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The theory and practice of knowledge management and transfer: The case of the Olympic Games

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The purpose of this paper was to examine the theory and practice of knowledge management processes, using the Olympic Games as the empirical setting and the Olympic Games Organizing Committee and its stakeholders as participants. The case study of the 2010 Vancouver Olympic Winter Games was inductively and deductively content analyzed, resulting in the development of a knowledge management and transfer process model for Olympic Games organizing committees and their stakeholders. Moreover, we found that the information and knowledge concepts should be placed on a continuum from explicit to tacit (with experience); practitioners do not distinguish between knowledge management activities as researchers do; socialization, externalization, combination, and internalization mechanisms can be found when tailoring knowledge for a stakeholder; and knowledge sources, reasons, organizational culture, and especially individuals are important when implementing knowledge management/transfer processes.

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... A literatura apresenta várias abordagens conceptuais usadas no estudo dos eventos de desporto. Das quais se destacam: -Os aspetos de celebração dos eventos e na comunidade (por exemplo, Ziakas & Costa, 2010;O'Brien & Chalip, 2008) e a teoria do reforço à comunidade (Onyx & Bullen, 2000); -A abordagem centrada nos impactos económicos dos eventos na cidade/região/país (Groothuis & Rotthoff, 2016, Preuss, 2005, na economia social e do bem-estar (Solberg & Preuss, 2007;Charrier & Jourdan, 2009); -Os padrões espaciais e temporais, as necessidades de recursos, e o impacto do evento no meio ambiente (Ferbrache, 2013;Giulianotti & Klauser, 2010;Collins, Jones, Munday, 2009); -A evolução, os ciclos de vida e no desenvolvimento do evento como um processo (por exemplo, Koenigstorfer et al., 2019;Bridges, 2011;McCartney & Osti, 2007); -As questões associadas ao marketing e patrocínios, a marca e o marketing de emboscada, licenciamentos e direitos de transmissão (por exemplo: Biscaia et al., 2013;Byers, Slack & Parent, 2012;Macintosh et al., 2012;Xing & Chalip, 2009); -As políticas de acolhimento, "soft power" e licitação dos eventos (por exemplo, Brannagan & Giulianotti, 2015;Grix et al. 2017;Bason & Grix, 2018); -As motivações dos espetadores para participarem no evento, através das teorias da identidade social (Heere et al., 2013;Green, 2001) e do rendimento psíquico (Kim & Walker, 2012); -O foco na sociologia das pequenas sociedades, grupos de parceiros e na comunidade local, com base na teoria das trocas sociais, do prospeto, das representações sociais e do capital social (por exemplo: Ribeiro & Almeida, 2020, 2021bInoue & Havard, 2014;Karakadis & Kaplanidou, 2012;Tomlinson, 2000;Putman, 1995); -A abordagem da gestão, que inclui as teorias organizacionais e o estudo comportamental, gestão estratégica, a liderança, a gestão de recursos humanos, a tomada de decisão, a estrutura organizacional, a gestão de parceiros e a gestão de problemas (por exemplo: Ribeiro et al. 2021;Parent et al., 2014;Parent, Rouillard & Leopkey, 2011;Chase, 1984). ...
... -Por fim, os processos de gestão e transferência do conhecimento (Parent et al., 2014) estão associados, por exemplo, à teoria emergente (Spender, 2002). ...
... Neste sentido, cabe ao gestor do evento desenvolver um processo de gestão do conhecimento acerca dos eventos que promove na sua organização. Segundo Parent et al. (2014) Compartilhar o conhecimento adquirido: divulgar as aprendizagens anteriores para criar melhores práticas dentro da organização do evento, para treinar novos membros e transferir essas informações para a próxima pessoa que ocupar a sua posição na estrutura organizacional. ...
Book
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O Livro “Gestão de Eventos de Desporto: Um Guia para a Gestão” é uma introdução aos princípios e às áreas funcionais que sustentam e acolhem os eventos de desporto, desde a sua conceção até ao seu encerramento. Ele comporta um vasto número de planos operacionais, discutindo as principais funções e desafios a desempenhar pelo gestor de eventos. No final, numa visão ampla da gestão, são elencadas e analisadas as diferentes fases que compõem a organização de um evento, perspetivando novos cenários e mitigando potenciais problemas. O livro baseia-se nos referenciais teóricos mais recentes e nas experiências práticas dos autores da gestão do desporto, considerando como o padrão-principal da organização de eventos nacionais. Este livro envolve áreas-chave do processo de gestão de eventos, onde pode encontrar: Conceção, candidatura e planeamento Áreas funcionais do evento Implementação e monitorização Avaliação e feedback. Cada capítulo contém uma combinação da teoria, exercícios práticos, fotografias e questões de reflexão, sobre eventos de desporto de todo o mundo, ajudando estudantes e gestores a entender e preparar eventos sustentáveis à escala nacional e internacional. Gestão de Eventos de Desporto: Um Guia para a Gestão é um livro essencial para qualquer curso sobre gestão de eventos de desporto e um recurso inestimável para todos os académicos e profissionais de gestão do desporto.
... Emotional intelligence is the grasp and management of emotions in view of building congenial relationships with the people around us". Fekete et al. [23] indicated that emotional intelligence offers benefits to the organisation in the form of high performance, motivation and innovation, boost to self-confidence, efficient management, and teamwork. The experience of the source and the receiver plays a critical role in knowledge transfer, where experience is a key part of the knowledge management system, according to Parent, Macdonald and Goulet [24]. Knowing that there is a need to improve knowledge sharing and knowledge transfer, emotional intelligence and experience is required. ...
... Knowledge sharing is not as easy as one would expect [21]. Parent et al. [24] supported the research of Hasnain and Jasimuddin [32], who argued that knowledge is one of the most valuable assets of an organisation. An organisation has definite goals to be met; so the successful transfer of knowledge from consultants (source) to the organisation (receiver) is critical to meeting these goals [33]. ...
... The literature review produced 36 factors that impact knowledge dissemination; these are summarised in Table 1 together with references to their sources. [24], [29], [33], [34], [35] 2 ...
Article
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Knowledge dissemination, as part of the knowledge exchange process, is particularly challenging in any project environment due to the temporary nature of projects. Although several studies in the earlier literature studied the factors that influence knowledge exchange, very few examined them from the 'knowledge push' perspective. This study aims, therefore, to highlight the critical factors that impact knowledge dissemination in a project environment. This empirical research found ten critical factors, such as individual experience, trust, source credibility, shared understanding, motivation, and articulability. These individual factors seem to have a dominant influence on knowledge dissemination from the view point of the knowledge source.
... However, KM in NPSOs is an under-explored area in the sport management field, with only a small number of studies (e.g. Girginov et al., 2015a;Girginov et al., 2015b;Halbwirth & Toohey, 2001;O'Reilly & Knight, 2007;Parent et al., 2014;Tuan, 2020;Werner & Dickson, 2018;Willem et al., 2019). Girginov et al. (2015b) called for research drawing on KM and innovation to advance our understanding of the management of sport organizations. ...
... Although a few studies regarding KM have been conducted in sport organizations (e.g. O' Reilly & Knight, 2007;Parent et al., 2014), investigating the influence of KM processes on innovation has been given little attention. Findings from our study add to the emerging line of research on innovation in NPSOs (e.g. by showing that they need to acquire knowledge from external entities and apply KM to succeed in managing the knowledge sources at their organizational level. ...
... Findings from our study add to the emerging line of research on innovation in NPSOs (e.g. by showing that they need to acquire knowledge from external entities and apply KM to succeed in managing the knowledge sources at their organizational level. This finding supports the significance of internal and external knowledge to effective KM processes (Parent et al., 2014;Schenk et al., 2015) that enhance NPSOs' innovativeness. ...
