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Rap, rhythm and recognition: Lyrical practices and the politics of voice on a community music project for young people experiencing challenging circumstances

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Rap, rhythm and recognition: Lyrical practices and the politics of voice on a community music project for young people experiencing challenging circumstances

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Abstract

Given the prominence of rap music and its influence in debates about the moral status of young people, this paper seeks to highlight young people's own lyrical practices and interpretations of the genre. Evidence gathered by the National Foundation for Youth Music has found that such lyrical modes of music making can serve as a vital means of self-expression, particularly for those children and young people who otherwise lack confidence, self-esteem and cultural validation. This paper centres on a detailed case study of a community music project called Ustudios, which drew on peer-mentoring practices to develop and record rap lyrics with local young people who were identified as experiencing a range of challenging circumstances while residing on two adjacent council estates on the outskirts of Brighton, England. By tracing the lyrical practices of a group of young participants, this paper establishes a clear sense of their potential to explore their own voice, both as means to enhance their emotional expression and development, and as a way of supporting their participation as active members within their community. Taken alongside wider evidence, this case develops an emerging thesis on the political significance of voice, listening and recognition for reframing understandings of the emotional geographies of young people.

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... Where Jones's work engages with a range of media including literature and film, ideas about the importance of spatial and emotional autonomy of children can be also traced in research that builds from a direct engagement. Dickens and Lonie (2013), for instance, theorize youth workers' use of music studio as an autonomous space where young people are allowed not just to engage freely with their emotions, but also work through them and translate them into musical outputs in textual (lyrics) as well as non-textual (music, its color and rhythm) formats. The promise of youth work is interrogated also by Blazek and Hricová (2015) who draw on the perspective of detached youth work to shift the attention from understanding children's emotions to understanding adults' co-being and engagement with these emotions, without seeking to govern or manipulate them. ...
... Cheung Judge's research relates to two other spatial contexts attended by geographers interested in childhood and emotions: youth work and community. Work on the former is significant by articulating spaces of youth work as providing young people with social and spatial autonomy in which they can explore their own subjectivities (Dickens and Lonie 2013), with particular types of relationships with other young people and adults (Langager and Spancer-Cavaliere 2015), but also with specific materialities through which a children's agency can be re-constructed (Blazek 2016). Blazek and Hricová (2015) more specifically theorize youth work as a mode of engagement between adults and children that intrinsically challenges the spatialities of power in which young people's lives are entrenched and thus opens up possibilities for children's becoming in different ways. ...
... While narrative techniques are crucial to the geographical studies of children's emotions, they are relatively rarely used as a single methodological tool, reflecting on the established concerns about the limits of language in understanding both childhood and emotions. Interviews are instead often elicited with the help of visual techniques, including the aforementioned GPS records and Google Earth images (Jarvis et al. 2017), but also videos (Murray and Mand 2013;Tang 2015), photographs (Oh 2012), or mood boards (Pimlott-Wilson 2012, of other non-textual contents such as music (Dickens and Lonie 2013), or they are employed as part of broader ethnographic or participatory action research (PAR) activities (Yuli Hastadewi 2009;Ardoin et al. 2014;Lloyd-Evans 2017). ...
... This is approached less from the perspective of 'nudge' behavioural economics and the 'psychological state' (Jones, pykett, & Whitehead, 2013), and more by drawing on Bondi's (2008) discussion of the relational theory of practice which emphasizes that the interpersonal relationships and dynamics between service providers and their clients are not just contingencies but the ultimate mediums of policy delivery (hunter, 2012). importantly, and relating to wider debates about young people's agency in the context of care and intergenerational relations within and outside the neoliberal mainstreams of both the Global North and South (Blazek, Smith, Lemešová, & hricová, 2015;Evans, 2012), we focus on young people not only as 'recipients' of care (Wiles, 2011), but also as active participants in relational and situated practices such as mentoring and, consequently, policy delivery (Dickens & Lonie, 2013). ...
... in particular, by focusing on the relational nature of the mentoring process the paper recognizes the 'importance of valuing and respecting the knowledge and feedback provided by the recipient of care, and of recognising the complexity, emotional richness, and importance of relationship skills -however ordinary -through which care is given and received' (Bondi, 2008, p. 262). By focusing on the views of the young people as well as the mentors, we address the relative absence of research on the 'recipients' of care (Wiles, 2011), but, in Downloaded by [Loughborough University] at 04:51 07 April 2016 line with the youth work ethos of the mentoring project outlined below, we view the young people not only as 'vulnerable' recipients of care but also as agents within a relational process with their mentors and others (Dickens & Lonie, 2013). Following Bondi's (2005) argument that the emotional should not be equated with individualized subjective experience, but should instead be viewed as intersubjective, we assess the importance of looking beyond the narrow carer/care-recipient encounter (or the 'mentor-mentee dyad' , Keller, 2005), central though this may be, to examine the situated and relational nature of the 'different kinds of "doings"' and 'everyday interactions, practices and feelings' (Jupp, 2008, p. 341), which may be critical in developing the wider progressive outcomes of such models of social practice for the young people involved. ...
... Foregrounding the relational nature of such actions -and aspects such as their interpersonal (and in this case intergenerational), temporal and spatial characteristics -serves to create an expanded sense of the 'doings' of social policy and how it might explicitly operate through relational practice. it also points to the (albeit tentative) potential of transformative encounters to develop whereby relations of care are enacted in ways which do not (solely) work through asymmetrical relations of caring (Korf, 2007), but rather where the young person is positioned as an active participant in the mentoring relationship and where the skills and understandings of the mentors might also be developed through the process (Dickens & Lonie, 2013). By focusing on the complex negotiation of the mentoring relationship over a sustained period and on the spatial practices through which mentoring operated -being away from home, working through the transitory spaces of co-presence (Bowlby, 2011;Johnsen et al., 2005) -we can suggest that much of how mentoring and other such caring relationships might have effect is through a range of both 'remarkable and unremarkable' practices (Meth, 2008) as relational spaces are created and experienced. ...
Article
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Developing a critical analysis of the relational and situated practices of social policy, this paper draws on an evaluation of an early intervention project in Scotland (UK) where volunteer adult mentors supported young people ‘at risk’ of offending or antisocial behaviour. Contributing to ‘enlivened’ accounts of social practice, we explore how practices of mentoring developed through the co-presence of mentor and young person in the often transitory spaces of care which characterized the ‘diversionary activities’ approach in the project. We expand the notion of the relational in social practice beyond the care-recipient dyad to include wider networks of care (families, programme workers, social institutions). The paper explores how such social interventions might both be ‘good’ for the young people involved, and yet recognize critiques that more individualized models of intervention inevitably have limitations which make them ‘not enough’ to deal with structural inequalities and disadvantages. Acknowledging the impacts of neoliberalism, we argue critical attention to diverse situated relational practices points to the excessive nature of engagement in social policy and provides scope for transformative practice where young people’s geographies can be ‘upscaled’ to connect to the realms of social policy and practice.
... Furthermore, these literatures often posit children's resistance to adultism as a reason to hope that adultist ethics and pedagogy might, encounter-by-encounter, be expunged. These themes of best ethical practice and children's resistive agency reappear in the work of Dickens and Lonie (2013;also Lonie and Dickens 2016), who have already brought community musicas a vector for liberated children and liberatory pedagogyto the attention of children's geographies. That said, Dickens and Lonie's workwhich demonstrates how young people develop their learning identities by traversing diverse pedagogical spacesdoes not adequately address how adultism is reasserted through a proliferative scalarity against attempts by community musicians (and other critical pedagogues) to initiate best practice and facilitate children's agency (Kraftl 2015). ...
