatography; DAD: Diode array detector; UV: Ultraviolet; ODS: Octadecyl-silica; MS: Mass spectrometry; SE: Standard error.
Article
Full-text available
The above- and belowground impacts due to Acacia invasions have been described in detail over the last 25 years. Future research should focus on the earlyd etection and prevention of new Acacia introductions and on a cost-effective and sustainable management of the novel ecosystems resulting from invasions.
Article
Full-text available
Medical properties and applications of honey in Aulus Cornelius Celsus' De medicina libri VIII): The medical application of honey has a long tradition. In antiquity it was used as a potent substance with dietary and medicinal attributes. Based on Celsus' texts we know that the ancient Romans used honey primarily in treating skin conditions, including inflammations such as Erysipelas, wounds, all types of ulcers and eye diseases. Celsus mentioned honey in numerous formulas, but he did not distinguish between its types or the ways in which it was obtained. More attention was paid to such matters in the following centuries. This can be observed by analysing the formulas included in the works of younger authors.
Article
Skin properties are influenced by both external (e.g., ultraviolet [UV], chemicals, and bacteria) and internal factors (e.g., nutrition and hormones). Therefore, some dietary supplements are expected to improve skin conditions. Glucono-δ-lactone (GDL) is widely used as a food additive and is naturally present in wine, honey, and other foods. The aim of this study was to assess whether GDL improves skin condition and inflammation. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 40 healthy Japanese male volunteers were randomly assigned to either the GDL (2000 mg day⁻¹) or placebo group. A significant difference was found in the rates of change in transepidermal water loss (TEWL) from the baseline to 6 months between the placebo and GDL groups (P < 0.05). Facial lightness (L*) significantly increased by 1.6% only in the GDL group at 6 months compared with the baseline. The value of the elasticity parameter, Ua/Uf, of dietary GDL significantly increased (6.2% at 2 months and 5.4% at 6 months). Besides these, dietary GDL suppressed UVB-induced erythema (a*) and pigmentation (L*). Dietary GDL has anti-inflammatory effects on the skin and prevents/improves skin disorders caused by seasonal change.
Chapter
Honey is the material made by mixing of nectar and sweet deposits from plants and later on modified by honey bees. Honey is one of the most appreciated and valued natural products introduced to humankind since ancient times. Honey is a nutritional material that is traditionally known for its medicinal properties. Honey is used as a traditional medicine in treating various clinical ailments from wound healing to cancer apart from being used as a nutritional product. In dermatology, honey is used in the treatment of eczema, ulcers, wounds, atopic dermatitis (AD), allergies, and much more due to its antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory properties. In conclusion, honey could be considered as a natural therapeutic agent for various medicinal purposes. Sufficient evidences recommend the use of honey in the management of disease conditions especially skin- related disorders. Based on these facts, the use of honey in clinical wards is highly recommended. However, more rigorous scientific studies are needed to confirm its benefits in health care settings especially in the field of dermatology.
Chapter
Honey has been and is being used for medical, pharmaceutical, and domestic needs. Besides, it is used as a conventional medicine and has various pharmacological properties. A variety of polyphenolic compounds are stated in honey and among them important polyphenols are Caffeic acid (CA), Quercetin (QU), Chrysin (CR), Kaempferol (KF), Apigenin (AP), Galangin (GA), Acacetin (AC), Caffeic acid phenyl ester (CAPE), Pinocembrin (PC), and Pinobanksin (PB) that have evolved as potential pharmacokinetic agents in the cure of cancer. Caffeic acid, a naturally occurring phenolic compound commonly found in honey, is being comprehensively studied for its therapeutic use and is being described as a cancer-causing agent in preliminary studies, but the same compound in combination with other antioxidants has been revealed to repress colon tumors in rats. CAPE was similarly proposed to have anticarcinogenic, antimitogenic, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory potential. In a related progressive study, influence of CA against UVB (280–320 nm) irradiation-induced IL10 appearance and stimulation of MAPKs (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases) in skin of mouse was observed. The findings strongly propose that chrysin exercises growth inhibitory properties either by prompting p38 MAPK leading to buildup of p21Waf1/Cip-1 protein or by arbitrating the repression of proteosome action. It is also a well-established fact that chrysin prompts cell death in association with stimulation of caspase-3 and Akt signal corridor, which plays a vital role in chrysin-incited cell death in U937 cells. Galangin and its antiproliferative outcome on HL-60 cells was expressed in a manner that is dependent on dose, and it also prompted DNA breakage without any loss of integrity of cell membrane. Similarly, quercetin was also shown in an in vitro study to impede HL-60 cell propagation in association with repression of cytosolic PKC (Protein Kinase C) and TPK (tyrosine protein kinase) membrane bound. Acacetin, another important flavonoid, was revealed to impede the propagation of A549 cells, prompt apoptosis, and block cell cycle promotion at G1 cell cycle phase and also heightened the appearance of p53 protein and Fas ligands. Besides was also depicted to impede HepG2 cell propagation and incite cell death by boosting p53 protein and Fas ligands as in case of A-549 cells. Kaempferol-mediated cell death in H-460 cells was complemented by substantial DNA coiling/condensation and amassing ATP content. Besides, it altered the levels of Caspase-3 and AIF (Apoptosis-Inducing Factor). Pinocembrin has been shown to induce loss of MMP (mitochondrial membrane potential) with further release of cytochrome c and processing of caspase 3 and 9 in colon HCT116 cancer cells. Apigenin has been shown to exert antiproliferative influence against colon, breast, neuroblastoma, cervical, and liver cancer cell lines. The chapter has clearly put forth certain honey-based compounds that have been tested in laboratory setups and have been revealed to be hopeful pharmacological agent for hindering cancer propagation.
