Book

A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction (Center for Environmental Structure Series)

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Abstract

The second of three books published by the Center for Environmental Structure to provide a "working alternative to our present ideas about architecture, building, and planning," _A Pattern Language_ offers a practical language for building and planning based on natural considerations. The reader is given an overview of some 250 patterns that are the units of this language, each consisting of a design problem, discussion, illustration, and solution. By understanding recurrent design problems in our environment, readers can identify extant patterns in their own design projects and use these patterns to create a language of their own. Extraordinarily thorough, coherent, and accessible, this book has become a bible for homebuilders, contractors, and developers who care about creating healthy, high-level design.
... Instead, pre-developed components as well as the knowledge about addressing particular problems are reused from previous experience. Design patterns were proposed to establish a common solution to recurring design problems occurring in communities and buildings [1] as well as in software and systems design [2] . Design patterns facilitate the system architect's work when facing commonly recurring design problems. ...
... Their main purpose is to help the architects and designers reuse existing solutions for design problem solving. The traditional design pattern definition included three aspects: context, problem, and solution [1] . These three aspects alongside the pattern name, constitute the traditional pattern representation. ...
... Design patterns were proposed by Alexander [1] in order to establish a common solution to recurring design problems. Design patterns help designers and system architects when choosing suitable solutions for commonly recurring design problems. ...
Article
Development of critical systems nowadays is hardly achievable without reuse of previous knowledge. Design patterns have an important role in the design of such systems as they define and document common solutions to recurring design problems. However, critical systems such as those that are safety or security related, often require specific assurances that the system is adequate to operate in a given environment. Just as with any other reused knowledge in such systems, the reuse via application of design patterns needs to be assured every time. In this paper, we present a methodology for assuring the application of design patterns in critical domains. In particular, we enrich the design patterns template to support their further assurance. We define the aspects that should be tackled during the assurance of a design pattern application. We use the information specified in the design pattern template to guide the automated instantiation of the argumentation for each design pattern application in the system. We provide tool-support for our methodology in the context of the AMASS tool-platform and evaluate it in an automotive case study.
... Estos patrones de diseño e-learning, proveen ciertas directrices sobre cómo crear apropiadamente recursos educativos en entornos de aprendizaje [12], de la misma manera como se lo haría en COs. El concepto de patrón fue descrito originalmente como un problema muy repetitivo, en donde se encuentra el núcleo de la solución del problema, de tal forma que la solución se use muchas veces más, sin tener que hacerlo de la misma manera varias veces [13]. A partir de su estudio se han utilizado en muchas áreas específicas. ...
... Una vez que se tienen identificados el conjunto de patrones representativos, se procedió a especificar y elaborar el contenido de cada patrón. Para describir a un patrón se usará un esquema muy sucinto, pero bien explícito que fue propuesto originalmente por [13] que fue utilizado por [14] y adecuado por [8]. Se detalla el desarrollo del patrón PD01: a) Contexto en el que surge la idea: la página principal del curso online debe tratar de captar la atención del estudiante y deberá expresar una primera impresión positiva a los estudiantes del CO. ...
Article
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With the massive growth of the e-learning in higher education institutions, the demand for implementing online courses in Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) has increased. The responsible ones for adding the learning resources are the teachers, however, they do not have a good practice to design online courses. As a consequence, the students do not adapt in these unattractive and little usable environments. To mitigate this problem, this article proposes the creation of design patterns for the creation of online courses in a VLE, but articulating at the same time with a pedagogical methodology used in virtual education. This study proposes a methodology for creating e-learning design patterns. As a result, a catalogue of ten design patterns is created. Additionally, an online course model to guide teachers in the creation of new courses is proposed. To assess the validity of the proposed patterns, two evaluation processes were carried out; the first one to measure ability to design online courses with the teachers and the second one to measure the usability of the online courses with the students. They consider the virtual environment more attractive and more usability.
... Design Patterns, as defined in (Alexander et al. 1977), are a well-known and frequently used software engineering problem-solving discipline, which has emerged from the object-oriented community. Design Patterns are " templates " that intend to solve particular problems in a specific context. ...
... In the literature one can find two types of patterns related to Software Engineering, the Architectural Patterns and Design Patterns. Design Patterns were introduced in (Alexander et al. 1977) as Software Engineering problems that may occur repeatedly, and they are associated with a solution that can be used to solve the problem every time it occurs within the current context that the problem exists. Architectural patterns are similar but with a wider scope.Harrison et al. 2007) presents methods for documenting decisions with patterns. ...