Article
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ABSTRACT Research question: In this study we examine whether knowledge management (KM), along with innovation concepts (attitude toward innovation, open innovation, and innovativeness), evokes direct and indirect influences on organizational performance of nonprofit sports clubs. Research methods: A total of 266 valid questionnaires were collected online from board members of nonprofit sports clubs in Iran. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the relationships between variables. Results and findings: The results indicate that KM has a positive effect on organizational performance via two different sequential mediators: attitude toward innovation and innovativeness, and open innovation and innovativeness. KM has a direct positive effect on sport clubs’ innovativeness and organizational performance. Implications: Nonprofit sports clubs should take advantage of promoting KM processes such as facilitating the development and sharing of new knowledge through relying on internal and external knowledge sources. By doing so, sports clubs can enhance capabilities to exploit external knowledge and foster a positive attitude towards newness and innovation which can help them to innovate more and perform better. The study provides theoretical and managerial implications that help sports clubs innovate and increase multiple aspects of their organizational performance. KEYWORDS: Knowledge management processes innovation concepts attitude performance multidimensional perspective
... However, KM in NPSOs is an under-explored area in the sport management field, with only a small number of studies (e.g. Girginov et al., 2015a;Girginov et al., 2015b;Halbwirth & Toohey, 2001;O'Reilly & Knight, 2007;Parent et al., 2014;Tuan, 2020;Werner & Dickson, 2018;Willem et al., 2019). Girginov et al. (2015b) called for research drawing on KM and innovation to advance our understanding of the management of sport organizations. ...
... Although a few studies regarding KM have been conducted in sport organizations (e.g. O' Reilly & Knight, 2007;Parent et al., 2014), investigating the influence of KM processes on innovation has been given little attention. Findings from our study add to the emerging line of research on innovation in NPSOs (e.g. by showing that they need to acquire knowledge from external entities and apply KM to succeed in managing the knowledge sources at their organizational level. ...
... Findings from our study add to the emerging line of research on innovation in NPSOs (e.g. by showing that they need to acquire knowledge from external entities and apply KM to succeed in managing the knowledge sources at their organizational level. This finding supports the significance of internal and external knowledge to effective KM processes (Parent et al., 2014;Schenk et al., 2015) that enhance NPSOs' innovativeness. ...
Preprint
Research question: In this study we examine whether knowledge management (KM), along with innovation concepts (attitude toward innovation, open innovation, and innovativeness), evokes direct and indirect influences on organizational performance of nonprofit sports clubs. Research methods: A total of 266 valid questionnaires were collected online from board members of nonprofit sports clubs in Iran. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the relationships between variables. Results and findings: The results indicate that KM has a positive effect on organizational performance via two different sequential mediators: attitude toward innovation and innovativeness, and open innovation and innovativeness. KM has a direct positive effect on sport clubs' innovativeness and organizational performance. Implications: Nonprofit sports clubs should take advantage of promoting KM processes such as facilitating the development and sharing of new knowledge through relying on internal and external knowledge sources. By doing so, sports clubs can enhance capabilities to exploit external knowledge and foster a positive attitude towards newness and innovation which can help them to innovate more and perform better. The study provides theoretical and managerial implications that help sports clubs innovate and increase multiple aspects of their organizational performance. ARTICLE HISTORY
... La organización de eventos deportivos, como otros negocios, necesita capturar, compartir y manejar su conocimiento corporativo para reducir la incertidumbre externa y para coordinar y facilitar la implementación de estrategias y políticas (Halbwirth & Toohey, 2001). En otro nivel Parent, MacDonald, & Goulet (2014), afirman que es existe una gran brecha de comprensión en la forma en que el conocimiento actualmente se maneja y transfiere en las organizaciones deportivas, también se desconocen muchos aspectos en el manejo de la red de partes relacionadas. La creación y la transferencia de conocimiento en las instituciones y organizaciones deportivas modernas están emergiendo progresivamente como un factor decisivo en términos de alcanzar logros (Mitrevski & Aceski, 2015). ...
... Otro de los casos investigados sobre la gestión del conocimiento en organizaciones deportivas es el expuesto por Parent et al. (2014) quienes realizaron un estudio teórico y práctico sobre el Comité Organizador de los Juegos Olímpicos. El proceso de transmitir el conocimiento en los grandes eventos olímpicos es relativamente nuevo, de hecho, formalmente solo se lo conoce desde el año 2000, cuando el Comité Organizador de los Juegos Olímpicos de Sídney realizó un proyecto de gestión del conocimiento, que fue más bien un intento de manejo de información con el propósito de dejar un legado Este proyecto fue el punto de partida para la creación y aplicación del Programa de Gestión del Conocimiento de los Juegos Olímpicos -OGKM-(por sus siglas en inglés). ...
... Fuente: Parent et al. (2014) La segunda parte del análisis de los resultados del análisis de caso se refiere a la práctica de la Gestión del Conocimiento (Tabla 4) ...
Article
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El objetivo de este artículo es identificar los beneficios que la Gestión del Conocimiento brinda a las organizaciones deportivas a través un acercamiento teórico. Para la administración es un desafío encontrar las formas y las razones por las que las organizaciones aprenden y crecen. Los casos analizados son ejemplos paradigmáticos de la aplicación de herramientas de la Gestión del Conocimiento, en algunos aspectos organizativos, que traen como consecuencia el mejoramiento de las prácticas administrativas en la organización deportiva.
... While knowledge management/transfer has been defined and its general process understood within the context of major sports events (e.g., Halbwirth and Toohey, 2001;Parent et al., 2014b), this has been done in relative isolation from other organisational processes (e.g., governance, accountability or human resource management), despite the usual acknowledgment by researchers that the sport event context is complex (cf. Schenk et al., 2015). ...
... Knowledge is more than information (know-what), it is also know-how and constitutes one of the most valuable organisational assets (Jasimuddin, 2012). Knowledge may be explicit (written, codified) or tacit (inarticulate, internal to a person, more experience-based), the latter being harder to manage and transfer (cf., Parent et al., 2014b;Polanyi, 1966;Winter, 1987;Zander and Kogut, 1995). ...
... From a review of 160 knowledge management frameworks, Heisig (2009) argued for six main knowledge-related activities (see also Parent et al., 2014b): ...
... Chappelet, 2005). Hosting major sports requires organizers to learn from past events in the region, as well as from past organizing committees of the same event, to not repeat mistakes (Parent, MacDonald, & Goulet, 2014;Parent & Smith-Swan, 2013). It is therefore not surprising that the International Olympic Committee (IOC) acknowledged the importance of knowledge transfer (KT) when creating the Olympic Games Knowledge Management (OGKM) program (see Halbwirth & Toohey, 2001). ...
... Although Parent, et al. (2014) examined knowledge management (KM) in an Olympic context, proportionally fewer cities host the Olympic Games than lower-tier international sports events, and even fewer than domestic sports events. Many, if not most, of these smaller events do not have a KM process; if they do, it is likely not as extensive as the OGKM. ...
... Exceptions include research on national sport organizations (O'Reilly & Knight, 2007), regional tourism networks (Werner, Dickson, & Hyde, 2015), and the Olympic Games (Frawley & Toohey, 2009;Halbwirth & Toohey, 2001;Singh & Hu, 2008;Toohey & Halbwirth, 2005). Of interest for the present study is the recent development of a KM/KT model for the Olympic Games by Parent, et al. (2014), which included (1) knowledge needs identification and looking to individuals' past Games experiences; (2) knowledge adoption through acquiring knowledge using various tools and storage mechanisms; (3) internal KT that fostered knowledge creation and learning; (4) knowledge application through the use of best practices and training individuals; and (5) knowledge tailoring for external KT to the next organizing committee as well as other stakeholders. This study can be seen as an extension of Parent et al.'s work, as it examined the same KM processes, but at lower-level events (i.e., domestic and lower-tier international events). ...
Article
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ABSTRACT Research question: We examined the knowledge management and transfer (KM/KT) process within two domestic and two international sports events, and determined whether the similarities and differences between these four KM/KT processes could lend themselves to a single, overall sport event KM/KT process. Research methods: Four case studies were built by means of an analysis of 58 interviews and 598 document pages: 2012 Ontario Summer Games (OSG), 2013 Canada Games (CG), 2014 Commonwealth Games, and 2015 Pan American Games. Results and findings: Findings highlight the importance of internal and external knowledge tailoring, as well as individuals’ tacit knowledge. KM/KT processes evolved in sophistication from the OSG (rather linear), through the CG, which includes a feedback loop due to the test event aspect, then to a continual feedback loop for the international events. A generic KM/KT process was therefore developed for domestic events through to the Olympic Games. Implications: The organizing committee’s lifespan may influence the effectiveness of the KM/KT process and its benefits. Rights holders should manage the process themselves and include stakeholders in the process. From a theoretical standpoint, the similar KM/KT process undertaken by event stakeholders for small through Olympic-level events, regardless of the existence of a formal event KM/KT process, demonstrates the transferability potential of KM/KT findings between event levels.