Article
Medical properties and applications of honey in Aulus Cornelius Celsus' De medicina libri VIII): The medical application of honey has a long tradition. In antiquity it was used as a potent substance with dietary and medicinal attributes. Based on Celsus' texts we know that the ancient Romans used honey primarily in treating skin conditions, including inflammations such as Erysipelas, wounds, all types of ulcers and eye diseases. Celsus mentioned honey in numerous formulas, but he did not distinguish between its types or the ways in which it was obtained. More attention was paid to such matters in the following centuries. This can be observed by analysing the formulas included in the works of younger authors.
Article
The nectar of Camellia reticulata Lindl. contains sugar, amino acids and other nutritional components, suggesting that it could be developed for food and food additives. To understand the effects of the nectar on human health, we investigated its chemical constituents. Two new flavonoid glycosides, cameretiins A and B (1 and 2), and two known flavonoid glycosides, kaempferol 3-O-(2''-O-E-p-coumaroyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (3) and tiliroside (4) were obtained from the nectar of Camellia reticulata Lindl. Their structures were determined based on analysis of their spectroscopic data and by comparison with 1D NMR spectroscopic data of known compounds reported in the literature. Compounds (1-4) were first isolated from the nectar of Camellia reticulata Lindl.
Article
Full-text available
Honey is used as a common breakfast item all over the world. Honey is also used in cooking and baking, is used as a spread on breads and is added to beverages such as tea, or as a sweetener in commercial beverages. In Nepal, there is a fancy for the use of wild honey. Honey is also used in weight reduction. Studies reported elsewhere pinpoint that wild honey is poisonous. This poisoning is well known from ancient times, right from the time of Xenophon. This wild honey is derived from the flowers of Rhododendrons (the national flower of Nepal). Honey consumption toxicity was noted in a few medical students who were treated and the current paper describes the outcome and the cause of toxicity.
Article
Full-text available
Since ancient times woman have turned to the beautifies of nature to help or increase their own beauty. Even today, people especially in rural areas depend upon plants for traditional cosmetics. The research work is confined to herbal cosmetics with special reference of local communities of district Northern Pakistan. Through questionnaires, study was conducted in 20 villages of district Attock to collect information from local people for preparation, use of herbal cosmetics and their conservation. Indigenous data on 40 herbal recipes were collected from respondent informants. A total of 40 plant species belonging to 38 genera and 34 families were used in herbal cosmetics. Local communities, especially woman heavily use these herbal cosmetics for their beauty and believe that these are easily available, less expensive, and have no side effects.
Article
Full-text available
This review is concerned with analytical methods to prove the authenticity of honey. A special emphasis is put on suitable methods for the detection of the geographical and botanical origin of honey. Whereas the determination of some single parameters, such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), moisture, enzyme activity, nitrogen, mono- and disaccharides, and residues from medicinal treatment or pesticides in honey does not lead to any information about the botanical and geographical origin, there are some suitable methods based on the analysis of specific components or on multi-component analysis. Mostly, such methods give indications of the botanical origin, investigating flavonoids patterns, distribution of pollen, aroma compounds and special marker compounds. There are some other profiles of components which could probably be used for the detection of the geographical origin (e.g. oligosaccharides, amino acids, trace elements). In particular, the combination of methods could be a promising approach to prove authenticity, especially when modern statistical data evaluation techniques will be applied.
Article
Full-text available
Honeybees (“bjt”) and their products honey and wax played an important role in Ancient Egypt. The bee became the symbol of the Pharaoh of Lower Egypt and a royal hieroglyph. Honey and wax were used for many purposes in daily life, as votive offering or as salary.Microcalorimetric experiments on bees of various ages or occupations and different castes as well as social effects among them are presented. Calorimetric curves are investigated for temporal structures indicating locomotor activities of the animals. Moreover, adult animals of the domesticated “usual” European honey bee Apis mellifera carnica are compared with those of the (modern) Egyptian bee Apis mellifera lamarckii.Differential scanning calorimetry and combustion bomb calorimetry have been applied to pollen, to honeys of various origins (lime-tree, pine, rape) or of intended purposes (royal jelly, hoarded food), to propolis and to different types of beeswax (comb wax from various places in the stock, wax from uncapping, wax for queen cells and commercial waxes).
Article
Full-text available
Honey is recognized traditionally for its medicinal properties and also appreciated as a topical healing agent for infected and noninfected wounds. This study evaluates impact of honey-based occlusive dressing on nonhealing (nonresponding to conventional antibiotics) traumatic lower limb wounds (n = 34) through clinicopathological and immunohistochemical (e.g., expression of p63, E-cadherin, and Collagen I and III) evaluations to enrich the scientific validation. Clinical findings noted the nonadherence of honey dressing with remarkable chemical debridement and healing progression within 11-15 days of postintervention. Histopathologically, in comparison to preintervention biopsies, the postintervention tissues of wound peripheries demonstrated gradual normalization of epithelial and connective tissue features with significant changes in p63(+) epithelial cell population, reappearance of membranous E-cadherin (P < .0001), and optimum deposition of collagen I and III (P < .0001). Thus, the present study for the first time reports the impact of honey on vital protein expressions in epithelial and connective tissues during repair of nonhealing lower limb wounds.