Article
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This work describes the design, development and evaluation of a software Prototype, named ArchReco, an educational tool that employs two types of Context-aware Recommendations of Design Patterns, to support users (CS students or professionals) who want to improve their design skills when it comes to training for High Level Software models. The tool’s underlying algorithms take advantage of Semantic Web technologies, and the usage of Content based analysis for the computation of non-personalized recommendations for Design Patterns. The recommendations’ objective is to support users in functions such as finding the most suitable Design Pattern to use according to the working context, learn the meaning, objectives and usages of each Design Pattern. The current work presents the Semantic Modeling of the Software Design process through the definition of the context that defines the Software Design process and in particular the representation of the Design Patterns as Ontology model, the implemented Context Aware Recommendation Algorithms and the evaluation results extracted from a user based testing for the ArchReco prototype.
... In this study, a pattern is defined according to Alexander et al. [11], i.e., a pattern is a structured method of describing good design practices within a field of expertise. Still following Alexander's definition [11], we describe the patterns by presenting (i ) Name; (ii ) Context; (iii ) Problem; (iv ) Solution; and (v ) Example. ...
... In this study, a pattern is defined according to Alexander et al. [11], i.e., a pattern is a structured method of describing good design practices within a field of expertise. Still following Alexander's definition [11], we describe the patterns by presenting (i ) Name; (ii ) Context; (iii ) Problem; (iv ) Solution; and (v ) Example. The patterns are presented according to the UCD stages [4], which facilitates the understanding of the goal of each pattern described. ...
Conference Paper
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The integration between agile methods and UCD has been addressed by several authors in recent years. However, a gap remains regarding how the practices have been described, lacking a standard that both designers and agile practitioners can understand and apply. This study aims to propose agile usability patterns based on the literature, with a focus on the User-Centered Design early stages. The goal of the proposed patterns is to facilitate the use of the best agile usability practices by identifying more clearly in which context the pattern can be applied, and what is the problem that each pattern solves, presenting examples.
... The agile usability practices identified in our literature review were described in the following format: (i ) Name; (ii ) Context; (iii ) Problem; (iv ) Solution; and (v ) Example, according to the definition of a pattern [11]. Following Alexander's definition [11] , a pattern is a structured method of describing good design practices within a field of expertise. ...
... The agile usability practices identified in our literature review were described in the following format: (i ) Name; (ii ) Context; (iii ) Problem; (iv ) Solution; and (v ) Example, according to the definition of a pattern [11]. Following Alexander's definition [11] , a pattern is a structured method of describing good design practices within a field of expertise. The selection of practices to become patterns considered only the practices used by at least three different cases. ...
Conference Paper
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The integration between Agile Methods and User-Centered Design (UCD) has been addressed by several authors in recent years. Nevertheless, a gap remains regarding a systematically consolidated description of agile usability practices for the final stages of UCD. Our aim is to describe agile usability practices based on the literature in the form of patterns, focusing on the UCD final stages, namely “Create Design Solutions” and “Evaluate Designs”. A literature review was conducted to identify patterns of use of agile usability practices. The major results of the study presented here are the selection and classification of the usability practices for the UCD final stages within the agile community and their structured presentation in the form of patterns (Name, Context, Problem, Solution, and Examples). Presenting agile usability practices as patterns can increase their applicability; it facilitates the visualization of the similarities between the communities of UCD and Agile Methods and also presents the ideas more clearly to other communities that can benefit from using these patterns in their specific development contexts.
... This quote also highlights the aspect of manufacturing that adds to the challenge of building sustainable. Such that elements can be made in a simple process in a suitable format and an accessible material, as described by Alexander et al (1977). ...
... Thus, masonry and brickwork might still have a role to play in the future. Returning to the quote by Alexander et al. (1977) The central problem of materials, then, is to find a collection of materials which are small in scale, easy to cut on site, easy to work on site without the aid of huge and expensive machinery, easy to vary and adapt, heavy enough to be solid, longlasting or easy to maintain, and yet easy to build, not needing specialised labor, not expensive in labor, and universally obtainable and cheap. (p.956) ...