... Key amongst these practices has been performance as a way of enabling young people to express complex emotions and experiment with different identities that might enable them to identify hopes, fears, and capacities that were previously obscured (Richardson 2013). This framing and role of performanceas a vector for creatively rewiring repressionshas been used across various participatory art practices as a way of making an approachable offer of participation to marginalised groups (Dickens and Lonie 2013). Often, despite its seemingly innocuous playfulness, performance can transform participants' understanding of themselves and their place in the world by temporarily suspending the need to reproduce hegemony, allowing new affects to emerge (Diprose 2015). ...
Article
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Recent work in children’s geographies and geographies of education has presented the argument that when conceptualising the various roles that adults occupy in children’s lives, it is equally important to conceptualise adultism. In this paper we argue that this existing work critiques adultism’s logics but does not adequately conceptualise adultism’s structural and scalar spatialities. We reconceptualise adultism as a structural and scalar phenomenon by examining our case study of a community music programme designed to reconnect children with their ‘learning identities’. We borrow the spatial metaphor of ‘chains’ from human geography’s postcapitalist literature to highlight how adultism structurally pervades this space of resistance, underscoring the more broadly applicable point that practices of resistance that fail to address adultism’s co-creative relationships with other structures of domination can end-up reasserting adultist relations. However, towards the end of the paper we argue that this reconceptualisation of adultism does not mean community music (or other critical pedagogies) should be abandoned, rather illustrating how the organisation in our case study innovate in order to address adultism’s structural and scalar facets.
... In particular, interest has grown in the participatory processes that might precede the discursive aspects of "critical consciousness" and "structured representation" that characterise Freirean approaches (Wijnendaele 2014); for example, by more closely addressing the emotional, embodied and intersubjective registers of learning through "life-itself" (Kraftl 2014), and how such dynamics shape the geographies of pedagogic encounters (e.g. Cheng 2016;Dickens and Lonie 2013). ...
... First, closer attention to the more-than-representational dynamics of participatory engagements with young people would seem to offer potential for socially just transformations to take more radically indeterminate directions. Indeed, while participatory research has been significantly influenced by the Frieiran (1970) deployment of "structured representation" to establish participants' "critical consciousness", recent geographical scholarship has become increasingly interested in the affective conditions that might precede and exceed such processes (Dickens and Lonie 2013;Hung 2011;Wijnendaele 2014). At the same time, radical youth workers increasingly insist that critical pedagogical practices focus on an indeterminate process of learning through the living material forces of intersubjective experience (Skott-Myhre 2006Skott-Myhre et al. 2016). ...
Article
Renewed interest in the critical geographies of education has raised productive yet under-examined synergies with reflections taking place among radical youth work and participatory research practitioners. In particular, such intersections point to important ways that the geographical imagination might advance a critical yet creative means of learning through the living material forces of everyday worlds. This paper examines this common ground through a collaborative, London-based case study exploring young people's sense of home and belonging in the inner-city. It argues that cross-overs between the praxis of participatory research and youth work offer generative potential to act alongside young people in the production of autonomous geographical knowledges. Specifically, the case is made for prioritising an imaginative, experiential and intersubjective pedagogical process of “world making”, as an alternative to practices that intervene in, act upon and ultimately “other” the everyday lives of young people.
... Informal, everyday spaces often constitute opportunities for musical encounters, rehearsal and performance in the development of musical awareness, aptitude and expression. 2 Such experiences can begin early on in life, within family, domestic and otherwise mundane settings. Sometimes, they occur through participation in non-formal, funded provision of musical opportunities in youth centres, clubs and halls, musical studios and so on. ...
Article
This article considers the processes of musical learning that take place across formal, non-formal and informal contexts and spaces. Building on notions of embodied knowledge, identity and culture within education studies, specifically the concept of ‘musical habitus’, this article explores processes of access, inclusion and appropriation of music learning environments. Based on focus group discussions with a diverse group of young Londoners (aged 16-25 years) taking part in Wired4Music, a publicly funded youth leadership programme, the article considers definitions and the significance of music and learning places to these emerging musicians. This includes the processes through which musical learning takes place and the relevant factors that contribute to productive learning. Often operating within a context of subsidised arts provision, these perspectives are also considered within the current cultural policy landscape in England. Participants described implicit and explicit processes of exclusion to some formal music education settings and approaches, whereby a less formal though still intentional approach to learning was enacted in response. This included re-appropriating spaces and creating music in communities of practice, embracing multi-modal approaches to learning across art forms and genres and self-directing learning opportunities. These findings strongly resonate with studies which have critically appraised the specific sites and spaces where education takes place, as well as those suggesting that theories of identity, taste and cultural consumption should also be considered in education praxis, whether formal, non-formal or informal.
... They recognise detached youth work as a form of practice that supports the links between spatial and emotional autonomy, so instead of seeking to diagnose or govern children's emotions, it is focused on how to accompany those emotions through the provision of relationships which are supportive yet allowed and handled by children themselves. Elsewhere, Dickens and Lonie (2013) show the power of social and spatial arrangements of music studios in youth work practice where young people accept the tangible resources and mentoring from adult practitioners but engage emotionally with their experiences on their own terms through rap lyrics and music. Both these examples mainly illustrate the importance and effects of relationships based on adults supporting young people and accompanying them in a mutually accepted manner, while retaining respect for their need for spatial and emotional autonomy (and their interconnectedness -the space where young people can 'feel' without being regulated, manipulated or condescended to) and recognising the uneven power dynamics inherent in the socio-spatial relations between adults and children. ...
Chapter
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Geography is a discipline with much to say about space but, until relatively recently, more reluctance to talk about children and emotions. Over the last 20 years, however, both these areas have become established sub-disciplinary fields within geography with successful dedicated journals (Children’s Geographies was established in 2003 and Emotion, Space and Society in 2008), a flourishing tradition of international conferences (the 5th International and Interdisciplinary Conference on Emotional Geographies and the 4th International Conference on the Geographies of Children, Youth and Families took place in 2015) and a number of journal articles and book publications with impact across the field of geography and far beyond.
... In turn, Evans ( 2016) shows that video can be perceived by young people as a medium through which they can more easily communicate their views and experiences to others. As geographers have been recently engaging with children's and young people's sensory and visceral knowledge (Bartos 2013;Collins and Tymko 2015), their embodied experiences (Windram-Geddes 2013; Procter 2015), with the soundscapes of childhood (Gallagher 2011) and knowledge embedded in music (Dickens and Lonie 2013), participatory video has the capacity to bring these different aspects of experiencing and making sense of the world by children and young people together and to communicate them in adaptable (Mistry and Berardi 2012) ways. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter reviews participatory video as an emerging methodological approach to geographies of children and young people over the last decade. It discusses the place of participatory video in the subdiscipline in three steps. First, it examines the scope of participatory video in the wider field of social sciences and humanities, and it explores its emergence in geographical scholarship on children and young people at the interface of the induction of participatory video to geography in general, the shaping of the discipline of children's geographies, and the emerging work with participatory video and young people in other social scientific disciplines. Second, the chapter presents current achievements and dilemmas of participatory video in the production of knowledge in the work with children and young people and suggests possible routes through which participatory video could play an even more important epistemological role in the subdiscipline. Finally, the chapter explores ethical and political issues related to participatory video work with children and young people and relates them to wider questions of geographical research.