Article
Full-text available
The widespread existence of unhealed wounds, ulcers, and burns has a great impact on public health and economy. Many interventions, including new medications and technologies, are being used to help achieve significant wound healing and to eliminate infections. Therefore, to find an intervention that has both therapeutic effect on the healing process and the ability to kill microbes is of great value. Honey is a natural product that has been recently introduced in modern medical practice. Honey's antibacterial properties and its effects on wound healing have been thoroughly investigated. Laboratory studies and clinical trials have shown that honey is an effective broad-spectrum antibacterial agent. This paper reviews data that support the effectiveness of natural honey in wound healing and its ability to sterilize infected wounds. Studies on the therapeutic effects of honey collected in different geographical areas on skin wounds, skin and gastric ulcers, and burns are reviewed and mechanisms of action are discussed. (Ulcers and burns are included as an example of challenging wounds.) The data show that the wound healing properties of honey include stimulation of tissue growth, enhanced epithelialization, and minimized scar formation. These effects are ascribed to honey's acidity, hydrogen peroxide content, osmotic effect, nutritional and antioxidant contents, stimulation of immunity, and to unidentified compounds. Prostaglandins and nitric oxide play a major role in inflammation, microbial killing, and the healing process. Honey was found to lower prostaglandin levels and elevate nitric oxide end products. These properties might help to explain some biological and therapeutic properties of honey, particularly as an antibacterial agent or wound healer. The data presented here demonstrate that honeys from different geographical areas have considerable therapeutic effects on chronic wounds, ulcers, and burns. The results encourage the use of honey in clinical practice as a natural and safe wound healer.
Article
Full-text available
The results of an ethnobotanical study conducted in the pristine village of ProkoÅko Lake (Vranica Mountain, Bosnia and Herzegovina) in summer 2007 is presented. Informal interviews involving 12 informants known as âtraditional healersâ provided data from 43 plants used in 82 prescriptions. The applied plants were used for a broad spectrum of indications. The most frequent were gastro-intestinal tract ailments, blood system disorders, skin ailments, respiratory tract ailments and urinary-genital tract ailments. The most frequent preparation was an infusion. Other often used preparations were ointments or balms and decocts. The special Bosnian balms known as âmehlemsâ were prepared from freshly chopped or freshly pressed herbal parts of various plant species. Warmed resins from Abies or Picea species, raw cow or pig lard, olive oil and honey served as basis. The traditional doctors, who usually worked as a team, enjoyed such a good reputation that people from all over the country were visiting in search of alternative ways to cure their ailments and diseases. The practical techniques applied by the healers and some of their attitudes and values are reported.
Article
Full-text available
Honey has been used since ancient times as a remedy in wound healing. However, even though the results from randomized clinical trials document that honey accelerates wound healing, no study dealing with its influence on human skin cells (epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblast) has been performed. We demonstrate that keratinocytes, which are known to be involved in wound healing, are responsible for elevated production of mediators including cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and TGF-beta) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) after incubation with honey. Real-time PCR was performed for the quantification of mRNA level of selected cytokines and MMP-9. Furthermore, we show that the increased level of MMP-9 in the epidermis following incubation with honey leads to degradation of type IV collagen in the basement membrane. These data indisputably demonstrate that honey activates keratinocytes and support the findings that honey may accelerate wound healing process.
Article
Full-text available
Royal jelly is widely consumed in the community and has perceived benefits ranging from promoting growth in children and improvement of general health status to enhancement of longevity for the elderly. However, royal jelly consumption has been linked to contact dermatitis, acute asthma, anaphylaxis and death. High prevalence of positive skin tests to royal jelly have been reported among atopic populations in countries with a high rate of royal jelly consumption. The present study is aimed to identify the major allergens of royal jelly. Royal jelly extract was separated by sodium dodecyl polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-D). Immunoblotting of the SDS-PAGE and 2-D profiles were performed to identify the allergenic spots. Spots were then excised from the 2-D gel, digested with trypsin and analyzed by mass spectrometry. The SDS-PAGE of royal jelly extract revealed 18 bands between 10 to 167 kD. Western blot of the fractionated proteins detected 15 IgE-binding bands between 14 to 127 kD with seven major allergens of 32, 40, 42, 49, 55, 60 and 67 kD using serum from 53 subjects with royal jelly allergy. The 2-D gel fractionated the royal jelly proteins to more than 50 different protein spots. Out of these, 30 spots demonstrated specific IgE affinity to the sera tested. Eight spots of the major royal jelly allergens were selected for mass-spectrometry analysis. Digested tryptic peptides of the spots were compared to the amino acid sequence search in protein databases which identified the fragments of royal jelly homologus to major royal jelly protein 1 (MRJ1) and major royal jelly protein 2 (MRJ2). In conclusion, the major allergens of royal jelly are MRJ1 and MRJ2 in our patients' population.
Chapter
The story of cosmetics and perfumery forms a continuous narrative throughout the history of man, developing as he developed. The origins are associated with fighting, hunting, religion and superstition; later with medicine; then, as knowledge increased, becoming dissociated from medicine and allied to pharmacy. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries books omitting cosmetics and devoted to perfumery were printed; interestingly, the study and preparation of essential oils developed separately in the wine, cordial and beverage industry with the beginnings of the science of distillation, in the sixteenth century. Today cosmetic, perfumery and essential oil industries exist with technologies of their own. The scientific bases of these are supported by the many new researches in chemistry and especially in the biochemistry of the skin and bodily functions.
