ArticlePDF Available

Recruiting Project Managers: A Comparative Analysis of Competencies and Recruitment Signals From Job Advertisements


Abstract and Figures

This research addresses the competencies organizations use through project manager job advertisements. We develop a list of project manager job competencies; break down the competency components into knowledge, skills, and abilities; and conduct a comparative analysis of the use of these competencies. We examine the online contents of project manager job advertisements in the public domain. Analysis shows that industry job advertisements emphasize “soft skills” and competencies in a manner different than that in the literature. Additionally, differences are found across countries and between industries. Implications from the findings highlight the incongruent dissemination of project manager competencies, regional and industrial demands, and the recruitment of project managers.
Content may be subject to copyright.
October 2013 Project Management Journal DOI: 10.1002/pmj
This research addresses the competencies
organizations use through project manager job
advertisements. We develop a list of project
manager job competencies; break down the
competency components into knowledge, skills,
and abilities; and conduct a comparative analy-
sis of the use of these competencies. We exam-
ine the online contents of project manager job
advertisements in the public domain. Analysis
shows that industry job advertisements empha-
size “soft skills” and competencies in a manner
different than that in the literature. Additionally,
differences are found across countries and
between industries. Implications from the find-
ings highlight the incongruent dissemination of
project manager competencies, regional and
industrial demands, and the recruitment of proj-
ect managers.
KEYWORDS: project manager; competen-
cies; project manager job; content analysis
Project Management Journal, Vol. 44, No. 5, 36–54
© 2013 by the Project Management Institute
Published online in Wiley Online Library
( DOI: 10.1002/pmj.21366
Recruiting the right project manager is an important challenge for
organizations. According to A Guide to the Project Management Body
of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide) (Project Management Institute,
2008), the project manager is the person responsible for accomplish-
ing project objectives. The project manager manages the project through
identifying project requirements; establishing clear and achievable objec-
tives; balancing the competing demands for quality, scope, time and cost;
adapting plans and approaches to the different concerns and expectations of
the various stakeholders; and managing projects in response to uncertainty.
The project manager’s role is one of the most challenging jobs in any organi-
zation, because it requires a broad understanding of the various areas that
must be coordinated and requires strong interpersonal skills. It is widely
acknowledged that the fi nal outcome of the project depends mainly on the
project manager; therefore, the selection of the project manager is one of
the two or three most important decisions concerning the project (Meredith &
Mantel, 2006, p. 139). How to attract the “right” project managers, therefore,
is an important organizational imperative; however, there is a lack of
research on which recruitment “signals” or messages are used to attract
potential applicants to the project manager role and whether these signals
refl ect project management prescriptions from professional bodies and
standards. In this study, we examine the recruitment of project managers
from job advertisements, and address how organizations describe the com-
petencies of project managers. This study provides a systematic approach to
understanding how project manager competencies are utilized from both
the “supply” and “demand” sides. The competencies used in project manager
job advertisements are compared with the competencies from both the aca-
demic literature and project management professional body of standards.
This study addresses the following questions: What are the most fre-
quently used competencies to attract potential project managers to organi-
zations? Do the competencies sought by recruitment job advertisements
reflect the competencies prescribed by the project management literature
and from professional bodies? Finally, we examine whether there are differ-
ences regionally and between industries in the use of project manager com-
petencies to attract potential project managers. The contributions of this
research are threefold: This study provides a systematic approach to identify-
ing and comparing project manager competencies from both the supply side
Recruiting Project Managers:
A Comparative Analysis of
Competencies and Recruitment
Signals From Job Advertisements
Kamrul Ahsan, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia
Marcus Ho, Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand
Sabik Khan, Trust Bank Limited, Bangladesh
October 2013 Project Management Journal DOI: 10.1002/pmj
and demand side; second, it provides a
framework for understanding the
recruitment of project managers,
including the signals that organizations
communicate to potential candidates
through job advertisements; and, last,
this study provides a look into the utili-
zation of project manager competen-
cies from theoretical, regional, and
industry perspectives.
The organization of this paper is as
follows: we provide a research rationale
for the importance of this research,
including highlighting the research gaps;
we present data on our systematic con-
tent analysis of project manager com-
petencies from the supply side
(including the academic literature and
project management professional bod-
ies); we then compare this with a content
analysis of project manager job adver-
tisements from 762 online job advertise-
ments from Australasia (demand side).
Last, we report the findings from this
study, including the implications of the
Theoretical Background
The Project Management Profession
and Role of the Project Manager
The last four to five decades have seen
a rise in the use of project management
in various industries, such as education
and healthcare services, as a reaction to
increasing modes of employment flexi-
bility and accountability (Hodgson,
2000, 2005). Such growth has seen its
practitioners organize and develop the
field as a “professional” practice and
form project management as a legiti-
mate occupation (Hodgson, 2002).
Much like the development of other
professions (e.g., law), project manage-
ment has attempted to adopt the strate-
gies and practices of more established
professions in order to claim legitimacy
vis à vis the organization and promotion
of accredited training programs and
collection of a universal body of knowl-
edge and recognized credentials in job
markets (Hodgson, 2002). As a result,
the number of project management
practitioners is growing. According to
the Project Management Institute (PMI,
2011), as of November 2010, PMI had a
total of 3,331,697 members, of which
409,159 were Project Management
Professional (PMP)® credential holders.
Although the evolution and devel-
opment of project-based organizations
have received some attention in theory
and practice (Sydow, Lindkvist, &
DeFillippi, 2004; Turner & Keegan, 1999;
Turner & Keegan, 2001), less research
has been done on the project manager
role (Hölzle, 2010). The project manager
role is changing; in an early article,
Gaddis (1959) described the role of a
project manager who functioned as
a focal point for the management of
resources being applied to managing ad
hoc activities across organizational
boundaries. The project manager’s role
starts with set responsibilities; however,
he or she ends up with additional roles
that are not parts of his or her job
description (Shenhar, Levy, & Dvir,
1997). The project manager role must be
supplemented with other knowledge
and skills, in addition to the traditional
functions, to meet the changing needs
of modern projects they are hired to
manage (Edum-Fotwe & McCaffer, 2000;
Russell, Jaselski, & Lawrence, 1997).
Overall, the role of the project manager
evolves from being the administrator of
the project toward a much more mana-
gerial and leadership position, to fulfill-
ing an organizational strategic need.
Hence, the project manager needs a
completely different set of capabilities
and competencies; therefore, there is
the need to look at a broad spectrum of
requested project management compe-
tencies (Edum-Fotwe & McCaffer, 2000).
Despite project management being
common in many industries, the proj-
ect manager can be considered as an
accidental profession for many individ-
uals. According to Pinto and Kharbanda
(1997, p. 216), “few individuals grow up
with the dream of one day becoming a
project manager. It is neither a well-
defined nor a well-understood career
path in most modern organizations.
Generally, the role is thrust upon people
rather than being sought.” Few project
managers, therefore, would have
started out in the project management
role fully trained. In fact, there is con-
siderable evidence to suggest that the
transition into a project manager posi-
tion is a complex interaction of influ-
ence and experimental progression at
the individual, organizational, and
project levels (El-Sabaa, 2001; Hölzle,
2010). El-Sabaa (2001) adds that such
individualistic approaches to the proj-
ect manager role puts the project man-
ager’s development in terms of his or
her career expectations and acquisition
of specific competencies and know-
how at the forefront. In tracing the deci-
sion to follow the project manager role,
several authors have noted that the per-
sonality of the individual is a strong indi-
cator of those choosing a project
manager career (Tremblay, Wils, &
Proulx, 2002). Within individual prefer-
ences for project management work,
studies have also shown the critical place
of career orientations for project manag-
ers (Brousseau, Driver, Eneroth, &
Larsson, 1996; Hölzle, 2010).
The organization itself plays a sig-
nificant part in the needs and require-
ments of the project manager, thus
showing a need to take into account how
organizations ‘manage’ these industry
professionals (Brousseau et al., 1996;
Chen, Chang, & Yeh, 2004; Hölzle, 2010).
Organizations are implicated in project
manager development as they provide a
context for what, how, and where proj-
ects are carried out. The traditional view
of project manager development is often
described as organizational careers that
follow a hierarchical, upward-oriented
promotion of the individual within the
organization (Hölzle, 2010); however,
Hodgson (2002, 2004, 2005) traces the
development of the project manage-
ment role in organizations. From an
organizational point of view, the profes-
sionalization of project managers still
remains largely discrepant, and diver-
gences in the conceptualization of the
field as an occupation and profession in
regions such as the United States and
October 2013 Project Management Journal DOI: 10.1002/pmj
Recruiting Project Managers
A short-term specialized and low-bud-
get project calls for different competen-
cies than those of a long-term, strategic,
and large-scale project (Hölzle, 2010).
For example, for ICT recruiters in the
United States, the most valued project
manager competencies are experience
and education, whereas certification is
moderately important (Stevenson &
Starkweather, 2010). Research shows
that for managing ICT projects, recruit-
ers prefer more soft skills from project
managers. The major soft competen-
cies for ICT project managers include
personal attributes, communication,
leadership, negotiations, professional-
ism, social skills, and project manage-
ment competencies (Skulmoski &
Hartman, 2010). Although the scope
and variation of projects appear diverse,
broad commonalities and generalities
have been reported in the literature. For
example, basic project manager com-
petencies have included project-based
expertise, problem-solving compe-
tence, leadership, and social compe-
tence (Hölzle, 2010). Others have
emphasized additional competencies,
such as communication, organiza-
tional, team building, leadership, cop-
ing, and technological skills (El-Sabaa,
2001; Meredith & Mantel, 2006). There
is an assumption that project manager
skills can traverse different projects
leading to prescriptions of project man-
ager competencies.
Two prime project management
professional organizations, the
International Project Management
Association (IPMA) and Project
Management Institute (PMI) have
developed the IPMA Competence
Baseline (ICB) and the Project Manager
Competency Development (PMCD)
framework, respectively. The ICB com-
ponents (technical, contextual, and
behavioral) and the PMCD components
(knowledge, performance, and per-
sonal) appear structurally similar. In
order to understand what makes a com-
petent project manager, to frame our
research objectives we utilize the PMCD
framework (PMI, 2007), because, to our
performance and since then the com-
petency movement has become perva-
sive in management practice (Boyatzis,
2008). The term “competency,” although
diffused throughout the management
literature, can be heterogeneous in
conceptualization, depending on its
use and development (McClelland,
1998; Sylvia, 2000). The differences in
conceptualizations have proposed a
diversity of typologies of competencies,
ranging from generic approaches (e.g.,
Mei, Dainty, & Moore, 2005) to more
context-specific approaches (e.g.,
Antonacopoulou & FitzGerald, 1996;
Ling, 2003). However, while many con-
ceptualizations exist, competencies can
be understood as having components
that include knowledge, skills, and abil-
ities (KSA model) used to improve per-
formance (Ulrich, Brockbank, Johnson,
Sandholtz, & Younger, 2008). Some
scholars (e.g., C
ˇiarniené, Kumpikaité, &
Vienažindiené, 2010; Hayton & Kelley,
2006) and practitioners have even used
the terms “KSAs” and “competencies”
interchangeably. Various scholars have
added to this basic definition with
ancillary components such as behavior-
al and overarching components (Athey &
Orth, 1999; Campion et al., 2011;
McClelland, 1998). Recently, these con-
ceptualizations have parlayed into the
human capital approach specifying
the potential of these individual com-
petencies to be managed and leveraged
for performance (Boudreau & Ramstad,
2007; Hatch & Dyer, 2004).
Depending on the type and scope of
the project, the competencies of project
managers vary in depth and breadth.
Müller and Turner (2007) identify the
correlations between project manager
leadership competencies (emotional,
managerial, and intellectual) with proj-
ect success. Later, Müller and Turner
(2010) analyze the differences in project
manager leadership competency pro-
files with different types of projects:
relatively simple projects involve more
transactional style of leadership,
whereas more complex projects require
transformational leadership style.
United Kingdom exist. Thus, commen-
tators (Styhre, 2006) have described
project managers as “pseudo-profes-
sionals” (Hodgson, 2005, p. 57). These
tensions are embodied by the disagree-
ments on the conceptualizations and
forms of project management work
and the absence of an agreed-on form of
mandatory qualifications (Hodgson,
2002). This has led to the observation
that the nexus of control for the man-
agement of projects is subjected to orga-
nizational influence, rationalization,
and bureaucratization of project work
(Hodgson, 2005; Räsäinen & Linde, 2004;
Styhre, 2006). Such balancing of profes-
sional and organizational tensions
appears to contribute to the changing
nature of project management through
work redesign, temporal work units and
cooperation, work tasks, relations, and
responsibilities (Räsäinen & Linde,
2004). These organizational variables
have spurred conceptual and practical
impetus to examine the characteristics
of the project and how it impacts on the
performance of projects.