Thesis
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Geometry links the art of building and the physics of space-time. Mathematical breakthroughs in geometry have led to new ways of designing our structures and our ability to visualise and describe the world, phenomena in nature and the universe. However, in contemporary architecture and structural engineering, a more profound understanding of geometry has been forgotten. This thesis aims to resurrect geometry in architecture and engineering in connection with the rapid development of new digital tools for design and production—particularly the connection between the structural action related to the design of the geometrical patterns on shells structures are treated. A brief historical overview of geometry is conducted, and with an emphasis on its applications in architecture in terms of structural design and economic production. Furthermore, the connection to a sustainable building culture from the standpoint of the Davos declaration 2018, calling for a high-quality Baukultur is investigated. The concept of Baukultur (building culture in English) defined in the Davos declaration is related to architectural quality but has a broader meaning as it concerns the final product and the associated processes and its effect in society. Moreover, the concept of craftsmanship and workshop culture is examined, and how it is already present in computer code development and contemporary innovative research cultures combining architectural design and technology. Taking departure from the 18th-century experimental scientist Joseph Plateau and the contemporary artist Andy Goldsworthy, the connection between scientific and artistic research is investigated. Four articles are included; all connected to various ways of architectural applications of geometry in the design process. The first article describes a way to interpret empirically derived brick patterns, specifically the bed joints, using differential geometry. Two methods to apply this in the design processes of new brick vaults are presented. The first is purely geometrical and can be applied on an arbitrary shape with the possibility to apply several patterns; the second is an iterative method of generating a funicular shape and its pattern simultaneously. The second and third paper describes the design and construction process of two different wooden structures built of straight planar laths. Both studies examine the possibilities of using geometry as a link between various parameters in a design process using digital tools to achieve complex forms using simple elements and production methods. The fourth paper examines an appropriate form for a shell, that can balance aesthetics, structural performance and build-ability, with a proposal for the use of surfaces with constant solid angle. In this paper, the surface was generated with a Delaunay triangulation. Thus, future studies would include incorporation of other types of patterns facilitating buildability.
... Another important role of design patterns is providing a common vocabulary that lets experts communicate more easily about design questions. Design patterns emerged from the work of Alexander et al. in the field of architecture [1]. Today design patterns are known in many domains (e.g., [2,3,4,5,6,7] ). ...
Technical Report
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To draw on the full potential of Ubiquitous Computing (UC) systems, they have to be designed with awareness for their social embedding in order to increase the user acceptance. To this end, not only the compliance with laws has to be ensured, but also usability-enhancing and trust and confidence-building measures have to be applied. This makes the development of UC applications a challenging task that involves experts from different disciplines. The main contribution of this report is a set of design patterns for UC applications that specifically focus on the interweaving and implementation of multidisciplinary requirements. The patterns capture the design know-how of typical, recurring features in context-aware adaptive UC applications with particular concern for the sociotechnical requirements. First, we present a detailed discussion of the related work on design patterns in the realm of UC. Afterwards, we explain our research methodology and the template structure of our pattern specifications. The core of the report consists of eight interdisciplinary UC design patterns. This initial list of patterns was derived from several application case studies in the interdisciplinary research project LOEWE-VENUS. We view this collection as a starting point for an evolving set of commonly accepted reusable design patterns that facilitate the development of accepted and acceptable UC applications.
... 1 9 . Alexander, 1977) has inspired many authors to copy its structure and intent and has led them to produce similar books. This has the potential to create " bibles of the application field " where there currently are none. ...
Conference Paper
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This paper draws an overall picture of the new scientific field that can be defined as having its roots in the lifework of Christopher Alexander. It is a large field, spanning many disciplines and containing many profound concepts. A map might be useful but we currently have none. An intermediate step towards a map is to increase our distance from the field by stepping back and describing its overall structures. Such a bird's eye view should be seen as a simplified construction. Therefore, one can expect controversial discussions about what it has to say, especially at the upcoming PURPLSOC workshop and conference. My hope is that these discussions will contribute to the development of the scientific field, even if there should be no general agreement on some of the issues at the end of the conference.
... Christopher Alexander's (1977) patterns are an. encouraging start in this direction. ...
... We used this approach because design patterns hold a powerful promise for recording, calibrating and collaboratively refining expert knowledge[1]and patterns are also often employed to capture and share experiential knowledge. Identifying the underlying patterns can help understand the strengths an weaknesses of existing games and the ways in which they are used[11]. ...
Conference Paper
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We introduce teachers’ practice patterns as a possible way to enhance knowledge building about game use in schools. We developed patterns through critical incident interviews with 15 Estonian school teachers and validated them in an online forum. We present the patterns, experiences around employing the approach for knowledge building and report some general themes on game use in schools that have emerged from this work.