Chapter
This chapter will consider the preservation of cosmetics and toiletries by the control of microbial growth, where the following definitions apply:
Article
Botulism is caused by a neurotoxin produced from the anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Botulism in humans is usually caused by toxin types A, B, and E. Since 1973, a median of 24 cases of foodborne botulism, 3 cases of wound botulism, and 71 cases of infant botulism have been reported annually to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). New vehicles for transmission have emerged in recent decades, and wound botulism associated with black tar heroin has increased dramatically since 1994. Recently, the potential terrorist use of botulinum toxin has become an important concern. Botulism is characterized by symmetric, descending, flaccid paralysis of motor and autonomic nerves, usually beginning with the cranial nerves.Blurred vision, dysphagia, and dysarthria are common initial complaints. The diagnosis of botulism is based on compatible clinical findings; history of exposure to suspect foods; and supportive ancillary testing to rule out other causes of neurologic dysfunction that mimic botulism, such as stroke, the Guillain-Barre syndrome, and myasthenia gravis. Laboratory confirmation of suspected cases is performed at the CDC and some state laboratories. Treatment includes supportive care and trivalent equine antitoxin, which reduces mortality if administered early. The CDC releases botulism antitoxin through an emergency distribution system. Although rare, botulism outbreaks are a public health emergency that require rapid recognition to prevent additional cases and to effectively treat patients. Because clinicians are the first to treat patients in any type of botulism outbreak, they must know how to recognize, diagnose, and treat this rare but potentially lethal disease.
Article
Thermal processing of honey eliminates the microorganisms responsible for spoilage. Microwave heating, infrared heating, ultrasound processing, and membrane processing have been explored as alternatives to conventional heat processing. Microwave heating provides a rapid method for achieving the desired level of yeast reduction with reduced thermal damage. Infrared heating is not as rapid as microwave heating but desired results are achieved in a relatively shorter duration (3 to 4 minutes) compared to the conventional method. Membrane processing is an athermal process and very effective in the complete removal of yeast cells from honey. Microfiltration and ultrafiltration could be employed to produce enzyme-enriched honey besides clarified honey.
Article
This review discusses the processing techniques proposed for the production of dried and intermediate moisture honey products, as well as their properties. Stickiness is the major problem in the drying of sugar rich products like honey, that depend on the type of sugar and temperature of operation, which are related to the glass transition temperature. Some additives are usually added to the sugary feed to increase the glass transition temperature and concurrently the sticky point temperature. In the case of honey-fruit spreads, nutritional and sensory characteristics can be enhanced by replacing part of sugar with honey. Co-crystallization of honey with sucrose could be used to preserve the honey flavor. These diversified honey products provide better taste and nutrition to the consumer besides enhancing the utilization of honey.
Article
Some components responsible for the exceptionally high antibacterial activity of manuka honey were isolated by testing fractions of the honey for activity against Staphylococcus aureus. An ethanol-ether extract of the honey was separated by preparative-layer chromatography and the fractions thus obtained were assessed for antibacterial activity. One fairly homogeneous fraction was identified as methyl 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxybenzoate (methyl syringate, 1b). Combined gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy indicated the presence of this compound in some of the other antibacterial fractions together with methyl 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate (1c) and 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid (1a). Authentic specimens of 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (syringic acid, 1d) and 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid (1a) and their methyl esters were tested against S. aureus. The acids and, to a lesser extent, methyl syringate were found to possess significant antibacterial activity.
Article
This review covers the general area of disease and problems such as malaria, bacterial and fungal infections, free radical damage and the decline in the immune system. After a brief history of ethnopharmacology, we discuss the scientific approaches that have been used in the screening of medicinal plants and identify some African medicinal plants that are used successfully in the treatment of these diseases. It is evident that African medicinal plants are continuously being screened for their pharmacological properties and many interesting results with crude extracts have occasionally been obtained through the isolation and identification of the active principles. However, as a source of new drugs, African medicinal plants are understudied, considering the high percentage of plants not yet screened for their biochemical composition or for their pharmacological properties.
Article
Background: Phenolic compound profiles of 20 honeys of different botanical origin (eucalyptus, citrus, chestnut and linden) were obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection after solid phase extraction, in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the fingerprint method for monofloral honey discrimination. Results: A total of 58 peaks were detected at λ = 280 nm. Distinctive phenolic compound profiles were obtained in which both the nature and the relative amount of the detected compounds were characteristic for different botanical source honeys. In order to detect sample groupings, chromatographic peak areas were submitted to principal component analysis. Then linear discriminant analysis was carried out on the first three principal components. In addition, linear discriminant analysis was carried out on the 58 variables, allowing the selection of five variables able to discriminate honeys of different botanical origin. Conclusion: The chemometric evaluation of the phenolic compound profiles yielded classification models able to group honey samples according to their floral source with an excellent degree of agreement. The main advantage of the fingerprint approach with respect to traditional methods is that it does not require time-consuming identification and quantification of the analytes. The method proved to be effective for the assessment of honey authenticity.
