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Abstract

Honey is a bee-derived, supersaturated solution composed mainly of fructose and glucose, and containing proteins and amino acids, vitamins, enzymes, minerals, and other minor components. Historical records of honey skin uses date back to the earliest civilizations, showing that honey has been frequently used as a binder or vehicle, but also for its therapeutic virtues. Antimicrobial properties are pivotal in dermatological applications, owing to enzymatic H2 O2 release or the presence of active components, like methylglyoxal in manuka, while medical-grade honey is also available. Honey is particularly suitable as a dressing for wounds and burns and has also been included in treatments against pityriasis, tinea, seborrhea, dandruff, diaper dermatitis, psoriasis, hemorrhoids, and anal fissure. In cosmetic formulations, it exerts emollient, humectant, soothing, and hair conditioning effects, keeps the skin juvenile and retards wrinkle formation, regulates pH and prevents pathogen infections. Honey-based cosmetic products include lip ointments, cleansing milks, hydrating creams, after sun, tonic lotions, shampoos, and conditioners. The used amounts range between 1 and 10%, but concentrations up to 70% can be reached by mixing with oils, gel, and emulsifiers, or polymer entrapment. Intermediate-moisture, dried, and chemically modified honeys are also used. Mechanisms of action on skin cells are deeply conditioned by the botanical sources and include antioxidant activity, the induction of cytokines and matrix metalloproteinase expression, as well as epithelial-mesenchymal transition in wounded epidermis. Future achievements, throwing light on honey chemistry and pharmacological traits, will open the way to new therapeutic approaches and add considerable market value to the product.

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... In various research works, honey may be considered a protector or may relieve skin due to its composition. For the nourishment of the skin, a moisturiser is formulated (Burlando and Cornara, 2013). It is used to increase skin functioning by treating skin dryness (Eady et al., 2013). ...
... They create H+ bridges with H 2 O, which keeps humidity in aroused skin covering and allocates moisturising to the skin. This effect does not come from fructose and glucose levels, also obtained from many other constituents such as amino acid C 5 H 9 NO 2 , in addition to it, 'arginine, alanine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, lysine, glycine and leucine (amino acid) or largely gluconic acid and, to a certain extent, lactic, citric, succinic, formic, malic, acetic, malic and oxalic acids' (organic acid) which increase the effect of 'glucose' or 'fructose' to keep the skin hydrated (Burlando and Cornara, 2013). ...
... It is hence proved that 'shampoo' and 'conditioners' having hone has useful results to maintain hairs (Paus and Cotsarelis, 1999). The major usefulness of honey is sticking into hair completely, which makes hair shiny and soft (Burlando and Cornara, 2013). There are various useful properties of honey having medicinal use also because of its 'antimicrobial effect'. ...
... More often the concentration of honey in cosmetics is up to 10%. Higher concentrations (up to 70%) are obtained by dispersing in oils, gels or polymer entrapment [40]. ...
... Honey inhibits the growth of bacteria and fungi by reducing their development on the skin surface. Honey is particularly suitable as a dressing for wounds and burns, and has also been included in treatments against pityriasis, tinea, seborrhea, dandruff, diaper dermatitis, psoriasis, hemorrhoids, and anal fissure [40]. Pinocembrin and lysozyme are responsible for antifungal properties. ...
... Honey is used in balms and bath products because of its toning, relaxing, conditioning effects related to the high content of simple sugars, the presence of essential oils, and bioelements [53]. Due to the presence of flavonoids, honey can also play an important role in sun protection by preventing skin irritation [40]. ...
Article
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Honey, propolis, bee pollen, bee bread, royal jelly, beeswax and bee venom are natural products which have been used in medicine since ancient times. Nowadays, studies indicate that natural bee products can be used for skin treatment and care. Biological properties of these products are related to flavonoids they contain like: chrysin, apigenin, kaempferol, quercetin, galangin, pinocembrin or naringenin. Several pharmacological activities of phenolic acids and flavonoids, and also 10-hydroxy-trans-2-decenoic acid, which is present in royal jelly, have been reported. Royal jelly has multitude of pharmacological activities: antibiotic, antiinflammatory, antiallergenic, tonic and antiaging. Honey, propolis and pollen are used to heal burn wounds, and they possess numerous functional properties such as: antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, disinfectant, antifungal and antiviral. Beeswax is used for production of cosmetics and ointments in pharmacy. Due to a large number of biological activities, bee products could be considered as important ingredients in medicines and cosmetics applied to skin.
... They have prebiotic properties, much like that of fructo-oligosaccharides. The oligosaccharides had been mentioned in reports to cause rise in population of some beneficial bacteria like bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, which are in charge of keeping up a sound intestinal microflora in human beings [18,19]. In actuality, Lactobacillus spp. ...
... A strong correlation has been reported between the antioxidant activity and its total phenolic contents, including between antioxidant activity and the color of honey. The antioxidant activity according to many researchers may be located in both the water and ether fractions, which shows that the flavonoid contents of honey might be accessible to different compartments of the human body, wherein they may exert diverse physiological impacts [19,36,40]. ...
... Also of importance to note are the productions of highly inflammatory substances such as exotoxins (α, β, γ, and δ cytolysins) and enterotoxins (SEA to SEE), which may play the role of superantigens as well as worsen the ongoing inflammation. Due to challenges in the management of the disease, natural remedies are opted for by many patients, and the topical use of honey on the lesions showed overall improvement in their symptoms [19,55]. ...
... Thuja orientalis extracts were also shown to have antiviral efficacy, specifically anti-influenza activity, inducing improved cell viability following influenza infection in an in vitro model [86]. Thuja orientalis displays antioxidant properties [87] in addition to protective capabilities against dermatologic conditions, including atopic dermatitis, through anti-inflammatory activity [106]. These anti-inflammatory properties have also been shown to be beneficial in reducing inflammation of the airway in an asthmatic murine model [88]. ...
... Firstly, honey has been growing in popularity as an effective wound healing agent [103]. In addition to moisturizing and hydration of healing wounds, honey also carries anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antiseptic effects, all critical to wound healing processes [106]. In addition, honey has been shown to have involvement in cellular pathways that increase expression of tissue repair mediators and keratinocyte proliferation [106]. ...
... In addition to moisturizing and hydration of healing wounds, honey also carries anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antiseptic effects, all critical to wound healing processes [106]. In addition, honey has been shown to have involvement in cellular pathways that increase expression of tissue repair mediators and keratinocyte proliferation [106]. Honey has also been shown to have protective benefits in the treatment of acne, by reducing aqueous availability of water in the skin and thus preventing microbial growth [107]. ...
Article
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Background: The impact that hair loss has on an individual's psychological wellness, and subsequent quality of life, is widespread and long lasting. The current standard treatments for hair loss include surgery and medications, ranging from over-the-counter treatments to corticosteroid injections and immunosuppressants. Unfortunately, these current treatments are either expensive, invasive, or have extremely negative side effects. Recently, the role of vitamins, minerals, and functional foods with their associated bioactive compounds, have gained increasing recognition as a potential means to address this issue. Some of these compounds have been shown to decrease the risk of specific forms of hair loss, particularly alopecia, a form of balding that results due from an autoimmune disorder. These include experimental studies using black raspberry extract and egg yolks as well as epidemiological studies using Mediterranean diets and various micronutrients. Other compounds have been shown to promote hair growth on a more general scale, including in vivo studies using rice bran extract and mouse models using red ginseng oil and annurca apple polyphenols. This review identifies key hair growth promoting vitamins, minerals, and functional foods, as well as summarizes the relevant mechanisms of action of these compounds that have been elucidated. Knowledge regarding the effects of these nutriceuticals on reducing hair loss is rapidly expanding. However, it is imperative that further research be done in order to delineate mechanisms of actions for all compounds related to managing and treating hair loss and subsequently integrate these dietary modifications into clinical treatment recommendations for hair loss.Keywords: Hair loss, alopecia, berry extract, mediterranean diet, rice bran, ginseng, annurca apple, thuja orientalis, marine supplement, honey, egg yolk, functional foods, bioactive compounds
... Higher concentrations (up to 70%) can be used for combinations of honey with oils, gelling agents, and emulsifiers or in face masks [5,6]. Honey is also used as an alternative to traditional emulsifiers in body lotions for bathing and shampooing, where they make up 50% to 50% surfactants [7]. ...
... The development of bee products for dermal applications may take different directions in the future. Burlando and Cornara [7] see one way in ethnopharmaceuticals surveys focused on significant biological properties in the extraordinary variety of mono-and polyfloral honeys. Another possibility is to carry out chemical and biological research focused on the chemical composition of honey and its pharmacological efficacy, thus opening the way to new medical procedures supporting human health [13]. ...
... This creates a protective non-greasy film on the skin to help maintain water in the skin [18]. Burlando and Cornara [7] in their review extend this knowledge to the influence of other substances present such as amino acids and organic acids, which can supplement the natural moisturizing factors of the horny layer. It is known that the biological properties of a certain type of honey are determined by the nectar-producing plants; therefore, botanical resources are of great importance in cosmetics [19]. ...
Article
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Honey, honey extracts, and bee products belong to traditionally used bioactive molecules in many areas. The aim of the study was primarily to evaluate the effect of cosmetic matrices containing honey and bee products on the skin. The study is complemented by a questionnaire survey on the knowledge and awareness of the effects and potential uses of bee products. The effect of bee molecules at various concentrations was observed by applying 12 formulations to the skin of the volar side of the forearm by non-invasive bioengineering methods on a set of 24 volunteers for 48 h. Very good moisturizing properties have been found in matrices with the glycerin extract of honey. Matrices containing forest honey had better moisturizing effects than those containing flower honey. Barrier properties were enhanced by gradual absorption, especially in formulations with both glycerin and aqueous honey extract. The observed organoleptic properties of the matrices assessed by sensory analysis through 12 evaluators did not show statistically significant differences except for color and spreadability. There are differences in the ability to hydrate the skin, reduce the loss of epidermal water, and affect the pH of the skin surface, including the organoleptic properties between honey and bee product matrices according to their type and concentration.
... These properties are shown in Figure 2. The beneficial properties of honey help restore skin wounds and reduce scabs, minimize contractures and scars in burns, leaving very thin scars (Subrahmanyam, 2007;Tan et al., 2012). Honey components such as hydrogen peroxide promote re-epithelialization, collagen synthesis, capillary formation (Molan, 2001;Rossiter et al., 2010;Nakajima et al., 2013;Boekema et al., 2013;Al-Jadi et al., 2014 show that honey acts as a tissue repairer promotes "angiogenesis, granulation, and epithelialization, stimulates lymphocytes and phagocytes, induces the expression of molecular markers for tissue repair and the activation of keratinocytes" (Burlando & Cornara, 2013). Table 2 characterizes the properties of honey. ...
... The topical use of honey for the treatment of burns and other wounds reflects that it is a safe, non-toxic product to also be applied as a dressing on wounds (García Felipe, 2019). There is no known information on allergies or glycemia alterations in patients with diabetes mellitus, since allergy to honey is rare in people, being its topical use ico advisable (Burlando & Cornara, 2013). Skin debridement Its physical and skin debridement properties, due to its high viscosity, generate a moist environment and a barrier in the wound that promotes the healing of burns that heal better in these environments (Kaneko, 2015), ensuring the growth of new epithelial cells that do not suffer rupture due to the approach of the fibroblasts to the wound, without causing pain when eliminating the eschar and necrotic tissues caused by the burn (Molan, 2011). ...