Research has shown that the features
of the project and its complexity require
specific competencies from the project
manager (Crawford, Hobbs, & Turner,
2006; Huemann, Keegan, & Turner, 2007;
Müller & Turner, 2007). Aspects of
the project, such as technology
(Anantatmula, 2008), direct managerial
support (Kelley & Lee, 2010), and the
structure of the project (Lechler & Dvir,
2010) influence the right project man-
ager competencies for successful project
completion. While project and organiza-
tional variables are important, individual
factors are still critical for project suc-
cess. Thus, one key question that allows
us to investigate how project manager
competencies influence project man-
agement would be to examine what
makes a competent project manager.
What Makes a Competent Project
Manager? Competency Frameworks
and Project Management Literature
McClelland (1973) first proposed com-
petencies as a critical differentiator of
October 2013 Project Management Journal DOI: 10.1002/pmj
knowledge, it is the most comprehen-
sive and widely used standard for proj-
ect manager competencies in the
Asia-Pacific region.
We examine the PMCD framework
and look at the empirical literature on
its use to date. The PMCD framework
utilizes three dimensions of project
manager competencies: knowledge,
performance, and personal. To be com-
petent, a project manager needs to sat-
isfy the following competency
components: knowledge competence
(i.e., what the project manager knows
about the application of processes,
tools, and techniques for project activi-
ties); performance competence (i.e.,
how the project manager applies
knowledge to meet project require-
ments); and personal competence (i.e.,
how the project manager behaves when
performing activities within a project
environment, his or her attitude, and
core personality characteristics (PMI,
2007, p. 2). Based on this, competent
project managers can consistently
apply their project management knowl-
edge and personal behaviors to increase
the likelihood of delivering projects
that meet stakeholders’ requirements
(PMI, 2007). However, in order for us to
extend our discussion of project man-
ager competencies, an examination of
the PMCD framework and the empiri-
cal literature on project manager com-
petencies is imperative. The following
sections examine these competencies
in detail, utilizing the PMCD frame-
work as an organizing structure, with a
particular focus on the implications for
competency profiles of project
Knowledge Competence
As one of the three central competen-
cies required to be a project manager,
knowledge competence is important to
the extent that it reflects the project
manager’s knowledge or body of infor-
mation (the processes, tools, and tech-
niques for project activities) required to
perform the tasks required for the proj-
ect. Under the Project Management
Professional (PMP)® credential frame-
work, knowledge competence can be
demonstrated by passing an appropri-
ately credentialed assessment, such as
the PMP® examination, or any equiva-
lent project management accreditation.
The PMCD framework for knowledge
competence is designed to be applied
generically, regardless of the nature,
type, size, or complexity of the projects
being managed (PMI, 2007). As such,
the knowledge competence for project
managers tends to be prescriptive and
nonspecific. Unfortunately, the PMCD
framework does not address whether
there are industry-specific or region-
specific competencies. The generic
PMCD framework assumes that indi-
vidual competencies are transferable
across industries and organizations
(PMI, 2007). Depending on the type and
scope of the project, competencies of
project managers vary in depth and
breadth. In some industries there may
be technical skills that are particularly
relevant to that industry or covered by
specific domain, regulatory, or legal
requirements (PMI, 2007). For example,
to run a construction project, an organi-
zation may require its project managers
to have more knowledge of safety stan-
dards. In contrast to this, an ICT project
may require that the project manager
possess a specified level of IT technical
competence, as well as competence in
project management. A short-term spe-
cialized and low-budget project calls for
different competencies than those of a
long-term, strategic, and large-scale
project (Hölzle, 2010). Because of these
complexities, PMI does suggest devel-
oping industry-specific or organization-
specific competencies.
Knowledge aspects of competencies
are the factual or procedural informa-
tion necessary for successfully perform-
ing a task. When a manager is attempting
to fill a position, it is important to have
accurate information about the charac-
teristics a successful job holder must
have. With regard to the knowledge
component of project manager compe-
tencies, there is less research in terms of
effectiveness criteria. Studies have pre-
scribed the knowledge competencies
required, such as quality control
(Dainty, Mei, & Moore, 2004; Geoghegan
& Dulewicz, 2008; Gillard & Price, 2005;
Hao & Swierczek, 2010; Mei et al. 2005;
Stevenson & Starkweather, 2010); how-
ever, in a recent study by Zwikael (2009),
of 783 project managers from different
countries and industries, it was found
that the Knowledge Areas from the
PMBOK® Guide (PMI, 2007) with
the greatest impact on project success
were Project Time Management, Project
Risk Management, Project Scope Man-
age ment, and Project Human Resource
Management. These results were found
to be sensitive to industry require-
ments; thus, a general consensus in the
literature is that knowledge underlies
many of the competencies required in
successful project management and the
requirements may be different for dif-
ferent industries.
Performance Competence
In terms of performance of knowledge
competence, project manager perfor-
mance competence can be demon-
strated by assessing project-related
actions and outcomes. In other words,
project managers must apply their
knowledge to meet project outcomes.
Within project-based sectors, there is a
growing imperative to link the perfor-
mance of project managers with the
performance of the organization
(Gillard & Price, 2005; Mei et al., 2005).
The link between performance compe-
tency and project success has been
extensively studied in the literature
(Alderman & Ivory, 2011; Frank, Sadeh,
& Ashkenasi, 2011; Liu, Chen, Jiang, and
Klein, 2010; Papke-Shields, Beise, &
Quan, 2010; Starkweather & Stevenson,
2011; Yang, Huang, & Wu, 2011). These
studies have underscored the key com-
petencies required in the project man-
agement role. For example, Pinto and
Slevin (1989) stressed in their article the
importance of selecting project manag-
ers who possess the necessary technical
and administrative skills for successful
October 2013 Project Management Journal DOI: 10.1002/pmj
Recruiting Project Managers
project completion. Their study also
stressed the changing nature and effec-
tiveness of the competencies based on
the development and life cycle of the
project. Recently, Hao and Swierczek’s
(2010) study demonstrated that factors
related to manager competencies and
member competencies affect success
criteria. They suggest that more empha-
sis should be placed on developing
these competencies through more
appropriate training for managers and
professionals in skills and certifications
for the future success of projects. In
addition, they found that manager and
team competencies were more impor-
tant to the success of a project in the
implementation and completion stag-
es, where projects managers have a
major role in effective performance.
This is congruent with Zwikael and
Globersons (2006) finding that the qual-
ity and intensity of organizational sup-
port and the project manager’s ability to
project plan results in his or her ability
to complete projects by almost half the
cost and schedule overruns. In addition,
Liu et al. (2010) found a strong positive
relationship between management
control and project management per-
formance, which translated into project
team task completion competence and
project management performance.
The identification of project man-
agement competence with that of per-
formance of a project and organizational
outcomes demonstrates the impor-
tance of identifying effective project
manager competencies. Thus, the iden-
tification of superior project managers
is possible based on competency pro-
files (Mei et al., 2005). To that end, Mei
et al. (2005) generate a competency-
based framework for identifying excel-
lent performance of project managers
in the construction industry. Their
research shows that the behavioral
competencies of superior project man-
agers could be identified using a holis-
tic approach focused on the job role
(e.g., job task competencies associated
with the project management function)
and the characteristics of the individual
person (behavioral competencies of the
managers’ personal characteristics).
Their findings suggest that 12 core com-
petencies underpin the success of proj-
ect manager performance: achievement
orientation, initiative, information
seeking, focus on client’s needs, impact
and influence, directionality, team lead-
ership, analytical thinking, conceptual
thinking, self-control, and flexibility.
Gillard and Price (2005) similarly identi-
fied goal and action management, lead-
ership, human resource management,
directing subordinates, and focus on
others as competencies of effective
project managers. Zwikael (2009), as
described earlier, further showed
empirical support for the requirements
of project managers to understand and
develop competencies for successful
project completion. Mei et al. (2005)
suggest that, although the behavioral
competencies of superior project man-
agers can be identified, job-task com-
petencies were highly specific to the
industry in which they work, whereas
behavioral competencies of superior
project managers were generic in
nature and applicable to a wider range
of other management positions. Given
the above findings, the use of compe-
tencies in achieving performance is
imperative theoretically and in practice.
Such identification of performance
competencies highlights the critical
elements of performance in a project;
however, the links between competen-
cies and performance can be complex.
Personal Competence
Personal competence reflects how the
project manager behaves when per-
forming activities. The project manag-
er’s personal competence includes ele-
ments of the manager’s attitude and
personality characteristics. These skills
tend to be often described as “soft skills
or “other” attributes from an HRM per-
spective. However, research suggests
that personal aspects are important in
the project manager role (Bierhoff &
Müller, 2005; Clarke, 2010a; Gehring,
2007; Malach-Pines, Dvir, & Sadeh,
2009; Thal & Bedingfield, 2010). Hao
and Swierczek (2010) measured manag-
ers’ competencies as the ability to dele-
gate authority, to negotiate, to coordinate,
to make decisions, and to understand
their roles and responsibilities. The
development and improvement of
these skills were seen as important
parts of enhancing professional devel-
opment and adaptability (Hansson,
Backlund, & Lycke, 2003). Personality
characteristics have been examined in
the literature (Dolfi & Andrews, 2007;
Dvir, Sadeh, & Malach-Pines, 2006;
Gehring, 2007; Malach-Pines et al.,
2009; Thal & Bedingfield, 2010). Dvir
et al. (2006) tested the hypothesis that a
project with a particular profile needed
a manager with fitting personality traits
in order to achieve optimal perfor-
mance and success. They examined
project managers’ personality traits rel-
evant to the project dimensions (nov-
elty, complexity, technology, and pace)
and project success to find tentative
support for the hypothesis. This was
subsequently supported by Thal and
Bedingfield (2010), who found consci-
entiousness and openness (from the
five-factor personality model) to be
positively correlated with project man-
ager success. Recently, Clarke (2010a)
found emotional intelligence (EI) abili-
ty measures and empathy explained
project manager competencies of
teamwork, attentiveness, and manag-
ing conflict. In addition, after control-
ling for cognitive ability and personali-
ty, EI also explained transformational
leadership behaviors, such as idealized
influence and individualized consider-
ation. In a subsequent study, Clarke
(2010b) showed positive effects from a
training program in EI six months after,
showing improved emotional intelli-
gence abilities, empathy, and the proj-
ect manager competences of teamwork
and managing conflict.
One area of personal competencies
that has received the most attention is
leadership (Anantatmula, 2010; Bierhoff &
Müller, 2005; Geoghegan & Dulewicz,
2008; Hölzle, 2010; Müller & Turner,
October 2013 Project Management Journal DOI: 10.1002/pmj
practice. Therefore, careful consider-
ation of the core components of com-
petencies (i.e., the KSAs) that underlie
diverse competency descriptions is
imperative. In this study, we separate
competencies into the component
parts of KSAs to better facilitate an anal-
ysis of the underlying components of
competencies (Ulrich et al., 2008). The
KSA model specifies greater accuracy of
the characteristics a successful job-
holder has (Green & James, 2003), as
well as facilitates far greater precision in
analyzing competencies for compara-
tive purposes.
In an effort to further understand
how the PMCD framework of compe-
tencies map onto the supply side and
demand side, we examine the core con-
structs underlying competencies—that
is, the knowledge, skills, and abilities
(KSAs; see Ulrich et al., 2008). In analyz-
ing the PMCD framework, which
emphasizes knowledge, performance,
and personal competencies, it can be
observed that breaking down the com-
petencies into their component parts of
knowledge, skills, and abilities allows
an observation into their core compo-
nents. For example, although the PMCD
framework of ‘knowledge’ competen-
cies maps intuitively to knowledge, the
‘performance’ and ‘personal’ compe-
tencies can be broken down into core
components that consist of knowledge,
skills, and abilities. The mapping
between PMCD and KSA competencies
is shown in Figure 1. By breaking down
the components of competencies into
KSAs, a more in-depth analysis of com-
petencies (and how they relate to one
another) can be performed, including
allowing comparative analysis.
Therefore, although we use the term
“competencies” to reflect these various
approaches, we conduct an analysis of
‘KSAs’ as the underlying components
of these competencies.
Project Manager Recruitment and Job
A key central issue for recruitment activ-
ities of organizations lies in managing
the supply side and demand side, in the
next section we examine the core con-
structs underlying competencies, that
is, the knowledge, skills, and abilities
(KSAs; see Ulrich et al., 2008).
Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities: The
Building Blocks of Project Manager
A competency is a measurable pattern
of KSAs, behaviors, and other charac-
teristics that an individual needs to
perform the work roles of occupational
functions effectively (Rodriguez, 2002).
With this basic premise, competency-
based approaches are highly diverse in
their conceptualizations and approach-
es. Competency-based models have
also focused on identifying the charac-
teristics necessary for the successful
performance and behavioral indicators
that can be used to assess an individu-
al’s proficiency in those particular com-
petencies (Jackson, Schuler, & Werner,
2009). Other competency approaches
have either focused on the behavior
enabling people to perform the task or
the underlying characteristic that result
in superior performance (Mansfield,
1999). Furthermore, other approaches
have focused on the work-related con-
cept (such as task or functional criteria
on which managers can be rated on) or
on the generic underlying qualities (i.e.,
behavioral competencies). While the
diversity often is attributed to the dif-
ferent approaches to management of
particular regions, such as the United
States and Europe (Mei et al., 2005),
competencies (whatever their focus)
have been implicated in effective
job and organizational performance
(Brophy & Kiely, 2002).
KSAs can also sometimes focus on
the job or role’s tasks or the worker in
the role through job analysis
(Schippmann, 1999). This process forms
the basis for systematically understand-
ing the work that gets done in an orga-
nization (Brannick & Levine, 2007) and
can be a good starting point for under-
standing how project manager compe-
tencies are conceptualized and used in
2010; Müller, Geraldi, & Turner, 2012;
Skulmoski & Hartman, 2010; Yang et al.,
2011). The literature shows that there is
a statistically significant relationship
between a project manager’s leadership
competencies and project success
(Bierhoff & Müller, 2005; Geoghegan &
Dulewicz, 2008; Müller & Turner, 2010).
Geoghegan and Dulewicz (2008) exam-
ined ten leadership dimensions (five
management related, four social/
emotional competencies, and one
intellectual competence) and found
that management leadership dimen-
sions contributed most to successful
projects. However, early reviews of the
literature on leadership in project man-
agement found surprisingly little evi-
dence that leadership impacts project
success despite the general manage-
ment literature viewing effective lead-
ership as a critical success factor in the
management of organizations (Turner
& Müller, 2003). Recently, Anantatmula
(2010), however, found that when
uncertainties and changes occur within
projects, leadership has a greater
impact on the success factors. In a simi-
lar mold (Yang et al., 2011), leadership
may enhance relationships among
team members and has a statistically
significant influence on project perfor-
mance. Certainly the context and inter-
actions of leadership’s effects on
successful project management may be
complex and interactive (Bierhoff &
Müller, 2005; Müller et al., 2012).
Overall, the literature highlights
that personal factors may account for
some of the successes of a project;
therefore, the personal characteristics
of the project manager are just as
important as the other factors pre-
sented earlier. However, little is known
about whether such characteristics are
signaled in the recruitment of project
managers and it would be beneficial for
the project management community to
further investigate those sought after
components of competencies in differ-
ent job markets and industries. In an
effort to understand how the PMCD
framework of competencies map out in
October 2013 Project Management Journal DOI: 10.1002/pmj
Recruiting Project Managers
competitive activity, especially in con-
texts where there are labor market and
skill shortages. Organizations unable to
recruit effectively are unable to com-
pete with organizations that do (Chen
et al., 2004; Lam & White, 1998). Perhaps
one of the most important recruitment
activities that organizations use to gain
competitive advantage is the use of the
job advertisement, which is a basic
recruitment tool that organizations uti-
lize to generate an initial applicant pool
for project management job vacancies
(Johnson, Winter, Reio, Thompson, &
Petrosko, 2008). Job advertisements can
be effective in attracting potential job
applicants, depending on how accu-
rately described and attractive their
content is (Barber, 1998; Heneman &
Berkley, 1999). Job advertisements pro-
vide signals on employer expectations
and demanded skill set (Ahmed, 2005;
Youngok & Rasmussen, 2009). Research
on job advertisements shows that they
influence the types of people who apply
for jobs (Johnson et al., 2008). Aside
from their stated purpose of informing
and attracting potential applicants, job
advertisements can be used as a proxy for
the organizations missions, values, and
culture (Avery, 2003; Johnson et al., 2008).
In addition, job advertisements are help-
ful in both employee self-selection and
employer selection. With respect to
employee self-selection, job advertise-
ments indicate the required competen-
cies and job information, allowing
potential employees to self-select
themselves in or out of applying for the
job. Employers are thus able to utilize
the job advertisements as signals for the
organizational requirements not only
for the job but the organization.
In matching a project manager to
the requirements of projects and orga-
nizations, a consideration of the com-
petencies required is often utilized.
These competencies come from a vari-
ety of sources, such as the PMCD, and
HRM job analysis information, such as
O*Net (O*Net, 2012). Although most
organizations rely on the PMI credential
and certification processes for project
recruitment of qualified personnel
based on accurate job analysis data
(Mei et al., 2005). The pre-hire processes
of recruitment and selection of poten-
tial project managers are important
activities due to the transient nature of
project work. This places greater impor-
tance on the ability of organizations to
select project managers based on their
competencies to achieve the required
organizational and project outcomes.
In a survey among IT recruiters in the
United States, it is found that project
managers are recruited based on criti-
cal core competencies in the areas of
leadership and interpersonal skills
(ability to communicate at multiple lev-
els, verbal skills, written skills, ability to
deal with ambiguity, and change)
(Stevenson & Starkweather, 2010). The
growth in interest of recruiting and
managing effective project managers
has led to a shift from talking about
which qualifications are needed
to which competencies are necessary
(Dainty, Mei, & Moore, 2005; Gillard &
Price, 2005).
In addition to the complexities of
project work, the combination of strong
competitive business environment and
tight labor markets for talented project
managers means that the ability to
attract the right talent becomes impera-
tive for the business (Wu & Zmud,
2009). Thus, recruitment is a highly
the organizations ability to attract and
retain talented individuals. Recruitment
involves “those practices and activities
carried on by the organization with the
primary purpose of identifying and
attracting potential employees” (Barber,
1998, p. 5). Recruitment performs the
essential role of bringing in the requisite
human capital into the organization and
can have a significant impact on organi-
zational performance (Chhinzer &
Ghatehorde, 2009; Han & Han, 2009;
Newman & Lyon, 2009; Schulz, Camp, &
Wahman, 2008). Effective recruitment
practices grow out of strategic planning
and must not only be consistent with the
organizations strategy, mission, and val-
ues, but also include the basic job
description based on sound job analysis
information (McEntire, Dailey, Osburn, &
Mumford, 2006).
Because of the complexity of proj-
ect-based workplaces, the critical role
that the competencies of project man-
agers play is vital to the organizational
demands of project management.
Complexities are in terms of short-term
interaction and involvement, reliance
on a transient workforce, and conduct-
ing projects in a complex multidisci-
plinary team environment (Loosemore,
Dainty, & Lingard, 2003; Mei et al., 2005).
Fundamental to the process of success-
ful management of projects is the focus
of organizations to implement effective
KSA dimensions:
PMCD competency
Figure 1: Mapping between PMCD and KSA competency dimensions.
October 2013 Project Management Journal DOI: 10.1002/pmj
communication, uncertainty, and
learning. The system perspectives
implied that problems should be solved
by considering the total picture rather
than individual components. The key
issues of stakeholder perspectives are
communication, negotiation, relation-
ships, influence, and dependence. The
transaction cost perspective focused on
economic transaction. The frequently
used methods and tools within this per-
spective were contract development,
contract negotiations, contract execu-
tion incentives, and innovation pro-
cess. Finally, the business perspective
dealt with project investment, strategy,
results, and benefits. This study was
thus able to highlight the different
approaches and perspectives on the
project management concept, includ-
ing its implications for professionaliza-
tion and development for all users. As
such, this study attempts to build on
prior research by explicating the con-
ceptualization of project manager roles
and requirements from the perspec-
tives of employers. The research method
of the study is discussed in the next
Content Analysis Steps
Identifying the importance of project
manager competencies from job adver-
tisements, our study focuses on con-
tent analysis method as a research tool.
This study utilizes qualitative and
quantitative techniques in an integrat-
ed manner. We use the following steps:
(1) create project manager job-related
key categories from the literature, (2)
identify job advertisement websites, (3)
collect sample data and modify vari-
ables, and (4) search job advertisement
contents and code frequency of rele-
vant items.
Create Project Manager Job-Related Key
Variables From the Literature
The first step of our research is to create
variable dictionaries that will be the basis
of our data collection. From the project
management literature (Interna -
tional Journal of Project Management,
Project Management Journal®, project
understanding and interpreting the text
in its relevant context, and finally cod-
ing and classifying each of the text units.
On the other hand, quantitative content
analysis summarizes the inferences and
insights derived from the qualitative
phase in the form of numerical exami-
nations of the interpreted text units
and the related categorized codes
(Holzmann & Spiegler, 2010).
Content analysis as a recognized
research method has promulgated vari-
ous areas, such as information systems
and information technology (Gallivan,
Truex, & Kvasny, 2004; Lee & Lee, 2006;
Todd, McKeen, & Gallupe, 1995), opera-
tional research (Mar-Molinero & Xie,
2007; Sodhi & Son, 2008; Sodhi & Son,
2010), operations management
(Montabon, Sroufe, & Narasimhan,
2006), marketing (Howard & Kerin,
2006), social sciences (Hartog, Caley, &
Dewe, 2007), and the public sector
(Redman & Mathews, 1997). However,
content analysis is relatively rare in
project management. Recently,
Holzmann and Spiegler (2010) con-
ducted a study based on qualitative and
quantitative content analysis of les-
sons-learned documents to construct a
list of organizational risk data sets. Loo
(2003), in contrast, only used a qualita-
tive approach of content analysis to
assess ‘team climate’ in project teams.
Of interest to this study, Kolltveit,
Karlsen, and Grønhaug (2007) used
content analysis to review project man-
agement books and journal articles in
an attempt to identify the different per-
spectives on project management. The
authors utilized a literature review and
project management practices to iden-
tify six important perspectives on proj-
ect management. These perspectives
were task, leadership, system, stake-
holders, transaction cost, and business
by projects. The focus of the task per-
spective is on the project objective that
should be delivered as specified, within
budget, and on time. Planning and con-
trol methods were central to this per-
spective. The leadership perspective is
based on issues such as leadership,
managers or have even developed their
own certificates (Remington & Leigh,
2007), the requisite breakdowns of KSAs
underlying competencies can also be
found through job analysis informa-
tion. How organizations signal their
requirements is a subject that can be of
critical importance in the process
of recruitment. With that aim, our
research thus builds on the develop-
ment and use of these competencies by
examining how organizations signal
their required need through job adver-
tisements. In this research we utilize a
two-pronged approach in examining
the question: to what extent do project
manager job advertisements reflect the
supply side of project manager compe-
tencies? In so doing, we hope to high-
light the extent to which competencies
of project managers and signals used to
attract potential project managers are
actively used in communicating about
project manager positions.
Content Analysis
Content analysis is a research tech-
nique that enables inferences to be
made based on a text considering the
context in which it was written
(Holzmann & Spiegler, 2010). According
to (Krippendorff, 2004), the term ‘con-
tent analysis’ did not appear in the
English language until 1941. Following
the end of the World War II, this method
was widely used in the study of texts
from journalism, political speeches,
and propaganda, among other applica-
tions. Subsequently, the methods were
taken up by other fields, including psy-
chology, anthropology, history, and lin-
guistics (Krippendorff, 2004).
The method basically includes two
separate, though usually integrated
approaches, namely qualitative
and quantitative content analysis
(Krippendorff, 2004). Qualitative analy-
sis provides the conceptual framework,
whereas quantitative analysis provides
measurable terms for the framework.
Qualitative content analysis demands
meticulously reading each document,
October 2013 Project Management Journal DOI: 10.1002/pmj
Recruiting Project Managers
When contemplating which job
sites to use as sources for advertise-
ments, we find the website to
be a potential, comprehensive, and
dedicated source of job advertisements.
SEEK is by far the largest job board in
the Australasian region in terms of both
job advertisement and job seeker num-
bers, and represents a rich cross-
section of jobs. In Australia, SEEK hosts
approximately 62% of all jobs on
Australias major job sites. In a given
month, over 150,000 job advertise-
ments are posted on SEEK and visited
14.7 million times a month. In New
Zealand, approximately 14,000 job
advertisements are now posted on
SEEK, significantly more than those of
its nearest competitors. (Sources:
Nielsen Online Ratings, Market
Intelligence Traffic Data, January 2012.)