Article
Honey has been used since ancient times for wound repair, but the subjacent mechanisms are almost unknown. We have tried to elucidate the modulatory role of honey in an in vitro model of HaCaT keratinocyte re-epithelialization by using acacia, buckwheat, and manuka honeys. Scratch wound and migration assays showed similar increases of re-epithelialization rates and chemoattractant effects in the presence of different types of honey (0.1%, v/v). However, the use of kinase and calcium inhibitors suggested the occurrence of different mechanisms. All honeys activated cyclin-dependent kinase 2, focal adhesion kinase, and rasGAP SH3 binding protein 1. However, vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein, integrin-β3, cdc25C, and p42/44 mitogen activated protein kinase showed variable activation pattern. Re-epithelialization recapitulates traits of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the induction of this process was evaluated by a polymerase chain reaction array, revealing marked differences among honeys. Manuka induced few significant changes in the expression of EMT-regulatory genes, while the other two honeys acted on a wider number of genes and partially showed a common profile of up- and down-regulation. In conclusion, our findings have shown that honey-driven wound repair goes through the activation of keratinocyte re-epithelialization, but the ability of inducing EMT varies sensibly among honeys, according to their botanical origin.
Article
In the current healthcare environment, clinicians are increasingly under pressure to use wound care products that are cost effective. This includes products that can be used in a variety of wounds to achieve different outcomes, depending on the wound-bed requirements. Medical-grade honey has emerged as a product that can achieve a variety of outcomes within the wound and is safe and easy to use. This article reviews the use of a medical-grade honey, with a view to including it on the wound care formulary in both primary and secondary care. It featured in a poster presentation at the Wounds UK conference at Harrogate in 2011.
Article
Honey has been reported to have antifungal activity and so was tested against clinical isolates of the common dermatophyte species which cause tineas in man. A honey with an average level of hydrogen peroxide, and a manuka (Leptospermum scoparium J. R. and G. Forst, family Myrtaceae) honey with an average level of non-peroxide antibacterial activity were used. An agar well diffusion assay was used, the contents of the wells being replaced with freshly prepared honey solutions at 24-h intervals over the 3–4 days of incubation.The lowest concentrations (% v/v, in steps of 5%) of manuka honey with catalase added to remove hydrogen peroxide, and of the other honey (without catalase) showed that inhibition of growth around the wells were, respectively, Epidermophyton floccosum 25%, 10%; Microsporum canis 25%, 15%; Microsporum gypseum 55%, 20%; Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale 45%, 15%; Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes 25%, 15%; Trichophyton rubrum 20%, 5% and Trichophyton tonsurans 25%, 20%. No inhibitory activity was detected with the other honey at 50% (v/v) with catalase added.The results of this investigation show that the common dermatophytes are sensitive to the antimicrobial activity of honey, indicating that clinical evaluation of honey in the treatment of tineas is warranted. This would determine whether the hydrogen peroxide or the non-peroxide antifungal agent diffuses better into the skin.
Article
Total polyphenols, flavonoids and antioxidant power of raw honey samples from two of the most common Italian varieties, i.e., Millefiori and Acacia, were evaluated. Phenolic content, expressed as caffeic acid equivalents, ranged from 12.5 to 17.5 mg/100 g and from 3 to 11 mg/100 g in Millefiori and Acacia honeys, respectively. All Millefiori samples exhibited the highest flavonoid concentration being between 1.23 and 2.93 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/100 g honey. Total flavonoids in 100 g Acacia honeys were in the range of 0.45–1.01 mg CE. Acacia honeys had lower total antioxidant power, as assessed by ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay, than Millefiori. The relationship between phenolic content and antioxidant power was discussed. Comparative experimental analysis was performed with an artificial honey and processed honeys. Raw Millefiori honey is rich in both amount and variety of antioxidant substances, and its inclusion in the diet may be recommended to complement other polyphenol sources.
Article
In this article I intend to elucidate the extent to which medieval western Jewish and Christian women shared customs, knowledge and practices regarding health care, a sphere which has been historically considered as part of women's daily domestic tasks. My study aims to identify female agency in medical care, as well as women's interaction across religious lines, by analysing elusive sources, such as medical literature on women's health care, and by collating the information they provide with data obtained from other textual and visual records. By searching specific evidence of the dialogues that must have occurred between Christian and Jewish women in transmitting their knowledge and experiences, I put forward the idea (developed from earlier work by Montserrat Cabré i Pairet) that medical texts with no clear attribution can be used as sources to reconstruct women's authoritative knowledge.
Article
The wound-healing properties of honey are well established and it has been suggested that, among its pharmaco-active constituents, kynurenic acid (KA) exerts antinociceptive action on injured tissue by antagonizing NMDA at peripheral GABA receptors. The aim of this study was to investigate the quantitative profile of KA and of two recently identified, structurally related derivatives, 3-pyrrolidinyl-kynurenic acid (3-PKA) and its γ-lactamic derivative (γ-LACT-3-PKA), by examining their mass spectrometric behavior, in honeys from different botanical sources. We used a combination of HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS and NMR techniques (one-dimensional 1H NMR and diffusion-ordered spectroscopy NMR).Chestnut honey constantly contained KA (2114.9–23 g/kg), 3-PKA (482.8–80 mg/kg) and γ-LACT-3-PKA (845.8–32 mg/kg), confirming their reliability as markers of origin. A new metabolite, 4-quinolone (4-QUIN), was identified for the first time in one chestnut honey sample (743.4 mg/kg). Small amounts of KA were found in honeydew, sunflower, multifloral, almond and eucalyptus honeys, in the range of 23.1–143 mg/kg, suggesting contamination with chestnut honey. Total phenol content (TPC) was in the range from 194.9 to 1636.3 mgGAE/kg and total antiradical activity (TAA) from 61 to 940 mg/GAE/kg), depending on the botanical origin.Principal component analysis (PCA) was then done on these data. The three different clusters depicted: (i) antinociceptive activity from KA and/or its derivatives, typical of chestnut honey; (ii) antioxidant/radical scavenging activity by antioxidants responsible for the antiinflammatory action (dark honeys); (iii) peroxide-dependent antibacterial activity due to H2O2 production by glucose oxidase in honey.The PCA findings provide useful indications for the dermatologist for the treatment of topical diseases, and the profiling of KA and its derivatives may shed light on new aspects of the kynurenine pathway involved in tryptophan metabolism.