... For its production, worker bee's foragers collect it in its third pair of hind legs from the stamens of the flowers and later deposit it in the cells of the hive's breeding chamber, then the nurse bees compact it to prepare a slurry with honey and saliva known as bee bread that constitutes the food of the larvae for their growth in the hive (Bucaccio, 1996). It is an energizer used as a supplement in sports (Burlando & Cornara, 2013). Pollen proteins used in the manufacture of honey-based cosmetic products can cause sensitivity to allergic people (Dussart, 2007). ...
Article
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The study aimed to characterize the therapeutic benefits of honey and other beehive products to determine the feasibility of rural beekeeping production; The research was carried out in 30 apiaries of peasant communities in 7 cantons of the province of Manabí, namely: Portoviejo, Rocafuerte, Bolívar, Santa Ana, Montecristi, Chone and Pichincha; an intentional sampling was applied, the qualitative-quantitative approach, a non-experimental descriptive design; For data collection, the survey technique was applied to beekeepers, the analytical method to perform the analysis of the results of the applied survey. As a result of the bibliographic review, multiple therapeutic benefits of honey, pollen, propolis, apitoxin, royal jelly were obtained, among which their immunomodulatory, antiviral, antimicrobial, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, healing properties, among others specific to each product, stand out. The feasibility of the rural beekeeping activity was determined through the cost-benefit analysis whose indicator of 1.95 showed that it is profitable. It was concluded that honey and other products from the hive contribute to preventing, strengthening, and improving the ability to respond to various diseases that afflict human beings, and as a productive activity, it is feasible to implement it to generate income for families.
... They have prebiotic properties, much like that of fructo-oligosaccharides. The oligosaccharides had been mentioned in reports to cause rise in population of some beneficial bacteria like bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, which are in charge of keeping up a sound intestinal microflora in human beings [18,19]. In actuality, Lactobacillus spp. ...
... A strong correlation has been reported between the antioxidant activity and its total phenolic contents, including between antioxidant activity and the color of honey. The antioxidant activity according to many researchers may be located in both the water and ether fractions, which shows that the flavonoid contents of honey might be accessible to different compartments of the human body, wherein they may exert diverse physiological impacts [19,36,40]. ...
... Also of importance to note are the productions of highly inflammatory substances such as exotoxins (α, β, γ, and δ cytolysins) and enterotoxins (SEA to SEE), which may play the role of superantigens as well as worsen the ongoing inflammation. Due to challenges in the management of the disease, natural remedies are opted for by many patients, and the topical use of honey on the lesions showed overall improvement in their symptoms [19,55]. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Honey has been used traditionally for ages to treat infectious diseases. These amazing properties of honey are complex as a result of the involvement of various bioactive compounds. Honey is becoming sustainable as a reputable and effective therapeutic agent to practitioners of conventional medicine and to the general public. Its beneficial role has been endorsed due to its antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflam-matory, and antioxidant activities as well as boosting of the immune system. Also, other medical conditions discussed here which can be treated with honey include but not limited to diarrhea, gastric ulcer, canine recurrent dermatitis, diabetics, tumor, and arthritis, and honey can also be used for skin disinfection and wound healing. Most of the known factors that give honey these properties include its acidity, high sugar, hydrogen peroxide, and other non-peroxide properties. Some factors may affect the therapeutic properties of honey such as exposure to heat and light.
... The Ebers' papyrus of 1550 BC enlists 147 honey-containing prescriptions for use in baldness, abscesses, as a dressing material after surgery, for resolving inflammation, and also to mobilize frozen joints (Kuropatnicki et al., 2018). The Roman poet Ovid (43 BC-18 AD) mentioned face packs containing honey in his work Medicamina faciei feminae (Burlando and Cornara, 2013). Egyptians also used honey as an embalming fluid. ...
... Egyptians also used honey as an embalming fluid. Famously, King Alexander the Great (356-323 BC) was placed in a coffin filled with honey before being transported to his homeland (Burlando and Cornara, 2013). ...
... 14 th -17 th century), and Victorian-era (approximately 1837-1901), honey was popular as a hair dye, moisturizer, and face mask. Particularly, the noblewomen in the Victorian era were prohibited from using most cosmetics, however, honey was partly permissible (Burlando and Cornara, 2013). As a sweetener, honey remained widely-used upto 1800 AD, when its popularity started declining consequent to the industrial production of sugar (Bogdanov et al., 2008). ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Honey is one of the most popular functional foods, speculated to be in use since the advent of human civilization. Its health-protective activity is endorsed by many religions and traditional medicines. In Unani medicine, honey is prescribed for many health conditions as wound-healing, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, etc. In the present era, honey is gaining popularity over sugar for its myriad health benefits and low glycemic index. This review attempts to provide a comprehensive account of the biological activities and potential therapeutic uses of honey, with scientific evidence. Methodology In this paper, we have provided a comprehensive overview of historical uses, types, physical characteristics, bioactive constituents and pharmacological activities of honey. The information was gathered from Classical Unani textbooks and leading scientific databases. There is a plethora of information regarding various therapeutic activities of honey, and it is daunting to draw practical conclusions. Hence, in this paper, we have tried to summarize those aspects which are most relevant to clinical application. Observations and conclusions Many important bioactive constituents are identified in different honey types, e.g. phenolics, proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, organic acids, etc., which exert important biological activities like anti-microbial, wound healing, immunomodulatory, anti-toxin, antioxidant, and many others. Honey has the potential to alleviate many lifestyle disorders, mitigate the adverse effects of drugs and toxins, and also provide healthy nutrition. Although conclusive clinical evidence is not available, yet honey may potentially be a safer alternative to sucrose for diabetic patients.
... The use of hydrogels based on natural saccharides and disaccharides, such as honey and sucrose can increase mechanical strength, biocompatibility, and water uptake of the wound dressing [11,12]. Honey as natural substances has been traditionally used to stimulate wound regeneration and has pharmacological characteristics, including antioxidant, anti-microbial, and anti-inflammatory effects [13][14][15][16]. The combination of PVA and honey (H/PVA) interestingly has been used in the wound; however, development of a wound dressing of H/PVA hybrid hydrogel is difficult, due to structural instability and low mechanical strength of hydrogel. ...
... Hydrogen peroxide with its insulin-like properties in honey is released slowly into the wound bed and induced cell proliferation, leading to angiogenesis in the wound bed [24]. On the other hand, honey with antioxidant activity prevents the generation of free radicals, and accelerate the inflammation phase [13,15]. Our result indicated that H/PVA when combined with erythromycin, not only promotes antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity in wound dressings but also demonstrates the high levels of vascularization and promotes fibroblast proliferation. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Skin wounds are a significant public health risk, and treatment of wound remains a challenging clinical problem for medical teams and researchers.Materials and Methods: In the present study, we aimed to investigate the healing effects of honey/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel loaded with erythromycin as wound dressing on skin wounds in rats, based on histological studies. In this study, 60 male Wistar rats, with a 1.5 ×1.5 cm2 diameter full-thickness wounds on the backs were divided into four groups: honey/PVA with the erythromycin hydrogel group, honey group, PVA group, and the control group, with no treatment. Skin biopsies were prepared at days 4, 7, and 14 for microscopic analyses. The stereological analysis, including the mean area of the wound, length of vessels, numerical density of fibroblast, macrophage, basal cell and volume of the epidermis, dermis, and fibrous tissue were performed. Result: Wounds area in the honey/PVA hydrogel with the erythromycin group were significantly (P<0.05) smaller than in the other group. The numerical density of fibroblast, macrophage, basal cell and volume of the epidermis in the honey/PVA hydrogel with the erythromycin group were significantly higher than other groups.Conclusion: According to our results, honey/PVA hydrogel with erythromycin may promote early wound healing and has a positive influence on fibroblast proliferation and re-epithelialization, and its administration is recommended after further validation of clinical data.[GMJ. 2019;8:e1362]
... The use of hydrogels based on natural saccharides and disaccharides, such as honey and sucrose can increase mechanical strength, biocompatibility, and water uptake of the wound dressing [11,12]. Honey as natural substances has been traditionally used to stimulate wound regeneration and has pharmacological characteristics, including antioxidant, anti-microbial, and anti-inflammatory effects [13][14][15][16]. The combination of PVA and honey (H/PVA) interestingly has been used in the wound; however, development of a wound dressing of H/PVA hybrid hydrogel is difficult, due to structural instability and low mechanical strength of hydrogel. ...
... Hydrogen peroxide with its insulin-like properties in honey is released slowly into the wound bed and induced cell proliferation, leading to angiogenesis in the wound bed [24]. On the other hand, honey with antioxidant activity prevents the generation of free radicals, and accelerate the inflammation phase [13,15]. Our result indicated that H/PVA when combined with erythromycin, not only promotes antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity in wound dressings but also demonstrates the high levels of vascularization and promotes fibroblast proliferation. ...
Article
Background: Skin wounds are a significant public health risk, and treatment of wound remains a challenging clinical problem for medical teams and researchers. Materials and methods: In the present study, we aimed to investigate the healing effects of honey/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel loaded with erythromycin as wound dressing on skin wounds in rats, based on histological studies. In this study, 60 male Wistar rats, with a 1.5 ×1.5 cm2 diameter full-thickness wounds on the backs were divided into four groups: honey/PVA with the erythromycin hydrogel group, honey group, PVA group, and the control group, with no treatment. Skin biopsies were prepared at days 4, 7, and 14 for microscopic analyses. The stereological analysis, including the mean area of the wound, length of vessels, numerical density of fibroblast, macrophage, basal cell and volume of the epidermis, dermis, and fibrous tissue were performed. Results: Wounds area in the honey/PVA hydrogel with the erythromycin group were significantly (P<0.05) smaller than in the other group. The numerical density of fibroblast, macrophage, basal cell and volume of the epidermis in the honey/PVA hydrogel with the erythromycin group were significantly higher than other groups. Conclusion: According to our results, honey/PVA hydrogel with erythromycin may promote early wound healing and has a positive influence on fibroblast proliferation and re-epithelialization, and its administration is recommended after further validation of clinical data.
... Honey Extract Propolis Extract antimicrobial and immunomodulatory effect, antioxidant capacity, wound healing (stimulates angiogenesis, granulation, epithelialization, TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α) production, increasing collagen and fibroblasts synthesis), emollient, humectant, moisturizing, nourishing and protective effects against photo-ageing, restoration capacity of skin barrier function [390][391][392][393][394][395][396][397] contact dermatitis, acute sensitization [391,396,397] Other Chemical Compounds Allantoin (5-ureidohydantoin) anti-inflammatory effect and anti-irritation, wound healing and keratolytic properties, hydration effect, tissue regeneration and cell proliferation capacity [398,399] no adverse effects [399] Ceramide 3 increases SC hydration, enhances the barrier function and reduces inflammation [400,401] safe for use in cosmetic products [402] Gold anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect, tissue regeneration capacity, restores skin elasticity, reduces signs of stress and ageing [403][404][405] particles larger than 30 nm can be considered as safe but there is a need to comprehensively study the effects of gold nanoparticles on the basis of their size distribution for their safe application in cosmetics [404] Lactic acid primarily used as moisturizer and pH regulator in cosmetics, antimicrobial activity, skin lightening effect, keratolytic properties, possesses high water-binding capacity, antibacterial effect [406,407] peeling agent used in the amelioration of acne vulgaris and in the treatment of melasma [408] good skin compatibility, showing only minor reactions [407] ...