... While knowledge management/transfer has been defined and its general process understood within the context of major sports events (e.g., Halbwirth and Toohey, 2001;Parent et al., 2014b), this has been done in relative isolation from other organisational processes (e.g., governance, accountability or human resource management), despite the usual acknowledgment by researchers that the sport event context is complex (cf. Schenk et al., 2015). ...
... Knowledge is more than information (know-what), it is also know-how and constitutes one of the most valuable organisational assets (Jasimuddin, 2012). Knowledge may be explicit (written, codified) or tacit (inarticulate, internal to a person, more experience-based), the latter being harder to manage and transfer (cf., Parent et al., 2014b;Polanyi, 1966;Winter, 1987;Zander and Kogut, 1995). ...
... From a review of 160 knowledge management frameworks, Heisig (2009) argued for six main knowledge-related activities (see also Parent et al., 2014b): ...
Article
This paper examines the relationship between knowledge management/transfer processes and (good) governance practices in sports events. The research was undertaken at the Lillehammer 2016 Winter Youth Olympic Games, with data collected through interviews and document analysis. Findings include: 1) the significance of horizontal as well as hierarchical accountability; 2) different event logics for the event rights holder-organising committee relationship; 3) the importance of culture as well as structure in relation to governance; 4) the significance of tacit knowledge, person-to-person informal knowledge transmission and knowledge transfer timing.
... Since KM is a key tool to leverage organizational performance and provide competitive advantages to organizations (Birasnav, 2014), including NPSOs (O'Reilly & Knight, 2007, it is easily assumed that community sport clubs (CSCs) would increase their organizational performance by implementing KM at the organizational level. However, KM has been underexplored in the NPSO context with only a few studies published in sport management journals (Girginov, Toohey, & Willem, 2015;Halbwirth & Toohey, 2001;O'Reilly & Knight, 2007;Parent, MacDonald, & Goulet, 2014;Tuan, 2019;Werner & Dickson, 2018). ...
... This finding confirms the need to put more efforts in building NPSOs' capacity in knowledge sharing (Allameh et al., 2014) and knowledge acquisition (Wemmer et al., 2016) to improve their organizational performance. This result supports previous studies in sport domains by confirming the significance of internal and external knowledge to effective KM processes (Parent et al., 2014;Schenk, Parent, MacDonald, & Proulx Therrien, 2015), which enhance perceptions of CSCs' performance. Accordingly, KM could be an important tool in NPSOs where influential CSC managers need to (a) manage their financial stability and positive membership development (Maxwell, Foley, Taylor, & Burton, 2013;, (b) improve their strategic objectives (e.g., human resource qualifications and the functioning of the club), (c) enhance planning and development capabilities and learning processes (Misener & Doherty, 2009), and (d) achieve their overall organizational objectives (e.g., grassroots and elite sport development). ...
... Although a few empirical studies regarding KM have been conducted in sport organizations (e.g., O'Reilly & Knight, 2007;Parent et al., 2014), investigating the influence of KM processes on performance has been given little attention. By confirming the direct positive effect of KM on organizational performance of CSCs, this study echoes the arguments of prior studies in NPSOs (Girginov et al., 2015b;Halbwirth & Toohey, 2001) and provides an empirical evidence to connect this relationship. ...
Article
The authors examined the effect of unlearning context on organizational performance of community sport clubs (CSCs) via knowledge management. The board of directors of CSCs in Iran were invited to participate in this study. The research employed the multidimensional constructs of unlearning context, knowledge management, and organizational performance. The findings indicated that unlearning context had positive effects on knowledge management and organizational performance. Knowledge management played a role of partial mediator in the relationship between unlearning context and organizational performance. Non-profit sport organizations need to take advantage of promoting unlearning context to facilitate acquisition, creation, sharing, storage, and application of new knowledge among members, which in turn, could help them perform better. The study provides both theoretical and managerial implications that promote sport clubs to apply unlearning context and knowledge management processes to increase both financial and non-financial aspects of their organizational performance.
... To date, OL has been largely underexplored in sport management. Only a handful of studies have examined broader knowledge, knowledge management, and related processes such as knowledge creation and transfer (Girginov et al., 2015;Halbwirth & Toohey, 2001;Parent, MacDonald, & Goulet, 2014). Overall, these studies support that the survival and success of any sport organisation is based on the systematic generation of new information, knowledge, and innovation (Girginov et al., 2015). ...
... Overall, these studies support that the survival and success of any sport organisation is based on the systematic generation of new information, knowledge, and innovation (Girginov et al., 2015). While Halbwirth and Toohey (2001) noted the importance of a culture of learning, Parent et al. (2014) suggested that learning was connected to the knowledge-management process. A deeper understanding of OL could thus contribute to the existing knowledge literature, because 'effective knowledge management and transfer processes and research (…) require both organisational theory and behaviour perspectives' (Parent et al., 2014, p. 215). ...
Article
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Research question: Although the implementation of corporate social responsibility (CSR) may require changes at the strategic, organisational, and operational levels, studies fall short of investigating the role of organisational learning (OL), which is key to grasp how CSR occurs in organisations. This study fills this gap by exploring the dynamic interaction between different levels of the learning process through which sport organisations implement CSR. Research methods: Drawing on Crossan et al.’s 4I Framework, we examine the learning sub-processes characterising CSR implementation in a sport federation. This study uses a single-case-study research design and analyses interviews (n = 18) and organisational documents (n = 20). Results and Findings: This study reveals that OL for CSR is a critical multilevel and dynamic process that consists of learning subprocesses at the intra-organisational and inter-organisational levels. CSR requires both learning new ways of incorporating CSR practices, as well as embedding into the organisation what has already been learnt. Informal and formal groups were identified as strong repositories of learning, while external stakeholders are essential sources of learning intertwined within the organisation alongside the work of inter-organisational boundary spanners. Implications: Theoretically, this paper extends the discussion of CSR implementation by highlighting the critical role of OL. It does so by revealing patterns of learning institutionalisation for CSR in a particular European sport federated setting. These findings highlight that the level of institutionalisation of learning influences the integration and sustainability of the CSR strategy. Practically, managers should consider these learning subprocesses as appropriate platforms on which to instil the CSR construct within their organisation.
... Minbaeva et al. (2014) view knowledge sharing as a basic tool for knowledge assertion by employees with the main aim of creating knowledge that brings value to the company. Parent et al. (2014) add that knowledge sharing can enable optimal utilization of knowledge within a company. ...
... Knowledge sharing is processed when the knowledge is accessible to other individuals in a company (Ipe 2003), especially when individuals share information, ideas, and suggestions that the organization can benefit from ( Bartol and Srivastava 2002). Knowledge sharing facilitates the transfer or delivery of knowledge from sender to receiver, and it is left to the recipient to accept, classify, and integrate the knowledge ( Parent et al. 2014). Qureshi et al. (2006) further define the broader delivery process as including the access or denial to knowledge for those employees who seek it. ...
Article
Knowledge is an intangible asset that can bring a competitive advantage to any company when it is managed and shared amongst employees. The implementation and promotion of knowledge sharing can be challenging for managers, because it is difficult to measure the benefits. Thus, the first aim of this research was to probe into the experiences of managers in order to assess whether they are aware of the benefits of knowledge sharing and, subsequently, to categorize these benefits. The second aim was to ascertain which measures of these knowledge sharing benefits would be suggested by the managers. Data was collected via interviews with managers from Germany, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Japan. Following data collection, some principles of grounded theory were used for data analysis. Participants suggested that knowledge sharing can assist the company improve innovation skills, relationships within and outside of the company, source optimization, and financial performance. Furthermore, some indicators of the benefits of knowledge sharing measurement were identified. © Common Ground Research Networks, Zuzana Crhová, Jana Matošková, Drahomíra Pavelková, All Rights Reserved.