Article
An ethnopharmaceutical study focused on domestic cosmetics, cosmeceuticals, and remedies to heal skin diseases traditionally used in the inland part of the Marches region (Central-Eastern Italy) has been conducted. At present, traditional knowledge concerning home-made phytocosmetics is represented by both the remnants of an orally transmitted folk heritage and also by new forms of knowledge, sometimes coming from popular phytotherapeutical books and the mass media (out of the scope of this survey), but also as a result of recent migration trends from Eastern Europe. We recorded approximately 135 cosmetic or cosmeceutical preparations prepared from more than 70 botanical species and a very few animal or mineral ingredients. Among the recorded preparations, developing a clear distinction amongst cosmetics, cosmeceuticals and pharmaceuticals for skin diseases is very problematic, confirming that in folk knowledge systems medicinal products for healing skin diseases and cosmetics have often been perceived as two poles of a continuum. Many of the quoted species represented well-known medicinal plants of the European phytotherapy, although we also recorded a few unusual plant taxa, which are briefly discussed under the perspective of their eventual phytochemical and/or phytopharmacological potentialities. Exotic drugs or precious essences, even native of the Mediterranean, were not quoted as ingredients for preparing perfumes and fragrances by the interviewees of the present study, thus indicating that popular cosmetic practices in rural Central Italy have taken a much separated path away from the cosmetic "know-how" of the aristocracy and high bourgeois classes of the last centuries.
Article
Honey has been used as a medicine since ancient times in many cultures and is still used in ‘folk medicine’. The use of honey as a therapeutic substance has been rediscovered by the medical profession in more recent times, and it is gaining acceptance as an antibacterial agent for the treatment of ulcers and bed sores, and other infections resulting from burns and wounds. In many of the cases in the cited reports, honey was used on infections not responding to standard effective in rapidly clearing up infection and promoting healing. Honey has also been found to be effective in treating bacterial gastoentertis in infants. This is the published version of an article published in the journal: Bee World. Used with permission.
Article
Au moins 500 espèces de plantes ont été utilisées comme remèdes traditionnels en Lituanie. Cette abondance de drogues végétales s'explique par les grandes ressources et la biodiversité de la flore lituanienne ainsi que par la richesse des traditions due à la diversité du peuplement. De nos jours, il est possible de trouver beaucoup de plantes médicinales vendues au marché de Vilnius (Wilno). Nombre d'entre elles ont des usages alimentaires et thérapeutiques. Nous avons mené des recherches sur le terrain (interviews de guérisseurs locaux, herboristes et autres, dans la région de Wilno) et entrepris des investigations botaniques et bibliographiques sur les plantes locales médicinales et alimentaires. Ces recherches ont permis de constater qu'un bon nombre de ces plantes suscitent actuellement un grand intérêt en raison des propriétés pharmacologiques qui leur ont été reconnues. Dans cet article sont présentés des exemples de plantes médicinales intéressantes et dignes d'attention, avec leurs usages et leurs indications. Parmi ces espèces, beaucoup semblent être des drogues de valeur, prometteuses dans le traitement de certains maux dits "de civilisation", ainsi que l'alcoolisme et les toxicomanies. Des remèdes végétaux tirés de la médecine traditionnelle pourraient aussi être utilisés dans les soins de santé primaire. (Résumé d'auteur)
Article
This paper describes the design of an emulsion cream, obtained from a self-emulsifying base, to which lavender honey has been added. Physical, galenic and stability studies and assays, and rheological analyses, are used to describe the qualities and properties of the honeyed cream under study. The formula is presented as an ivory-coloured cream with a light lavender scent and agreeable organoleptic characteristics. From a rheological viewpoint this is very adequate for spreading and applying onto the skin because of its thixotropic behaviour. The emulsion is stable and perfectly adaptable to the requirements of this type of skin application.
Article
This paper is a report of a study to compare a medical grade honey with conventional treatments on the healing rates of wounds healing by secondary intention. There is an increasing body of evidence to support the use of honey to treat wounds, but there is a lack of robust randomized trials on which clinicians can base their clinical judgement. A sample of 105 patients were involved in a single centre, open-label randomized controlled trial in which patients received either a conventional wound dressing or honey. Data were collected between September 2004 and May 2007. The median time to healing in the honey group was 100 days compared with 140 days in the control group. The healing rate at 12 weeks was equal to 46.2% in the honey group compared with 34.0% in the conventional group, and the difference in the healing rates (95% confidence interval, CI) at 12 weeks between the two groups was 12.2% (-13.6%, 37.9%). The unadjusted hazard ratio (95% CI) from a Cox regression was equal to 1.30 (0.77, 2.19), P = 0.321. When the treatment effect was adjusted for confounding factors (sex, wound type, age and wound area at start of treatment), the hazard ratio increased to 1.51 but was again not statistically significant. Wound area at start of treatment and sex are both highly statistically significant predictors of time to healing. These results support the proposition that there are clinical benefits from using honey in wound care, but further research is needed.