... The best tool for this purpose, as proven by their growing popularity, are pattern languages. Christopher Alexander [1] noted that cities are based on patterns. Currently, design patterns are a commonly used structure for exchanging solutions to recurrent problems. ...
Chapter
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The paper presents the definition of the design pattern language of Smart Cities in the form of an ontology. Since the implementation of a Smart City system is difficult, expensive and closely linked with the problems concerning a given city, the knowledge acquired during a single implementation is extremely valuable. The language we defined supports the management of such knowledge as it allows for the expression of a solution which, based on best practices recorded in the form of design patterns, is also tailored to the requirements of the city seeking to implement the Smart City solution. The formal/ontological structure of the language in turn allows the automatic management of the properties of a solution recorded in this way. This final feature of the introduced language is extremely important in the decision-making process regarding the choice of a particular solution by the relevant authorities. The work is divided into five main parts. In the first part we discuss the implementation issue of the integration bus using the example of the IOC. In the next part we talk about the validity of using semantic technologies in order to expand the spectrum of potential implementations. Then we discuss the ontological implementation of the Smart City pattern language which we created, a language which allows for both the saving of requirements and the validation of solutions specified in it. We also present an example of usage, which at the same time serves as a validation of the language in real-life conditions. In the last part we discuss certain aspects of the pattern language and the possible ways to develop research related to it.
... The idea of a pattern is to capture an instance of a problem and a corresponding solution, abstract it from a specific use case, and shape it in a more generic way, so that it can be applied and reused in various matching scenarios. Patterns originate from the realm of architecture, where Alexander et al. [5] released a seminal book on architectural design patterns in 1977. In this book, the authors compiled a list of archetypal designs for buildings and cities which were presented as reusable solutions for other architects. ...
Article
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Privacy strategies and privacy patterns are fundamental concepts of the privacy-by-design engineering approach. While they support a privacy-aware development process for IT systems, the concepts used by malicious, privacy-threatening parties are generally less understood and known. We argue that understanding the ``dark side'', namely how personal data is abused, is of equal importance. In this paper, we introduce the concept of privacy dark strategies and privacy dark patterns and present a framework that collects, documents, and analyzes such malicious concepts. In addition, we investigate from a psychological perspective why privacy dark strategies are effective. The resulting framework allows for a better understanding of these dark concepts, fosters awareness, and supports the development of countermeasures. We aim to contribute to an easier detection and successive removal of such approaches from the Internet to the benefit of its users.
... [3, 4]. Patterns documentation gives a solution to a problem in its context [5], and also has become immensely popular for documentation [6, 7] in the field of objectoriented programming, in part due to the " Gang of Four " – Gamma et al. [8]. Our technique is to conduct statistical tests on the documentation styles. ...
Article
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Introducing object-oriented frameworks for learning programming concepts has been recognised as a great challenge in managing information technology. Hence, the development of documentation styles along with evaluating their effectiveness serves as an important topic in computer programming instruction. This paper examines how different documentation styles affect 120 subjects in a coding exercise using Visual Basic.net (VB.net). The documentation styles assessed include minimalist, traditional step by step (SBS), and patterns styles. The experimental results reveal that SBS improves the novices' speed in completing VB.net programming task. Nevertheless, patterns documentation significantly enhances the learners' understanding of the framework.
... Alexander [1] was the originator of the pattern concept, defining it as a description of " […] a problem which occurs over and over again in our environment, and […] the core of the solution to that problem, in such a way that you can use this solution a million times over, without ever doing it the same way twice " . His philosophy of constructive, coherent and meaningful design in architecture, inspired the development of pattern languages in many other domains and application fields. ...
Conference Paper
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Developing collaborative robots that can productively and safely operate out of isolation in uninstrumented, human-populated environments is an important goal for the field of robotics. The development of such agents, those that handle the dynamics of human environments and the complexities of interpreting human interaction, is a strong focus within Human-Robot Interaction and involves underlying research questions deeply relevant to the broader robotics community. "Human-Robot Teaming" is a full-day workshop bringing together peer-reviewed technical and position paper contributions spanning a multitude of topics within the domain of human-robot teaming. This workshop seeks to bring together researchers from a wide array of human-robot interaction research topics with the focus of enabling humans and robots to better work together towards common goals. The morning session is devoted to gaining insight from invited speakers and contributed papers, while the afternoon session heavily emphasizes participant interaction via poster presentations, breakout sessions, and an expert panel discussion.
... [7] ...