... The divergence between the long-term national collective interests of regulators and the sport success interest of fans and media may lead to opportunistic managerial decisions about IC investments Neale (1964) Sport organisations are part of the popular culture and of the entertainment sector Sport organisations' decisions vary in relation to the cultural context in which they operate Nicoliello and Zampatti (2016) Players' wages are the most relevant expenses for sport organisations Players' trading generates core revenues After the FFP regulation, sport organisations need to achieve sport results by respecting financial stability Regulatory interventions affect sport management decisions about IC investments and reporting Parent et al. (2014) KM applies to the sporting event stakeholder network KM strategies that transform the knowledge stored in the relation capital into value creation are those related to the management of sporting events Parent et al. (2017) The interrelationship between KM strategies and good governance practices in sporting events The cultural context in which the governance structure operates potentially affects sporting events' effective exploitation of knowledge (2017) Sport organisations exhibit a trade-off between business and sport goals. They alternatively adopt win or profit maximisation business models Sport organisations' business models influence managers' decision-making about IC investments Rossi et al. (2013) Discrepancies between sport and financial performance Managerial decision can lead to four business models ...
... Examples of such KM strategies are those related to sporting events' management. These events involve stakeholders from several knowledge domains and require a complex management network covering expertise beyond technical knowledge of a particular sport, to also cover the equipment, hospitality, promotions, venue and programmes and brand merchandising (Shone and Parry, 2004, p. 81;Parent et al., 2014Parent et al., , 2017Schenk et al., 2015;Kharouf et al., 2020). Figure 4 outlines the virtuous cycle, which sport managers can activate through KM strategies by combining the knowledge stored in the IC components. ...
Article
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Purpose This paper provides a conceptual discussion of the bidirectional relationship between knowledge management (KM) and intellectual capital (IC) in a specific subset of knowledge-based organisations, i.e. professional sport organisations. Through the review and conceptual discussion of two relevant research themes, i.e. KM strategies for IC value creation and IC codification, this paper aims to highlight research gaps useful to future research. Design/methodology/approach The authors apply a systematic literature review method to analyse 66 management and accounting studies on KM and IC in sport organisations. Internal and external validity tests support the methodology adopted. Findings The authors provide a conceptual model to explain how KM strategies about IC investments can be optimal, i.e. they create value for all the stakeholders but also suboptimal, i.e. they create value only for a group of stakeholders. Next, they provide evidence of the opportunistic use of the codification associated with IC investments that impair financial reporting information transparency and mislead managers and investors. Practical implications The results are informative for managers, regulators and policymakers to mitigate the inefficiencies regarding KM and IC codification and decisions. Originality/value This study contributes to the understanding of the bidirectional relationship between KM and IC in knowledge-based organisations by focussing on professional sport organisations in which KM and IC have played an important role for a long time. It also includes future avenues for advances in managing, measuring and reporting IC.
... The practice of knowledge transfer is recognized by scholars and practitioners as important to marketing processes within the Olympic Games (Halbwirth & Toohey, 2001; Parent, MacDonald, & Goulet 2014). From its inception, the lifecycle of an OCOG is set within the boundaries of Olympic protocol; when the Olympic Games are completed, the OCOG ceases to exist shortly thereafter. ...
... Particularly with regards to ambush marketing, differences in local feelings towards the practice and legal frameworks could mean knowledge needs to be carefully adapted to each market. Additionally, such knowledge tailoring (Parent et al., 2014) also helps protect the unique flavor of the Games. As one interviewee argued: ...
Article
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This article examines how Olympic ambush marketing stakeholder power and transfer of sponsorship, as well as ambush marketing knowledge, have influenced institutional processes leading to the institutionalization of antiambush legislation over the years. Using a qualitative case study design and network analysis, findings show the International Olympic Committee and Organizing Committees for the Olympic Games demonstrate the greatest stakeholder influence within the Olympic ambush marketing network. The power and influence resulting from the structure of Olympic ambush marketing networks was argued to impact the institutional processes of objectification and sedimentation. Various knowledge transfer tools, as well as challenges and issues faced in this area, seem to act as moderators for the relationship between network structures and the process of institutionalization.
... Finally, the theme of KT between events of the same type or between organizers who have managed similar events even in different geographical and/or political contexts has been widely discussed as a crucial part of PM methods applied to SEs (e.g., Halbwirth & Toohey, 2001;Parent et al., 2014;Schenk et al., 2015;Toohey & Halbwirth, 2005). Using the example of the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games, the study of Halbwirth and Toohey (2001) may be considered as the starting point for KT in the context of SEs. ...
... Consequently, this part of PM is often missing. However, SE organizers should have a thorough knowledge of available PM methods and the opportunity to benefit from adequate KT and management programs (Halbwirth & Toohey, 2001;Parent et al., 2014;Parent & Smith-Swan, 2013;Schenk et al., 2015;Toohey & Halbwirth, 2005). ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the use and importance of project management (PM) methods in organizing sports events (SEs). Furthermore, the study analyzed differences in usage and importance of PM methods in relation to the type of SE. Finally, reasons for and obstacles to the implementation of PM methods in organizing SEs were identified. To assess the research questions, a quantitative survey (n = 78) and a focus group discussion (n = 5) were carried out. The results showed that PM methods were employed for SEs with higher usage and importance rates in large compared with small SEs. Requirements by event stakeholders, knowledge transfer, confidence building, progress control, and justification as well as opportunities to save money by introducing an improved planning process were identified as the main reasons for using PM in the organization of SEs. This study is the first work to provide an overview of the usage of specific PM methods in organizing SEs.
... Moreover, having permanent structures, such as Games secretariats in stakeholders, allows better knowledge retention and transfer to other stakeholders who may be new to the sport event world (cf. Parent, MacDonald, and Goulet 2014). ...
... Chappelet and Kübler-Mabbott 2008), including public participation to foster momentum, energy and pride in the Games and in Canada o The co-location of key partners (see Parent, Rouillard, and Leopkey 2011); o Introduction of new actors to fulfill specific goals, roles and responsibilities (e.g., OTP, LegaciesNow/LIFT) (cf. Kikulis 2013)  Leadership: Appropriate leadership (business, sport and event) skills and consistency from bid through to wrap-up (see Parent, Beaupré, and Séguin 2009, Parent, Olver, and Séguin 2009);  OCOG structure:o A flexible organizational structure(Parent, Rouillard, and Leopkey 2011) o A VTeam management system(Parent 2008) o The use of volunteers throughout -though especially during Games-time with an understanding of their equally (if not more) important role than paid staff (seeKristiansen et al. 2015, Lockstone and Baum 2009, Solberg 2003);  Knowledge: A knowledge management system to gather and disseminate information, learnings and experiences (seeHalbwirth and Toohey 2001, Parent, MacDonald, andGoulet 2014); and  Innovation: A willingness to innovate not only for Games-time processes (e.g., technology), but more importantly for behind-the-scenes management processes (e.g., the MPA, and workplace safety as well as legacy and sustainability standards) based on previous hosts' experiences and a desire for sustainable practices.These learnings and best practices from Vancouver 2010 have been transferred to subsequent major sports events held in Canada, namely the 2015 Toronto Pan American Games and the FIFA Women's World Cup, Canada 2015. To wit, although a federal secretariat was created as a separate entity to other federal departments for Vancouver 2010, the success of the secretariat resulted in the creation of a permanent Games Secretariat within Sport Canada, which is coordinating federal activities in relation to both events. ...
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The governance of the Olympic Games is a complex, multi-level and multijurisdictional endeavour. Taking as a starting point the key partners’ governance network in place for the 1988 Calgary Olympic Winter Games, this paper explores the development of the structures and processes, as well as the institutional and procedural dimensions that have shaped the resulting governance network in place of the 2010 Vancouver Olympic Winter Games. Findings highlight five key parts of the Canadian approach to governing the Olympic Games – and other major sports events – namely, Canada-wide planned and coordinated stakeholder engagement, appropriate leadership, organizing committee structure flexibility, knowledge seeking and dissemination and a willingness to innovate. The paper also explores lessons learned and best practices, which have become contributions of the event to the Canadian major sport event landscape as well as the broader Olympic Movement.