Article
To synthesise the evidence regarding honey's role in health care and to identify whether this evidence applies more specifically to cancer care. Systematic review. The inclusion and exclusion criteria were agreed by two reviewers and a keyword strategy was developed. EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, MEDLINE, COCHRANE and PUBMED databases were screened to identify suitable articles. The citation list from each included study was also screened for potentially suitable papers. The key findings from each study were entered onto a data extraction sheet. In total, 43 studies were included in the systematic review, which included studies in relation to wounds (n = 19), burns (n = 11), skin (n = 3), cancer (n = 5) and others (n = 5). In addition, a systematic review regarding honey use in wound care was also included. While the majority of studies noted the efficacy of honey in clinical use, five studies found honey to be equally as effective as the comparator and three found honey to be less effective than the comparator treatment. Other research did not illustrate any significant difference between standard treatment regimes vs. honey treatment. Studies were generally poor in quality because of small sample sizes, lack of randomisation and absence of blinding. Honey was found to be a suitable alternative for wound healing, burns and various skin conditions and to potentially have a role within cancer care. In the cancer setting, honey may be used for radiation-induced mucositis, radiotherapy-induced skin reactions, hand and foot skin reactions in chemotherapy patients and for oral cavity and external surgical wounds.
Article
The antimicrobial spectrum of honey was investigated by placing two drops into each of the wells made on culture media on which pure cultures of various organisms obtained from surgical specimens were grown. The organisms were grown under both aerobic and anaerobic environments. Fungal cultures of common fungi causing surgical infections or wound contaminations were mixed with 100%, 50% and 20% unprocessed honey. Growth inhibition was complete in the media containing 100%, partial in media containing 50% and no inhibition was produced by 20% honey. Unprocessed honey inhibited most of the fungi and bacteria causing wound infection and surgical infection except Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Clostridium oedematiens. Apart from Streptococcus pyogenes which is only moderately inhibited, golden syrup, a sugar syrup with similar physical properties as honey, did not inhibit any of the bacteria or fungi tested, demonstrating that honey is superior to any hypertonic sugar solution in antimicrobial activity. Honey is thus an ideal topical wound dressing agent in surgical infections, burns and wound infections.
Article
To identify the allergenic components of honey we studied 22 patients with a history of systemic allergic symptoms following honey ingestion. The group of honey-allergic patients was compared with three control groups: 10 subjects sensitized to artemisia, 10 with honey bee venom allergy and 10 without a history of atopy or bee sting reactions. The allergological tests included skin tests and RAST with three different kinds of Swiss honey (dandelion, forest and rape), pollen of compositae species, celery tuber, extract of bee pharyngeal glands, honey bee venom and bee whole body extract. The results show that 3/4 of honey-allergics are sensitive to dandelion honey and 13 of 22 also to compositae pollen. Nine of the honey allergic patients were sensitized to honey bee venom, 3 also to bee pharyngeal glands and to bee whole body extract. Analysis of diagnostic tests and RAST inhibition studies suggest that besides compositae pollen other allergens, most likely of bee origin are important. In honey allergics primary sensitization may be due either to the honey itself, to airborne compositae pollen or even to cross-reacting bee venom components.
Article
The susceptibility of 72 isolates of Candida albicans to the antimicrobial honey distillate fraction (HY-1) and several antimycotic agents is presented. All the isolates were sensitive to HY-1, H-115 and Jadit, while about 10% of the isolates were variably resistant to nystatin, miconazole nitrate and clotrimazole. The nystatin, miconazole nitrate and clotrimazole resistant isolates were inhibited by HY-1.
Article
A woman who had ingested honeybee royal jelly as a nutrient, showed an exacerbation of dermatitis when it was applied to her feet. A topical fungicide also aggravated her skin lesions. Patch testing showed positive reactions to the royal jelly, pyrrolnitrin in the fungicide and urushiol. Positive reactions to the royal jelly were found in 2 out of 10 controls, 1 of whom was sensitive to propolis.
Article
We challenged in a double-blind manner 46 pollen-allergic patients with 30 g of honey and another 32 patients with a placebo (30 g of syrup). Minor, mostly subjective, symptoms were seen in or reported by 26% of those challenged with honey and 41% of those challenged with placebo. In no case could the symptoms with certainty be related to the challenge. Eight commercially available honeys were examined for allergen activity by RAST inhibition and immunospot methods. Both pollen and insect allergen activity was found in all honeys, and they could cause allergic reactions. However, no serious or even obvious reaction occurred in pollen-allergic patients challenged with honey.
Article
Botulism is caused by a neurotoxin produced from the anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Botulism in humans is usually caused by toxin types A, B, and E. Since 1973, a median of 24 cases of foodborne botulism, 3 cases of wound botulism, and 71 cases of infant botulism have been reported annually to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). New vehicles for transmission have emerged in recent decades, and wound botulism associated with black tar heroin has increased dramatically since 1994. Recently, the potential terrorist use of botulinum toxin has become an important concern. Botulism is characterized by symmetric, descending, flaccid paralysis of motor and autonomic nerves, usually beginning with the cranial nerves. Blurred vision, dysphagia, and dysarthria are common initial complaints. The diagnosis of botulism is based on compatible clinical findings; history of exposure to suspect foods; and supportive ancillary testing to rule out other causes of neurologic dysfunction that mimic botulism, such as stroke, the Guillain-Barré syndrome, and myasthenia gravis. Laboratory confirmation of suspected cases is performed at the CDC and some state laboratories. Treatment includes supportive care and trivalent equine antitoxin, which reduces mortality if administered early. The CDC releases botulism antitoxin through an emergency distribution system. Although rare, botulism outbreaks are a public health emergency that require rapid recognition to prevent additional cases and to effectively treat patients. Because clinicians are the first to treat patients in any type of botulism outbreak, they must know how to recognize, diagnose, and treat this rare but potentially lethal disease.