We do not consider any other job
board, because recruiters quite often
post the same advertisements simulta-
neously on multiple websites, and that
means either we run the risk of analyz-
ing duplicate advertisements or we
need to cross check each advertisement
to omit duplicates, which is a lengthy
process. For the same reason, we do not
consult the vacancy or career webpage
of any individual organization or pro-
fessional recruitment company. Such
an approach would require consider-
able time, including visiting different
websites and potentially overlooking
smaller and lesser known companies
(Sodhi & Son, 2010).
Collect Sample Data and Modify
Before starting data collection, we
make sure the KSA variables we are
using cover most sought after project
manager competency–related key-
words. With that goal, we start off by
analyzing 40 advertisements in the first
phase. The merging and grouping of
KSA key variables are conducted based
on literature, pilot content analysis from
job advertisements, and group consen-
sus among researchers. The advertise-
ments cover different industries from
only online job boards. Advertisements
published in newspapers and maga-
zines tend to be shorter and less elabo-
rate because they are generally charged
based on the space they take and, thus,
the bigger and more detailed the adver-
tisement the more costly it is; this is
especially true for small recruiters with
limited budgets (Sodhi & Son, 2010).
The consequence is less content to ana-
lyze, resulting in potentially compro-
mised research output. Furthermore,
online sources are also easy to navigate
and finding the intended advertise-
ment is manageable and accessible. Job
advertisements from online sources are
categorized based on country, industry,
position roles, and responsibilities. In
addition, the scope of using various
search strings ensures the results are
more relevant. For example, in our case,
we searched for “project manager”
(within quotation marks) and this
ensured the advertisements captured
by the database were almost always of
‘project manager,’ not ‘program man-
ager,’ ‘technical manager,’ or ‘project
management books, and the PMBOK®
Guide), we identify desirable variable
keywords regarding the competencies
of a project manager. Our objective is
partly to avoid ‘reinventing the wheel’
and also not to miss out on any key
variables that might result from poten-
tial sampling error. From the cited lit-
erature we have tabulated the keyword
citation frequencies; we grouped simi-
lar keywords, and eventually compiled
a list of 60 key variables and grouped
them under KSAs. These variables are
tallied and ranked based on the fre-
quency of citations. From the sorted 60
variables, Table 1 shows the top 15 most
cited KSAs.
Identify Project Manager Job
Advertisement Websites
Job advertisements can be found in
both print and online media. Print
media includes newspapers, profes-
sional magazines, and journals, where-
as online media ranges from online job
boards, recruiter websites, to individual
company career webpages, and social
networking sources; we decided to use
Desired KSAs Citation Frequency
1. Leadership 17
2. Effective communication 11
3. Project technical expertise 10
4. Team building and management 9
5. Planning skill 8
6. Flexibility 6
7. Organizational skill 5
8. Decision-making skill 5
9. Management skill 4
10. Delegation 4
11. Analytical abilities 3
12. Problem solver 3
13. Coping with situations 2
14. Interpersonal skills 2
15. Stakeholder management 2
Table 1: Top 15 most cited KSAs from the literature.
October 2013 Project Management Journal DOI: 10.1002/pmj
Tabulated advertisements identify the
job title as project manager, 80%; senior
project manager, 15%; and junior proj-
ect manager only 5%. The jobs are from
industries such as information and
communication technology (52%), con-
struction (25.7%), engineering (11.2%),
government and defense (6.2%), health-
care (2.8%), mining, art and the media,
manufacturing, and others. In the
following subsections, we focus on ana-
lyzing job advertisements to identify
key KSAs in general, across countries
and industries.
Job Advertisement KSAs
We analyze job advertisement data
under KSA classifications. Table 2 illus-
trates job advertisement frequencies
under KSA categories and subcatego-
ries. Results show that under the knowl-
edge category, education (28.61%) is
the most cited competency, followed by
project management certification
(20.47%), and demonstrates that many
employers are looking for a project
manager with a tertiary or trade back-
ground. For example, for a construction
project manager job, it is desirable to
find a project manager with a civil engi-
neering degree. Analysis also shows
that many jobs require project manag-
ers with certifications from profession-
al bodies, such as the Project Manage-
ment Professional (PMP)® credential
from PMI or PRINCE2 from the United
The job of a project manager is to
know how to manage projects and
therefore skills pertaining to manage-
ment are the most critical for success. It
appears that industries in both coun-
tries are mostly looking for project
managers with good ‘communication
skills (61.68%). In our analysis, ‘com-
munication’ skills cover sub-categories
such as reporting, presenting, relations
management, and interpersonal skills.
Technical skill was identified as the sec-
ond most sought after competency
(43.57%). Employers are looking for
project managers with technical skills
that are very specific to project technol-
ogy, such as an IT project manager who
each measure, we use binary code; if a
project manager job advertisement
mentions a competency variable, we
consider it a positive answer and use
‘value 1’; otherwise we use ‘value 0.’
Along with the competencies, we also
recorded some relevant demographic
data, such as the name of the advertis-
ing agency or company, job title (such
as project manager), offered salary,
benefits (such as superannuation, car
park, and so forth), and project size.
Weber (1990) notes: “to make valid
inferences from the text, it is important
that the classification procedure be reli-
able in the sense of being consistent:
Different people should code the same
text in the same way” (p. 12). We ensured
validity by cross checking the coded
data. Initially, data were entered by one
of the researchers; the same researcher
randomly cross checked data and found
the same results for each case. Later, the
other two researchers randomly cross
checked the data in 50 separate instances.
Using this process, we took printed job
advertisements and, based on the refer-
ence number, the advertisement data
were thoroughly scanned in terms of
keywords and phrases falling under the
predefined variables marked. We found
in 48 cases coded data were error free;
only in two cases (4%) there were some
inconsistencies, which were later
resolved through discussion. Overall,
we found no remarkable inconsisten-
cies in data coding, and the content
data entry process is essentially error
Results and Analysis
During the data collection period, we
have collected about 795 job advertise-
ments. After careful screening of all job
advertisements, we discarded 33 adver-
tisements. Among the 33 discarded
samples, 23 are not informative enough
or have insufficient contents (only the
advertiser name and contact informa-
tion are provided), and 10 are dupli-
cates. Finally, we tabulated 762 job
advertisements in the Australian (55.6%)
and New Zealand (44.4%) markets.
Australia and New Zealand. The idea is
to check the initially identified 60 vari-
ables from the literature (described ear-
lier) and find out whether amendments
are required. The adjustment process
proved to be a success because we
ended up adding new variables in addi-
tion to the variables identified from lit-
erature. These variables include health
and safety, quality management, and
compliance. We also discarded a few of
our initial variables (described earlier)
as they did not generate any hits; more-
over, a small number of variables were
merged since we considered them too
similar in meaning and they did not
warrant being separate. Overall, this
process ensures a more robust variable
set, which means that eventually, when
actual content data commence, all data
will fall into the right place.
Content Search of Job Advertisements
and Record Frequency of Relevant Items
The content analysis is done manually
and no content analysis software is
used. Advertisements were collected
between December 2010 and February
2011. We used this time period because
many companies recruit project man-
agers at the beginning of the year and
there are more job advertisements
on the website at this time. Each job
advertisement was printed out, marked
with a reference number and filed
under corresponding country and
industry. All the advertisements were
thoroughly scanned and possible key-
words and phrases falling under the
predefined variables were marked. The
manual data processing was painstak-
ing and laborious; however, the method
provided expert input and better out-
put compared with software. Words are
not only words; they are drenched in
context and so human involvement
means superior accuracy in data collec-
tion (Sodhi & Son, 2010).
Our unit of analysis is job advertise-
ment. After identifying specified key
variables (measures) from job adver-
tisement content, we tabulate the data-
base. Variables are placed in columns
and job advertisements in rows. For
October 2013 Project Management Journal DOI: 10.1002/pmj
Recruiting Project Managers
whereas in New Zealand the number is
five. For both countries, all top ten KSAs
are common. We found in Australia, the
most popular KSAs are cost manage-
ment and communication, whereas the
New Zealand market emphasizes com-
munication and technical skills. In both
markets, stakeholder management and
leadership skills are equally empha-
sized. Details of the top ten sought after
KSAs are shown in Figure 2. Australian
job advertisements are more concerned
about time and cost management than
the New Zealand market. Nearly 25%
more of Australian job advertisements
mention planning as a desirable quali-
ty. Similar differences have been
marked regarding time management,
education, and cost management skill.
This is perhaps because the Australian
job advertisement results with the proj-
ect management competencies litera-
ture, most of the literature and industry
job advertisements emphasize more
skills based on KSAs; however, the
importance of skills is in a different
order and depends on other factors,
including country or specific industry.
KSAs Under Country Category
We explored job advertisements to
identify any existing country-specific
competency requirements between
Australia and New Zealand. Comparing
the frequency of sought after KSAs; we
find that Australian project manage-
ment jobs are looking for more KSAs in
their advertisements. On average, job
advertisements from Australia mention
seven different KSAs per advertisement,
is required to have a “solid understand-
ing of software development.” The next
most important project manager skill in
demand is identified as stakeholder
management (41.73%).
Among “abilities,” frequently cited
competencies are “result-oriented abil-
ity” (16.14%) (i.e., getting things done),
followed by “analytical ability” and
“problem solving ability.” In Table 2, we
summarize the top five KSAs sought
after by employers.
Sought-After KSAs Across Industries
and Countries
We explored job advertisements to
identify any existing patterns between
Australia and New Zealand. Table 3
shows that communication require-
ment places at the top of the chart. An
average 61.68% of all advertisements
are seeking good communication skills
from project managers. While “leader-
ship” is the most frequently cited com-
petency within the literature, it ranked
only eighth in job advertisement
requirements. If we compare our find-
ings (top 10 KSAs) with the 15 most
cited KSAs from the literature (from
Table 1), it can be seen (in Table 4) that
as many as six items are common in
both the top lists, barring flexibility,
organizational skill, decision making,
delegation, and problem solving. On
the other hand, industry job advertise-
ments are very specific in terms of time
and cost management, educational
background, and project management
certifications. Comparing the industry
Knowledge Advertisement (%) Skill Advertisement (%) Ability Advertisement (%)
28.61 Communication 61.68 Result oriented 16.14
Certification 20.47 Technical skill 43.57 Problem solver 6.69
Health and
11.81 Stakeholder
41.73 Commercial
MS Project 4.33 Cost management 37.40 Agility 4.72
Compliance to
3.67 Time management 32.68 Work under
Table 2: Top five KSAs from job advertisements.
Competency Advertisement (%)
Communication 61.68
Technical skills 43.57
Stakeholder management 41.73
Cost management 37.40
Time management 32.68
Educational background 28.61
Planning 26.12
Leadership 24.41
Team build and management 22.57
Certification 20.47
Table 3: Top 10 KSAs across industries and countries.
October 2013 Project Management Journal DOI: 10.1002/pmj
and logistics; and (8) arts and media. We
work out the average number of KSAs
sought per job advertisement from eight
major industries. We found that the min-
ing, resources, and energy sectors seek
the highest number of KSA requirements
per advertisement (8.3), followed by
manufacturing, transport, and logistics
(8) and information technology projects
(7), whereas healthcare advertisements
are the least elaborate, with only
4.8 requirements on average.
We compare the top five industries
(that represent most of our collected
data) and the top five competencies for
respective industries (Table 5). It can be
seen that communication is present in
all five industries under one of the top
three requirements, and cost manage-
ment and technical skills are present
across four industries. Planning is
emphasized more in government sector
projects. Although the construction,
engineering, and healthcare sectors
consider both technical skills and edu-
cation as key requirements, govern-
ment sector advertisements do not
consider either education or technical
skills as one of the top requirements.
Overall, we found that, across
industries, the most common highly in
demand KSAs are: communication,
education, stakeholder management,
investigation shows that some KSAs are
highly sought after and there are some
differences in job requirements
between the two countries.
KSAs Under Project Industry Category
We combined data for Australia and New
Zealand to identify and profile the type
of project industry or employer who will
employ the potential project manager.
The advertisement data are mostly from
eight major project industries: (1) infor-
mation and communication technology
(52%); (2) construction (25.7%); (3) engi-
neering (11.2%); (4) government and
defense (6.2%); (5) healthcare (2.8%); (6)
mining; (7) manufacturing, transport,
job market is bigger and more competi-
tive; and where there are project man-
agers with the required technical skills,
the issues are who can complete the
project on time and within budget.