... According to the MDA[7], the overall analysis and design of an OAIS Preservation Platform maps the six OAIS main Functional Entities onto software components making use of available design patterns. Generative patterns [9], [10] are used for addressing the specific requirements of each functional block. The design patterns solving the problems are identified and brought together in order to build up the software component diagram of the OAIS Functional Entities, eventually providing a candidate PIM. ...
... The various processes producing patterns of form, meaning and function (Bell, 2012;Saligaros, 2007;Alexander, 1977) could be categorised (Neal, 2010;Burns & Kahn, 2005;Spirn, 1998;Harvey, 1989): ...
Conference Paper
This paper discusses and examines the Sanandaj hills as public places by addressing the potential roles and functions of hills in hilly settlements. Considering various hills' attributes could identify them as public issues, including historical, cultural, ecological, and tangible presence in the urban public life. We collected data from the theoretical and historical texts alongside the field observations. Also, we applied phenomenological and qualitative methodsFindings showed that several processes have promoted or demoted the hills' public role during urban development, including the political-economic, narrative, and development-based processes. Also, there is a significant difference between the top of the hill and its downstream. The hills' public function has a tied relationship with the top area occupation by the institutions of power or public foundations.
... This means that virtual forms are desirable tools to incorporate fictional stories into the real world through the use of pervasive games, and a person can play a role in the story through expressing its properties of agency and immersion clearly [26,27]. However, we need design patterns, similar to those that have been proposed in the architecture field by Alexander [2], to develop persuasive virtual forms in a systematic fashion. In this paper, we do not discuss design patterns as a way to cause a person to lose his or her belief in reality by seamlessly blending fictional and real worlds to make the magic circle vague in terms of space, time and the social world. ...
Article
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A virtual form is an abstraction that enhances existing products and services by adding a layer to virtualize them. From a technical point of view, the current information technologies already make it possible to develop a virtual form using various techniques that represent information such as augmented reality technologies or ubiquitous display technologies. The virtual form can return a immediate feedback to a user so that it becomes a good design tool to develop games deployed in public spaces. We believe that incorporating fictional stories into virtual forms offers a new possibility for gamifying and enriching user experiences. However, only technological approaches cannot offer an ideal solution to develop attractive products and services if people do not feel values on them, and the design patterns for virtual forms is not well defined, especially, when a fictionality is incorporated. The design patterns needs to take into account a semiotic aspect of a virtual form. One key factor, in particular, is how strongly we believe in the reality of a fictional story within the virtual form from the semiotic aspect. This paper proposes some design patterns to integrate fictional stories into the real world for gamifying intelligent daily environments. The proposed design patterns cover three aspects. The first aspect is to exploit visual reality. The second aspect is to exploit ideological messages in fictional stories. The third aspect is to compose multiple fictional stories. The paper also shows a case study to motivate and gamify to join the Haiku contest by increasing the awareness of the importance of the contest, and show the effectiveness of the proposed design patterns.
... Design patterns have their roots in civil engineering, where it is about the architecture of buildings and structures, and not the software. According to Alexander [Ale77], "each Figure 16: Overview of the security patterns approach exploiting the contextual and run-time information on software architectures [TH16] pattern describes a problem which occurs over and over again in [...] environment, and then describes the core of the solution to that problem, in such a way that [...] can use this solution a million times over, without ever doing it the same way twice". Although this stands for a very different domain, the definition fits for software design patterns as well. ...
Chapter
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In this chapter, we introduce a three-layered framework for maintaining security in software evolution at design time and run time. Additionally, we present a suite of five approaches that employ the framework. Two approaches focus on design-time use of knowledge extracted from natural-language documents to identify potential steps for co-evolving the system’s design and on integrating architecture model information with program code. A third approach bridges design time and run time to support architects as the software evolves. The two remaining approaches focus on run-time security maintenance. The fourth approach monitors run-time information in order to detect suspicious behaviour, which is reacted to automatically by adapting the system with mitigation, while the fifth approach focuses on interdisciplinary changes in automation software. In combination, the approaches address current challenges for security maintenance at design time and run time.
... This means that alternate reality experiences enhanced by cultural gamified media contents are desirable tools to incorporate fictional stories into real spaces, and a person can play a role in the story through expressing its properties of agency and immersion clearly [36]. However, we also need to investigate design patterns, similar to those that have been proposed in the architecture field by Alexander [2], to make alternate reality experiences more persuasive in a systematic way. We conducted three focus groups to extract design patterns to incorporate existing cultural gamified media contents in real spaces. ...