... However, in recent years, rap has emerged as a contested practice and even developed a negative reputation for supporting 'nihilism' (Turner, 2010) where certain types of rap music, such as gangsta rap and grime, are perceived as decisive in the corruption of urban youth cultures through the validation of crime and deviance (Dickens & Lonie, 2012). White (2016) examines how rap is often a contested activity and documents the recent repression and criminalization of grime rap in a London borough. ...
Article
This article explores how rap music workshops can be an effective method when researching neighbourhood regeneration and refurbishment with children and young people, especially in disadvantaged communities. The article draws a research with 78 children and young people in a large social housing estate which is undergoing regeneration and refurbishment in Cork City in the South of Ireland. The focus of this article is on a sub-group of six teenagers who participated in a rap workshop. The research demonstrates that rap music workshops are an insightful data collection method, particularly in contexts where rap music is already an embedded part of the local youth culture. This research also reveals how children and young people have the imaginative capacity to make an informed analysis of their communities and that they hold a strong desire to influence the decision-making process. This article will be of interest to researchers concerned with creative methodologies designed to elicit and understand children’s and young people’s experiences and perspectives.
... Although rap is often associated with ethnic minorities and black culture and protest culture in the North American context (Martinez, 1997), in the British case, hiphop emerged as a multiethnic working class phenomenon, with minority and majority ethnic contributors. Similar to rap in other countries, British rap has also a protest characteristic, with emancipatory potential that stands against racism, sexism, gang and knife crime, poverty among other concerns of social policy (Dickens and Lonie 2013). Rap is now the most popular poetic form among the working-class youth in the UK. ...
Chapter
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Reflecting on the way progressive protest rap music helped humanise the music industry by taking on global challenges such as incivility, poverty, violence, inequality and injustice, we discuss how management studies could embrace such insights from this field of emergent art. In particular, we explore how management studies, in the same way as progressive rap, could reveal complexity of reality through an engagement with lived experience beyond established frames (abductive research), through an exploration of multi-level relations of power (critical realism), and by revealing possibilities of progress by relevance, transdisciplinarity, plurilingualism, and transcultural engagement (engaged scholarship). In order to advance management studies along these three aspects we turn to protest rap music. Drawing on cases from progressive rap artists from Britain, France and Turkey, we explore how progressive rap artists use their observations and knowledge to create new frames (abductive research), rather than to use established frames of reference available (deductive and inductive research), how they navigate the relations of power in their environments and present art that challenges the fundamental assumptions of such structures of power (critical realism), and offer emancipatory pathways for disenfranchised communities by bringing heterodox insights into the rigid structure of the established orthodoxy of the artistic field (engaged scholarship). Innovation may happen when insights from two or more disciplines could be combined. In this paper, we bring insights from the field of progressive rap to the field of management scholarship in order to contribute to the humanisation of the latter.
Chapter
This chapter focuses on how policies of youth voice and participation are enacted within music projects seeking to develop young people’s emotional literacy and provide platforms for them to be heard. It begins with a discussion of the policy structures relating to participatory arts, strategies of inclusion and social learning in the non-formal education sector, and notions of access to cultural opportunities as adopted by Arts Council England (ACE). Within this policy context, a tension is identified whereby the generally more open, inclusive and universal understandings of cultural production within the aims of youth participation — discussed here as a form of cultural democracy — are challenged by a dominant discourse within arts policy in England, which appears to focus on creating access to, and learning from, predetermined ‘great art’, or what might be seen as the democratisation of (high) culture. This is associated with a further, long-standing tension between an intrinsic view of the benefits of participating in ‘art for art’s sake’ and a more instrumental view of art as providing a ‘vehicle’ for broader development (see Rimmer, 2009 for a detailed discussion of these issues in relation to young people’s musical participation). However, it appears that the overarching discourse that participation in apparently ‘great art’ can somehow be redemptive (i.e. an elitist instrumentalism) is creeping back into policy frameworks at the same time as participatory and culturally democratic aims are being operationalised.
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Chapter
Creative material practice, in both differing and similar ways to technological and digital creative processes, has the ability to engage young people who face barriers to mainstream education but who may lack digital literacy skills. This chapter will thus look at art-based social enterprises that engage with textiles and fashion with the specific aim of addressing barriers to employment for young creatives affected by the impacts of migration and displacement. How are craft and textile forms leveraged for learning models that engage young people who have had disengaged prior experiences of education or lacked prior schooling due to the dislocating effects of the migration experience? In the specific context of migration and displacement, material practice draws on cultural traditions and existing creative skills. These skills and aesthetic forms can be deliberately re-oriented to new marketplaces through contemporary fashion, craft and textile design, which in turn support young people to position themselves as creative actors in contemporary global culture/s. This potential is evident in examples of fashion and craft-based social enterprise across both developing and developed economies, and aligns with UNESCO’s advocacy for creative practice that builds on and sustains cultural practice. Yet with the realities of limited funding and the precarious market for fashion retail globally, how ambitious can fashion and craft based ASEs be in imagining their development and growth in terms of the scope and impact of the training programs they offer?
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This chapter reviews participatory video as an emerging methodological approach to geographies of children and young people over the last decade. It discusses the place of participatory video in the subdiscipline in three steps. First, it examines the scope of participatory video in the wider field of social sciences and humanities, and it explores its emergence in geographical scholarship on children and young people at the interface of the induction of participatory video to geography in general, the shaping of the discipline of children's geographies, and the emerging work with participatory video and young people in other social scientific disciplines. Second, the chapter presents current achievements and dilemmas of participatory video in the production of knowledge in the work with children and young people and suggests possible routes through which participatory video could play an even more important epistemological role in the subdiscipline. Finally, the chapter explores ethical and political issues related to participatory video work with children and young people and relates them to wider questions of geographical research.
Chapter
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Geography, with its natural focus on landscapes over soundscapes, has historically been recognized for its visual bias. In recent years, however, a small number of influential studies have made strides to push the boundaries of geographical thought and praxis in presenting soundscapes as relevant to geographical debate, moving away from previous discussions of space and place which were firmly rooted in visual epistemologies. In particular, this chapter turns attention to the portable soundscape of community radio and considers how young people have the agency to present themselves on the airwaves. Moreover, this chapter extends this analysis by focusing on how community radio functions as a platform for youth voice, thus enabling young people to create cultural (re)presentations of themselves. Synthesizing different studies which explore the power of community radio as a platform for youth voice, relationship-building, and identity formation leads to the contention that, although soundscapes are a relatively new object of geographical research, they are an increasingly important one. By examining the complexities of young people’s explorations of self and youth voice, this chapter makes use of an extended case study of KCC Live, a volunteer youth-led community radio station in Knowsley, UK. This chapter considers a move beyond perceiving youth voice as an ideal outcome, acknowledging the limitations of its conceptualization, and recognizing the ways in which voices are shaped by, and shape, the contexts which produce them.
Chapter
This chapter contributes to research on the geographies of informal education through a focus on a model of non-formal music education advanced by the work of the National Foundation for Youth Music (Youth Music), a charity working with children and young people in England. Significantly, while this model differs from formal music education in its concern for musical learning beyond the school curriculum (generally considered as formal music education), it also differs from many of the current theoretical descriptions of informal education, which tend to focus on unstructured activity occurring in and around formal contexts of school or work (Coffield, 2000; Bekerman et al., 2005), or ad hoc ways in everyday life (Richardson and Wolfe, 2001). Despite being implemented within highly organised national and regional infrastructures by a range of third, public and private sector partners, and impacting on the lives of many thousands of children and young people each year in England alone (Lonie and Dickens, 2011), the role of such non-formal educational provision is yet to be fully taken into account within a renewed interest in the geographies of childhood, learning and education (Hanson Thiem, 2009; Holloway et al., 2010).