Moreover, in the Australian National
Competency Standards for Project
Management (2008), there is also more
emphasis on time and cost competen-
cies, which are reflected in the job
advertisement. On the other hand, New
Zealand job advertisements value tech-
nical skills compared with formal edu-
Overall, identified trends of the job
market are worthwhile for the project
management community. Close
Ranking based on frequency of
citation in job advertisement
(demand side)
Ranking based on frequency of
citation in project management
literature (supply side)
Communication 1 2
Technical skills 2 3
Stakeholder management 3 15
Cost management 4 none
Time management 5 none
Educational background 6 none
Planning 7 5
Leadership 8 1
Team build and management 9 4
Certification 10 none
Table 4: Comparison between cited and sought-after KSAs.
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60%
Team build and management
Technical skills
Stakeholder management
Time management
Cost management
New Zealand
Figure 2: Australia and New Zealand project manager KSAs comparison.
October 2013 Project Management Journal DOI: 10.1002/pmj
Recruiting Project Managers
for better or worse and throughout sig-
nificant controversies and tensions
(see Hodgson & Cicmil, 2007; Hodgson,
Paton, & Cicmil, 2011), project manage-
ment has been gaining significant
influence in contemporary organiza-
tions. Our study attempts to build on
the examination of the project manager
role in organizations by explicating the
competency requirements of the proj-
ect manager role in industry by exam-
ining the underlying KSAs. The finding
from this study has far-reaching impli-
cations for the professionalization of
the function, including its place in
organizations and industries. By ana-
lyzing job advertisements for the proj-
ect manager, our findings expatiate
on the demands on the profession for
both the “professional project manag-
er” and his or her employers.
From the market data, we identify
sought after KSA competencies of project
projects require technical skills from
a project manager.
Discussion and Conclusions
Project management is increasingly
ubiquitous in most industries and orga-
nizations. The pervasiveness of this
professional discipline in modern orga-
nizations has drawn commentators to
describe the “projectification” of work as
failing to address the social and political
consequences for both project manag-
ers and the project managed (Cicmil,
Hodgson, Lindgren, & Packendorff,
2009; Hodgson & Cicmil, 2007). Past
research has noted that through the
organized efforts of professional bodies
such as PMI, project management tech-
niques and procedures have been
framed, promoted, and packaged to
become part of the established “toolkit
in many management fields (Paton,
Hodgson, & Cicmil, 2010). As a result,
technical skills, and cost management
(see Table 5). We further conducted sta-
tistical analysis to ascertain whether
different industries require different
KSAs at different weights. We consider
the null hypothesis ‘the required level of
KSAs is the same across the project
industries’ (i.e., KSAs are not industry
specific). Based on the ANOVA analysis
(at a 5% significance level), we reject the
null hypothesis (F 3.921, Fcrit 2.5,
p 0.0071) and conclude that priorities
of sought after KSAs are different for
different industries. From Figure 3, it is
apparent that KSA requirements for
project managers vary with project
industry. For example, among the top
sought after KSAs, the importance of
technical skills is different for different
industries. Across industries, 41% con-
struction projects, 50% ICT projects,
37% engineering projects, 4% govern-
ment projects, and 33% healthcare
ICT Construction Engineering Government Healthcare
Technical skills Education Education Stakeholder management Communication
Communication Communication Cost management Communication Education
Stakeholder management Cost management Time management Planning Time management
Certification Technical skills Communication Cost management Stakeholder management
Time management Stakeholder management Technical skills Risk management Technical skills
Table 5: Top five sought KSAs for the top five project industries.
Education and
management Communication Technical skills Time
Construction ICT Engineering Government Healthcare
Figure 3: KSAs demanded in different project industries.
October 2013 Project Management Journal DOI: 10.1002/pmj
development in Australasia, borrowing
from the traditions of international
research and developing competency
requirements within this region. Such
implications demonstrate the require-
ments of generic versus specific under-
standing of competencies for not only
project and organizational features but
also regions and countries. For exam-
ple, in certain countries, the require-
ments for technical skills may be more
important compared with people skills
(Huemann et al., 2007).
This study has extended the previ-
ous research by highlighting the com-
plexity of competencies and their
utilization through “industry signals.
This has important implications for the
readiness and dissemination of supply-
side project manager professionaliza-
tion. The findings allow us to highlight
several important implications for the
demands required of project managers
as a professional group. The results
from this study allow us to compare the
demands of the project manager role
with those of the espoused project
manager’s competencies from the liter-
ature and professionalization stan-
dards. In general, similarities exist
among frequently identified project
managers’ KSAs from the literature and
our findings regarding sought after
KSAs from job advertisements.
However, the relative emphases of KSAs
across industries are different and high-
light the subtle differences of functions
required. This has profound implica-
tions for both the practice and manage-
ment of project managers. On the one
hand, although our results indicate the
underlying generic KSAs required in all
industries and countries (such as com-
munication), our results also indicate
that for different industries, the KSAs
required can vary and that implies a dif-
ferent function for the project manager
role. Such differences can be a function
of the project manager role in the
industry, and thus the demands for
these KSAs can be seen as a function of
the work and industrial requirements.
Significant attention thus needs to be
& Starkweather, 2010) and country, for
example the United States (Stevenson &
Starkweather, 2010). Our study analyzes
KSA competencies across different
regions and industries, delineating the
roles and differences of project man-
ager competencies across KSA dimen-
sions. For a better analysis, we compare
ICT job KSAs with those found by
Stevenson and Starkweather (2010). It
can be seen that in Australia and New
Zealand, ICT project manager core
KSAs are in different order. For ICT proj-
ects, the major KSAs are technical skills,
communication, stakeholder manage-
ment, certification, and time manage-
ment. On the other hand, in the United
States (Stevenson & Starkweather,
2010), although communication is cited
within the core KSAs, technical skills in
ICT projects are cited as low valuation.
Perhaps the U.S. recruiters are less con-
cerned with the project manager’s tech-
nical expertise gained from other
companies and are more interested in
training their project managers in-
house, with their own technology
(Stevenson & Starkweather, 2010). In
comparison, Australian and New
Zealand ICT recruiters are looking for
more readily available project manag-
ers with technical skills. In Australia and
New Zealand, ICT projects require more
stakeholder management skills;
whereas in the United States, stake-
holder management is not among the
top 15 skill competencies. For other
important KSAs, both studies identify
certification as among the most valued
competency, although the ranking is
different: project management certifi-
cation is ranked 15 in the United States
by Stevenson and Starkweather, (2010),
whereas our research ranks it fourth.
Comparing the top ten KSAs across
industries and countries, with
Stevenson and Starkweather (2010), it
can be seen that technical skills, stake-
holder management, and time and cost
management are special requirements
in the Australian and New Zealand proj-
ect manager job markets. This could be
a result of the unique project manager
managers across several industries in the
Australasian region. We used 762 online
project management job advertise-
ments; 55.6% of the jobs advertised were
from Australia and 44.4% were from New
Zealand. The analyzed project jobs were
mostly from construction (25.7%) and
the information and communications
industry (52%). This study compares
cited project manager’s KSAs from the
project management literature, and con-
trasts these with the requirements of
project managers from industry through
job advertisements. We analyzed the
competencies in relation to the KSA
framework in order to aid in the compar-
ison and categorize the function system-
atically. Analysis showed that, in general,
the top five sought after KSAs are all skills
based; these competencies are: commu-
nications, technical, stakeholder man-
agement, and time and cost
management. In the knowledge category,
the top two competencies are educa-
tional background and project manage-
ment certification. The ability category
items are not frequently emphasized; a
highly demanded KSA within this cate-
gory is “results oriented project
This research is the only one of its
kind in project management literature
to analyze KSA-based project manager
competencies from job advertisements
for multiple sectors and across coun-
tries. Cross-country analysis shows the
Australian job market demands more
KSAs than that of New Zealand. In
Australia, the most popular KSAs are
cost management and communication,
whereas the New Zealand market
emphasizes communication and tech-
nical skills. Project industry-wise data
show communication to be one of the
top four requirements in all five major
industries (construction, IT, engineer-
ing, government, healthcare), and cost
management and technical skills are
requirements among all major indus-
tries, with the exception of healthcare.
In contrast, previous studies focus on a
particular industry, such as ICT
(Skulmoski & Hartman, 2010; Stevenson
October 2013 Project Management Journal DOI: 10.1002/pmj
Recruiting Project Managers
data. In the future, this research can be
extended to consider other Organization
for Economic Co-operation and
Development (OECD) country data.
Overall, we believe our research opens up
a new research direction in the project
human resource management area.
Ahadzie, D. K., Proverbs, D. G.,
Olomolaiye, P., & Ankrah, N. (2009).
Towards developing competency-
based measures for project managers
in mass house building projects in
developing countries. Construction
Management and Economics, 27(1),
Ahmed, S. (2005). Desired competen-
cies and job duties of non-profit CEOs
in relation to the current challenges:
Through the lens of CEOs’ job adver-
tisements. Journal of Management
Development, 24(10), 913–928.
Alderman, N., & Ivory, C. (2011).
Translation and convergence in proj-
ects: An organizational perspective on
project success. Project Management
Journal, 42(5), 17–30.
Anantatmula, V. S. (2008). The role of
technology in the project manager per-
formance model. Project Management
Journal, 39(1), 34–48.
Anantatmula, V. S. (2010). Project
manager leadership role in improving
project performance. Engineering
Management Journal, 22(1), 13–22.
Antonacopoulou, E. P., & FitzGerald, L.
(1996). Reframing competency in
management development. Human
Resource Management Journal, 6(1),
Athey, T. P., & Orth, M. S. (1999).
Emerging competency methods for the
future. Human Resource Management,
38(3), 215.
Avery, D. R. (2003). Reactions to diver-
sity in recruitment advertising: Are dif-
ferences black and white? Journal of
Applied Psychology, 88(4), 672–679.
Barber, A. E. (1998). Recruiting employ-
ees: Individual and organizational per-
spectives. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
managers to meet these organizational
needs. This research allows an insight
into the potential KSA competencies
and requirements for potential manag-
ers to develop and set goals to meet
these market needs. These research
findings will also help existing project
managers consider how the project man-
agement market across industries and
countries looks and allow decisions on
how their organizational needs could be
met for the future.
This research examines KSA compe-
tencies of the project manager role. In
general, it was found that the PMCD
framework for project managers could
be better utilized with specific KSAs for
different industries and regions. In
addition, practitioners in the project
manager role could better understand
the areas around the human capital
(KSA) that would be developed for their
particular careers and roles. Although
the PMCD framework is generic, this
study has demonstrated that supply-
side competencies need to be matched
with the demand-side and include con-
siderations of regional and industrial
differences. In addition to clarifying and
explicating the job competency require-
ments for project managers, our research
is a knowledge base for human resource
managers. It will help human re -
source managers perform the recruit-
ment process more effectively.
Particularly when a human resource
manager needs to prepare a job adver-
tisement for an industry specific project
manager job, our research can provide
guidelines to identify the required
knowledge, skills, and abilities and pre-
pare the job advertisement accordingly
to find the right person for the project.
This highlights the increasing impor-
tance of competency-based recruit-
ment by utilizing specific generic and
context-based competencies in creat-
ing a quality pool of applicants and
allowing self-selection of potential can-
didates (Ahadzie, Proverbs, Olomolaiye,
& Ankrah, 2009; Ling, 2003).
This research can be extended to find
some time influence on job requirement
paid to industry variations of project
managers. These industrial and regional
variations may form the basis of how
project management is conceptualized
and understood. The promotion of
project management has created, to
some extent, the organizational
and social contexts within which tech-
nical specialists in various sectors see
the project manager role as one that
promises status, influence, and author-
ity within particular organizational set-
tings. However, as Hodgson, Paton, and
Cicmil (2011) recently pointed out, “the
post-transition experience in the actual
‘day to day’ life of a project manager is
almost the opposite of the hype”
(p. 380). This critical observation allows
us to postulate that the project manager
role will continue to change in response
to the requirements of the labor market,
professional and organizational
demands, and changing technologies.
Future research thus could examine
how organizational recruitment and
selection of project managers continue
to redefine the types of managerial
competencies demanded in the profes-
sion, including tracking how the profes-
sion and its subsequent professional
bodies manage the demands of the
changing work environment and cross-
cultural influences. In addition,
although the advertisements in our
sample reflect organizational needs,
further research into how potential
recruits select and apply for these posi-
tions will reflect the “readiness” of proj-
ect managers, including an insight into
the ‘supply’ side of the profession.
This research has many practical
implications. We believe our research
findings will stimulate discussion on
how project managers select their
career paths and how these career paths
may influence the types and design of
work and projects in different industries
(Crawford & Cabanis-Brewin, 2006;
Hodgson et al., 2011; Hölzle, 2010). The
increasing demands for the profession,
such as the intensity of work and time
pressures, and resource limitations has
placed a premium on competent project
October 2013 Project Management Journal DOI: 10.1002/pmj
Edum-Fotwe, F. T., & McCaffer, R.