Chapter
An alternative reality experience enhances our daily life by adding a layer to virtualize real spaces. We believe that incorporating virtuality through alternate reality experience offers a new possibility for gamifying and enriching daily user experiences. However, only technological approaches such as virtual reality and augmented reality do not offer an ideal solution to develop desirable user experiences if people do not feel meaningfulness on them, but current existing models and design patterns for designing alternate reality experiences are not well defined yet. Gamified media has recently become popular, especially in Japan. Among Japanese youth, one manifestation of this trend is the expansion of original media contents to create fanfic contents. This process changes passive consumers into active agents with the ability to advance society. However, no appropriate model currently exists for investigating and exploring this phenomenon in contemporary animé, comics, and games-cultural contents whose fictionality penetrates our daily lives. This chapter tries to fill the gaps to discuss how these cultural contents can be exploited for designing alternate reality experiences. We present a model and design patterns to integrate virtuality through the cultural contents into real spaces for designing alternate reality experiences. First, we present the GamiMedia model to analyze cultural contents. Because the model explicitly accommodates transmedia storytelling concepts, it can be used to explain how the fictional stories in the contents are extended into real spaces. Next, we show design patterns for designing alternate reality experiences based on the model. Finally, we introduce a case study to apply the model and design patterns to show the usefulness of them. The presented model and design patterns allow us to integrate cultural contents into alternate reality experiences offered in real spaces. The approach enables us to design alternate reality experiences that are more persuasive and include stronger ideological messages based on existing cultural contents, and offer new possibilities to overcome various social issues towards more flourished society through the persuasiveness and ideologies.
... Design patterns were first introduced in architectural design by Christopher Alexander[2], but were soon adopted and became a very popular tool in other design-related fields, such as software engineering[e.g. 3], and user experience and experience centered HCI [e.g. ...
Conference Paper
Design Patterns help a range of designers, architects, and others. However, there is surprisingly little such guidance for game artists. In this paper, we present our look at late 19th century art works and the emergent set of visual features commonly used to create an atmosphere of horror in visual art. Further, we show how we transformed these features into a set of seven patterns to be used in interactive artistry, based on an analysis of six well known survival horror games. Finally, we provide the full description of one of these patterns, the Visual Contrast.
... Christopher Alexander was speaking of pattern harmony when he wrote "When you build a thing, you cannot merely build that thing in isolation, but must also repair the world around it, and within it, so that the large world at that one place becomes more coherent, and more whole; and the thing which you make takes its place in the web of nature, as you make it.' [66]. While his initial work focused primarily on the pattern relationship between a building and the human community and life surrounding, his later work has increasingly encompassed all living systems. ...
Preprint
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The emerging field of regenerative development and design marks a significant evolution in the concept and application of sustainability. This chapter provides a chronology tracing the roots of regenerative development and design, and its emergence from the ecological sustainability stream. Several frameworks are offered depicting key elements and principles behind regenerative development and its relationship to regenerative design. This has been updated from the original chapter published in 2012.
Conference Paper
The core idea of patterns and pattern languages is the encapsulation, modeling and delivery of expert's knowledge and best practices to novices in a discipline. The use of such an approach is critical for modeling Instructional Design (ID) as it forms the basis for design of TEL systems (for e.g., eLearning Systems). While there is extensive work on patterns for ID from Pedagogy Patterns Project, E-LEN and so on, the focus has been on patterns at lower level of granularity rather than an approach that integrates patterns from ID and TEL perspectives. In addition, most of the researchers have focused either on domain patterns (ID) or TEL patterns, and not both. In this context, this paper presents a patterns-based approach to design of TEL systems based on ID. The crux of this approach is to model a solution in ID using patterns and integrate it with a solution in TEL. To this end, we present an approach that integrates Pattern-Oriented Instructional Design (POID) and Software Architecture for TEL Systems based on fundamental principles in software engineering (SE). We then illustrate our approach and ID patterns through adult literacy case study.
Conference Paper
Design patterns represent a highly successful technique in software engineering, giving a reusable ‘best practice’ solution to commonly occurring problems in software design. Taking inspiration from this approach, this paper introduces proof patterns, which aim to provide a common vocabulary for solving formal methods proof obligations by capturing and describing solutions to common patterns of proof.