Chapter
Both emotion (and affect) and education have become important topics for disciplinary human geographers over the past decade. Simultaneously, a ‘spatial turn’ has been observed in the broader social sciences that has inflected research on emotion and education. This chapter-written from the perspective of a human geographer-examines the implications of such a turn for studying emotion in education. It begins by outlining how geographers have theorised emotion and affect, noting productive tensions between these two terms. Thereafter, it reviews- through four examples-how emotional geographies have inflected research on education. In so doing, it raises a series of conceptual questions that should underpin the planning of research on education and emotions-especially about the ways in which space ‘matters’ to a particular educational practice.
Article
Recent work in human geography has articulated the principles of an emerging ‘participatory ethics’. Yet despite sustained critical examination of the participatory conditions under which geographical knowledge is produced, far less attention has addressed how a participatory ethics might unsettle the conventional ways such knowledge continues to be received, circulated, exchanged and mediated. As such, the uptake of visual methods in participatory research praxis has drawn a range of criticism for assuming visual outputs ‘tell their own stories’ and that publics might straightforwardly engage with them. In response, this paper develops an argument for adopting an ethical stance that takes a more situated, processual account of the ways participants themselves might convene their own forms of public engagement, and manage their own conditions of becoming visible through the research process. To do so the concept of an ethics of recognition is developed, drawing attention to the inter- and intra-subjective relations that shape the public research encounter, and signalling ways that participants might navigate such conditions in pursuit of their intuitive desire to give an account of themselves to others. This ethical stance is then used to rethink questions of visibility and publicness through the conditions of reception, mediation and exchange that took place during the efforts of a London-based participatory research project to ‘go public’. Drawing in particular on the experiences of one of the project participants, we suggest how a processual and contingent understanding of public engagement informed by such an ethics of recognition might be anticipated, approached and enacted.
Article
This article uses the sonic geographies of childhood as an entry point into long-standing and important debates in the sub-discipline on ‘voice’. The article uniquely explores children’s voices from the past through considering a different type of research material – archival audio recordings. It argues that literally listening to past children’s voices (and noises, sounds and silences) can offer fresh insights into the concept of voice that tends to be associated with contemporary contexts. Drawing on archival encounters with ‘second hand’ field recordings of children across different schools and playgrounds in London in the 1960s, this article engages and extends wider theoretical debates about childhood, voice and memory. The article calls for more attention to the unique characteristics of sound and wider soundscapes of childhood. The article critically reflects on the possibilities and tensions associated with such work.
Chapter
This chapter provides a methodological toolkit for those interested in using participatory techniques with children and young people. It charts the rise of participatory “techniques” and “approaches” within the subdiscipline of children’s geography; arguing these often carries different hues or levels of participation. Ideals of full-scale participation, as an “approach,” can in theory seem well defined, but in the field these often translate as messy, complex, and problematic, which often challenges previously held views of participation. This requires innovative and adaptive responses when issues of time, resources, and competencies enter the mix. There is therefore a need to have a degree of reflexivity to ensure that research which struggles to achieve full-scale participation as an “approach” is not seen to be in some ways inferior for only partially enabling participation within certain aspects of the research. It is important to acknowledge that participatory research can progressively achieve transformative practice albeit at different levels (Beazley H, Bessell S, Ennew J, Waterson R, Children’s Geographies 7(4), 365–378, 2009). The chapter is aimed at two groups of researchers. Firstly, for those looking to use a participatory (PAR) approach, this toolkit provides a list of possible techniques which young people can choose from, as coresearchers, when helping to design the research. Secondly, for researchers who are looking to use alternative and nontraditional methods to engage with children and young people and make the research accessible for them.
Chapter
Outer Urban Projects (OUP) is a performing arts based social organisation, with a social enterprise arm, that operates in the outer northern suburbs of Melbourne, Australia. OUP targets diverse, socio-economically disadvantaged communities, and takes the starting point of a professional performing arts company to engage young people in a range of short and long term creative programs across artforms including dance, rap, music, song and theatre. At OUP, professionalism is a key strategy for engaging young people in arts activity: not only does it validate an emerging artists’ capacity for creative expression and the cultural contribution of their individual ‘voice’, it also supports the immediate needs of young people, particularly those from lower socio-economic backgrounds, to generate income and find meaningful work. This positioning also helps to shift perceptions away from deficit-based understandings of the social reality of living in the outer urban fringe, and to emphasise instead the strengths of emerging artists in the city’s outer suburbs. While the broader goal of OUP is to develop a new generation of professional artists and support them to access opportunities in the industry, many OUP participants and alumni are conflicted in their goals of achieving personal success, on the one hand, and ‘giving back’ to their immediate communities, on the other. This chapter explores two key questions about the role of ASEs in generating social change: does a focus on individual stories of success come at the cost of advocating for structural change in the educational and work opportunities afforded to young people living on the margins? And are OUP alumni reproducing a model of community arts development that they have learned from OUP, rather than transitioning into the so called ‘mainstream’?
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Geography, with its natural focus on landscapes over soundscapes, has historically been recognized for its visual bias. In recent years, however, a small number of influential studies have made strides to push the boundaries of geographical thought and praxis in presenting soundscapes as relevant to geographical debate, moving away from previous discussions of space and place which were firmly rooted in visual epistemologies. In particular, this chapter turns attention to the portable soundscape of community radio and considers how young people have the agency to present themselves on the airwaves. Moreover, this chapter extends this analysis by focusing on how community radio functions as a platform for youth voice, thus enabling young people to create cultural (re)presentations of themselves. Synthesizing different studies which explore the power of community radio as a platform for youth voice, relationship-building, and identity formation leads to the contention that, although soundscapes are a relatively new object of geographical research, they are an increasingly important one. By examining the complexities of young people’s explorations of self and youth voice, this chapter makes use of an extended case study of KCC Live, a volunteer youth-led community radio station in Knowsley, UK. This chapter considers a move beyond perceiving youth voice as an ideal outcome, acknowledging the limitations of its conceptualization, and recognizing the ways in which voices are shaped by, and shape, the contexts which produce them.
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'What is the real hip hop?' 'To whom does hip hop belong?' 'For what constructive purposes can hip hop be put to use?' These are three key questions posed by hip hop activists in Hip Hop Versus Rap, which explores the politics of cultural authenticity, ownership, and uplift in London's post-hip hop scene. The book is an ethnographic study of the identity, role, formation, and practices of the organic intellectuals that populate and propagate this 'conscious' hip hop milieu. Turner provides an insightful examination of the work of artists and practitioners who use hip hop 'off-street' in the spheres of youth work, education, and theatre to raise consciousness and to develop artistic and personal skills. Hip Hop Versus Rap seeks to portray how cultural activism, which styles itself grassroots and mature, is framed around a discursive opposition between what is authentic and ethical in hip hop culture and what is counterfeit and corrupt. Turner identifies that this play of difference, framed as an ethical schism, also presents hip hop's organic intellectuals with a narrative that enables them to align their insurgent values with those of policy and to thereby receive institutional support. This enlightening volume will be of interest to post-graduates and scholars interested in hip hop studies; youth work; critical pedagogy; young people and crime/justice; the politics of race/racism; the politics of youth/education; urban governance; social movement studies; street culture studies; and vernacular studies.