(2000). Developing project manage-
ment competency: Perspectives from
the construction industry.
International Journal of Project
Management, 18(2), 111–124.
El-Sabaa, S. (2001). The skills and
career path of an effective project
manager. International Journal of
Project Management, 19, 1–7.
Frank, M., Sadeh, A., & Ashkenasi, S.
(2011). The relationship among sys-
tems engineers’ capacity for engineer-
ing systems thinking, project types,
and project success. Project
Management Journal, 42(5), 31–41.
Gaddis, P (1959). The project manager.
Harvard Business Review, June, 89–97.
Gallivan, M. J., Truex D.P. III, & Kvasny,
A.L. (2004). Changing patterns in IT
skills sets 1988-2003: A content analy-
sis of classified advertising. The
DATABASE for Advances in Information
Systems, 35(3), 64–87.
Gehring, D. R. (2007). Applying traits
theory of leadership to project man-
agement. Project Management Journal,
38(1), 44–54.
Geoghegan, L., & Dulewicz, V. (2008).
Do project managers’ leadership com-
petencies contribute to project suc-
cess? Project Management Journal,
39(4), 58–67.
Gillard, S., & Price, J. (2005). The com-
petencies of effective project manag-
ers: A conceptual analysis.
International Journal of Management,
22(1), 48–53.
Green, F., & James, D. (2003). Assessing
skills and autonomy: The job holder ver-
sus the line manager. Human Resource
Management Journal, 13(1), 63–77.
Han, J., & Han, J. (2009). Network-
based recruiting and applicant attrac-
tion in China: Insights from both orga-
nizational and individual perspectives.
International Journal of Human
Resource Management, 20(11),
Hansson, J., Backlund, F., & Lycke, L.
(2003). Managing commitment:
Increasing the odds for successful
Theory & Politics in Organization, 9(2),
Clarke, N. (2010a). Emotional intelli-
gence and its relationship to transfor-
mational leadership and key project
manager competences. Project
Management Journal, 41(2), 5–20.
Clarke, N. (2010b). The impact of a
training programme designed to target
the emotional intelligence abilities of
project managers. International
Journal of Project Management, 28(5),
Crawford, L., Hobbs, J. B., & Turner, J.
R. (2006). Aligning capability with
strategy: Categorizing projects to do
the right projects and to do them right.
Project Management Journal, 37(2),
Crawford, J. K., & Cabanis-Brewin, J.
(2006). Competency and careers in
project management. In American
Management Association International
(pp. 248–264). Retrieved from http://
Dainty, A., Mei, I. C., & Moore, D.
(2005). A comparison of the behavioral
competencies of client-focused and
production-focused project managers
in the construction sector. Project
Management Journal, 36(2), 39–48.
Dainty, A. R., Mei, I. C., & Moore, D. R.
(2004). A competency-based perfor-
mance model for construction project
managers. Construction Management
& Economics, 22(8), 877–886.
Dolfi, J., & Andrews, E. J. (2007). The
subliminal characteristics of project
managers: An exploratory study of
optimism overcoming challenge in the
project management work environ-
ment. International Journal of Project
Management, 25(7), 674–682.
Dvir, D., Sadeh, A., & Malach-Pines, A.
(2006). Projects and project managers:
The relationship between project man-
agers’ personality, project types, and
project success. Project Management
Journal, 37(5), 36–48.
Bierhoff, H.-W., & Müller, G. F. (2005).
Leadership, mood, atmosphere, and
cooperative support in project groups.
Journal of Managerial Psychology,
20(6), 483–497.
Boudreau, J., & Ramstad, P. (2007).
Beyond HR: The new science of human
capital. Boston, MA: Harvard Business
School Press.
Boyatzis, R. E. (2008). Competencies in
the 21st century. Journal of
Management Development, 27(1), 5–12.
Brannick, M. T., & Levine, E. L. (2007).
Job analysis: Methods, research and
applications for human resource man-
agement in the new millennium.
Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
Brophy, M., & Kiely, T. (2002).
Competencies: A new sector. Journal of
European Industrial Training,
26(2/3/4), 165–176.
Brousseau, K. R., Driver, M. J., Eneroth,
K., & Larsson, R. (1996). Career pande-
monium: realigning organizations and
individuals. Academy of Management
Perspectives, 10(4), 52–66.
Campion, M. A., Fink, A. A., Ruggeberg,
B. J., Carr, L., Phillips, G. M., & Odman,
R. B. (2011). Doing competencies well:
Best practices in competency modeling.
Personnel Psychology, 64(1), 225–262.
Chen, T.-Y., Chang, P.-L., & Yeh, C.
(2004). A study of career needs, career
development programs, job satisfac-
tion and the turnover intentions of
R&D personnel Career Development
International, 9(4), 424–437.
Chhinzer, N., & Ghatehorde, G. (2009).
Challenging relationships: HR metrics
and organizational financial perfor-
mance. Journal of Business Inquiry:
Research, Education & Application,
8(1), 37–48.
ˇiarniené, R., Kumpikaité, V., &
Vienažindiené, M. (2010).
Development of students’ competen-
cies: comparable analysis. Economics &
Management, 10, 436–443.
Cicmil, S., Hodgson, D. E., Lindgren, M.,
& Packendorff, J. (2009). Project man-
agement behind the façade. Ephemera:
October 2013 Project Management Journal DOI: 10.1002/pmj
Recruiting Project Managers
Lechler, T. G., & Dvir, D. (2010). An
alternative taxonomy of project man-
agement structures: Linking project
management structures and project
success. IEEE Transactions on Engi-
neering Management, 57(2), 198–210.
Lee, S. M., & Lee, C. K. (2006). IT man-
agers’ requisite skills. Communication
of the ACM, 49, 111–114.
Ling, F.Y.Y. (2003). Managing the
implementation of construction inno-
vations. Construction Management and
Economics, 21(6), 635–649.
Liu, J. Y.-C., Chen, H. H.-G., Jiang, J. J.,
& Klein, G. (2010). Task completion
competency and project management
performance: The influence of control
and user contribution. International
Journal of Project Management, 28(3),
Loo, R. (2003). Assessing “team cli-
mate” in project teams. International
Journal of Project Management, 21,
Loosemore, M., Dainty, A. R. J., &
Lingard, H. (2003). Managing people in
construction projects: Strategic and
operational approaches. London,
England: Spon Press.
Malach-Pines, A., Dvir, D., & Sadeh, A.
(2009). Project manager-project (PM-P)
fit and project success. International
Journal of Operations & Production
Management, 29(3), 268–291.
Mansfield, R. (1999). What is “compe-
tence” all about? Competency, 6(3),
Mar-Molinero, C., & Xie, A. (2007).
What do UK employers want from OR/
MS? Journal of the Operational
Research Society, 58, 1543–1553.
McClelland, D. C. (1973). Testing for
competence rather than intelligence.
American Psychologist, 28(1), 1–40.
McClelland, D. C. (1998). Identifying
competencies with behavioral-event
interviews. Psychological Science,
9(5), 331.
McEntire, L. E., Dailey, L. R., Osburn,
H. K., & Mumford, M. D. (2006).
Innovations in job analysis:
Development and application of metrics
Hodgson, D. (2004). Project work: The
legacy of bureaucratic control in the
post-bureaucratic organization.
Organization, 11(1), 81–100.
Hölzle, K. (2010). Designing and
implementing a career path for project
managers. International Journal of
Project Management, 28, 779–786.
Holzmann, V., & Spiegler, I. (2010).
Developing risk breakdown structure
for information technology organiza-
tions. International Journal of Project
Management. doi:10.1016/j.ijpro-
Howard, D., & Kerin, R. (2006).
Broadening the scope of reference
price advertising research: A field study
of consumer shopping involvement.
Journal of Marketing, 70, 185–204.
Huemann, M., Keegan, A., & Turner, J.
R. (2007). Human resource manage-
ment in the project-oriented company:
A review. International Journal of
Project Management, 25(3), 315–323.
Jackson, S., Schuler, R., & Werner, S.
(2009). Managing human resources
(10th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage
Johnson, A., Winter, P. A., Reio, J. T. G.,
Thompson, H. L., & Petrosko, J. M.
(2008). Managerial recruitment: The
influence of personality and ideal candi-
date characteristics. Journal of Manage-
ment Development, 27(6), 631–648.
Kelley, D., & Lee, H. (2010). Managing
innovation champions: The impact of
project characteristics on the direct
manager role. Journal of Product
Innovation Management, 27(7),
Kolltveit, B. J., Karlsen, J. T., &
Grønhaug, K. (2007). Perspectives on
project management. International
Journal of Project Management, 25, 3–9.
Krippendorff, K. (2004). Content anal-
ysis: An introduction to its methodol-
ogy. London, England: SAGE
Lam, L. W., & White, L. P. (1998).
Human resource orientation and cor-
porate performance. Human Resource
Development Quarterly, 9(4), 351–364.
implementation of TQM, TPM or RCM.
International of quality and reliability
management, 20(9 ), 993–1008.
Hao, C.T., & Swierczek, F. W. (2010).
Critical success factors in project man-
agement: Implication from Vietnam.
Asia Pacific Business Review, 16(4),
Hatch, N. W., & Dyer, J. H. (2004).
Human capital and learning as a
source of sustainable competitive
advantage. Strategic Management
Journal, 25(12), 1155–1178.
Hartog, D., Caley, A., & Dewe, P. (2007).
Recruiting leaders: An analysis of lead-
ership advertisements. Human
Resource Management Journal, 17,
Hayton, J. C., & Kelley, D. J. (2006). A
competency-based framework for pro-
moting corporate entrepreneurship.
Human Resource Management, 45(3),
Heneman, H. G., & Berkley, R. A.
(1999). Applicant attraction practices
and outcomes among small busi-
nesses. Journal of Small Business
Management, 37(1), 53–74.
Hodgson, D. (2002). Disciplining the
professional: The case of project man-
agement. Journal of Management
Studies, 39(6), 803–821.
Hodgson, D. (2005). Putting on a pro-
fessional performance: Performativity,
subversion and project management.
Organization, 12(1), 51–68.
Hodgson, D., & Cicmil, S. (2007). The
politics of standards in modern man-
agement: Making ‘the project’ a reality.
Journal of Management Studies, 44(3),
Hodgson, D., Paton, S., & Cicmil, S.
(2011). Great expectations and hard
times: The paradoxical experience of
the engineer as project manager.
International Journal of Project
Management, 29(4), 374–382.
Hodgson, D. (2000). Discourse, disci-
pline and the subject: A Foucauldian
analysis of the UK financial services
industry. London, England: Ashgate.
October 2013 Project Management Journal DOI: 10.1002/pmj
Shenhar, A.J., Levy, O. & Dvir, D. (1997).
Mapping the dimensions of project
success. Project Management Journal,
28(2), 5–15.
Skulmoski, G. J., & Hartman, F. T.
(2010). Information systems project
manager soft competencies: A project-
phase investigation. Project
Management Journal, 41(1), 61–80.
Sodhi, M., & Son, B. (2008). What skills
industry employers want from opera-
tions research graduates. Interfaces, 38,
Sodhi, M. S., & Son, B. G. (2010).
Content analysis of O.R. job advertise-
ments to infer required skills. Journal
of the Operational Research Society, 61,
Starkweather, J. A., & Stevenson, D. H.
(2011). PMP® certification as a core
competency: Necessary but not suffi-
cient. Project Management Journal,
42(1), 31–41.
Stevenson, D. H., & Starkweather, J. A.
(2010). PM critical competency index:
IT execs prefer soft skills. International
Journal of Project Management, 28(7),
Styhre, A. (2006). The bureaucratiza-
tion of the project manager function:
The case of the construction industry.
International Journal of Project
Management, 24(3), 271–276.
Sydow, J., Lindkvist, L., & DeFillippi,
R. J. (2004). Project-based organiza-
tions, embeddedness and repositories
of knowledge: Editorial. Organization
Studies 25(9), 1475–1489.
Sylvia, H. (2000). Introduction—the
competency movement: Its origins and
impact on the public sector.
International Journal of Public Sector
Management, 13(4), 306.
Thal, A. E., & Bedingfield, J. D. (2010).
Successful project managers: An
exploratory study into the impact of
personality. Technology Analysis &
Strategic Management, 22(2),
Todd, P., McKeen, J., & Gallupe, R.
(1995). The evolution of IS job skills: A
content analysis of IS job advertisements
of managing technological innovation
(pp. 215–226). New York, NY: Oxford
University Press.
Pinto, J. K., & Slevin, D. P. (1989).
Critical success factors in R&D proj-
ects. Research Technology
Management, 32(1), 31–33.
Project Management Institute. (2008).