... Honey Extract Propolis Extract antimicrobial and immunomodulatory effect, antioxidant capacity, wound healing (stimulates angiogenesis, granulation, epithelialization, TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α) production, increasing collagen and fibroblasts synthesis), emollient, humectant, moisturizing, nourishing and protective effects against photo-ageing, restoration capacity of skin barrier function [390][391][392][393][394][395][396][397] contact dermatitis, acute sensitization [391,396,397] Other Chemical Compounds Allantoin (5-ureidohydantoin) anti-inflammatory effect and anti-irritation, wound healing and keratolytic properties, hydration effect, tissue regeneration and cell proliferation capacity [398,399] no adverse effects [399] Ceramide 3 increases SC hydration, enhances the barrier function and reduces inflammation [400,401] safe for use in cosmetic products [402] Gold anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect, tissue regeneration capacity, restores skin elasticity, reduces signs of stress and ageing [403][404][405] particles larger than 30 nm can be considered as safe but there is a need to comprehensively study the effects of gold nanoparticles on the basis of their size distribution for their safe application in cosmetics [404] Lactic acid primarily used as moisturizer and pH regulator in cosmetics, antimicrobial activity, skin lightening effect, keratolytic properties, possesses high water-binding capacity, antibacterial effect [406,407] peeling agent used in the amelioration of acne vulgaris and in the treatment of melasma [408] good skin compatibility, showing only minor reactions [407] ...
Article
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This study proposes a review on hyaluronic acid (HA) known as hyaluronan or hyaluronate and its derivates and their application in cosmetic formulations. HA is a glycosaminoglycan constituted from two disaccharides (N-acetylglucosamine and D-glucuronic acid), isolated initially from the vitreous humour of the eye, and subsequently discovered in different tissues or fluids (especially in the articular cartilage and the synovial fluid). It is ubiquitous in vertebrates, including humans, and it is involved in diverse biological processes, such as cell differentiation, embryological development, inflammation, wound healing, etc. HA has many qualities that recommend it over other substances used in skin regeneration, with moisturizing and anti-ageing effects. HA molecular weight influences its penetration into the skin and its biological activity. Considering that, nowadays, hyaluronic acid has a wide use and a multitude of applications (in ophthalmology, arthrology, pneumology, rhinology, aesthetic medicine, oncology, nutrition, and cosmetics), the present study describes the main aspects related to its use in cosmetology. The biological effect of HA on the skin level and its potential adverse effects are discussed. Some available cosmetic products containing HA have been identified from the brand portfolio of most known manufacturers and their composition was evaluated. Further, additional biological effects due to the other active ingredients (plant extracts, vitamins, amino acids, peptides, proteins, saccharides, probiotics, etc.) are presented, as well as a description of their possible toxic effects.
... Burlando and Cornara [13] opined that in cosmetics preparations, honey exerts emollient, humectant, soothing and hair conditioning effects, while keeping the skin juvenile, retarding wrinkle formation, regulating pH and preventing pathogenic infections. According to them, honey based cosmetics products include lip ointment, cleansing milks, hydrating creams, after sun, tonic lotions, shampoos and conditioners ranging from 1 to 10% honey inclusion, though some products can contain up to 70% honey when mixed with oils, gels and emulsifiers or polymer entrapments. ...
Chapter
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Apart from food, other important needs in the care of human bodies are cosmetics and drugs. For long the latter two are obtained from chemical formulations and phytochemicals (commonly used in Ethnomedicine), use of bioactive compounds from insects (i.e. “ento medicine” and “ento cosmetics”) is a recent development in research, even though the bioactive compounds were discovered long ago. This chapter is a review on a number of substances extracted from various insect species that are useful in cosmetics, pharmaceutical industries as well as those that form part of prescription for healing in orthodox and traditional medicine. The review is based on information from scientific reports, Google, e-library, textbooks. A number of substances were found to have been incorporated into cosmetic and pharmaceutical products and as part of prescriptions for healing in orthodox medicine, many others at elementary stages of investigation, purification and development. The findings showed that insects have a lot of bioactive substances that need to be harnessed for the good man.
... Honey, RJ, and propolis have multiple uses for skin care and remedies (Burlando and Cornara, 2013;Kurek-Gorecka et al., 2020). Traditional uses of honey in commercial and homemade cosmetics include for skin softening and for unesthetic conditions. ...
Chapter
At the starting of recorded history are descriptions of the uses of bee products as nutraceuticals and as remedies for various maladies. Honey, beeswax, propolis, royal jelly, and bee venom are the most commonly used products. These nutraceuticals are used to improve wellness, in skin care, mouth care, dental surgery, and in the management of wounds, burns, and skin conditions. Bee products have antimicrobial activity and are used in treating Helicobacter pylori, candidiasis, herpes infections, and fungal infections of the skin and genitalia. Bee products are being investigated in ophthalmology as replacements for the prophylactic use of antibiotics, treatment of keratoconjunctivitis, and their use in artificial tears. In reproduction, bee products are used as supplements to increase fertility. They are being investigated to replace antibiotics in semen extenders and for their use in vitrification of embryos. Bee products are being used as a treatment for premenstrual syndrome, mensural distress, reduction of birthing pain, and to reduce the genitourinary syndrome in postmenopausal women. Bee products are being used in the management of complications from antineoplastic treatments and as supplements to reduce fatigue in cancer patients. Bee venom is being investigated for its use in autoimmune diseases, especially osteoarthritis. Individuals can have allergic reactions to bee products. Profit margins on bee products, especially honeys, can be increased by adulterating them with various substances. Environmental contaminants can be present in bee products. Honey can contain phytotoxins. Phytotoxins in nectar are concentrated in the honey-making process. Nutraceuticals are being studied in bees to replace the use of antimicrobial prophylactics. Nutraceuticals and probiotics are being investigated and used to increase the health of bees.
... L. Wei, et al. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 264 (2021) 113096 be monitored back to the earliest civilizations (Burlando and Cornara, 2013) and was reported to be used for a variety of diseases including asthma, throat infections, thirst, fatigue, hepatitis and constipation in traditional medicine (Samarghandian et al., 2017). In this study honey may have helped to dissolve the active ingredients from the extracts of the rhubarb powder and to facilitate its absorption through the thin skin layer of the navel into the paraumbilical small veins. ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Constipation is a functional gastrointestinal disorder and one of the most prevalent conditions encountered in primary care settings. Rhubarb navel dressings have been used for more than 2,000 years in Chinese medicine to treat constipation. However, the effect of topical rhubarb administration has still not been well recognized and this strategy is not yet established as an evidence-based approach. Aim of the study: In this study, we performed a prospective multicentric randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of rhubarb navel plasters for patients with chronic constipation. Materials and methods A total of 374 patients from six teaching hospitals were prospectively included between 09/2016 and 10/2017 in the study based on Rome III criteria. All participants were randomly assigned (1:1) into verum/placebo group and given either Rheum officinale rhubarb powder or a placebo flour stick on the navel for 6 h/day/8 days. Primary outcome measures were the Cleveland Constipation Score (CCS) for the feces condition and Bristol Stool Scale (BSS) for stool consistency and 24 h defecation frequency. Results The groups demonstrated no statistical differences in demographic data, clinical diagnoses and concomitant medication at baseline. In patients treated with the verum CCS was 5.61 (day 8, 95% CI 5.15–6.07) compared to 8.62 (95% CI 8.07–9.18) in placebo-treated controls (P < 0.001). The mean change of CCS at the end of treatment (day 8 versus [vs] day 0) was 6.04 in verum-treated vs 2.73 in placebo-treated controls (P < 0.001). Also 24 h defecation frequency (BSS) showed superior results (day 5: 0.84 vs 0.62, 95% CI 0.67–0.80, P < 0.001; day 6: 0.82 vs 0.60, 95% CI 0.64–0.78, P < 0.01 and day 8: 0.82 vs 0.60, 95% CI 0.64–0.78, P < 0.01) and better BSS type classification during treatment than controls (P < 0.05). No significant differences in adverse events between both groups became obvious. Conclusion Rhubarb navel plaster administration over an 8-day-treatment period resulted in significantly improved bowel function as demonstrated by the CCS, 24 h defecating frequency and BSS. Our results suggest that rhubarb navel plasters represent a feasible, safe and efficient application route for the treatment of patients suffering from chronic constipation.
... In remote locations H 2 O 2 production from H 2 and O 2 (both H 2 and O 2 can be produced from water electrolysis using cheaper renewable electricity) would be economically viable alternative in the near future if direct H 2 O 2 process is developed successfully. [23][24][25][26] Chemical Synthesis As a powerful and environmentally benign oxidizing agent, H 2 O 2 has many applications in chemical industry [27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37] Cosmetics & Medicine H 2 O 2 is used in cosmetics and personal care products as an antimicrobial agent and as an oxidizing agent [38][39][40] Electronics H 2 O 2 is used for pickling of metal surfaces as well as for cleaning of silicon discs in the production of printed circuit boards [41][42][43][44] Environmental Applications Ecological friendliness properties of H 2 O 2 are utilized in a variety of environmental applications [45][46][47][48][49][50] Food Processing Due to its remarkable chemical properties and biological degradability, H 2 O 2 is often utilized in food processing applications [51][52][53][54][55] Mining H 2 O 2 is used as an oxidizing agent and oxygen source in various metallurgical process steps [56][57][58][59] Pulp & Paper In pulp & paper industry H 2 O 2 is employed as a versatile bleaching agent [60][61][62][63] Recycling In recycling of solid municipal waste H 2 O 2 is used as oxidant and bleaching agent [64][65][66][67][68] Textile Bleaching H 2 O 2 is used as bleaching agent for the treatment of natural and synthetic fibers [69][70][71][72][73] ...
Article
21 st century global market place is moving towards subtainable development and without this approach our future would be at risk. Today's chemical industries need to give more focus for the planet through improving the environmental footprints of fuels and chemicals manufacturing processes. Oxidation and hydro-genation processes are widely used in the production of chemicals and fuels. Oxidation processes are especially important to convert petroleum-based materials to useful petrochemicals of higher oxidation state. Many existing oxidation processes, however , still rely on the use of stoichiometric oxidants, such as dichromate/sulfuric acid, permanganates, periodates, chromium oxides, osmium oxide etc., and remain a major source of environmental pollution. Therefore, oxidation processes using eco-friendly oxidizing agents such as molecular oxygen, ozone and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2) are incresingly becoming important to improve the environmental sustainability. Hydrogen peroxide is especially attractive for the liquid-phase oxidation due to the presence of high percentage of active oxygen and the production of water as only by-product. As a result, H 2 O 2-based eco-friendly oxidation processes are gradually replacing some well-established processes such as production of propy-lene oxide, caprolactam, phenol etc. Moreover, recent advances in the area of oxidation catalysis is promoting H 2 O 2-based technologies to emerge as a frontline, eco-friendly sustainable processes. H 2 O 2 is also finding greater applications in pulp/paper industries and waste water treatment as a substitute of chlorine-based oxidizing agents. Herein, we have analyzed various reactions using H 2 O 2 as an oxidant and their recent advancement to bring important aspects of H 2 O 2-based oxidation processes and catalysis. Moreover, various aspects of using H 2 O 2 toward development of sustainable oxidation processes have been analyzed with respect to factors affecting the end uses in chemical industry such as efficiency, catalyst and reaction pathways. We have reviewed manufacturing trends of H 2 O 2 and emerging applications of H 2 O 2 in sustainable oxidation processes. Critical discussions have also been made on the opportunities and challenges with emerging H 2 O 2 based oxidation processes in the production of bulk as well as specialty chemicals.