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This chapter considers the ways in which local, situated experience, along with class background and socio-economic status, influences the aspirations, values and career motivations of young people involved in art-based social enterprises. In recognising the socio-spatial changes brought about by gentrification and suburbanisation, including the displacement of communities to the urban fringe, a number of art-based social enterprises (ASEs) internationally attempt to address locational disadvantage through engaging young people living in the urban fringe in various forms of creative practice. One notable emphasis has been on performance, dance and music projects—thus leveraging the greater engagement of young people with these contemporary art forms. Indeed, the performing arts provide a ready platform for individual storytelling, cultural expression and opportunities for income generation that can be attractive to young people impacted by forces of marginalisation. While such ASE interventions are often constructive and purposeful, they can also be couched in terms of a transformational narrative where an individual who has experienced socio-economic hardship overcomes personal circumstances and barriers to achieve normative goals of creative success or, at least, recognition. The key question explored in this chapter is whether such a narrative—and the ASE activity that fosters it—might also tend to mask the very structural inequities, displacements and marginalities that characterise life on the urban fringe.
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The participation of children and young people in decisions that affect them is now mainstream in social and public policy in the UK. Yet for many young people formal participation opportunities are abstracted from everyday lives and concerns. Children may not feel empowered despite the existence of formal structures for participation. This raises questions about how ‘spaces’ for participation are constructed. This paper critiques prevailing models of participation in formal structures and instead, argues for the need to rethink children's participation as a more diverse set of social processes rooted in everyday environments and interactions.
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Recognition is not only a response to social pathologies. It is also an unstable and often ambivalent relationship that has its own pathologies. Owing to the intertwining between recognition and power, certain forms of recognition turn out to be forms of alienation in or from the world. Such pathologies affect inter-individual recognition as well as the recognition between individuals and the socio-political institutions. The article proposes a joint reading of Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit and Philosophy of Right, which provide norms for identifying and dealing with these pathologies. The norm for inter-individual recognition is set out in the Phenomenology of Spirit, the norm for state/citizen recognition in the Philosophy of Right. The analysis envisages two other aspects of recognition: the interference of the ‘I–Me’ with the ‘I–You’ relationship and the incorporation of the ‘I–We’ into the ‘We–Us' dimension of recognition. As regards the interpretation of Hegel’s practical philosophy, the article analyses the link between Hegel’s concept of recognition and his theory of action. In this view, the highest form of recognition has more to do with reconciliation – reconciliation between human beings, reconciliation with the ‘finitude of action’ – than with the problematic of individual and collective identity.
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The paper reflects on the process of participatory video production with young people from a deprived neighbourhood in Bratislava. We draw on Kindon's [2003. Participatory video in geographic research: a feminist practice of looking? Area, 35 (2), 142–153] and Parr's [2007. Collaborative film-making as process, method and text in mental health research. Cultural geographies, 14 (1), 114–138] arguments that the process of participatory video can bear more significance for all actors of the video than the video-as-a-product. The paper thus explores relationships between particular groups of actors (young participants, the researcher and the practitioner) as well as among them, in the video-making process. We are especially interested in the diversity of motivations behind different actors’ decisions to be involved in participatory video, and we explore the dynamic changes of such motivations and the range of ultimate benefits that participatory video provided. These insights in turn help us to understand multiple types and layers of knowledge produced by young people through participatory video. We conclude the paper by highlighting the intersubjective diversity of participatory video, and we suggest how this can be approached to make participatory video research transformative and efficient for the purpose of research at the same time.
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Over recent years, young people's participation in small‐scale, locally based arts activities has increasingly come to be viewed by policy‐makers as capable of playing a valuable role in both re‐engaging ‘at‐risk’ youth with mainstream education and providing a means through which communities might combat social exclusion. For some commentators, however, the political imperatives underpinning this approach sit uncomfortably with the multifarious uses and ambitions of creative youthful cultural participation, leading some to criticise the adopted approach as an ‘instrumental’ use of the arts. Presenting findings from three youth‐based community music projects set in the north of England, this paper explores some of the ramifications of current policy relating to the community music participation of young people, particularly those considered ‘at‐risk’. The analysis reveals ways in which such use of cultural policy can have a negative impact on participatory activity, leaving community music projects in danger of missing their at‐risk target.
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This paper represents musical remixing practices as a means of conducting leisure research. Our research engaged urban Aboriginal-Canadian youth through The Beat of Boyle Street, a music technology program used to teach young people how to produce their own remixes. Through this program we developed a “research remix” of narrative, Indigenous and arts-based ethnographic methods attuned to processes of making sense through making music. We examined the ways young people (re)produced not only songs but also stories, cultures and identities. Our research remix connects leisure practices and popular cultural processes by informing understandings of music and leisure in young people's lives.[Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Leisure Sciences for the following free supplemental resources: sound clips of El Jefe remix (a capella), “Broken Home,” “Street Life,” and “Turning Point (a capella).”]
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The Council on Social Work Education (CSWE) places a premium on the development of cultural competence among practitioners. To this end, the present study highlights how social work practitioners, specifically group work leaders, can utilize elements of the culture of urban adolescents to develop effective group work intervention strategies. The article compares adolescent participants' perceptions of usefulness of traditional group therapy and similar group work sessions using RAP music as a conduit to support prosocial skills development. A nomenclature of three adolescent groups was tested: violent offenders, status offenders, and a control condition of high school students with no criminal history. Findings were unequivocally in favor of the RAP therapy as a tool for advancing prosocial behavior.
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This article presents a reflection on the possibility and potential advantages of the development of a humanities‐based approach to assessing the impact of the arts, which attempts to move away from a paradigm of evaluation based on a one‐size‐fits‐all model usually reliant on empirical methodologies borrowed from the social sciences. A “toolkit approach” to arts impact assessment, as the article argues, demands excessive simplifications, and its popularity is linked to its perceived advocacy potential rather than to any demonstrable contribution it may make to a genuine understanding of the nature and potential effects of artistic engagement. The article also explores the relationship between research, advocacy and the actual realities of policy‐making with a view to proposing a critical research agenda for impact evaluation based on Carol Weiss’s notion of the “enlightenment” function of policy‐oriented research. In particular, the article attempts to highlight the contribution that cultural policy scholars working within the humanities could make to this area of policy research.
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There's certainly not enough literature engaging with the sonic experience of music. Analysing lyrics and interviewing performers is one thing; but, as we know from experience, engaging with sound is far more of a challenge. It's that lack of attention to the musicaìmoment' that's so vexing. Why don't we write a piece that engages practically with a conception of music which goes beyond the notes on a page? Let's put musical performance at the very heart of our endeavour. Abstract. Like every other work of art, music has become the stuff of social research: it has been interrogated for its economy, its politics, and its role in elaborating human life. Music has its geographies too: its cultural landscapes; its positioning in a soundworld; its embodiment; its materi-ality. But, intriguingly, until recently musical methodologies have remained half formed, fragmentary, hidden, elusive, out of sight, beyond words. This is partly a result of disciplinary histories and an unhelpful division of intellectual labour; it is partly an expression of what music is. This paper is a performance enacted to assemble the field of musical methodologies: to enlarge its scope; to engage with its strengths and limitations; to animate the soundworld; to participate in the art of doing and being (geographies of) music.
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In this article, the author discusses the expressive potential of music and how it can be applied in an arts-based qualitative research project. The limitation of music, and other forms of non-verbal forms of artistic expression, are discussed. The conclusion is that music can serve well as a supplementary form of expression in arts-based research, but, like many texts, even those whose meaningfulness is taken for granted, cannot stand alone.