Article
We have designed, elaborated and studied a dermopharmaceutical form formulated on the basis of a modern self-emulsifying excipient and rosemary honey (known as Miel de La Alcarria--Spain--according to the Governing Council), in order to obtain a hight degree of cutaneous hydratation. The formulation is typified and characterized from a pharmacotechnical and rheological points of view. In this sense, the experimental protocol has emphasized rheological essays which give relevant practical information. Also, we have performed a complete study of it physical and structural stability, and, lastly, we evaluated the dermopharmaceutical effectiveness. The work plan included the following tests: 1) Pharmacotechnical Essays--organoleptic characteristics, photomicrograh study, type of interposition, pH-determination, rheological and thixotropic study and physical stability tests; 2) Dermopharmaceutical Effectiveness Assays--Corneometric and Sebumetric measurements. From the results, we have deduced that the emulsified binary system that is proposed, stable from a physical and structural points of view, presents confirmed properties and a very good cosmetological adequation. In this sense, our emulsion presents a high degree of moisturizing/emollient power that qualifies it not only as a magnificent eudermic dermopharmaceutical form, but also as a very appropriate vehicle for Dermopharmaceutical and/or Dermatological Formulation.
Article
Honeys from different floral sources were evaluated for their antioxidant content and for their ability to inhibit enzymatic browning in fruits and vegetables. Antioxidant contents of honeys vary widely from different floral sources, as do their abilities to protect against enzymatic browning. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity was reduced over a range of approximately 2-45% in fruit and vegetable homogenates, corresponding to a reduction in browning index by 2.5-12 units. Soy honey was particularly effective when compared to clover honey, which had a similar antioxidant content. When compared to commercial inhibitors of browning, honeys were less effective; however, in combination they added to the effectiveness of metabisulfite and ascorbic acid. Honey has great potential to be used as a natural source of antioxidants to reduce the negative effects of PPO browning in fruit and vegetable processing.
Article
There has been a renaissance in recent times in the use of honey, an ancient and traditional wound dressing, for the treatment of wounds, burns, and skin ulcers. In the past decade there have been many reports of case studies, experiments using animal models, and randomized controlled clinical trials that provide a large body of very convincing evidence for its effectiveness, and biomedical research that explains how honey produces such good results. As a dressing on wounds, honey provides a moist healing environment, rapidly clears infection, deodorizes, and reduces inflammation, edema, and exudation. Also, it increases the rate of healing by stimulation of angiogenesis, granulation, and epithelialization, making skin grafting unnecessary and giving excellent cosmetic results.
Article
Little is known about the individual components of honey that are responsible for its antioxidant activity. The present study was carried out to characterize the phenolics and other antioxidants present in honeys from seven floral sources. Chromatograms of the phenolic nonpolar fraction of the honeys indicated that most honeys have similar but quantitatively different phenolic profiles. Many of the flavonoids and phenolic acids identified have been previously described as potent antioxidants. A linear correlation between phenolic content and ORAC activity was demonstrated (R(2) = 0.963, p < 0.0001). Honeys were separated by solid-phase extraction into four fractions for sugar removal and separation based on solubility to identify the relative contribution of each fraction to the antioxidant activity of honey. Antioxidant analysis of the different honey fractions suggested that the water-soluble fraction contained most of the antioxidant components. Specific water-soluble antioxidant components were quantified, including protein; gluconic acid; ascorbic acid; hydroxymethylfuraldehyde; and the combined activities of the enzymes glucose oxidase, catalase and peroxidase. Of these components, a significant correlation could be established only between protein content and ORAC activity (R(2) = 0.674, p = 0.024). In general, the antioxidant capacity of honey appeared to be a result of the combined activity of a wide range of compounds including phenolics, peptides, organic acids, enzymes, Maillard reaction products, and possibly other minor components. The phenolic compounds contributed significantly to the antioxidant capacity of honey but were not solely responsible for it.
Article
Animals and products derived from different organs of their bodies have constituted part of the inventory of medicinal substances used in various cultures since ancient times. This article reviews the history of healing with animals in the Levant (the Land of Israel and parts of present-day Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan, defined by the Muslims in the Middle Ages as Bilad al-Sham) throughout history. Intensive research into the phenomenon of zootherapy in the Levant from early medieval to present-day traditional medicine yielded 99 substances of animal origin which were used medicinally during that long period. Fifty-two animal extracts and products were documented as being used from the early Muslim period (10th century) to the late Ottoman period (19th century). Seventy-seven were recorded as being used in the 20th century. Seven main animal sources have been exploited for medical uses throughout history: honey, wax, adder, beaver testicles, musk oil, coral, and ambergris. The first three are local and relatively easy to obtain; the last four are exotic, therefore, rare and expensive. The use of other materials of animal origin came to an end in the course of history because of change in the moral outlook of modern societies. Among the latter we note mummy, silkworm, stinkbug, scarabees, snail, scorpion, and triton.
Article
The archives of Nantes contain two manuscripts of the XVIIth century from which we found 63 formulae which enter bees, honey and wax. Our study concerns these various galeniques forms for internal use or external used in therapeutics and in beauty care.