Conference Paper
Architectural patterns are a helpful means for designing IT architectures, as they facilitate re-using proven knowledge (good practices) from previous exercises. Furthermore referencing a pattern in an architecture model helps improving the understandability of the model, as it directs to a comprehensive description of the pattern, but does not require to include the full description into the model. In this paper we describe how patterns can be woven into architecture models, focusing on deployment views of the IT infrastructure. Two different modeling approaches, Fundamental Modeling Concepts (FMC) and ArchiMate, are compared based on a real-world case concerning the infrastructure architecture of a large data center. This paper provides practical insights for IT architects from the industry by discussing the practical case and comparing both modeling approaches. Furthermore, it is supposed to intensify the exchange between industry experts and scientific researchers and it should motivate pursuing further research concerning patterns and IT infrastructure models.
Conference Paper
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Open collaboration communities depend on contributors. To reduce users’ engagement problems with collaborative systems, the use of gamification has been discussed. However, most gamification methods are generic and do not emphasize the collaborative aspects. This research aims to define a process to promote engagement in open collaboration communities by means of gamification. The process will be refined through action research cycles.
Conference Paper
Many quality aspects of software systems are addressed in the existing literature on software architecture patterns. But the aspect of system administration seems rather overlooked, even though it is perceived as important as other aspects. This work is in a certain way a sequel on our earlier paper 'Software Architecture Patterns for System Administration Support' and this paper will present a software architecture pattern that, when applied by software architects, support the work of system administrators by lowering the infrastructure costs and making their work more manageable. One pattern will be presented here: Multi-tenant Application.
Chapter
Given the complexity and variety of potentially relevant aspects in the interaction with and within a home in general and a smart home in particular, field-based, longitudinal research is the only chance for appropriately covering the whole scope. This research has to be performed within real world living environments to be able to thoroughly understand situatedness (Harrison et al., The three paradigms of HCI. In: Alt. Chi. Session at the SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems, San Jose, pp 1–18, 2007); the interplay between characteristics of the home (or better, the house as the surrounding infrastructure), its inhabitants, and the available technology. This form of research has a long-standing scientific tradition in the social sciences and humanities (as will be pointed out in Chap. 6) and has also gained importance in HCI, inspired by respective research activities in CSCW (Bannon, Interactions 18(4):50–57, 2011).
Conference Paper
Especially in agile environments, project team performance is based on constructive interpersonal relationships among team members. A pattern that supports team members in contributing to team performance is GIVE RECOGNITION TO THE IMPERVIOUS. The core of this paper is the elaboration of this project management or leadership pattern that focuses on promoting a team member that is not responsive by attentively, deeply listening and thus fostering the exploration of personal experience, personal vision, motives, wishes. The pattern is embedded in a pattern collection of interpersonal leadership interactions in the context of ICT-project teams based on a psychological perspective that highlights autonomy and self-responsibility of human beings.
Chapter
Multinationals and hi-tech firms often advertise and claim for their newest innovations, presenting all kinds of improvements as authentic revolution for the industry. Regarding interfaces between users and machines, in particular, software developers announce repetitively their new versions, emphasizing their novelty and disruptiveness in order to attract more customers. Apparently, all competitors seem to play against everyone else. This study instead, demonstrates that when looking at the evolution over time of mobile phone interfaces—as an example of a widely adopted technology by millions of customers –variance and genuine innovation is very limited, and competitors prefer to follow their enemies instead of taking the risk of being disruptive into the marketplace. The study investigates why it is such and it explores the reasons why competitors get stuck with pre-existing user interfaces.
Chapter
Current architectural educational design solutions are challenged by recent, multiple paradigm shifts: changes in societal culture, research on how we learn, educational methods (passive to active learning), and an emphasis on collaboration and participatory creativity. Evidence indicates that collaborative creativity is essential for innovation, and creativity flourishes in contradictory patterns of cultures, settings, and behaviors. “Design and space do matter” in supporting innovation and a culture of a place, particularly in learning-driven domains. The research studied how an active, adaptive design approach might emerge as a support for these paradigm shifts relative to the learning and creative processes. This chapter investigates how hybrid spatial patterns may support a collaborative culture with participatory creativity. It further aims to present a relationship between learning, creativity, and space by introducing hybrid patterns of architectural affordances that may promote new learning behaviors impacting collaborative creativity. The research design used a mixed-method protocol: (1) content analysis of design awarded learning and working environments, (2) survey and interviews, and (3) a Post-Occupancy Evaluation ethnography using behavioral observations and photographic traces techniques. The convenience sample was the Innovation Center at Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, USA. Analysis of the findings provides a new pattern language of contradictory cultures, settings, and conditions supporting creativity and learning. Three factors emerged: (1) convergent and divergent cultures reflecting modes of thinking, (2) private and public conditions reflecting the needs of the individual vs. the collective, and (3) concrete and abstract settings relating to passive vs. active spaces and behaviors. In an effort to provide information and guidelines for the educational and design communities, this chapter introduces a hybrid, active system of spaces related to cultures of learning, and environmental behavior, promoting collaborative creativity; fostering a new relationship between education and architecture.