... To demonstrate the robustness of our nanofiber-based interface, we selected honey as a new and more complex electron donor than those tested up to now in MFCs. The use of honey by humans traces back to ancient times, and today honey is a crucial ingredient in several products ranging from foods to beverages, as well as in medical products and cosmetics [32,33]. Honey can be classified as a natural sweetener with a complex composition [34]. ...
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Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are bio-electrochemical devices able to directly transduce chemical energy, entrapped in an organic mass named fuel, into electrical energy through the metabolic activity of specific bacteria. During the last years, the employment of bio-electrochemical devices to study the wastewater derived from the food industry has attracted great interest from the scientific community. In the present work, we demonstrate the capability of exoelectrogenic bacteria used in MFCs to catalyze the oxidation reaction of honey, employed as a fuel. With the main aim to increase the proliferation of microorganisms onto the anode, engineered electrodes are proposed. Polymeric nanofibers, based on polyethylene oxide (PEO-NFs), were directly electrospun onto carbon-based material (carbon paper, CP) to obtain an optimized composite anode. The crucial role played by the CP/PEO-NFs anodes was confirmed by the increased proliferation of microorganisms compared to that reached on bare CP anodes, used as a reference material. A parameter named recovered energy (Erec) was introduced to determine the capability of bacteria to oxidize honey and was compared with the Erec obtained when sodium acetate was used as a fuel. CP/PEO-NFs anodes allowed achieving an Erec three times higher than the one reached with a bare carbon-based anode.
... Honey-based cosmetic products include cleansing milks, lip ointments, hydrating creams, body lotions, facial creams shampoos and conditioners, balms, masks and ointments after bathing. In cosmetics, it exerts emollient, soothing, humectants, hair conditioning effects, retains the skin juvenile and hinders wrinkle formation and prevents pathogen infection [121,122] . Some honey based lipsticks are created for lip treatments and shampoo with honey is considered as it acts like a moisturizer for hair fiber [121,123] . ...
Article
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The natural honey is one of the most valued and appreciated nutraceutical known to mankind since ancient times. It is produced by bees from the nectar of flowers, which bees collect, transform and, store in the honey comb to ripen and mature. It is used for functional food, medicinal and industrial purposes and has been listed as remarkable commodity in the foreign exchange. This review spotlights the physical, biochemical and therapeutic properties of honey, which were discovered by various researchers since last forty years. The review broadly discusses composition, nutritional and therapeutic, and Yogavahi properties of honey. The relation of ophthalmology and Honey was also included along with cosmetic properties of honey. Its effectiveness on reproductive system and safety measures to be followed while using honey showed the path of future research. It is composed mainly from carbohydrates, lesser amounts of water and many minor components. It is rich in enzymes, phenolic acids, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, organic acids, amino acids, proteins and minerals. The knowledge about physicochemical parameters determines nutritional value, microbial safety, acceptability and commercial quality assessment of honey.
... Honey has many health benefits. It has a neuroprotective effect, it supports the functioning of the circulatory system [16,21], and it helps in the case of respiratory system disorders [12] and skin problems [7]. It is a product with complex chemical content, of which 80% is sugar. ...
Article
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Honey is the most popular bee product consumed by humans. It is known for its nutritional properties and health benefits, which include neuroprotective effects, the support of the circulatory system, and the beneficial influence it has on skin and respiratory system disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of water temperature used for the preparation of honey solutions on their antioxidant potential. Material and methods. The study material included buckwheat honey, black locust honey, and rape honey. Honey solutions (1%) were prepared using distilled water with the temperatures: 25°C, 70°C, 80°C, and 90°C. The antioxidant activity of samples was measured with spectrophotometric method using synthetic radical DPPH. The antioxidant activity of honey was between 0.29 to 78.50% of DPPH inhibition, depending on the type of honey and the temperature of water used for the preparation of solutions. Buckwheat honey was characterised by the highest antioxidant potential. A significant, directly proportional correlation was observed between the antioxidant potential and the temperature of buckwheat and rape II honey solutions. In the case of buckwheat honey, rape honey I and black locust honey, the highest antioxidant potential was achieved in solutions prepared using distilled water at 90°C, whereas in the case of rape honey II, the highest values were observed at 80°C and 90°C. The lowest inhibition of the DPPH radical was observed in solutions at 70°C in all of the honey types. In the case of the studied honeys, it is even advisable to prepare water solutions at 80°C or 90°C in order to increase its antioxidant potential, e.g. by adding honey to tea or milk.
... MGH-based dressings are appropriate for the dressing of wounds and burns and have also been included in treatment therapy against diseases such as diaper dermatitis, dandruff, pityriasis, and psoriasis. It also exerts emollient, humectant, soothing, and hair conditioning effects, keeps the skin juvenile and retards wrinkle formation, regulates pH, and prevents pathogen infections [21]. Studies have also shown that Communityassociated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) which is now described worldwide, as a clinically significant pathogen, predominantly linked to skin and soft tissue infections succumbs to the effects of honey [22]. ...
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The use of antibiotics to treat bacterial infections have largely been successful. However, the misuse and overuse of these precious drugs have led to the development of bacterial resistance and this seems to have jeopardized their effectiveness. Many antibiotics that hitherto were seen as “miraculous drugs”, have witnessed a low efficacy and this has threatened the life of humanity as never before. The rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is the major cause of this sad development. One such superbug is methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). MRSA is a general problem in most healthcare centers with a reported astronomical incidence of invasive MRSA infections causing death. Honey, a natural product, popular for its antibacterial activity is increasingly being used owing to its reported antibiotic potential against ‘stubborn’ bacteria. This review discusses the fact that though honey is an ancient remedy, it is still relevant and its application in modern medicine for the treatment of chronically infected wounds caused by MRSA should be re-visited. Furthermore, the in vitro antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of medical-grade honey on S. aureus infections and challenges encountered by Researchers in developing honey, into an acceptable medical, therapeutic antibacterial agent for wound care have also been highlighted.
... Honey keeps the skin young, delays wrinkle formation, regulates pH, and is also used for the prevention of pathogen infections. [31][32][33] In particular, it can also be used to complement dry skin treatment. 33 Moisturizers are a major component of basic daily skin care, especially when the epidermal barrier has been altered and the epidermal moisture content has decreased. ...
Article
Background: According to recent experience, people are willing to wear masks to protect themselves from environmental issues such as infections, allergies, and fine dust such as SARS in 2003, swine flu A (H1N1) in 2009, and COVID-19 in 2019. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the changing conditions of cosmetics use worldwide due to the increase in mask usage. Methods: This review paper is a literature review, and a narrative review approach has been used for this study. A total of 300-400 references were selected using representative journal search websites such as PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and RISS, of which a total of 39 papers were selected in the final stage based on 2006-2021. Results: Masks must be worn due to environmental issues and/or infectious diseases, for example, COVID-19. Skin troubles were dramatically increased by the increased use of masks. Additionally, research-related natural products for skin soothing ingredients and makeup products were suggested. Conclusion: This review is expected to be used as an important marketing material for new changes in the cosmetics market by clearly grasping the needs of consumers in the beauty and cosmetics industry from the viewpoint of using masks after COVID-19.
... Recent studies have shown that, like other hive products, honey has various benefits for human health, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and bacteriostatic effects [4][5][6][7]. For these reasons, honeybee products are already widely used as ingredients in the field of cosmetics and nutraceuticals [3,8,9]. In the last few years, high consumer demand for natural healthy products has increased research interest in the antibacterial activity of honey for its possible clinical applications [6,[10][11][12][13]. ...
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Methylglyoxal (MGO) is recognized as being the bioactive component responsible for the antibacterial activity of mānuka honey. MGO content was investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV), in isocratic elution, to assess the occurrence of this compound in mono- and multi-floral honey samples representative of different botanical and geographic origins in Italy. Specifically, 110 honey samples from sweet cherry tree (Prunus avium L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), almond tree (Prunus amygdalus L.), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), cornflower (Centaurea cyanus L.), thistle (Silybum marianum L.), acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia L.), citrus, honeydew and multifloral honey were considered. The amount of MGO found in different types of honey was ranging from 0.4 to 24.1 mg/kg. This study provides, for the first time, data on MGO levels in Italian cherry and almond honey, which showed higher concentrations of MGO compared to honeys from other botanical species.
... It has a neuroprotective effect, it supports the functioning of the circulatory system, 1,2 and it helps with respiratory system disorders 3 and skin problems. 4 It is a product with complex chemical content, of which 80% is sugar. Most of the sugar, about 90%, includes glucose and fructose, which are easily assimilated monosaccharides. ...
Article
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Honey is the most popular bee product consumed by humans. It is known for its nutritional properties and health benefits, which include neuroprotective effects, the support of the circulatory system, and a beneficial influence on skin and respiratory system disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of water temperature used for the preparation of honey solutions on fluoride (F) content. The study material included buckwheat honey, black locust honey, and two varieties of rapeseed honey. Honey solutions (10%) were prepared using distilled water with the following temperatures: 25°C, 70°C, 80°C, and 90°C. The content of F was between 0.019 and 0.384 mg/L. The buckwheat honey solutions had higher F concentrations than those prepared from black locust honey and rapeseed honey. The F content was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the buckwheat honey solution prepared with water at a temperature of 80ºC compared to the buckwheat honey solutions prepared at 25ºC, 70ºC, and 90ºC.
... Honey has been used in cosmetics and medicines as an antimicrobial, emollient, and humectant since ancient times, and is still used extensively in a variety of modern cosmetics, with some recent licensing of sterilized honey for clinical use [7]. The antimicrobial effects of honey have been reported for a wide range of fungi [8] and bacteria [9][10][11]. ...
Article
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Superficial dermatophyte infections, commonly known as tineas, are the most prevalent fungal ailment and are increasing in incidence, leading to an interest in alternative treatments. Many floral honeys possess antimicrobial activity due to high sugar, low pH, and the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) from the activity of the bee-derived enzyme glucose oxidase. Australian jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) honey produces particularly high levels of H2O2 and has been found to be potently antifungal. This study characterized the activity of jarrah honey on fungal dermatophyte species. Jarrah honey inhibited dermatophytes with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 1.5–3.5% (w/v), which increased to ≥ 25% (w/v) when catalase was added. Microscopic analysis found jarrah honey inhibited the germination of Trichophyton rubrum conidia and scanning electron microscopy of mature T. rubrum hyphae after honey treatment revealed bulging and collapsed regions. When treated hyphae were stained using REDOX fluorophores these did not detect any internal oxidative stress, suggesting jarrah honey acts largely on the hyphal surface. Although H2O2 appears critical for the antifungal activity of jarrah honey and its action on fungal cells, these effects persisted when H2O2 was eliminated and could not be replicated using synthetic honey spiked with H2O2, indicating jarrah honey contains agents that augment antifungal activity.