Article
In this paper I take note of 'the arts of the remix', in which techniques of producing hip-hop music with First Nations young people in Canada involved remixing both music and research practices. Through a school-based leisure programme called The Beat of Boyle Street, I taught Aboriginal young people to use computers and audio software to make, produce, and record their own hip-hop music. The programme's research component involved a bricolage of arts-based and performance ethnographic techniques and analyses. The shared music-making process opened space for storytelling, and the songs that were produced articulated many of the struggles and hopes of First Nations youth.
Article
This article presents the results of an exploratory study of the therapeutic potential of a rap music intervention in group work with youth. “Hip-Hop Therapy (HHT)” is an innovative synergy of rap music, bibliotherapy, and music therapy. A pretestposttest experimental design with random assignment to groups was used to compare outcomes of youth that attended HHT sessions (n = 5) and youth that attended comparison group therapy sessions (n = 6) at a residential facility for at-risk and delinquent youth. Post-hoc qualitative data are also presented to provide depth to our understanding of the experiences of the youth in the HHT group. Because rap music has become increasingly popular among youth, it was expected that under a specific set of conditions rap music would improve the therapeutic experience and outcomes for youth. Taken together, the quantitative and qualitative results partially supported the hypothesis. Implications for clinical practice, as well as future directions in research are noted.
Article
The concept of story draws attention to the relationship between personal experience and expression, and the broader contexts within which such experiences are ordered, performed, interpreted, and disciplined. In the past, particularly through the ‘cultural turn’, geographers were predominantly concerned with the ways in which story and storytelling were implicated in the production of cultural, economic, political, and social power. Today, this approach to story is being re-examined and new approaches to story are being explored. Geographers have been re-imagining the concept of story as part of a relational and material turn within the discipline, as part of a renewed focus on the political possibilities afforded by storytelling, and as a mode of expressing non-representational, (post)phenomenological geographies. This paper contextualizes recent work within broader disciplinary trends and critically evaluates the intellectual and political stakes of these new geographies of story and storytelling. It questions whether a shift away from understanding stories and storytelling in terms of power, knowledge, and difference (as was emphasized through the cultural turn) has opened new understandings of political, social, and cultural life, or risks abandoning crucial insights into the role of stories in geographical formations.
Article
This paper seeks to extend disciplinary investigation by calling for a geography of voice and a politics of speaking and of listening. It explores the different characteristics of voices, their affective and ethico-political forces, and how they make public spaces. Through its polyphonic method of text, audio illustrations and recorded interviews with participants in radical political organization, the experience of the paper itself is a political gesture, one that invites the listener-reader to consider the histories, narratives and assumptions that underpin her own reception of them.
Article
This paper suggests ways the academic debate on youth participation (and how this is translated into research designs) can inform the manner in which services collaborate with children and young people to evaluate their work. There is a gap between thinking from academic research and the practice of service evaluation that seems to be difficult to bridge. In order to bridge the gap, a particular kind of ‘criticality’ needs to be brought to the assumptions and structures of professional practice and to how research methods are used in consulting with young people. Some of the discourses of practice do not sit easily with a view of children as active agents in their own lives, a view that underlies a more meaningful collaboration with young people. A process of dialogue and reflection within services that looks questioningly at the relationship between services and young people is explored. Encouraging criticality within youth involvement in evaluation will go a long way in bringing the academic debate on young people and research to children's services. Criticality takes many forms, but this paper gives some possible areas for action. These involve research purpose, consent, method and interpretation. More youth involvement is not necessarily better. Consent is on-going rather than agreed at the start and is in the hands of young people. Rather than looking for child-friendly methods, services should think of participatory design. Conclusions from findings should go beyond taking expressed views as accessing core perspectives. Examples of participatory design that do indeed take on board the academic debate on research and young people are considered. These include the work of Investing in Children in Durham and Alison Clark's work in designing pre-school settings with children and adults such as school staff and architects.
Article
For the last decade, the aspirations of working class young people have been a significant policy concern in the UK, with a range of interventions being implemented to work on and ‘raise’ them (particularly through initiatives to widen participation in higher education). This paper considers the emotional geographies of young people's aspirations. Interventions to ‘raise’ young people's aspirations act on an emotional/affective level (creating ‘wow’ moments that affect their perceptions of what is possible) but seldom engage holistically with the full range of emotions that young people experience in relation to their imagined adult lives. The prioritisation of progression to higher education (and, by extension, professional careers) as the most acceptable ‘aspirations’ to have overlooks the wide range of other ambitions young people have for their adult lives (and how these often rest upon the desire for emotional security and happiness). This disconnection between working class young people's aspirations and those promoted by policy interventions undermines efforts to inspire more working class teenagers to progress to HE and creates greater emotional risk for those that do so.
Article
Increasing attention has been given in schools in recent years to emotions as part of children's development and as core to their learning. Yet limited attention has been paid to emotions in childhood research. Based on findings from an ethnographic study within a Scottish school with children aged 6–7 years, this article explores the construction and negotiation of emotions as a part of children's classroom experience. Children's bodies and emotions are highly controlled in the classroom but despite this control, children actively construct emotions in their everyday lives.
Article
Narrative analysis produces strategies to inform the conduct, interpretation and presentation of interview talk, and encourages and enables researchers to take account of research participants’ own evaluations. We suggest this to be a useful method for geographers because it focuses on how people talk about and evaluate places, experiences and situations, as well as what they say. With an example from health geography, we show how it allows for interactive texts, thus providing a tool for geographers doing qualitative research to connect intimate details of experience to broader social and spatial relations.
Article
The paper presents a critical discussion of the current debate over the social impacts of the arts in the UK. It argues that the accepted understanding of the terms of the debate is rooted in a number of assumptions and beliefs that are rarely questioned. The paper goes on to present the interim findings of a three‐year research project, which aims to rethink the social impact of the arts, with a view to determining how these impacts might be better understood. The desirability of a historical approach is articulated, and a classification of the claims made within the Western intellectual tradition for what the arts “do” to people is presented and discussed.
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This paper challenges the orientations and assumptions underpinning policies for disadvantaged young people (DYP) in Australia. We argue that policy interventions for young people generally exhibit a binary divide, some policies fostering leadership and creative endeavours targeted on ‘high-functioning’ young people, especially within educational and arts milieus, while other policies, focusing on DYP, take a remedial orientation. The basis for this binary divide is, we argue, flawed social constructions of young people, constructions that pathologise or privilege behaviours, attitudes and lifestyles. The consequences for DYP are that remedial policies, designed to get and keep young people ‘on track’, are often ignoring deeper developmental needs. Using recent research findings from arts programmes for young people, the paper argues for a broader policy orientation, including developmental needs, to strengthen remedial policies and programmes and open the potential for pathways to resilience.
Article
In this paper I argue that the boundary between childhood and adulthood is very difficult to define. Notably, it is blurred by the ambiguous period of 'youth'. I therefore draw upon Beck's theoretical work on individualisation and the life-course, which has been influential in youth research in sociology and youth studies, to provide a framework for reviewing some of the processes through which young people make the transition from childhood to adulthood. In the conclusion I reflect on the need to explore the importance of the different spaces implicit in young people's transitions, and the interconnections between them. I also highlight how distinctions between the states of childhood and adulthood are not clear-cut, nor are transitions a one-off or one-way process. Rather I draw attention to the way that changes associated with growing up may or may not be connected, and may occur simultaneously, serially or not at all. Finally, I point out the limitations of normative models of transition given the way that other social differences such as gender, class and sexuality intersect with the categories children and youth.