A guide to the project management body
of knowledge (PMBOK® guide)—Fourth
edition. Newtown Square, PA: Author.
Project Management Institute (2007).
Project manager competency develop-
ment framework—Second edition.
Newtown Square, PA: Author.
Project Management Institute (2011).
PMI fact file. PMI Today, 1, 5.
Räsäinen, C., & Linde, A. (2004).
Technologizing discourse to standard-
ize projects in multi-project organiza-
tions: Hegemony by consensus?
Organization, 11(1), 101–121.
Redman, T., & Mathews, B. P. (1997).
What do recruiters want in a public
sector manager? Public Personnel
Management 26, 245–256.
Remington, K., & Leigh, R. (2007,
September). Innovation in the making—
educating tomorrow’s project manag-
ers: Development of a project manage-
ment learning program through action
research. Presented at the meeting of
the IRNOP VIII Project Research
Conference, Brighton, UK.
Rodriguez, D. (2002). Developing com-
petency models to promote integrated
human resource practices. Human
Resource Management, 41(3), 309–324.
Russell, J.S., Jaselski, E.J., & Lawrence,
S.P. (1997). Continuous assessment of
project performance. Journal of
Construction Engineering and
Management, 123(1), 64–71.
Schippmann, J. S. (1999). Strategic job
modeling: Working at the core of inte-
grated human resources. Mahwah, NJ:
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Schulz, E., Camp, R. R., & Wahman,
J. L. (2008). Incremental effectiveness
of two key IT recruitment methods.
Journal of Managerial Issues, 20(2),
to analyze job data. Human Resource
Management Review, 16(3), 310–323.
Mei, I. C., Dainty, A. R. J., & Moore, D. R.
(2005). What makes a good project
manager? Human Resource
Management Journal, 15(1), 25–37.
Meredith, J. R., & Mantel, S. J. (2006).
Project management: A managerial
approach: Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.
Montabon, F., Sroufe, R., &
Narasimhan, R. (2006). An examina-
tion of corporate reporting, environ-
mental management practices and
firm performance. Journal of
Operations Management, 25, 998–1014.
Müller, R., & Turner, J. R. (2007).
Matching the project manager’s lead-
ership style to project type.
International Journal of Project
Management, 25(1), 21–32.
Müller, R., & Turner, R. (2010).
Leadership competency profiles of
successful project managers.
International Journal of Project
Management, 28(5), 437–448.
Müller, R., Geraldi, J., & Turner, J. R.
(2012). Relationships between leadership
and success in different types of project
complexities. IEEE Transactions on
Engineering Management, 59(1), 77–90.
Newman, D. A., & Lyon, J. S. (2009).
Recruitment efforts to reduce adverse
impact: targeted recruiting for person-
ality, cognitive ability, and diversity.
Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(2),
O*Net. (2012). O*Net Resource Center.
Retrieved from http://www.onetonline
Papke-Shields, K. E., Beise, C., & Quan,
J. (2010). Do project managers practice
what they preach, and does it matter to
project success? International Journal
of Project Management, 28(7), 650–662.
Paton, S., Hodgson, D., & Cicmil, S.
(2010). Who am I and what am I doing
here? Journal of Management
Development, 29(2), 157–166.
Pinto, J. K., & Kharbanda, O. P. (Eds.).
(1997). Lessons for an accidental pro-
fession. In R. Katz (Ed.), The human side
October 2013 Project Management Journal DOI: 10.1002/pmj
Recruiting Project Managers
important for digital librarian positions
in academic libraries? A job advertise-
ment analysis. Journal of Academic
Librarianship, 35(5), 457–467.
Zwikael, O. (2009). The relative impor-
tance of the PMBOK® Guide’s nine
Knowledge Areas during project plan-
ning. Project Management Journal,
40(4), 94–103.
Zwikael, O., & Globerson, S. (2006).
Benchmarking of project planning and
success in selected industries.
Benchmarking: An International
Journal, 13(6), 688–702.
Kamrul Ahsan, PhD, is a senior lecturer in the
Supply Chain and Logistics Discipline, College of
Business, Victoria University, Australia. He has a
sound track record of academic research and
teaching in the supply chain management and
project management areas and was a visiting
research fellow at the University of Missouri,
St. Louis, USA, and a visiting research scholar at
the School of Management, Asian Institute of
Technology, Thailand. His current research inter-
ests include supply chain integration, product
returns, recalls, logistics management in disas-
ter situations, project human resource manage-
ment, international development projects, and
project supply chain management issues. His
publications have appeared in peer-reviewed
journals, such as the International Journal of
Project Management, International Transactions
in Operational Research, Asia Pacific Journal of
Operational Research, Journal of Health
Management, International Journal of
Operations and Quantitative Management , and
others. He also received the Project Management
Institution New Zealand (PMINZ) research
achievement award in 2011. His coauthored arti-
cle on remanufacturing was selected for the
best paper award at the 21st International
Conference on Production Research (ICPR 21),
from 1970 to 1990. MIS Quarterly,
19, 1–27.
Tremblay, M., Wils, T., & Proulx, C.
(2002). Determinants of career path
preferences among Canadian engi-
neers. Journal of Engineering and
Technology Management, 19, 1–23.
Turner, J. R., & Keegan, A. E. (1999).
The versatile project-based organiza-
tion: Governance and operational con-
trol. European Management Journal,
17(3), 296–309.
Turner, J. R., & Keegan, A. E. (2001).
Mechanisms of governance in the proj-
ect-based organization: Roles of the
broker and steward. European
Management Journal, 19(3), 254–267.
Turner, J. R., & Müller, R. (2003). On
the nature of the project as a tempo-
rary organization. International
Journal of Project Management,
21(1), 1–8.
Ulrich, D., Brockbank, W., Johnson, D.,
Sandholtz, K., & Younger, J. (2008). HR
competencies: Mastery at the intersec-
tion of people and business. Alexandria,
VA: Society of Human Resource
Weber, R. P. (1990). Basic content anal-
ysis (2nd ed.). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Wu, W. W., & Zmud, R. W. (2009). Facing
the challenges of temporary external is
project personnel. MIS Quarterly
Executive, 9(1), 13–21.
Yang, L.-R., Huang, C.-F., & Wu, K.-S.
(2011). The association among project
manager’s leadership style, teamwork
and project success. International
Journal of Project Management, 29(3),
Youngok, C., & Rasmussen, E. (2009).
What qualifications and skills are
2011 in Stuttgart, Germany. He is a member of
Project Management Institute (PMI) and a
Charter Member of the Chartered Institute of
Logistics and Transport Australia (CILTA).
Marcus Ho, PhD, is a senior lecturer at the
Auckland University of Technology Business
School, New Zealand. He received his PhD from
the School of Business, University of Auckland,
New Zealand. He has published in diverse inter-
national journals, such as Entrepreneurship:
Theory and Practice and the International
Journal of Human Resource Management. His
research builds on his experiences and back-
ground as an organizational psychologist and
HR consultant. He has research streams in
human resource management as well as exam-
ining the cognitions and decision making of
entrepreneurs and managers in a variety of set-
tings such as social organizations, SMEs, and
high technology organizations.
Sakib Khan, a graduate from Auckland
University of Technology (AUT) Business School,
New Zealand, earned his Master of Business
degree in 2011. Currently he is working at the
Human Resources Division of Trust Bank
Limited, Bangladesh, as an assistant manager,
organization development. His master thesis
was on human resource (HR) devolution; the
purpose of the research was to explore the rela-
tionship between HR and line management and
investigate the benefits and challenges associ-
ated with reallocating HR responsibilities to line
managers. His research interests include organi-
zational development, employee performance
enhancement, engagement, and communica-
tion. He has been awarded several grants and
scholarships, including the prestigious Human
Resource Institute of New Zealand (HRINZ)
Postgraduate Scholarship for his master thesis,
and research assistantships for research proj-
ects from AUT Business School.
... One of the limitations of the study was that the research was constrained to information extracted from only five job sites in Brazil. Ahsan et al. (2013) and Chipulu et al. (2013) also investigated the competencies of project manager published in job advertisements. Chipulu et al. (2013) investigated 2,306 project management job advertisements in Asian countries, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. ...
... Chipulu et al. (2013) investigated 2,306 project management job advertisements in Asian countries, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. Ahsan et al. (2013) investigated 762 job adverts in the Australian and New Zealand market. The results of both studies demonstrated that employers put more emphasis on soft skills (61.68% of advertisement) and disciplinary technical skills than project management expertise. ...
... Soft skills were more important than project management hard skills in the financial, business, engineering, construction, manufacturing and the information and communications technology (ICT) sector than in other industries such as media and education (Chipulu et al., 2013). The engineering, construction and ICT industries stressed disciplinary technical skills and soft skills over project management hard skills (Chipulu et al., 2013), whereas disciplinary technical skills and soft skills along with project management hard skills were considered important in the construction, engineering and health care sector (Ahsan et al., 2013). ...
Full-text available
Projects play a pivotal role in modern enterprises. Functional structures of organisations are being replaced by project-based organisations. Along with the growth in project management, the need for skilled project professionals is mounting for the successful execution of the projects. This reflects the importance of preparing project management graduates for complex project environments. Higher education institutions (HEIs) are responsible for preparing work-ready project management graduates so are responding by continually reviewing and developing effective project management courses. This scoping review focuses on how HEIs are addressing the employers' demand by preparing project management graduates for the industry. Recent research on the work-readiness of project management graduates adds valuable contribution to the literature, however, there is a lack of a rounded overview which focuses on HEIs contribute to the development of employability attributes of project management graduates. Accordingly, this scoping review paper aims to explore the status quo of research on the employability of graduates within the context of project management education. More specifically, the study will capture and investigate the different approaches adopted by HEIs in developing work-ready project management graduates. The paper contributes to the literature by providing insights into project management graduates' job readiness in order to inform higher education institutions, policymakers and future research.
... human resource (HR) professionals in selecting the most capable PM to be assigned in SD projects (Skulmoski & Hartman, 2010). At the same time, there is a lack of effective professional development training that is well-developed to enhance the outcome of PMs in SD project by enhancing their PTs' utilization (Ahsan et al., 2013). Therefore, to clarify the needed competencies, this study aims to identify the PMs' PTs required to efficiently deliver SD projects, and represent the findings in a conceptual framework. ...
... In support, such findings add to the body of knowledge in the fields of PTs and SD literature through providing an integrative view of the PMs' PTs that positively influence the adoption and completion of SD projects (Khan et al., 2021;Pelster & Schaltegger, 2021). This also helps academics in human resources (HR) and social behavior studies in understanding PMs' PT required to deliver successful SD projects (Ahsan et al., 2013;Skulmoski & Hartman, 2010). ...
... In other words, HR professionals can use the findings of this research for recruitment and professional development purposes, as the needed PTs can be considered when evaluating PMs during resume screening, interviewing, and reference checking (Judge et al., 2002;Skulmoski & Hartman, 2010). Further, a guideline can be prepared to identify the required PMs' PT for SD projects (Ahsan et al., 2013). Such guidelines can help HR managers perform better in the recruitment process, especially, when they prepare a job advertisement for a PM position, for a particular SD project (Ahsan et al., 2013;Judge et al., 2002). ...
... The framework used by Ahsan et al. [33] is the Project Manager Competency Development (PMCD) as well as the knowledge, skills, and Ability (KSA) model. The findings indicated five essential KSA capabilities: communications, technical, stakeholder management, and time and cost management. ...
... Fig. 1: PMCD and KSA framework models. [33] The role of the PMO Manager in managing projects in an organization is described by Roden et al. [34], which includes communicating policies, establishing procedures, updating PMO deliverables, engaging with stakeholders throughout the organization, complying with project portfolios, programs, and methodologies, managing, and reviewing projects and analyzing reports. As described by Yesica et al. [3], qualifications have been developed to assess the competence of the PMO Managers based on their responsibilities. ...
In the telecommunications and Information Technology (IT) sectors, Project Management Office (PMO) practices in Indonesia are seldom applied even though PMO has an essential role for companies as a productivity tool and to overcome existing changes in the business world. This study aimed to validate five PMO framework competencies and whether telecommunication sectors have applied these competencies. This study uses in-depth interviews and structured questionnaires to obtain robust validation data from expert PMO Managers. The data was obtained by interviewing five PMO expert respondents from PMOPI (Project Management Professional Indonesia). The raw data were analyzed using NVivo 12 by four certified expert coders. This study found that almost all PMO competencies were applied in the telecommunications industry, with significant results. This result was validated with an inter-rater percentage of 95.31%, indicating that the analyzed data had high accuracy. The business mainframe was the most utilized competency among the PMOs in the telecommunications industry, with 29.13% of findings. The occurrence percentages of each dimension with technical and professional specialists are as follows: 14.17%, effective intersocial competence is 12.60%, organizational stewardship is 9.45%, the business mainframe is 29.13%, and effective personal competence is 3.15%. This study provides the knowledge and skills required for successful performance to be demonstrated as a competent PMO manager.