... The composition of RJ varies depending on seasonal and regional conditions; it may contain different amount of proteins, lipids, sugars, vitamins and essential amino acids, particularly cystine, lysine and arginine (1). From the healthcare point of view, RJ is considered as an efficient supplement for treatment of diabetes and metabolic syndrome (2), acne (3), and premenstrual syndrome (4). ...
Article
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Background: Royal jelly is an exclusive diet of the queen larvae of honeybee, Apis mellifera, which affect the body size, development time, lifespan and reproductive output of queen relative to workers. The composition of royal jelly is complex with diverse pharmacological activities. In addition to chemical composition of royal jelly, other indirect parameters such as color, viscosity, sugar and protein contents have also been proposed to evaluate quality of royal jelly. Objective and methods: The present study described total phenolic compounds, proteins, and polysaccharide contents of two samples of royal jelly using spectrophotometric methods along with their total lipid, ash and moisture by gravimetric analysis. Results: The results showed that similar amounts of phenol and polysaccharide were present in the commercial and raw samples of royal jelly (phenol; 22.98±0.34 and 21.99±0.41 µg/mg gallic acid equivalent, polysaccharide; 12.67±0.00 and 12.63±0.00%, respectively). Whereas, lipid (12.00±0.00%) and protein (11.57±0.00%) content of raw sample calculated to be significantly higher compared to those of the commercial sample but the commercial sample has a higher moisture than raw specimen (61.03±0.00 and 59.01±0.00%, respectively. The similar amounts of ash were analyzed in the tested samples. Discussion: Although, the content of analyzed components were differ in analyzed sample, both of them contain comparable amounts of desired compounds. Therefore, Iranian raw sample of royal jelly could be a suitable source to produce commercial preparations. Keywords: Royal jelly,physicochemical properties,spectrophotometry,protein content,polysaccharide content
... Iako je udeo ovih supstanci u medu veoma mali (< 1 %), one su zasigurno odgovorne kako za senzorna tako i za specifična svojstva meda (miris, ukus I dr.) [6]. Neke od ovih supstanci u med dodaju pčele, neke vode poreklo od medonosne biljke, a neke nastaju u toku zrenja meda u saću [7]. ...
Article
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Conventional method of honey production is widely spread in the area of western Serbia. Despite the advantages of honey production in an organic manner, beekeepers are still hesitant to take this step, regardless of the difficulties with placement of such honey on the foreign market, so their products are mainly sold on the domestic market. Besides the undeniable nutritional value, honey produced in the conventional way with proper use of agro technical measures and implementation of the wide range of products in the treatment of bee diseases, in its composition very often contain residues of hazardous chemical compounds, pesticides, antibiotics. Research on four qualitative differences of the content of certain substances between the conventional and organic honey producers has been conducted in western Serbia. The research obtained five manufacturers, out of which two were engaged in organic manner of production, while the remaining three dealt with the conventional honey production. After examining the area and the apiaries in question, interviews with honeybee producers, the sampling of honey took place. Upon performed analysis, it was concluded that one conventionally produced sample of honey was not safe for human consumption, due to presence of pesticides.
... Honey-based cosmetics include hydrating creams, tonic, lotions, cleaning milks, shampoos, conditioners and lip ointments. The used amounts usually range between 1% and 10% [23]. ...
Article
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Honey is a natural product which owes its health benefits to its numerous bioactive compounds. The composition of honey is highly diverse and depends on the type of honey and its origin. Antioxidant capacity arises mainly from the total content of polyphenols and their composition. The aim of this study was to perform a multidimensional comparative analysis of phenolic compounds of honeys of various origins. Honeydew, buckwheat, manuka, Malaysian and goldenrod honeys had the highest antioxidant capacity (above 400 mg Trolox equivalents kg−1). These honeys were also characterized by the highest total polyphenol content (about 2500 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE) kg−1) and the highest total flavonoid content (1400–1800 mg catechin equivalents (CAE) kg−1). Other honeys had much lower antioxidant properties. A multidimensional analysis of the profiles of phenolic compounds showed that honeys constitute a non-homogeneous data set and manuka honey was in contrast to other samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) (based on 18 phenolic compounds) distinguished honeys into five groups. Manuka, Malaysian and honeydew honeys created their own separate groups and the location of other honeys was variable. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) analysis demonstrated that profiles of polyphenols in honeys were highly varied. Caffeic acid, datiscetin and rhamnetin were characteristic compounds for manuka honey. Quercetin, kaempferol and apigenin were present in all honeys except Malaysian honey. The antioxidant properties and the profiles of bioactive phenolic compounds of honeys were miscellaneous. The richest sources of polyphenols were local buckwheat and honeydew honeys, alongside exotic manuka and Malaysian honeys. These honeys could provide valuable ingredients to the human diet, helping to prevent diseases.
... Kai kurie medaus produktai, naudojami žaizdoms gydyti, ir kosmetikos gaminiai 66 taip pat veiksmingas pleiskanoms, nagų grybeliui, hemorojui ir psoriazei gydyti (Burlando ir Cornara, 2013). Nustatyta, kad iš moterų, turinčių ikivėžinių gimdos kaklelio pažeidimų, tris mėnesius medumi tepusių makštį ir gimdos kaklelį, 95 % pacienčių tepinėliai atitiko normą. ...
... It is a natural sweet food material made from nectar of flowers. Honey is composed mainly of glucose and fructose, and containing amino acids, proteins, enzymes, minerals, vitamins, and other minor compounds (Burlando and Cornara 2013). Its phenolic constituents specifically chrysin modulate the oxidative stress and inflammatory conditions. ...
Article
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Coronavirus disease 2019 is a worldwide pandemic resulting in a severe acute respiratory syndrome. Remdesivir is the only FDA-approved drug for hospitalized patients older than age 12. It shows the necessity of finding new therapeutic strategies. Functional foods (FFs) could have co-therapeutic and protective effects against COVID-19 infection. Traditional Persian medicine (TPM), one of the safest and most popular schools of medicine for hundreds of years, has recommended potential FF candidates to manage such a global pandemic. To reveal the potential of TPM in terms of antitussive FFs, traditional Persian pharmacopoeia “Qarabadin-e-Salehi” was searched using the keywords “Soaal” and “Sorfeh.” Also, a search of MEDLINE, PubMed Central, Google Scholar, and Science Direct was performed for the relevant literature published from the inception up to March 2021. A combination of search terms including “cough, antitussive, antioxidant, anti�inflammation, antiviral, COVID-19, mucoactive, mucolytic, expectorant, and mucoregulatory” was also applied. The potential mechanism of action in SARS-CoV-2 infection was discussed. Twelve TPM FFs were found including Laooqs, Morabbas, a Saviq, a soup, and a syrup. They are combinations of two to seven ingredients. Natural compounds of mentioned formulations have the main pharmacological mechanisms including antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antihistamine, bronchodilator, immunomodulatory, and mucoactive effects as well as central or peripheral antitussive activities. FFs are cost-effective, easily accessible, and safe options for both treatment and prevention of COVID-19. They might have positive psychological effects along with their pharmacological effects and nutritional virtues. They could also manage persistent respiratory discomforts after recovery from COVID-19.
... 15,16 Like those bee products, honey also exhibits many beneficial effects on the skin, such as effects of softening, moisturizing, and soothing,keeping the skin young and delaying the formation of wrinkles; regulating the skin pH; and preventing pathogen infections. 17 This study aimed to develop a prototype skincare formulation based on bee venom, propolis, honey, and royal jelly to effectively protect skin aging by analyzing various quality, stability, and safety parameters. ...
Article
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This study aimed to develop a prototype skincare product with bee venom, propolis, honey, beeswax, and royal jelly. The prototype formulation contained 0.1 % bee venom, 0.3 % propolis extract, 0.45 % honey, and 1.0 % royal jelly. The prototype body cream was analyzed for stability, antioxidant activity, dermatological response, and cytotoxicity. In addition, a panel test evaluated the prototype for the claims such as skin smoothness, feelings of nourishment, moisturizing, skin tone, brightness, and visibility of wrinkles. According to the stability test, the prototype was stable for up to 90 days at room temperature and +40 °C. The formulation was found to have a high antioxidant capacity at 85.45%. Cell viability detected over 70% indicated that the prototype body cream was not cytotoxic. The dermatological analysis revealed no irritation or allergic reaction in non‐allergic individuals. Panel test showed that the prototype makes skin silky smooth, contributes to hydration, brightens and nourishes the skin, evens the skin tone, reduces the visibility of wrinkles, improves skin elasticity, and smoothes wrinkles. This prototype formulation requires further research to evaluate its effectiveness against skin aging on different skin types. Nevertheless, the side effects of such products need particular attention in developing a commercial product containing bee venom in susceptible individuals.
... Due to their physical features (sticky propolis) and chemical composition (primarily polyphenols, amino acids, and terpenes), propolis and pollen can absorb metals (Finger et al. 2014;Matin et al. 2016), and they can be employed as indicators of environmental pollution (Conti and Botrè 2001;Finger et al. 2014). Eventually, assessing element concentrations in bees and beehive products is essential not only for their use as possible biomonitors/ indicators for environmental contamination purposes but also for detecting potential human exposure due to their dietary, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic uses (Astolfi et al. 2021;Burlando and Cornara 2013;Kalogeropoulos et al. 2009;Melliou and Chinou 2011;Tsiapara et al. 2009). Humans can be exposed to elements through the food chain (Zand et al. 2015;Conti et al. 2020a). ...
Article
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In this study, we determined the levels of elements (i.e. As, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, U, and Zn) in bees and edible beehive products (honey, wax, pollen, and propolis) sampled from five selected sites in the Rome province (Italy). Rationale: to increase the information variety endowment, the monitoring breakdown structure (MBS) conceptual model was used (nine elements, 429 samples, and approximately thirteen thousand determinations over a 1-year survey). Thus, we employed Johnson's probabilistic method to build the control charts. Then, we measured the element concentration overlap ranges and the overlap bioaccumulation index (OBI). Subsequently, we evaluated the estimated daily intake (EDI) of the analysed elements and matched them with acceptable reference doses. The human health risk caused by the intake of individual elements found in edible beehive products and their risk summation were evaluated through the target hazard quotient (THQ) and hazard index (HI) methods. Findings: excluding honey, this study confirms the capacity of wax, pollen, propolis, and bees to accumulate high levels of toxic and potentially toxic elements from the surrounding environment (with high OBI-U, i.e. OBI-Upper values, i.e. the common upper concentration limit of the overlap concentration range). Bees and pollen showed a high bioaccumulation Cd surplus (OBI-U = 44.0 and 22.3, respectively). On the contrary, honey had high OBI-L values (i.e. honey concentrates metals several times less than the common lower concentration limit of the overlap concentration range). This finding implies that honey is useless as an environmental indicator compared with the other biomonitor/indicators. The EDI values for the edible beehive products were lower than the health and safety reference doses for all the considered elements. Our data show that honey, wax, propolis, and pollen are safe for consumption by both adults and children (THQ < 1; HI < 1), even considering the sporadic possibility of consuming them simultaneously. Originality: This study has been conducted for the first time in the Rome province and demonstrates that edible indicators are safe for consumption for the considered elements in bees and edible beehive products. Depending on the ecosystem/pollutants studied, the OBI consents to make a correct choice for environmental biomonitoring studies and to focus the attention on the most sensitive biomonitors/indicators when required at the project level.