Poster
Keywords: engajamento, gamificação, pesquisa-ação, participação voluntária, comunidades de colaboração aberta
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This article describes the phenomenon of commoning the city. It is understood as the co-production of new resources and/or the process of reclaiming existing assets (public or private) as a commons. We report on two original case studies (in New York City and Berlin) where the constitution of a data commons has been the starting point of a wider process of commoning the urban physical space: vacant public land on the one hand, and public fruit trees and other urban edibles on the other hand. Commoning the city in the digital age is therefore described as a hybrid process spanning over from the digital to the physical urban space, online and onland. In contrast to the smart cities approach, it lays a more citizen-oriented narrative of the impact of digitalization on urban life. This article addresses the research questions: How does the hybrid commoning process of (1) data and the related (2) public space take place? What is the role of the grassroots providers of the collaborative mapping infrastructure? Methodologically, the case study analyses are structured following existing adaptations of the Institutional Analysis and Development to the specificities of knowledge/information commons by Frischmann, Madison et al. (2014). Results show that, beyond appearances, the commoning of data is mostly a means, attracting visibility and attention, for an end: the wider commoning of urban land. The true focus of the action arena resides around the self-governance of land and trees and the constitution of local communities. A trend in the evolution of the role of local authorities towards a more collaborative state is confirmed and seems partly explained by increasing financial austerity forcing local governments to rely more on local civic actors. Another reason is that data makes city government more porous to bottom-up action. However this requires good practice in opening urban data sets, the existence of local civic capacity, and active community organizing (much) beyond the digital world. We conclude by suggesting an analytical departure from the IAD framework and its naturalist conception that approaches the commons as a resource and, as a consequence, forces an artificial divide between the intangible and tangible dimensions of the commoning process. Subsequently, we recommend approaching the phenomenon we identified as ‘commoning the city’ as a living practice of collaboratively producing a shared experience of the place, where the intangible (data) and tangible (land), the human and non-human, are seen as a whole.
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Academic research can offer insights for HCI practitioners, yet past work shows that research findings are rarely used in industry. We interviewed 22 design practitioners to identify why they do not use academic research and why and how they use other resources at work. We contribute recommendations for the design of translational resources to bridge the gap between theory and practice in HCI. We recommend ways to create theory-driven examples tailored to specific activities: understanding, brainstorming, building, and advocacy. Additionally, practitioners prefer actionable guidance and see prescriptive recommendations and downloadable design patterns as most useful. Design-oriented filters, support for mapping design challenges to research keywords, and visual galleries of examples from theory have the potential to facilitate designers' search processes. Finally, translational resources and discussion features can be integrated into tools for designers and academics to support cross-community collaboration.
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Dieser Beitrag zeigt heutige und zukünftige Entwicklungen der Enterprise-Integration auf und geht dabei auf das grundlegende Verständnis als Dienstleistung (Integrative and Integrating Service) ein. Dabei werden weit über die Informatik hinausreichende Anwendungsgebiete beleuchtet und so für eine trans- und multidisziplinäre Ingenieurdisziplin geworben. Im weiteren Verlauf werden die Themenfelder der effizienten Lösungserstellung, der Bewertung von Lösungsalternativen sowie die Frage der Einbettung in das Enterprise-Architecture-Management und Möglichkeiten der Entscheidungsunterstützung analysiert.
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The involvement of citizens into decision-making processes is one of the main features of smart cities. Such commitment is reflected in the form of requirements towards the city, and the benefits which are expected from the city. Requirements and benefits are thus the primary language of communication between decision-makers and urban residents. To develop such a language, it becomes necessary to develop design patterns for Smart Cities, that could integrate the requirements and benefits into ontological concepts referring to the rules describing design patterns.
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This paper suggests a list of structuring principles that support the designer in making alternative concepts for product architectures. Different architectures may support different points of diversification in the product life-cycle. That aim is to balance reuse of resources and reduction in variability in design processes and manufacturing processes with product performance and unit costs.
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Conference Paper
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