... Running head: THE SAME BUT DIFFERENT 33 Examining the informal transfer of knowledge, the importance of previous event experience among organizers as a key facet of knowledge transfer has been previously discussed in the literature with respect to the Olympic Games (cf. Parent, MacDonald, & Goulet, 2014). It is suggested that this should be a consideration when coordinating a central NOC and, in a case where the event takes place in multiple locations, the various Local Organizing Committees. ...
... Formal knowledge representa tions, standards, organizatio nal routines. network' s collective memory Ensuring the efficient knowledge preservation and access to the stored knowledge across a network Li et al. (2012);Shih et al. (2012);Parent et al. (2014) T/E Documenting and organizing both effective and ineffective experiences of networked activities. ...
Conference Paper
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Following a service orientation paradigm, value is no longer restricted to product functionalities. Value is in particular based on co‐creation with customers, making use of their experiences and leading to so‐called integrated solutions. The longitudinal view on relationships with customers requires networked collaboration of multiple partners with their mutual customers within the context of a product‐service system (PSS) value network. A customer‐centric view on solution offerings motivates PSS value networks to enhance their understanding of customers’ needs. To achieve a shared understanding of customers’ needs across a network, customer knowledge can be seen as a prerequisite. Prior research has been primarily focused on an intra‐organizational perspective on customer knowledge management (CKM), in which customer knowledge (CK) is obtained in a one‐to‐one relationship. In the context of PSS value networks, besides the individual CK of each partner, CK is also co‐created through the interaction of several partners with customers during solution processes. However, this asks for a broader conceptualization of CKM. Moreover, a long term relationship with customers demonstrates new opportunities for CKM. Hence, a firm‐centric approach is inadequate for managing the network‐level processes of CK creation, storage /retrieval, transfer, and application across a PSS value network. Based on a systematic literature review on both CKM within a PSS value network, and collaborative knowledge management, we present in this paper a conceptual framework of the value network customer knowledge management (VN‐CKM) lifecycle. We will characterize its four main processes based on the novel characteristics of a PSS value network.
... 91). Hosting major sports requires organizers to learn from past events in the region, as well as from past organizing committees of the same event, not to make the same mistakes that highlight the role of knowledge sharing processes (Parent et al., 2014;Parent and Smith-Swan, 2013). Wenhui and Zhen (2011) in their study concluded that management of sport events based on KM is one of the most innovative methods to improve efficiency and managerial perceptions in sport organizations to organize and host various events. ...
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Purpose – The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of unlearning on knowledge management (KM) in sport organizations. Design/methodology/approach – The research method in this study was the descriptive–correlative type. Subjects in this research included all the employees of sport and youth organizations in Iran. To analyze the research data, inferential statistics including exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, Pearson correlation coefficient and structural equation model were used. A theoretical model was developed and tested based on the literature review. Data were analyzed via SPSS and LISREL software. Findings – The results from the study illustrate that there were significant relationships among all dimensions of unlearning and dimensions of KM. Furthermore, the model of the influence of unlearning on KM, as well as the model of the influence of dimensions of unlearning onKM, illustrates proper finesses. Originality/value – Through this study, the positive fundamental role of considering the processes of managing unlearning and avoiding bad habits as two coordinator tools to achieve tangible assesses in organizations is revealed and the significance of considering such studies is specified for researchers. This study supported the members of sport organizations to understand how to improve knowledge and experience of the employees through unlearning. Keywords Knowledge management, Unlearning, Sport organizations, Avoiding bad habits, Managing unlearning
... In fact, authors tracing the KM history categorize it to several eras depending on theoretical foundation. And despite the progress that field knows, the discipline is still considered immature and moreover formalism and standardization effort need to be spent to gain maturity [1]. ...
Conference Paper
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Knowledge management (KM) and intellectual capital (IC) are two big research questions in nowadays management topics. In fact, the relation between these two subjects varies from analogy to complementarity. Defining these concepts remains for long years a controversy, because both topics imply different disciplines. And despite the multidisciplinary of the field, it is agreed that KM treats both knowledge as an object, and management as a set of tools and techniques. The association between these two aspects is the essence of KM. Whereas with the IC, the focus is much on the effect and value generated by the intellectual asset, which implies a notion of valuation and measurement. The relationship between concepts of IC and KM needs to be redefined in view of field progress. In our paper, we assume that “IC is suited to KM valuation and performance measurement”: a conceptual review of the literature within this work should give foundation to this hypothesis. Further foreseen analytical verification may empower it to be a basic rule on the design of future KM valuation indicators.
... This research study argues that Frid's (2004) model is highly focused on the implementation and measuring the maturity of knowledge thus potentially disregarding the elements required to introduce and maintain a KM strategy through an effective measurement and feedback loop. Serenko et al. (2010) and Parent, MacDonald, and Goulet (2014) recognize the beneficial aspects of this model in understanding what components and resources are required to apply KM in an organization. However, Stankosky and Baldanza (2001) do not discuss issues on knowledge creation, capturing and distributing channels. ...
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This paper presents a conceptual framework for use, by organizational researchers, knowledge management practitioners and business analysts, as a guide to building Knowledge Management (KM) models. This is accomplished through a careful selection of ten prominent KM models which have been discussed critically and used to deepen the theoretical understanding of KM implementation and development. A critical review of ten KM models offers practitioners, as well as researchers, an examination of the ontological and epistemological backgrounds and origins of existing models’ in order to highlight the required components for composing effective KM models. There is limited research supporting the utilization, adaptation or even adoption of KM models that can assist managers seeking a competitive advantage through the implementation of KM processes. Authors of existing KM models claim to provide holistic KM models but when referring back to the central meaning of knowledge and management concepts those models do not generate a thorough coverage of the required characteristics and components. This paper has critically investigated ten widely acknowledged KM models but recognizes that there is a plethora of KM models emerging which have varied foci. The conceptual review of KM models is not an empirical investigation, moreover, a critical analysis that presents a conceptual framework for KM model building. In carrying out this research study, the paper presents the shortfalls of this theoretical research approach but nevertheless, the proposed conceptual framework is envisaged as having value to both practitioners and researchers. This paper sheds light on a series of concerns related to existing KM models, their origins, constructs, and contextualization. For organizational researchers, knowledge management practitioners and business analysts this research study elaborates on issues related to validity, applicability, and generalizability of KM models and defines a set of criteria for KM model building. The paper also impacts on the science of KM presenting perspectives, scope, and contexts in which knowledge is processed.
... Ellis et al. (2016) stated that "as marketing and sponsorship related strategies are proven successful and are shared, they arguably become institutionalised, whereby they become part of the accepted norms, beliefs, and values that assist the coordination of Olympic marketing and sponsorship" (p.474). As such, the transfer of Olympic sponsorship knowledge among the Olympic marketing stakeholders may have influenced TOP and domestic sponsors (Parent et al., 2014) to employ similar on-site leveraging methods. Transfer of sponsorship knowledge in the Olympic setting may help reduce risk for short-term sponsors; however, it is possible that transfer of sponsorship knowledge suppresses potential creativity and diversity in the modes of on-site sponsorship. ...
... Furthermore, for those in the sport event industry within a country the importance of hosting capacity legacies as event building blocks could mean placing a greater emphasis on the development of a national formalized, long-term, and integrated system focusing on sport event knowledge identification, acquisition, storage, and transfer (Parent, MacDonald, & Goulet, 2014). The effectiveness of hosting capacity legacies is limited by the recognition of, and buy-in towards, their importance. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore how a legacy of event hosting competencies from one event can contribute to advancing the overall hosting capacity of a nation for future events. More specifically, the project focuses on determining the event hosting capacity legacies from the Men’s Under-20 2007 Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) event in Canada and how they contributed toward winning the rights for the Women’s FIFA World Cup 2015 event. Design/methodology/approach A qualitative case study design focusing on FIFA events held in Canada in 2007 and 2015 was used. Findings Four broad event hosting capacity legacies from the U-20 2007 event that potentially impacted Canada’s ability to secure the WWC 2015 were identified. These legacies included: exemplifying success, advancement of hosting concepts, staff and leadership experience and development and enhancement of sporting infrastructure. Research limitations/implications The findings formed the basis of a discussion on the increasing formalization of event organizing committees, the need to consider collective (i.e. multiple events) legacies in the development of hosting strategies as well as the importance of developing the trust of the local community to support future sport event bids and hosting. Originality/value The originality and value of this research paper lies in its use of empirical case study findings to illustrate the potential for hosting capacity legacies of sporting events as well as the level and type of event under investigation (i.e. large-scale, football/soccer).