... In particular, bees and their products such as honey, propolis, and pollen have been proposed as bioindicators of environmental Hg contamination [23][24][25]. The assessment of Hg levels in bee products is important not only for their use as possible bioindicators for environmental contamination purposes, but also for the potential human exposure due to their dietary, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic use [26][27][28][29][30]. ...
Article
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Bees and their products are useful bioindicators of anthropogenic activities and could overcome the deficiencies of air quality networks. Among the environmental contaminants, mercury (Hg) is a toxic metal that can accumulate in living organisms. The first aim of this study was to develop a simple analytical method to determine Hg in small mass samples of bees and beehive products by cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The proposed method was optimized for about 0.02 g bee, pollen, propolis, and royal jelly, 0.05 g beeswax and honey, or 0.1 g honeydew with 0.5 mL HCl, 0.2 mL HNO3, and 0.1 mL H2O2 in a water bath (95 °C, 30 min); samples were made up to a final volume of 5 mL deionized water. The method limits sample manipulation and the reagent mixture volume used. Detection limits were lower than 3 µg kg−1 for a sample mass of 0.02 g, and recoveries and precision were within 20% of the expected value and less than 10%, respectively, for many matrices. The second aim of the present study was to evaluate the proposed method’s performances on real samples collected in six areas of the Lazio region in Italy.
... It is added in the formulation of many cosmetic products, such as for dry and mature skin, and is widely used in night creams. It is also used in shampoos for light hair because it highlights the natural reflections and leaves the hair protected and bright [19]. Nothing prevents the use of common foods such as honey to prepare multipurpose masks. ...
Article
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Many substances derived from animals are used as ingredients in the cosmetic industry and constitute a particular type of product: zooceuticals. The main ingredients used can come from insects, such as snail slime; land animals, such as lanolin; and marine animals, such as marine collagen. Today, they are used less than in the past for hygienic–sanitary, ethical, and ecological reasons. Moreover, some can give rise to irritative or allergic dermatitis. However, they still represent a fraction of the common ingredients in certain types of cosmetic products today.
... Preparations of honey have been used since ancient times. It has been demonstrated to provide antimicrobial control by enzymatic release of H 2 O 2 or the presence of active components like methylglyoxal (MGO) [73]. Honey has been shown to have broad spectrum bacteriologic coverage and has been shown to be synergistic with linezolid against S. aureus [74]. ...
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... Honey is even proven for its anti-inflammatory activity promoting cell repair and healing 28 . Pinocembrin and lysozyme present in honey are proven to provide anti-fungal action on skin 29 . Importantly, studies have also shown that honey from a variety of sources can modulate immunological parameters related to the skin immune system. ...
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Pityriasis capitis commonly known as Dandruff is a common skin disorder that mainly affects the scalp. It is one of the most common cosmetic problems. It is more likely a social stigma and affects the aesthetic value of a person. In Ayurveda, Acharya Sushruta mentions Darunaka (dandruff) under Kshudra kushta roga (minor skin ailment) and some other authors mention it as Shirah-Kapalagata roga (head and skull diseases). Symptoms of Darunaka are kandu (itching), Keshachyuti (hair fall), Twaksphutana (scaling) and rukshata (dryness). Darunaka can be closely co-related to Pityriasis capitis. Though not being a life-threatening disease, it is affecting almost half of the population from pre-pubertal age to old age of any gender with recurrence and frequent relapses. Ayurveda classics majorly emphasizes the bahya lepa upachaar (external paste application) as a line of treatment in Darunaka. Priyaladi lepa is one such formulation recommended in Sharangadhara Samhitha for Darunaka chikitsa, but not often applied in routine Ayurvedic practice. So, this study aims to appraise the pharmacological activity of the formulation Priyaladi lepa regarding its anti-dandruff efficacy. Rasapanchaka and Dosha karma (Ayurvedic Pharmacological attributes) of ingredients were compiled from Bhavaprakasha Nighantu and other Ayurvedic literature. Pharmacological actions were compiled from original research articles from Google Scholar, Research Gate and PubMed etc. research databases. A study on each ingredient of Priyaladi lepa collectively demonstrated anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal, anti-microbial, anti-pruritic, antioxidant and exfoliation effects. These pharmacological activities encourage further research and henceforth to utilize the same for the effective management of Darunaka (Dandruff).
... 39,40 Published data suggest that honey is suitable as a remedy for skin conditions including wounds and burns. 41,42 Apart from bioactives including amino acids, vitamins, minerals, and phenolics, some honey, for example, Manuka honey, has been reported to contain MGO, which partially contributes to its antimicrobial activity. 43 To date, the skin protective effects of maple syrup, a plant derived natural sweetener, are unknown. ...
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Introduction Reactive carbonyl species including methylglyoxal (MGO) are oxidation metabolites of glucose and precursors of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). They are important mediators of cellular oxidative stress and exacerbate skin complications. Published data supports that certain phenolic compounds can exert cellular protective effects by their antioxidant activity. A phenolic‐enriched maple syrup extract (MSX) was previously reported to show protective effects against AGEs‐ and MGO‐induced cytotoxicity in human colon cells but its skin protective effects remain unknown. Objective The protective effects of MSX were evaluated against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)‐ and MGO‐induced cytotoxicity in human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells). Methods Cellular viability and antioxidant activity were evaluated by the luminescent cell viability CellTiter‐Glo® assay and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay, respectively. A single‐cell gel electrophoresis (Comet assay) was used to measure the strand breaks in the DNA of HaCaT cells. Results MSX (at 50 μg/mL) ameliorated H2O2‐ and MGO‐induced cytotoxicity by increasing cell viability by 21.5 and 25.9%, respectively. MSX reduced H2O2‐ and MGO‐induced ROS production by 69.4 and 56.6%, respectively. MSX also reduced MGO‐induced DNA damage by 47.5%. Conclusion MSX showed protective effects against H2O2‐ and MGO‐induced cytotoxicity in HaCaT cells supporting its potential for dermatological and/or cosmeceutical applications. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Los productos naturales juegan un papel relevante como fuente de ingredientes biológicamente activos con importancia cosmética y dermatológica. En los últimos años, los cosméticos basados en productos naturales han ganado una gran cantidad de atención no solo por parte de los investigadores sino también del público debido a la creencia general de que son mejores a los sintéticos, además de ser inofensivos, lo cual no necesariamente podría ser cierto, por lo que en este artículo se aborda la ciencia detrás de la formulación en los denominados cosméticos naturales, así como una descripción general de los ingredientes activos naturales que se pueden encontrar en ellos. Profundizamos en algunas pruebas: in vitro, in silico y ex vivo, utilizadas para analizar su efectividad como fotoprotectores solares, antienvejecimiento, anti-hiperpigmentación y toxicidad, así mismo se aborda la controversia que genera el uso de pruebas in vivo.
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Honey is the material made by mixing of nectar and sweet deposits from plants and later on modified by honey bees. Honey is one of the most appreciated and valued natural products introduced to humankind since ancient times. Honey is a nutritional material that is traditionally known for its medicinal properties. Honey is used as a traditional medicine in treating various clinical ailments from wound healing to cancer apart from being used as a nutritional product. In dermatology, honey is used in the treatment of eczema, ulcers, wounds, atopic dermatitis (AD), allergies, and much more due to its antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory properties. In conclusion, honey could be considered as a natural therapeutic agent for various medicinal purposes. Sufficient evidences recommend the use of honey in the management of disease conditions especially skin- related disorders. Based on these facts, the use of honey in clinical wards is highly recommended. However, more rigorous scientific studies are needed to confirm its benefits in health care settings especially in the field of dermatology.
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Medical properties and applications of honey in Aulus Cornelius Celsus' De medicina libri VIII): The medical application of honey has a long tradition. In antiquity it was used as a potent substance with dietary and medicinal attributes. Based on Celsus' texts we know that the ancient Romans used honey primarily in treating skin conditions, including inflammations such as Erysipelas, wounds, all types of ulcers and eye diseases. Celsus mentioned honey in numerous formulas, but he did not distinguish between its types or the ways in which it was obtained. More attention was paid to such matters in the following centuries. This can be observed by analysing the formulas included in the works of younger authors.
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Bee products such as honey, propolis, bee pollen, royal jelly, beeswax, and bee venom constitute important pharmaceutical and cosmetic components. Each bee product is characterized by the content of the active substance, which differentiates one bee product from another, and causes that each of them is worth using for a different skin problem. In addition, flavonoids and phenolic acids play a crucial role in influencing those products on the skin. For example, honey, propolis, and pollen are used to heal burn wounds. Moreover, bee venom called apitoxin contains active peptides and amines used in the wound’s healing process. Therefore, findings connected with wound dressing containing honey, propolis, or bee venom can be applied during wound healing therapy. Furthermore, the advantages of pharmaceuticals and cosmetics based on bee products are high effectiveness with minimal side effects. Therefore, bee products may become a new strategy in skin therapy.
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Honey is used as a common breakfast item all over the world. Honey is also used in cooking and baking, is used as a spread on breads and is added to beverages such as tea, or as a sweetener in commercial beverages. In Nepal, there is a fancy for the use of wild honey. Honey is also used in weight reduction. Studies reported elsewhere pinpoint that wild honey is poisonous. This poisoning is well known from ancient times, right from the time of Xenophon. This wild honey is derived from the flowers of Rhododendrons (the national flower of Nepal). Honey consumption toxicity was noted in a few medical students who were treated and the current paper describes the outcome and the cause of toxicity.
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Honey is recognized traditionally for its medicinal properties and also appreciated as a topical healing agent for infected and noninfected wounds. This study evaluates impact of honey-based occlusive dressing on nonhealing (nonresponding to conventional antibiotics) traumatic lower limb wounds (n = 34) through clinicopathological and immunohistochemical (e.g., expression of p63, E-cadherin, and Collagen I and III) evaluations to enrich the scientific validation. Clinical findings noted the nonadherence of honey dressing with remarkable chemical debridement and healing progression within 11-15 days of postintervention. Histopathologically, in comparison to preintervention biopsies, the postintervention tissues of wound peripheries demonstrated gradual normalization of epithelial and connective tissue features with significant changes in p63(+) epithelial cell population, reappearance of membranous E-cadherin (P < .0001), and optimum deposition of collagen I and III (P < .0001). Thus, the present study for the first time reports the impact of honey on vital protein expressions in epithelial and connective tissues during repair of nonhealing lower limb wounds.
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The widespread existence of unhealed wounds, ulcers, and burns has a great impact on public health and economy. Many interventions, including new medications and technologies, are being used to help achieve significant wound healing and to eliminate infections. Therefore, to find an intervention that has both therapeutic effect on the healing process and the ability to kill microbes is of great value. Honey is a natural product that has been recently introduced in modern medical practice. Honey's antibacterial properties and its effects on wound healing have been thoroughly investigated. Laboratory studies and clinical trials have shown that honey is an effective broad-spectrum antibacterial agent. This paper reviews data that support the effectiveness of natural honey in wound healing and its ability to sterilize infected wounds. Studies on the therapeutic effects of honey collected in different geographical areas on skin wounds, skin and gastric ulcers, and burns are reviewed and mechanisms of action are discussed. (Ulcers and burns are included as an example of challenging wounds.) The data show that the wound healing properties of honey include stimulation of tissue growth, enhanced epithelialization, and minimized scar formation. These effects are ascribed to honey's acidity, hydrogen peroxide content, osmotic effect, nutritional and antioxidant contents, stimulation of immunity, and to unidentified compounds. Prostaglandins and nitric oxide play a major role in inflammation, microbial killing, and the healing process. Honey was found to lower prostaglandin levels and elevate nitric oxide end products. These properties might help to explain some biological and therapeutic properties of honey, particularly as an antibacterial agent or wound healer. The data presented here demonstrate that honeys from different geographical areas have considerable therapeutic effects on chronic wounds, ulcers, and burns. The results encourage the use of honey in clinical practice as a natural and safe wound healer.