Article
Building on recent studies that have linked music, emotion and geography, this article looks at the musical production of the Basque post-punk band ‘Lisabö’ across its four albums: Ezlekuak (Bidehuts, 2007), Izkiriaturik aurkitu ditudan gurak (Metak, 2005), Ezarian (Esan Ozenki, 2000) and the EP Egan Bat Nonahi (Acuarela, 2002). Melding musical (cultural/textual) studies with a range of geographical and urban theory, this analysis takes on both the sonic immediacy and the lyrical content of the band’s music in an attempt to re-scale emotional approaches to space and place to an urban level. Ultimately, this reading of Lisabö’s emotional soundscapes highlights the role (and omission) of emotion in the production of urban places and simultaneously suggests that our emotional connections with music might form the basis for an embodied musical criticism engaged with space and place at the level of the urban.
Article
What it means to be a child varies over space and time. Historically, the dominant Western construction of childhood has oscillated between representing children as the bearers of original sin-devils-or as innocent-angels. In the United Kingdom in the 19th and for much of the 20th century it was this latter imagining of childhood that took hold. But the murder of toddler Jamie Bulger by two 10-year-old boys in 1993 has been pivotal in reengaging a demonised conceptualisation of what it means to be a child. The author begins by considering some of the contested meanings of childhood and then goes on to explore the contemporary 'othering' of children and some of the spatial restrictions being imposed on young people by adults in an attempt to (re)draw boundaries between 'us' and 'them'.
This article presents an innovative intervention model that incorporates rap music in social work practice with youth, particularly African-American and Latino youth. The model draws from traditional social work principles, as well as two established therapeutic models. A summary of the “hip-hop culture” and various terms used to describe rap music is presented. Moreover, a review of previous research on rap music is included. Results from a practical application of the rap music intervention are presented. The article concludes with a discussion of further applications of the rap music intervention model, as well as future directions for research.
Article
Children and young people's participation is now recognised as a relational process and consequently the role of adults has been identified as crucial. Yet the role that adults play in the participatory process is underexplored and how underlying factors of emotions and power influence this role is unclear. Using the work of Spinoza as a framework for discussion, this article explores the impact of emotions and power on participatory processes. Based on doctoral participatory action research undertaken in São Paulo, Brazil, I argue that adults facilitating participation need to reflect on how they are personally implicated in the participatory process if underlying factors of emotions and power are to be acknowledged and addressed.
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This article discusses recording studios as urban spaces that have intimate relationships with music. The various human actors involved in the recording of music (musicians, studio engineers, producers), and its consumption (broadcasters, audiences), in addition to numerous non-human actors (recording technologies, acoustic spaces, city landscapes) are all in some way connected through affective relations in recording studios. Changing recording technologies have challenged earlier meanings and uses of recording studios, and altered the format and terms of musical labour. In a digital era where home recording and cheaper mastering technologies are prevalent, studios have re-orientated themselves towards other non-music industries, or become transformed into tourist sites. The history of recording studios thus reveals much about how music, space and musicians interact: it is through a composite and always evolving way that recording studios come to be viewed as vital spaces of music in the city.
Article
Due to changing social conditions active citizenship becomes a dynamic process rather than a standard, clear-cut set of rights and responsibilities. Furthermore, childhood presents itself more and more as an ambivalent social phenomenon. On the one hand, children are seen as autonomous individuals, on the other hand, as objects of protection. Nevertheless, today children can be seen as active citizens. Their ability to learn and play allows them to give active meaning to their environment. Accepting playful and ambivalent forms of citizenship, child participation presents itself no longer as an utopia, but as a fact.
Article
Research and policy on media and cultural diversity routinely emphasize speaking or ‘voice’, whether in mainstream, community or diaspora media. An established tradition also examines representation and critiques examples stereotyping and racialization. This paper extends these discussions to focus on questions of ‘listening’. Attention to listening provokes important questions about media and multiculturalism: how do media enable or constrain listening across difference? Drawing on recent work in postcolonial feminism and political theory, this paper explores the productive possibilities of a shift beyond the politics of voice to explore ‘listening across difference’ in media studies and media advocacy work. To highlight listening shifts some of the focus and responsibility for change from marginalized voices and on to the conventions, institutions and privileges which shape who and what can be heard in the media.
Article
The acknowledgement of researcher emotions should be a vital part of the youth research process, and its outcomes. Drawing upon detailed, personal and emotional accounts of active listening, the extent to which researcher emotions remain unacknowledged within the research process is explored. Youth researchers have clear protocols for protecting the wellbeing of their participants by considering ethical implications, informed consent and power differentials of research. However, the importance of researcher emotions, and how these can affect the research encounter are less well explored. It is argued that undertaking research with children and young people can raise emotional reactions within the researcher. If unacknowledged, the implication may be an increasing risk of researcher vulnerability. Acknowledging and raising awareness of all emotions safely within an academic arena should be a positive, cathartic experience. It can lead to greater protection of young research participants, a more robust support structure for youth researchers, and a more nuanced analysis of the research encounter.
Article
The role of the body and emotions in the workplace has become a fruitful area for sociological and, increasingly, geographical research over the past decade. This has been given particular emphasis and credence due to the growth of the service sector and its perceived ‘feminisation’, and the proliferation of work that focuses on the ‘improvement’ of bodies, most especially female bodies. This literature, though, has focused, as it suggests, on the processes of working and the geographies of the workplace, with those of training largely overlooked. Yet, given the emphasis on training for work and up-skilling in neoliberal economies, the sites and spaces of training warrant further attention. Here we focus on mothers engaged in training for massage and reflexology in the West London area, and draw together notions of body work and emotional labour to examine how bodies and emotions are learned and experienced through the microgeographies of the ‘classroom-salon’. In particular, the paper explores how the transformative space of the ‘classroom-salon’ is used to teach skills perceived simultaneously as natural and technical and how these link to perceived gender and maternal identities that extend beyond the classroom.
Article
This article examines what an embodied sense of rhythm can add to understandings of the relationship between festival spaces and people. Insights are given to how the rhythmic qualities of sound help orientate bodies in festival spaces, and how bodies produce festival space through embodied responses to the rhythmic qualities of sound. Our interpretation draws on extending examples of how researchers are using their bodies as ‘instruments of research’ by reflecting on a project conducted on rural festivals in Australia. We explore the different embodied rhythmic sound qualities of two parades held in the twin towns of Daylesford–Hepburn Springs, Victoria: the Swiss–Italian Festa and the ChillOut, pitched as Australia’s largest lesbian and gay rural festival. We pay close attention to how the rhythmic qualities of sounds trigger embodied responses. Incorporating the embodied knowledge of bodily rhythms triggered by sounds is a crucial component to understanding the analysis of festival spaces as sites-of-belonging.
Article
The New Labour Respect Agenda fuses anti-social behaviour policies, Third Way active citizenship, and a theory of community-based support and regulation. The Respect Agenda itself has a specific focus on, and direct implications for, children and young people, as well as for children living in vulnerable families. This paper argues that the theoretical basis for New Labour's 'Respect' is limited and ultimately flawed. Whilst New Labour policy demands respect from young people, young people's lived citizenship is too often experienced in terms of disrespect and even shame of the self. Young people respond to these feelings of disrespect by seeking out other ways through which respect can be acted out and negotiated. Respect, as conceptualised through the New Labour lens will criminalise vulnerable young people, thereby further stripping them of self-respect, inter-personal respect and societal respect. The paper concludes that respect should be an outcome of policy and a philosophy of a social justice led politics, rather than a conditionally led policy.