... Previous sport science research has examined knowledge transfer, though mainly knowledge reuse, within specific projects or topics such as health (Rütten & Gelius, 2012), elite sport (Rütten, 2007), gender (Hartmann-Tews & Dahmen, 2007), or sport medicine (Provvidenza & Johnston, 2009); within organizations such as sport governing bodies (O'Reilly & Knight, 2007) or professional team sport providers (Erhardt, Martin-Rios, & Harkins, 2014); and at sport events (Parent, MacDonald, & Goulet, 2014). The reuse of scientific knowledge by various sport practitioners such as policymakers (Rütten & Gelius, 2012), employees of sport governing bodies (O'Reilly & Knight, 2007), athletes (Gerbing & Thiel, 2016), and coaches (Reade, Rodgers, & Spriggs, 2008b) represents a challenge already. ...
Article
Transferring scientific knowledge to applied practitioners presents a challenge in sport science. Knowledge transfer, conceptualized as knowledge reuse and knowledge contribution, has mainly been studied in the context of specific topics, projects, or organizations. The purposes of this study were to investigate the determinants of knowledge transfer from a publicly available website to its users and to cluster users into different groups based on their level of knowledge transfer. The website www.sportsandscience.de is dedicated to translating evidence-based knowledge that is regularly generated in scientific studies into short and digestible information through e.g. videos and blogs, and provides opportunities for knowledge reuse and contribution. A theoretical model of knowledge transfer in organizations which was adapted to this context guided the study. Data from an online survey of registered website users were employed for the empirical analysis. The regression analyses showed that knowledge reuse is positively affected by ease of knowledge access and negatively by age. Knowledge reuse, job experience, and male gender have a significant positive effect on knowledge contribution. The findings suggest that the theoretical model is generally applicable to this context, but also highlight differences to the original organizational setting. Cluster analysis yielded three clusters: Frequent users, occasional users, and frequent contributors. Analyses of variances revealed significant differences among clusters regarding computer self-efficacy, job experience, gender, age, employment, interested sports, and conditional skills, but not concerning education and formal qualifications. Implications for improving knowledge transfer of such a website are provided.
... This is a direct result of the third assumption, but we clearly emphasize this fact here. (5) The parameters in the model are positive constant for biological feasibility. Based on the above assumptions, we can exhibit that the dissemination process is demonstrated in the following transfer diagram (see FIG.2). β α λ Figure 2. Transfer diagram for knowledge dissemination SIRI model. ...
... There are three main KE modes, respectively context-embedded KE mode (CKEM), vision-based KE mode(VKEM), and consensus-based KE mode(SKEM) (Tzu-Liang Tseng, Chun-Che H., 2008; Milena M. P., 2014) [7][8] . ...
Conference Paper
Knowledge externalization (KE) has always been the core topic in knowledge management field. However, KE within TMT members, an issue of great practical meanings which has received much attention from the executives in recent years, has come under little attention observation among the scholars. To fill this gap, a conceptual model on the relationship between new CEO power and KE within TMT is proposed and analyzed. The analysis results show that there are mainly three naturally-matched links between different dimensions of CEO power and different kinds of KE modes, i.e. the link of 'Internal CEO & Context-Embedded KE Mode', the link of 'External CEO With Good Performance History & Vision-Based KE Mode', and the link of 'External CEO With Poor Performance History & Consensus-Based KE Mode'. In order to acquire higher KE effectiveness, confirming to each link, new CEO should focus on different special KE activities while paying relatively less attention to other KE modes, instead of treating each kind of KE behavior equally without any discrimination.
... If the activity cannot be carried out, the activity will be carried out as much as possible in the following month so that there will be no accumulation of activities at the end of achieving the baseline. Overall activities that must be The relevance of this research as has been studied by Parent, the purpose of this paper was to examine the theory and practice of knowledge management processes, using the Olympic Games as the empirical setting and the Olympic Games Organizing Committee and its stakeholders as participants [15]. The case study of the 2010 Vancouver Olympic Winter Games was inductively and deductively content analysed, resulting in the development of a knowledge management and transfer process model for Olympic Games organizing committees and their stakeholders. ...
... For instance, Werner and Dickson (2018) highlighted the positive impact of knowledge sharing on elite players' development and performance and call for future KM tactics to specifically use this untapped potential. Parent et al. (2014) indicated that hosting major sports requires organizers to learn from past events in the region as well as from past organizing committees of the same event, not to make the same mistakes which highlight the role of knowledge sharing processes. Therefore, the management of sport events based on KM is one of the most innovative methods to improve efficiency and managerial perceptions in sport organizations to organize and host various events (Wenhui and Zhen, 2011). ...
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Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between employee values and knowledge management (KM) in sport organizations. Design/methodology/approach Data (N = 234) were collected online through a structured questionnaire from employees of 33 sport organizations in Iran. To test the hypotheses, Pearson correlation test and a regression analysis was conducted. Findings The results from the study revealed that there were significant relationships between employee values and KM. Both instrumental and terminal values significantly influenced KM. Research limitations/implications One limitation of this study is related to the generalizability of the results. Therefore, the current study is required to be replicated with other sport organizations in various sectors (public or private) to improve external validity of the results. Practical implications Based on this study, employees of sport organizations in developing countries tend to store knowledge more than sharing and applying it. The findings can be used by human resources and KM practitioners who are interested in developing organizational knowledge through employees’ values. Originality/value Through this study, the positive roles of employee instrumental and terminal values, as the key drivers in determining intangible assets in organizations, were found.
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Local resistance often cancels Olympic bids. Boston’s infamous bid failure was one of the first that demonstrated how local resistance can diminish boosters’ aspirations. As an insider to the bidding process, I trace the adjustment strategies of Boston’s bidding committee, B2024, to bid opposition over the course of Boston’s 2024 Olympic bid (2014–2015). I analyze the institutional learning that occurred and find B2024 learned through Olympic networks that won Olympic bids. These Olympic networks failed to learn amidst changing local circumstances and applied old solutions to new problems. While facing four crises, B2024 staff learned the complexities of Olympic bidding in a high-pressure learning environment that did not allow for trial and error. Against anti-Olympic movements, B2024 responded with fire-extinguishing techniques rather than plotting an organized strategy. While bidding, city governments must learn from failed bids to attain Olympic wisdom, which requires mastery of Olympic, counter-Olympic, and local knowledge. Using B2024’s learning process, I draw lessons for policy on learning and organizing complex projects with tight timelines and high uncertainty.
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The Olympic and Paralympic Games is a megaproject that involves huge investment and time effort from public and private entities to take place, which has been facing issues to find host candidate cities recently. This paper focus on the private side of the megaproject and discuss the Organizing Committee for Olympic Games (OCOG) project governance and structure taking advantage of Rio2016 case to detail project phases, reporting and governance structures. The paper presents the OCOG as a single purpose entity (SPE) and uses Rio2016 as a case study. A multi-method qualitative research was conducted to understand OCOG project environment and particularities. The role and participation of International Olympic Committee (IOC) in OCOG daily life could be improved to support the pressure for Games cost reduction, as well as, to increase the Games hosting attractiveness. This work contributes for the Olympic Games project environment understanding by future OCOGs
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Müller M. and Stewart A. Does temporary geographical proximity predict learning? Knowledge dynamics in the Olympic Games, Regional Studies. Temporary geographical proximity in the form of face-to-face contact is commonly thought to enhance learning. In a sample of individuals (n = 294) involved in knowledge transfer in the Olympic Games, temporary geographical proximity emerges as a rather weak predictor of learning, although its explanatory value improves when coupled with organized proximity. This association disappears, however, when controlling for other predictors, suggesting that there is no unique effect of temporary geographical proximity on learning. Part of the effect of temporary geographical proximity is mediated through other variables, urging further research into the paths of mediation. Several practical implications for knowledge transfer in mega-events result.