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The results of an ethnobotanical study conducted in the pristine village of ProkoÅko Lake (Vranica Mountain, Bosnia and Herzegovina) in summer 2007 is presented. Informal interviews involving 12 informants known as âtraditional healersâ provided data from 43 plants used in 82 prescriptions. The applied plants were used for a broad spectrum of indications. The most frequent were gastro-intestinal tract ailments, blood system disorders, skin ailments, respiratory tract ailments and urinary-genital tract ailments. The most frequent preparation was an infusion. Other often used preparations were ointments or balms and decocts. The special Bosnian balms known as âmehlemsâ were prepared from freshly chopped or freshly pressed herbal parts of various plant species. Warmed resins from Abies or Picea species, raw cow or pig lard, olive oil and honey served as basis. The traditional doctors, who usually worked as a team, enjoyed such a good reputation that people from all over the country were visiting in search of alternative ways to cure their ailments and diseases. The practical techniques applied by the healers and some of their attitudes and values are reported.
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Honey has been used since ancient times as a remedy in wound healing. However, even though the results from randomized clinical trials document that honey accelerates wound healing, no study dealing with its influence on human skin cells (epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblast) has been performed. We demonstrate that keratinocytes, which are known to be involved in wound healing, are responsible for elevated production of mediators including cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and TGF-beta) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) after incubation with honey. Real-time PCR was performed for the quantification of mRNA level of selected cytokines and MMP-9. Furthermore, we show that the increased level of MMP-9 in the epidermis following incubation with honey leads to degradation of type IV collagen in the basement membrane. These data indisputably demonstrate that honey activates keratinocytes and support the findings that honey may accelerate wound healing process.
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Royal jelly is widely consumed in the community and has perceived benefits ranging from promoting growth in children and improvement of general health status to enhancement of longevity for the elderly. However, royal jelly consumption has been linked to contact dermatitis, acute asthma, anaphylaxis and death. High prevalence of positive skin tests to royal jelly have been reported among atopic populations in countries with a high rate of royal jelly consumption. The present study is aimed to identify the major allergens of royal jelly. Royal jelly extract was separated by sodium dodecyl polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-D). Immunoblotting of the SDS-PAGE and 2-D profiles were performed to identify the allergenic spots. Spots were then excised from the 2-D gel, digested with trypsin and analyzed by mass spectrometry. The SDS-PAGE of royal jelly extract revealed 18 bands between 10 to 167 kD. Western blot of the fractionated proteins detected 15 IgE-binding bands between 14 to 127 kD with seven major allergens of 32, 40, 42, 49, 55, 60 and 67 kD using serum from 53 subjects with royal jelly allergy. The 2-D gel fractionated the royal jelly proteins to more than 50 different protein spots. Out of these, 30 spots demonstrated specific IgE affinity to the sera tested. Eight spots of the major royal jelly allergens were selected for mass-spectrometry analysis. Digested tryptic peptides of the spots were compared to the amino acid sequence search in protein databases which identified the fragments of royal jelly homologus to major royal jelly protein 1 (MRJ1) and major royal jelly protein 2 (MRJ2). In conclusion, the major allergens of royal jelly are MRJ1 and MRJ2 in our patients' population.
Chapter
The story of cosmetics and perfumery forms a continuous narrative throughout the history of man, developing as he developed. The origins are associated with fighting, hunting, religion and superstition; later with medicine; then, as knowledge increased, becoming dissociated from medicine and allied to pharmacy. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries books omitting cosmetics and devoted to perfumery were printed; interestingly, the study and preparation of essential oils developed separately in the wine, cordial and beverage industry with the beginnings of the science of distillation, in the sixteenth century. Today cosmetic, perfumery and essential oil industries exist with technologies of their own. The scientific bases of these are supported by the many new researches in chemistry and especially in the biochemistry of the skin and bodily functions.
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This chapter will consider the preservation of cosmetics and toiletries by the control of microbial growth, where the following definitions apply:
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Botulism is caused by a neurotoxin produced from the anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Botulism in humans is usually caused by toxin types A, B, and E. Since 1973, a median of 24 cases of foodborne botulism, 3 cases of wound botulism, and 71 cases of infant botulism have been reported annually to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). New vehicles for transmission have emerged in recent decades, and wound botulism associated with black tar heroin has increased dramatically since 1994. Recently, the potential terrorist use of botulinum toxin has become an important concern. Botulism is characterized by symmetric, descending, flaccid paralysis of motor and autonomic nerves, usually beginning with the cranial nerves.Blurred vision, dysphagia, and dysarthria are common initial complaints. The diagnosis of botulism is based on compatible clinical findings; history of exposure to suspect foods; and supportive ancillary testing to rule out other causes of neurologic dysfunction that mimic botulism, such as stroke, the Guillain-Barre syndrome, and myasthenia gravis. Laboratory confirmation of suspected cases is performed at the CDC and some state laboratories. Treatment includes supportive care and trivalent equine antitoxin, which reduces mortality if administered early. The CDC releases botulism antitoxin through an emergency distribution system. Although rare, botulism outbreaks are a public health emergency that require rapid recognition to prevent additional cases and to effectively treat patients. Because clinicians are the first to treat patients in any type of botulism outbreak, they must know how to recognize, diagnose, and treat this rare but potentially lethal disease.
Article
Thermal processing of honey eliminates the microorganisms responsible for spoilage. Microwave heating, infrared heating, ultrasound processing, and membrane processing have been explored as alternatives to conventional heat processing. Microwave heating provides a rapid method for achieving the desired level of yeast reduction with reduced thermal damage. Infrared heating is not as rapid as microwave heating but desired results are achieved in a relatively shorter duration (3 to 4 minutes) compared to the conventional method. Membrane processing is an athermal process and very effective in the complete removal of yeast cells from honey. Microfiltration and ultrafiltration could be employed to produce enzyme-enriched honey besides clarified honey.
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This review discusses the processing techniques proposed for the production of dried and intermediate moisture honey products, as well as their properties. Stickiness is the major problem in the drying of sugar rich products like honey, that depend on the type of sugar and temperature of operation, which are related to the glass transition temperature. Some additives are usually added to the sugary feed to increase the glass transition temperature and concurrently the sticky point temperature. In the case of honey-fruit spreads, nutritional and sensory characteristics can be enhanced by replacing part of sugar with honey. Co-crystallization of honey with sucrose could be used to preserve the honey flavor. These diversified honey products provide better taste and nutrition to the consumer besides enhancing the utilization of honey.
Article
Some components responsible for the exceptionally high antibacterial activity of manuka honey were isolated by testing fractions of the honey for activity against Staphylococcus aureus. An ethanol-ether extract of the honey was separated by preparative-layer chromatography and the fractions thus obtained were assessed for antibacterial activity. One fairly homogeneous fraction was identified as methyl 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxybenzoate (methyl syringate, 1b). Combined gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy indicated the presence of this compound in some of the other antibacterial fractions together with methyl 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate (1c) and 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid (1a). Authentic specimens of 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (syringic acid, 1d) and 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid (1a) and their methyl esters were tested against S. aureus. The acids and, to a lesser extent, methyl syringate were found to possess significant antibacterial activity.
Article
This review covers the general area of disease and problems such as malaria, bacterial and fungal infections, free radical damage and the decline in the immune system. After a brief history of ethnopharmacology, we discuss the scientific approaches that have been used in the screening of medicinal plants and identify some African medicinal plants that are used successfully in the treatment of these diseases. It is evident that African medicinal plants are continuously being screened for their pharmacological properties and many interesting results with crude extracts have occasionally been obtained through the isolation and identification of the active principles. However, as a source of new drugs, African medicinal plants are understudied, considering the high percentage of plants not yet screened for their biochemical composition or for their pharmacological properties.
Article
Background: Phenolic compound profiles of 20 honeys of different botanical origin (eucalyptus, citrus, chestnut and linden) were obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection after solid phase extraction, in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the fingerprint method for monofloral honey discrimination. Results: A total of 58 peaks were detected at λ = 280 nm. Distinctive phenolic compound profiles were obtained in which both the nature and the relative amount of the detected compounds were characteristic for different botanical source honeys. In order to detect sample groupings, chromatographic peak areas were submitted to principal component analysis. Then linear discriminant analysis was carried out on the first three principal components. In addition, linear discriminant analysis was carried out on the 58 variables, allowing the selection of five variables able to discriminate honeys of different botanical origin. Conclusion: The chemometric evaluation of the phenolic compound profiles yielded classification models able to group honey samples according to their floral source with an excellent degree of agreement. The main advantage of the fingerprint approach with respect to traditional methods is that it does not require time-consuming identification and quantification of the analytes. The method proved to be effective for the assessment of honey authenticity.
Article
Honey has been used since ancient times for wound repair, but the subjacent mechanisms are almost unknown. We have tried to elucidate the modulatory role of honey in an in vitro model of HaCaT keratinocyte re-epithelialization by using acacia, buckwheat, and manuka honeys. Scratch wound and migration assays showed similar increases of re-epithelialization rates and chemoattractant effects in the presence of different types of honey (0.1%, v/v). However, the use of kinase and calcium inhibitors suggested the occurrence of different mechanisms. All honeys activated cyclin-dependent kinase 2, focal adhesion kinase, and rasGAP SH3 binding protein 1. However, vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein, integrin-β3, cdc25C, and p42/44 mitogen activated protein kinase showed variable activation pattern. Re-epithelialization recapitulates traits of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the induction of this process was evaluated by a polymerase chain reaction array, revealing marked differences among honeys. Manuka induced few significant changes in the expression of EMT-regulatory genes, while the other two honeys acted on a wider number of genes and partially showed a common profile of up- and down-regulation. In conclusion, our findings have shown that honey-driven wound repair goes through the activation of keratinocyte re-epithelialization, but the ability of inducing EMT varies sensibly among honeys, according to their botanical origin.
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In the current healthcare environment, clinicians are increasingly under pressure to use wound care products that are cost effective. This includes products that can be used in a variety of wounds to achieve different outcomes, depending on the wound-bed requirements. Medical-grade honey has emerged as a product that can achieve a variety of outcomes within the wound and is safe and easy to use. This article reviews the use of a medical-grade honey, with a view to including it on the wound care formulary in both primary and secondary care. It featured in a poster presentation at the Wounds UK conference at Harrogate in 2011.