This introductory paper posits ‘listening’ as a rubric for reframing contemporary media theory and practice. We propose moving beyond questions of voice, speaking and representation to focus on often-ignored questions of listening as the ‘other side’ of communication. This article sets out the ways in which it may be possible to address the neglected question of listening, not in isolation but rather, following Susan Bickford's notion of ‘pathbuilding’, through explorations of speaking and listening, voice and hearing, logos and interpretation/deconstruction. The article argues for more receptive forms of public discourse and media practice, while seeking to place the recent problematization of listening in a critical framework. Through a survey of theorizations of listening and explication of their research agenda, the authors consider listening in relation to conflict and inequality in diverse practices of citizenship. A central aim is to push discussion of listening practices beyond individual, personal, and private forms of discourse and to identify a spectrum of listening practices that complicate the speaking/listening binary.
Article
While it has been argued that conventional methodological resources are incapable of effectively representing ‘everyday social practice’ (see Latham 200330. Latham , A. 2003 . Research, performance, and doing human geography: Some reflections on the diary-photograph, diary-interview method . Environment and Planning A , 35 : 1993 – 2017 . [CrossRef], [Web of Science ®]View all references, Environment and Planning A, 35, 1993), this paper posits that a consideration of the ‘where’ of methodology can go some way to taking social practices seriously. Drawing on research into young people's spatial practices, conventional interview techniques were adopted in a range of different sites: a classroom, a school store-cupboard, and in teenage ‘hang outs’. Through discussion of these emplaced techniques, the paper demonstrates the difference the where of method makes to research. It will argue that, if harnessed appropriately, emplaced methodology can enhance social science's capacity to access the range of intelligences that constitute everyday social practice.
Article
This paper considers the value of using interviews to research routine practices. Interviewing could easily be framed as inappropriate for this task, either because such practices are too difficult for respondents to talk about as a result of having sedimented down into unthinking forms of embodied disposition or because this method is out of step with a current enthusiasm for research styles that do not focus unduly on the representational. The discussion starts with how some key proponents of social practice theory have characterised the possibility of talking with people about these matters before turning to my own experience with two interview projects that attempted to do so inside city offices and older person households. I conclude that people can often talk in quite revealing ways about actions they may usually take as a matter of course and offer suggestions about how to encourage them.
Chapter
It is with some reticence that I write these comments on the ‘the ladder of children’s participation’ for this metaphor was introduced by me long ago in order to problematise an issue that now has a significant body of practice and critical reflection. But my colleagues, the editors of this volume, suggested that because the ladder is still used a great deal as a model it might be useful to stand back and make a few comments about the ways it has been interpreted. The ladder probably drew so much attention because when it was first published in Children’s Participation: From Tokenism to Citizenship by UNICEF in 1992, there was very little written of a conceptual nature on the theme of children’s participation in their programmes, projects, or organisations. The book was simply meant to stimulate a dialogue on a theme that needed to be addressed critically. But many people have chosen to use the ladder as a comprehensive tool for measuring their work with children rather than as a jumping-off point for their own reflections. Keywords participation, youth, children, models, citizenship
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Obstacles to effectively rehabilitate inner-city adolescents in staff-secure residential treatment centers should not be underestimated. Effective evidence-based protocols are lacking to help juveniles who are often angry, detached, frustrated, and in direct conflict with their peers. Facing a myriad of issues ranging from youth delinquency offenses to trauma, abuse, drug/alcohol use, peer pressure/gang-related activities, lack of structure in home environments, mental health diagnoses, and cognitive functioning difficulties, these adolescents present extraordinary challenges to an over-stressed juvenile justice system. A randomized controlled crossover study is utilized to comprehensively evaluate the effectiveness of a novel creative musical expression protocol as a catalyst for nonverbal and verbal disclosure leading to improvements in quality of life for inner-city youth in a court-referred residential treatment program. A total of 52 (30 females and 22 males) African-American, Asian, Caucasian, and Puerto Rican subjects ranging in age from 12 to 18 (mean age 14.5) completed the study. Dependent variable measures included the Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS), the Adolescent Psychopathology Scale (APS), the Adolescent Anger Rating Scale (AARS), the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale, 2nd edition (RADS 2), and the Adolescent Visual-Analog Recreational Music Making Assessment (A-VARMMA). Statistically significant (experimental vs control) improvements in multiple parameters include school/work role performance, total depression, anhedonia/negative affect, negative self-evaluation, and instrumental anger. In addition, extended impact (experimental vs control) is characterized by statistically significant improvements 6 weeks after completion of the protocol, for school/work role performance, behavior toward others, anhedonia/negative affect, total anger, instrumental anger, anger, and interpersonal problems. The primary limitations of this study include an extended follow-up period of only 6 weeks post completion of the protocol, and the inability to blind the counselors performing standardized assessments. This study is the first of its kind to test a replicable creative musical expression protocol as a catalyst for nonverbal and verbal disclosure leading to improved quality of life for inner-city youth in a court-referred residential treatment program. With substantial potential for widespread dissemination, this innovative protocol for adolescents can be readily utilized by behavioral health professionals without prior musical experience.
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This paper seeks to examine both how emotions have been explored in emotional geography and also how affect has been understood in affectual geography. By tracing out the conceptual influences underlying emotional and affectual geography, I seek to understand both the similarities and differences between their approaches. I identify three key areas of agreement: a relational ontology that privileges fluidity; a privileging of proximity and intimacy in their accounts; and a favouring of ethnographic methods. Even so, there is a fundamental disagreement, concerning the relationship – or non-relationship – between emotions and affect. Yet, this split raises awkward questions for both approaches, about how emotions and affect are to be understood and also about their geographies. As importantly, mapping the agreements and disagreements within emotional and affectual geography helps with an exploration of the political implications of this work. I draw upon psychoanalytic geography to suggest ways of addressing certain snags in both emotional and affectual geography.
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This fresh look at the neglected rhythm section in jazz ensembles shows that the improvisational interplay among drums, bass, and piano is just as innovative, complex, and spontaneous as the solo. Ingrid Monson juxtaposes musicians' talk and musical examples to ask how musicians go about "saying something" through music in a way that articulates identity, politics, and race. Through interviews with Jaki Byard, Richard Davis, Sir Roland Hanna, Billy Higgins, Cecil McBee, and others, she develops a perspective on jazz improvisation that has "interactiveness" at its core, in the creation of music through improvisational interaction, in the shaping of social communities and networks through music, and in the development of cultural meanings and ideologies that inform the interpretation of jazz in twentieth-century American cultural life. Replete with original musical transcriptions, this broad view of jazz improvisation and its emotional and cultural power will have a wide audience among jazz fans, ethnomusicologists, and anthropologists.
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Mods and Rockers, skinheads, video nasties, designer drugs, bogus asylum seeks and hoodies. Every era has its own moral panics. It was Stanley Cohen’s classic account, first published in the early 1970s and regularly revised, that brought the term ‘moral panic’ into widespread discussion. It is an outstanding investigation of the way in which the media and often those in a position of political power define a condition, or group, as a threat to societal values and interests. Fanned by screaming media headlines, Cohen brilliantly demonstrates how this leads to such groups being marginalised and vilified in the popular imagination, inhibiting rational debate about solutions to the social problems such groups represent. Furthermore, he argues that moral panics go even further by identifying the very fault lines of power in society.