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O conhecimento no ambiente corporativo tem se apresentado como um dos aspectos relevantes em organizações de diferentes setores, com impacto na maximização de seus recursos. Apesar do reconhecimento do tema no mercado organizacional, ele ainda é incipiente e pouco explorado na gestão de entidades esportivas. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi identificar quais fontes de informações são utilizadas durante o processo de criação do conhecimento pelas federações olímpicas do estado de São Paulo e com quais agentes externos elas interagem para obter conhecimento. A pesquisa se caracteriza como aplicada, descritiva e de abordagem quantitativa, sendo realizada com base no método Survey. Percebe-se uma relação interorganizacional entre as federações e organizações homogêneas. Conclui-se que as federações necessitam criar, por meio de políticas e elaboração de instrumentos e estrutura, alianças com organizações heterógenas, entre elas, o setor público.
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With the progress of modern sciences and the environment becoming more competitive in the technology era, knowledge management is being counted as one of the most important stable competitive advantages of technology oriented organizations. This matter is of higher importance in high technology organizations, especially those active in the field of information technology due to their unique identity. This way, knowledge management has been already shifted to one of the most important priorities of such organizations that in case of not identifying, applying, recording and creating that knowledge, the organization has to inevitably pay fortunes to revive the knowledge gone. The purpose of this research is presenting a comprehensive knowledge management implementation model in information technology industry. Therefore, the measures of the suggested research model were identified by studying identical researches and projects done in knowledge management and information technology sector and also through consultation with the experts. This way, a questionnaire was designed in two parts and distributed among experts in the organizations studied. The research data were analyzed through T Test and Binomial Test through fuzzy approach due to the constraints presented by the Lickert scale. The research findings demonstrate that the stages of knowledge management implementation model in information technology sector include knowledge evaluation, knowledge promotion, knowledge planning, knowledge culture, knowledge strategies, knowledge management processes, suitable knowledge infrastructures, knowledge organization and knowledge presentation. There also exist actions in each stage that affect successful implementation of the mentioned stages.
Technical Report
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Human capital development delivered through the volunteers is espoused as one legacy outcome of hosting mega-sporting events such as the Olympic and Paralympic Games. However, to date the reality of such a legacy remains largely undemonstrated. In this article, Nonaka and Tacheuchi's SECI model and Lee and Yang's knowledge value chain (KVC) are integrated to identify insights to support the development of a potential human capital legacy from volunteers in future mega-sport events through focusing on knowledge management. A case study of the Vancouver 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games demonstrates gaps in the knowledge management systems in place, both in terms of the identification of knowledge and the processes for capture and reuse. It is argued that, unless those involved in hosting the events reconsider their approach to human capital legacy development, using the creation and management of knowledge as a core element, it is unlikely that long-term human capital legacy outcomes will be achieved for host communities.
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Despite a general assumption that knowledge sharing among employees is vital for achieving a competitive advantage, only limited evidence has been provided to support it. This article examines the relation between knowledge sharing and three dimensions of organizational performance: innovativeness, financial performance and the use of human recourses. The study uses data from a sample of 112 employees from the Czech Republic. The findings provide evidence that knowledge sharing is significantly related to organizational innovativeness, employees' engagement, and the perceived benefits of knowledge sharing. However, there was no statistically significant correlation between knowledge sharing and financial performance. The results highlight that if a competitive advantage is built on innovativeness, then bilateral communication between supervisors and their subordinates, including the communication of the top management's intentions and employees' ideas, is essential because it facilitates knowledge sharing among employees.
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The purpose of this article is to develop a framework of how organizing committees operationally evolve and the types of issues with which they and their stakeholders must deal. Based on a combination of stakeholder theory and issues management, a case study of the 1999 Pan American Games held in Winnipeg, Canada, was built using archival material and interviews. Three major organizing-committee operational modes emerged: planning, implementation, and wrap-up. Issue categories faced by the organizing committee and its stakeholders included politics, visibility, financial, organizing, relationships, operations, sport, infrastructure, human resources, media, interdependence, participation, and legacy. Issue-category prominence depended on the operational mode and organizing-committee member hierarchical level, such that issues became less strategic and broad as one moved through operational modes or down the hierarchy. Issue categories also differed within stakeholder groups, whereas stakeholder interests (material, political, affiliative, informational, and symbolic) differed between stakeholder groups. ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR
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The purpose of this article was to examine how the decision-making process changes as a major sport event's organizing committee moves from the planning to the implementation to the wrap-up modes. A case study of the 1999 Pan American Games, its organizing committee, and its stakeholders was built by means of interviews and archival material. Velocity impacted decision making in different ways. First, the importance of the time, context, and resources parameters changed, as did the model of decision making (from administrative to garbage can to rational). As well, four drivers of decision making (structural dimensions, stakeholder interactions, information management, and personal characteristics) were found. A key strategy for decision makers faced with an increasing velocity environment was planning for the need to react (come Games time) through risk assessments and contingency plans. ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR
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Purpose – This paper aims to review the concepts and constructs of some common models and frameworks advocated for knowledge management (KM) and organisational learning (OL) in literature. It sets forth a critical enquiry towards the integration of KM and OL practices and their relationship with the concepts of the learning organisation (LO) and chaordic organisation/enterprise (CO/CE). Design/methodology/approach – A literature search of KM and OL was conducted through the use of multiple ProQuest databases spanning the period from 1996 to 2009. This paper reviews 18 studies, focusing on recognition of major KM and OL approaches and contributions adopted in industry. Besides, a host of 14 KM and OL models and frameworks is used to identify various important considerations in practice. Findings – Many researchers and practitioners have been attempting to integrate the theories of KM and OL into organisational practice. A considerable number of them are concerned largely with information systems and technology. Conceptual knowledge transfer, knowledge acquisition and creation, and learning models underlie much of the work being done in the field. Some studies have forwarded the call for systems integration and organisational effectiveness. Systems approaches, culture, and the LO and CO/CE concepts are among the most popularly cited factors for the development of a holistic model. Research limitations/implications – A close relationship between KM and OL has emerged during the past 14 years, with applications related to LO and CO/CE emerging slowly in the past decade. Further research is needed to expand the integrative relationship through the development of explicitly stated theories and models with empirical evidence. Originality/value – There is a need to integrate the theories of KM and OL with the OL concepts to make them more comprehensible, better aligned and applicable to specific fields of work and to best management practice.
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Purpose – Research on antecedents of organizational learning generally ignores the fact that organizational learning is at least a two-dimensional construct and that its dimensions may be conflicting. This research often fails to investigate the simultaneous effects of antecedents on these dimensions. To address this gap in the literature, this paper aims to discuss the effects of empowerment and knowledge conversion, two factors often considered to be important antecedents of organizational learning. Design/methodology/approach – The approach adopted involves a review of and reflection on the pertinent literature on learning organizations, organizational learning, empowerment and knowledge conversion. Findings – It is found that both antecedents have contradictory effects on two dimensions of organizational learning. Empowerment affects second-order learning in a positive sense, but first-order learning in a negative sense. Knowledge conversion is positively related to first-order learning, but negatively to second-order learning. Thus, it appears that efforts to improve organizational learning on one dimension may have (unintended) effects on the other, unmeasured dimension. Originality/value – The paper connects disjointed streams of theory and research in a novel way that is of interest and importance to both the academic literature and to organizational practitioners.
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The purpose of this chapter is to outline the development of the idea of "stakeholder management" as it has come to be applied in strategic management. We begin by developing a brief history of the concept. We then suggest that traditionally the stakeholder approach to strategic management has several related characteristics that serve as distinguishing features. We review recent work on stakeholder theory and suggest how stakeholder management has affected the practice of management. We end by suggesting further research questions.
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Knowledge is a broad and abstract notion that has defined epistemological debate in western philosophy since the classical Greek era. In the past few years, however, there has been a growing interest in treating knowledge as a significant organizational resource. Consistent with the interest in organizational knowledge and knowledge management (KM), IS researchers have begun promoting a class of information systems, referred to as knowledge management systems (KMS). The objective of KMS is to support creation, transfer, and application of knowledge in organizations. Knowledge and knowledge management are complex and multi-faceted concepts. Thus, effective development and implementation of KMS requires a foundation in several rich literatures. To be credible, KMS research and development should preserve and build upon the significant literature that exists in different but rzelated fields. This paper provides a review and interpretation of knowledge management literatures in different fields with an eye toward identifying the important areas for research. We present a detailed process view of organizational knowledge management with a focus on the potential role of information technology in this process. Drawing upon the literature review and analysis of knowledge management processes, we discuss several important research issues surrounding the knowledge management processes and the role of IT in support of these processes.