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Honey has been reported to have antifungal activity and so was tested against clinical isolates of the common dermatophyte species which cause tineas in man. A honey with an average level of hydrogen peroxide, and a manuka (Leptospermum scoparium J. R. and G. Forst, family Myrtaceae) honey with an average level of non-peroxide antibacterial activity were used. An agar well diffusion assay was used, the contents of the wells being replaced with freshly prepared honey solutions at 24-h intervals over the 3–4 days of incubation.The lowest concentrations (% v/v, in steps of 5%) of manuka honey with catalase added to remove hydrogen peroxide, and of the other honey (without catalase) showed that inhibition of growth around the wells were, respectively, Epidermophyton floccosum 25%, 10%; Microsporum canis 25%, 15%; Microsporum gypseum 55%, 20%; Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale 45%, 15%; Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes 25%, 15%; Trichophyton rubrum 20%, 5% and Trichophyton tonsurans 25%, 20%. No inhibitory activity was detected with the other honey at 50% (v/v) with catalase added.The results of this investigation show that the common dermatophytes are sensitive to the antimicrobial activity of honey, indicating that clinical evaluation of honey in the treatment of tineas is warranted. This would determine whether the hydrogen peroxide or the non-peroxide antifungal agent diffuses better into the skin.
Article
Total polyphenols, flavonoids and antioxidant power of raw honey samples from two of the most common Italian varieties, i.e., Millefiori and Acacia, were evaluated. Phenolic content, expressed as caffeic acid equivalents, ranged from 12.5 to 17.5 mg/100 g and from 3 to 11 mg/100 g in Millefiori and Acacia honeys, respectively. All Millefiori samples exhibited the highest flavonoid concentration being between 1.23 and 2.93 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/100 g honey. Total flavonoids in 100 g Acacia honeys were in the range of 0.45–1.01 mg CE. Acacia honeys had lower total antioxidant power, as assessed by ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay, than Millefiori. The relationship between phenolic content and antioxidant power was discussed. Comparative experimental analysis was performed with an artificial honey and processed honeys. Raw Millefiori honey is rich in both amount and variety of antioxidant substances, and its inclusion in the diet may be recommended to complement other polyphenol sources.
Article
In this article I intend to elucidate the extent to which medieval western Jewish and Christian women shared customs, knowledge and practices regarding health care, a sphere which has been historically considered as part of women's daily domestic tasks. My study aims to identify female agency in medical care, as well as women's interaction across religious lines, by analysing elusive sources, such as medical literature on women's health care, and by collating the information they provide with data obtained from other textual and visual records. By searching specific evidence of the dialogues that must have occurred between Christian and Jewish women in transmitting their knowledge and experiences, I put forward the idea (developed from earlier work by Montserrat Cabré i Pairet) that medical texts with no clear attribution can be used as sources to reconstruct women's authoritative knowledge.
Article
The wound-healing properties of honey are well established and it has been suggested that, among its pharmaco-active constituents, kynurenic acid (KA) exerts antinociceptive action on injured tissue by antagonizing NMDA at peripheral GABA receptors. The aim of this study was to investigate the quantitative profile of KA and of two recently identified, structurally related derivatives, 3-pyrrolidinyl-kynurenic acid (3-PKA) and its γ-lactamic derivative (γ-LACT-3-PKA), by examining their mass spectrometric behavior, in honeys from different botanical sources. We used a combination of HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS and NMR techniques (one-dimensional 1H NMR and diffusion-ordered spectroscopy NMR).Chestnut honey constantly contained KA (2114.9–23 g/kg), 3-PKA (482.8–80 mg/kg) and γ-LACT-3-PKA (845.8–32 mg/kg), confirming their reliability as markers of origin. A new metabolite, 4-quinolone (4-QUIN), was identified for the first time in one chestnut honey sample (743.4 mg/kg). Small amounts of KA were found in honeydew, sunflower, multifloral, almond and eucalyptus honeys, in the range of 23.1–143 mg/kg, suggesting contamination with chestnut honey. Total phenol content (TPC) was in the range from 194.9 to 1636.3 mgGAE/kg and total antiradical activity (TAA) from 61 to 940 mg/GAE/kg), depending on the botanical origin.Principal component analysis (PCA) was then done on these data. The three different clusters depicted: (i) antinociceptive activity from KA and/or its derivatives, typical of chestnut honey; (ii) antioxidant/radical scavenging activity by antioxidants responsible for the antiinflammatory action (dark honeys); (iii) peroxide-dependent antibacterial activity due to H2O2 production by glucose oxidase in honey.The PCA findings provide useful indications for the dermatologist for the treatment of topical diseases, and the profiling of KA and its derivatives may shed light on new aspects of the kynurenine pathway involved in tryptophan metabolism.
Article
An ethnopharmaceutical study focused on domestic cosmetics, cosmeceuticals, and remedies to heal skin diseases traditionally used in the inland part of the Marches region (Central-Eastern Italy) has been conducted. At present, traditional knowledge concerning home-made phytocosmetics is represented by both the remnants of an orally transmitted folk heritage and also by new forms of knowledge, sometimes coming from popular phytotherapeutical books and the mass media (out of the scope of this survey), but also as a result of recent migration trends from Eastern Europe. We recorded approximately 135 cosmetic or cosmeceutical preparations prepared from more than 70 botanical species and a very few animal or mineral ingredients. Among the recorded preparations, developing a clear distinction amongst cosmetics, cosmeceuticals and pharmaceuticals for skin diseases is very problematic, confirming that in folk knowledge systems medicinal products for healing skin diseases and cosmetics have often been perceived as two poles of a continuum. Many of the quoted species represented well-known medicinal plants of the European phytotherapy, although we also recorded a few unusual plant taxa, which are briefly discussed under the perspective of their eventual phytochemical and/or phytopharmacological potentialities. Exotic drugs or precious essences, even native of the Mediterranean, were not quoted as ingredients for preparing perfumes and fragrances by the interviewees of the present study, thus indicating that popular cosmetic practices in rural Central Italy have taken a much separated path away from the cosmetic "know-how" of the aristocracy and high bourgeois classes of the last centuries.
Article
Honey has been used as a medicine since ancient times in many cultures and is still used in ‘folk medicine’. The use of honey as a therapeutic substance has been rediscovered by the medical profession in more recent times, and it is gaining acceptance as an antibacterial agent for the treatment of ulcers and bed sores, and other infections resulting from burns and wounds. In many of the cases in the cited reports, honey was used on infections not responding to standard effective in rapidly clearing up infection and promoting healing. Honey has also been found to be effective in treating bacterial gastoentertis in infants. This is the published version of an article published in the journal: Bee World. Used with permission.
Article
Au moins 500 espèces de plantes ont été utilisées comme remèdes traditionnels en Lituanie. Cette abondance de drogues végétales s'explique par les grandes ressources et la biodiversité de la flore lituanienne ainsi que par la richesse des traditions due à la diversité du peuplement. De nos jours, il est possible de trouver beaucoup de plantes médicinales vendues au marché de Vilnius (Wilno). Nombre d'entre elles ont des usages alimentaires et thérapeutiques. Nous avons mené des recherches sur le terrain (interviews de guérisseurs locaux, herboristes et autres, dans la région de Wilno) et entrepris des investigations botaniques et bibliographiques sur les plantes locales médicinales et alimentaires. Ces recherches ont permis de constater qu'un bon nombre de ces plantes suscitent actuellement un grand intérêt en raison des propriétés pharmacologiques qui leur ont été reconnues. Dans cet article sont présentés des exemples de plantes médicinales intéressantes et dignes d'attention, avec leurs usages et leurs indications. Parmi ces espèces, beaucoup semblent être des drogues de valeur, prometteuses dans le traitement de certains maux dits "de civilisation", ainsi que l'alcoolisme et les toxicomanies. Des remèdes végétaux tirés de la médecine traditionnelle pourraient aussi être utilisés dans les soins de santé primaire. (Résumé d'auteur)
Article
This paper describes the design of an emulsion cream, obtained from a self-emulsifying base, to which lavender honey has been added. Physical, galenic and stability studies and assays, and rheological analyses, are used to describe the qualities and properties of the honeyed cream under study. The formula is presented as an ivory-coloured cream with a light lavender scent and agreeable organoleptic characteristics. From a rheological viewpoint this is very adequate for spreading and applying onto the skin because of its thixotropic behaviour. The emulsion is stable and perfectly adaptable to the requirements of this type of skin application.
Article
This paper is a report of a study to compare a medical grade honey with conventional treatments on the healing rates of wounds healing by secondary intention. There is an increasing body of evidence to support the use of honey to treat wounds, but there is a lack of robust randomized trials on which clinicians can base their clinical judgement. A sample of 105 patients were involved in a single centre, open-label randomized controlled trial in which patients received either a conventional wound dressing or honey. Data were collected between September 2004 and May 2007. The median time to healing in the honey group was 100 days compared with 140 days in the control group. The healing rate at 12 weeks was equal to 46.2% in the honey group compared with 34.0% in the conventional group, and the difference in the healing rates (95% confidence interval, CI) at 12 weeks between the two groups was 12.2% (-13.6%, 37.9%). The unadjusted hazard ratio (95% CI) from a Cox regression was equal to 1.30 (0.77, 2.19), P = 0.321. When the treatment effect was adjusted for confounding factors (sex, wound type, age and wound area at start of treatment), the hazard ratio increased to 1.51 but was again not statistically significant. Wound area at start of treatment and sex are both highly statistically significant predictors of time to healing. These results support the proposition that there are clinical benefits from using honey in wound care, but further research is needed.
Article
To synthesise the evidence regarding honey's role in health care and to identify whether this evidence applies more specifically to cancer care. Systematic review. The inclusion and exclusion criteria were agreed by two reviewers and a keyword strategy was developed. EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, MEDLINE, COCHRANE and PUBMED databases were screened to identify suitable articles. The citation list from each included study was also screened for potentially suitable papers. The key findings from each study were entered onto a data extraction sheet. In total, 43 studies were included in the systematic review, which included studies in relation to wounds (n = 19), burns (n = 11), skin (n = 3), cancer (n = 5) and others (n = 5). In addition, a systematic review regarding honey use in wound care was also included. While the majority of studies noted the efficacy of honey in clinical use, five studies found honey to be equally as effective as the comparator and three found honey to be less effective than the comparator treatment. Other research did not illustrate any significant difference between standard treatment regimes vs. honey treatment. Studies were generally poor in quality because of small sample sizes, lack of randomisation and absence of blinding. Honey was found to be a suitable alternative for wound healing, burns and various skin conditions and to potentially have a role within cancer care. In the cancer setting, honey may be used for radiation-induced mucositis, radiotherapy-induced skin reactions, hand and foot skin reactions in chemotherapy patients and for oral cavity and external surgical wounds.
Article
The antimicrobial spectrum of honey was investigated by placing two drops into each of the wells made on culture media on which pure cultures of various organisms obtained from surgical specimens were grown. The organisms were grown under both aerobic and anaerobic environments. Fungal cultures of common fungi causing surgical infections or wound contaminations were mixed with 100%, 50% and 20% unprocessed honey. Growth inhibition was complete in the media containing 100%, partial in media containing 50% and no inhibition was produced by 20% honey. Unprocessed honey inhibited most of the fungi and bacteria causing wound infection and surgical infection except Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Clostridium oedematiens. Apart from Streptococcus pyogenes which is only moderately inhibited, golden syrup, a sugar syrup with similar physical properties as honey, did not inhibit any of the bacteria or fungi tested, demonstrating that honey is superior to any hypertonic sugar solution in antimicrobial activity. Honey is thus an ideal topical wound dressing agent in surgical infections, burns and wound infections.