... Por un lado, se trata de un constructo (latente) de naturaleza multifactorial aún por descubrir, que hace de su medición y análisis un mayor desafío. La literatura expone diversidad de HBDP en el campo del software, sin reflejar consenso sobre una estructura universalmente aceptada en los proyectos (Ahsan et al., 2013;Brière et al., 2015;Gillard, 2009). Estas diferencias en las HB -del director-asociadas con el EP de software tienen que ver con factores culturales, con el nivel de desarrollo de los países y con otros factores intrínsecos a cada industria dentro de cada región (Ahsan et al., 2013;Skulmoski y Hartman, 2010). ...
... La literatura expone diversidad de HBDP en el campo del software, sin reflejar consenso sobre una estructura universalmente aceptada en los proyectos (Ahsan et al., 2013;Brière et al., 2015;Gillard, 2009). Estas diferencias en las HB -del director-asociadas con el EP de software tienen que ver con factores culturales, con el nivel de desarrollo de los países y con otros factores intrínsecos a cada industria dentro de cada región (Ahsan et al., 2013;Skulmoski y Hartman, 2010). ...
Full-text available
La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo valorar los parámetros físicos, químicos en la maduración artificial de papaya (Carica papaya L.) variedad hawaiana, usando el acetiluro de calcio CaC2 como agente de maduración. Se aplicó un diseño completamente al azar con arreglo bifactorial AxB. Para la determinación de diferencias se utilizó la prueba de rangos múltiples de Tukey al 5 % de probabilidad. Se analizaron variables fisicoquímicas (textura, pH, brix, acidez) y variables bromatológicas (humedad, cenizas, proteína, fibra, energía). Los resultados del análisis fisicoquímico demostraron que existieron diferencias significativas: en la variable textura la mejor respuesta fue el tratamiento T6 con (1.80 kg/f); el pH, con los tratamientos T1 (5.76), T4 (5.42) y T6 (5.54); brix, con los tratamientos T4 y T6 con 10.07 y 12.40 %; acidez, con el tratamiento T6 con el valor más bajo con 0.8 %; a nivel de humedad, el mejor tratamiento fue el T6 con 92.22 %; ceniza, el T1 con el valor más bajo 3.20 %; proteína, los tratamientos T5 y T6 con 4.34 y 5.34 %; fibra presenta una leve disminución, siendo su mejor tratamiento el T6 con 1.42 %, y energía, con el T6, 0.87 kcal. Los valores registrados en este estudio son comparables a otras investigaciones similares, ajustándose a los parámetros establecidos. Pagina : 416-429
... The study also proposed that it could be a possible avenue to close the wage gender gap [20]. Another study proposed a research model that suggested that job requirements, such as technical skills (task) and softs skills (social), are both influenced by the individual's personality traits, which influence work behaviour and, ultimately, job performance [29]. ...
Full-text available
Soft skills are essential to employability and retention; therefore, if obtained and observed, they can significantly reduce sector-wide turnover. This study aims to investigate and compare soft skills that industry professionals currently possess and soft skills the industry requires and needs to attain. A questionnaire was administered using the RICS database, and 741 respondents participated in this study. Initially, the soft skills possessed and the soft skills required were analysed and compared via descriptive statistics. Furthermore, principal component factor analysis was used to identify the underlying factors and classify the identified soft skills. It was found that there are alignments and evident discrepancies between the actual skills currently possessed and the skills required by these professionals. The soft skills currently possessed by the industry were classified into three groups: (a) Ethics and Professionalism Cluster; (b) Self-Effort Management Cluster; and (c) Management—Leadership and Power Cluster. This was different to the two clusters identified for the soft skills requirements, which were: (a) trait-based cluster—less controllable; (b) training-based cluster—more controllable. The study concludes that there are controllable and less-controllable skills, which need to be possessed and managed in building professionals. Controllable soft skills are easier to train, whereas trait-based soft skills are more difficult to train and possess. The findings of this research are significant as their understanding can be used to help mitigate turnover and guide construction sector professionals to plan for the appropriate skills they require.
Full-text available
South Africa, like many other developing nations, faces significant challenges in delivering effective and fair public services. Africa in particular suffers from a catastrophic shortage of public infrastructure, and a variety of factors contribute to the infrastructure deficit. Public entities around the world are battling with effective service delivery and have adopted different models to enhance and improve infrastructure delivery. However, the models currently deployed have shortcomings, thus frustrating the efforts to deliver infrastructure effectively to the general populace. South Africa has similarly had its fair share of false starts. The 2010 introduction of Infrastructure Delivery Management System (IDMS) was specifically to facilitate effective, timely and sustained infrastructure development, and tackle the challenges in public sector infrastructure delivery. The study employs a multi-case study, qualitative approach through content analysed data to look at four nations that implements infrastructure projects in Europe and Sub-Saharan Africa and analyze the advancement of infrastructure delivery. A systematic review of infrastructure delivery models/reforms in the context of public sector was carried out through literature and descriptive analysis was applied. The findings reveal a knowledge vacuum about the diverse techniques taken by various countries in the execution of public sector infrastructure projects, and provide little precise evidence on the performance of delivery systems and lessons learned. It is here recommended that interventions such as IDMS should be contextualized cognizant of the country’s developmental imperatives.KeywordsReformsInfrastructureDeliveryConstruction industryPublic sector
This paper considers the need for a clear legal and policy framework to guide a more sustainable construction industry and the use of digital technologies. It commences with an analysis of the meaning of sustainable development and briefly reflects on the three components of sustainable construction industry. The paper argues that while much has been written on the environmental aspect there has been more limited engagement with the social component of sustainable development. It critically analyses decent work deficits in the construction industry and the role of law and technology in addressing these deficits. In so doing it follows a doctrinal and legal research methodology. The paper argues that while the benefits of certain digital technologies for safer construction industry are undeniable, there is not much certainty on the extent to which the construction industry is legally obligated to adopt such technologies. Ultimately, it considers that codes on corporate social responsibility could play a valuable role where they operate alongside clear legal frameworks to guide the construction industry in the adoption of such technological tools. These technological tools are then to be used as part of a broader commitment to promoting a sustainable construction industry in which there is decent work for all. It concludes with recommendations for legal reform to guide a more sustainable construction industry.KeywordsSustainable developmentDecent workOccupational health and safetySocial insuranceSocial protection
Risks in construction projects can be dynamic and complex in nature. Construction projects continue to succumb to the impacts of these varied risks thus requiring innovation in risk management practice (RMP). Like most developing countries, the South African Construction Industry (SACI) is not an exception in terms of consistent record of project failures. To date, there are different practices in risk management that are being utilised across the SACI. However, there are knowledge gaps in the RMP that require an agile approach for improving project delivery within the SACI. Furthermore, it is vital to note that agile approaches ensure inter alia constant improvement and innovation, as opposed to traditional methods. As such, introducing an Agile RMP (ARMP) tool is essential to transform the SACI in terms of project delivery success as findings have shown. This exploratory literature review-based study is aimed to analyse the effectiveness of traditional Risk Management (RM) methods and assess the need for an ARMP approach relative to improving project delivery within the SACI using eleven (11) snowball sampled articles. Through content analysis, the study revealed the need for further research on agile methods and training among others. However, this requires an in-depth investigation and inputs from stakeholders in the future. In so doing, this will reduce the effects of prevalent risk management’s knowledge gaps among project stakeholders. Furthermore, it is vital to introduce digitalisation-enable innovative agile methods for identifying and assessing risks that affect the construction projects whilst stipulating pragmatic training tools essential for improving the project delivery. Ultimately, the formulation of an ARMP framework appropriate for the SACI will contribute to sustainable construction projects.KeywordsAgile risk management practiceProject deliveryRisk managementRisk management practiceSouth African construction industry
Societal demand for a more sustainable construction industry remains prevalent. In response to such demands, a plethora of project management tools, techniques and competences have evolved to engender successful sustainability transitions within the construction industry. Although the salient contributions of these tools and techniques have been reported in extant literature, details of the contributions of the competence facet appears to be limited in extant literature. This study has been prompted by this observation. As such, this study, which forms an integral part of a wider study, seeks to identify, and determine the critical competences required by construction project managers to facilitate improved sustainability performance of projects, particularly during the construction phase of the construction lifecycle. This study adopts a Delphi technique wherein data was elicited from a purposively selected Delphi panel comprising of individuals with project management experience (n = 20), using questionnaires over two iterations. The data obtained was subsequently analyzed using descriptive statistics (median). Findings from the study elucidate the criticality of project management competences like planning, organizing, leadership, and technical knowledge in fostering the attainment of the desired levels of sustainability performance of construction projects. It is expected that the findings of this study will contribute to the corpus of emerging literature on this topic.KeywordsCompetenciesConstructionLifecycleProject managementSustainability
Full-text available
Applicant attraction practices and their linkages to four attraction outcomes (applicants/vacancy, days-to-fill, acceptance rate, and retention rate) were investigated among 117 small businesses. Usage of previously found practices as well as many others (special hiring inducements, for example) were found, and these varied according to company size, industry, and presence of an HR department. Practices had selective, significant linkages to the outcomes. For example, using both past applications and newspaper ads as recruitment sources resulted in fewer days-to-fill vacancies, providing promotion possibilities and new employee training resulted in higher acceptance rates. Providing cost-of-living increases, promotion possibilities, and having the HR manager evaluate job applicants lead to higher retention rates. Numerous implications for research and for improving small business applicant attraction practices are suggested.
This research investigates the validity of the traits theory of leadership applied to project management and determines how it correlates to core project management competencies. Previous published work on traits theory of leadership primarily deals with organizational leadership, and not specifically with project leadership. Consequentially, although the previous work is useful in providing a good basis for this paper, additional research is required for application in the field of project management. The necessary data was gathered via researching modern literature on project leadership and through questionnaires sent to project managers with varying levels of project management experience. The questionnaire was designed to evaluate the individual's assessment of what core competencies a project manager should possess. In addition to the questionnaire, an online personality assessment was used to determine the participants' Meyers-Briggs (MBTI) personality type. The results of the literature research and the returned questionnaires clearly indicate that certain MBTI types have preferences that support project leadership, specifically, ISTJ, INFJ, INTJ, ENTP, ESTJ, ENFJ, and ENTJ, with INTJ, ESTJ, and ENTJ being the types containing the most traits that supported project leadership competencies.
“This is a very important book. It is an essential text for any graduate program in applied industrial and organizational psychology. The First Edition is the best text on the market today, and the Second Edition is a huge improvement. Nice work!” – Bill Attenweiler, Northern Kentucky University Thoroughly updated and revised, this Second Edition is the only book currently on the market to present the most important and commonly used methods in human resource management in such detail. The authors clearly outline how organizations can create programs to improve hiring and training, make jobs safer, provide a satisfying work environment, and help employees to work smarter. Throughout, they provide practical tips on how to conduct a job analysis, often offering anecdotes from their own experiences. New to the Second Edition: New co-author Frederick P. Morgeson's background in business management brings a valuable new perspective and balance to the presentation of material.; Expanded coverage is offered on O*NET, strategic job analysis, competencies and competency modeling, and inaccuracy in job analysis ratings.; New text boxes provide bio sketches of famous names in job analysis to put a personal face on research.; Additional examples and cases illustrate the “how-to” of job analysis in real-life settings. Companion Website! A companion website, offers instructors and students supplemental materials such as course syllabi, examples of data collected as part of a job analysis, task inventory data, the opportunity to practice data analysis, and much more!
This study explored the incremental influence two of the top three recruitment practices have on organizational performance measures. The study used three different perspectives to discuss these practices' potential impact. Hierarchical regression controlling for several organizational characteristics indicates that recruitment efforts using interpersonal relationships and monetary inducements are significantly and positively associated with the percentage of open information technology (IT) positions filled by an organization. Both the time required to staff an open IT position and annual IT turnover levels were significantly and negatively associated with recruitment tactics built on interpersonal relations and monetary practices. The study details implications for managers and researchers.
Managers in the public sector have often been criticized for being bureaucratic, impersonal, reactive, cautious conformists when compared to their apparently charismatic, innovative, proactive and dynamic private sector counterparts; with all this implies for organizational performance. Using the recruitment advertisement as a lens, we analyze what recruiters say they are looking for in a manager in the two sectors. The results suggest that while material differences do exist, external perception owes more to stereotyping than clearly observable differences.