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The capabilities of a firm, or any organization, lie primarily in the organizing principles by which individual and functional expertise is structured, coordinated, and communicated. Firms are social communities which use their relational structure and shared coding schemes to enhance the transfer and communication of new skills and capabilities. To replicate new knowledge in the absence of a social community is difficult. A classic demonstration is the well-studied problem of the transfer across country borders of manufacturing capabilities that support production of new product innovations. We show in this article that the degree of codification and how easily capabilities are taught has a significant influence on the speed of transfer. What makes the question of knowledge codification particularly interesting is that firms compete not only through the creation, replication, and transfer of their own knowledge, but also through their ability to imitate the product innovations of competitors. The capacity to speed the internal transfer of a production capability to new markets (e.g., those in other countries) is, consequently, of fundamental significance in a competitive environment. In the attempt to speed the internal transfer of knowledge, the dilemma arises that capabilities which can be easily communicated within the firm are more likely to be easily imitated by competitors. This relationship is tested by analyzing the effects of the ease of codifying and communicating a manufacturing capability not only on the time to its transfer, but also on the time to imitation of the new product. ’The determinants of the time to imitation are found to be the extent to which knowledge of the manufacturing processes is “common” among competitors, and the degree of continuous recombination of capabilities leading to improvement of the product or the manufacturing process. We support this interpretation by a discussion of the results from field research. A wider implication of these findings is the proposition that the transfer and recombination of organizational capabilities are the foundation of an evolutionary theory of the firm. A critical element limiting the expansion of a firm is that the competitive value of codifying knowledge leads to the selection of organizing principles that are not functional in all competitive environments. The pressure of speed is of critical importance to understand the evolutionary advantage of nonoptimal rules of coordinated action within a social community.
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This paper presents review of literature on Knowledge management (KM) characterizing the various terminologies and aims to explore the world of KM in a different way, to review the current status andanalyze the main contributions, agreements and disagreements among researchers and practitioners. It provides a high-level overview of a number of key terms, concepts, traditional definition and theoryinvolved with KM, which are critically reviewed and their features are highlighted. Approaches to KM process are considered and their connections and differences are discussed. There are a number of different approaches to the KM process such as those by Dagnfous & Kah(2006), Lee et.al.(2005), Wong & Aspinwall (2004), Bukowitz & Williams (2003), Mc Elory (1999), Meyer & Zack (1996), and Wiig(1993). By comparing and doing the critical analysis of these approaches, the major stages are identified as Knowledge capture and creation, Knowledge organization and retention, Knowledge dissemination and Knowledge utilization. At the end we have summarized the benefits of KM. The main contribution of this study is the compilation of literature on KM and to understand the basic concepts and different approaches, depending on their more descriptive perspective.
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This study investigates how the Australian Olympic Committee (AOC) was involved in the formation of the Sports Commission (SSC) within the Sydney Organising Committee for the Olympic Games (SOCOG) and as a critical contributor to the staging of the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games. Using a figurational sociological framework, the intended and unintended consequences of the AOC's strategic and operational involvement are explored. The case shows how important early negotiations were in the case of the Sydney Olympics, when the host governments and Olympic Organising Committees were inexperienced in Olympic negotiations and distracted by the euphoria of securing the games. This left the more knowledgeable Olympic organisation, the AOC, well placed to leverage its prior experience and extensive Olympic figurations, in order to gain a strategic advantage over the other Australian Olympic stakeholders. The research makes a contribution to Olympic studies, specifically in relation to the role of the host National Olympic Committee (NOC) in the organising of an Olympic Games. Furthermore, the research findings have management implications for the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and future host NOC's, particularly in relation to the structuring of Olympic Organising Committee governance arrangements. Yes Yes
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From the Publisher: The definitive primer on knowledge management, this book will establish the enduring vocabulary and concepts and serve as the hands-on resource of choice for fast companies that recognize knowledge as the only sustainable source of competitive advantage. Drawing on their work with more than 30 knowledge-rich firms, the authors-experienced consultants with a track record of success-examine how all types of companies can effectively understand, analyze, measure, and manage their intellectual assets, turning corporate knowledge into market value. They consider such questions as: What key cultural and behavioral issues must managers address to use knowledge effectively?; What are the best ways to incorporate technology into knowledge work?; What does a successful knowledge project look like-and how do you know when it has succeeded? In the end, say the authors, the human qualities of knowledge-experience, intuition, and beliefs-are the most valuable and the most difficult to manage. Applying the insights of Working Knowledge is every manager's first step on that rewarding road to long-term success. A Library Journal Best Business Book of the Year. "For an entire company...to have knowledge, that information must be coordinated and made accessible. Thomas H. Davenport...and Laurence Prusak... offer an elegantly simple overview of the 'knowledge market' aimed at fulfilling that goal.... Working Knowledge provides practical advice about implementing a knowledge-management system....A solid dose of common sense for any company looking to acquire -- or maintain -- a competitive edge."--Upside, June 1998
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Globalisation makes our world appear smaller: it is easier to connect, communicate and do business with people all over the world. But cultural differences remain and challenge globalized knowledge communication and transfer. This book examines cross-cultural management within multinational enterprises (MNEs), focusing in particular on how cultural differences influence the transfer of knowledge between different units within individual corporations. Based on detailed empirical analysis of 267 companies in Germany and Japan, it considers the relative effectiveness of inter-cultural and intra-cultural knowledge transfer; identifies the factors that inhibit or facilitate successful knowledge transfer; and suggests how management processes of MNEs can be improved. It demonstrates that although cultural differences do not necessarily influence the selection and transmission of knowledge overseas, they do have a strong impact on how that knowledge is received, integrated and put into practice locally. The book shows how knowledge is accepted differently in Europe and Asia and which factors have the strongest impact on efficient knowledge transfer. It suggests that to improve cross-cultural management MNEs should focus less on upgrading the technology that allows knowledge transfer, and more on the capabilities and beliefs of individual employees.
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Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach was first published in 1984 as a part of the Pitman series in Business and Public Policy. Its publication proved to be a landmark moment in the development of stakeholder theory. Widely acknowledged as a world leader in business ethics and strategic management, R. Edward Freeman’s foundational work continues to inspire scholars and students concerned with a more practical view of how business and capitalism actually work. Business can be understood as a system of how we create value for stakeholders. This worldview connects business and capitalism with ethics once and for all. On the 25th anniversary of publication, Cambridge University Press are delighted to be able to offer a new print-on-demand edition of his work to a new generation of readers.
Book
Understanding the complexity of tactic knowledge has become increasingly important to the enhancement of organizational flow. Tacit Knowledge in Organizational Learning aims to advocate the need for "human factor" consideration from a (tactic) knowledge capital point of view. Tacit Knowledge in Organizational Learning offers academians and practitioners an illustration of the importance of tacit knowledge to an organization, presenting a means to measure and track tacit knowledge in individuals and recommendations on firm attributes and their ideal utilization of the tacit knowledge resource.
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Various scholars have argued that knowledge processes in organizations are integrally linked in practice. The extant literature though treats them separately and thereby disregards the interactions and tensions between them. A result of this way of studying knowledge processes is that little is known about their relative importance and how they work together. This paper addresses this gap in the literature through a critical incident study of knowledge processes in product development projects of high-tech small firms. The paper starts off with a conceptual framework comprised of four knowledge processes—knowledge creation, knowledge application, knowledge integration, and knowledge retention—and their interactions. From the framework, three hypotheses are derived concerning the importance of these types of knowledge processes and their interactions, which in turn guide the empirical research. The hypotheses were tested in a retrospective study of 58 critical incidents in product development projects of 16 high-tech small firms in the Netherlands. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews using the critical incident interviewing technique. Interviewees were asked to “relive” and describe particular successful and unsuccessful examples of product development projects in the past. The analysis of the interview data focused upon whether there are differences between successful and unsuccessful projects in the types of knowledge processes and interactions that are performed. After coding all data into the various types of knowledge processes and interactions of the framework, t-tests were used to test for significance of differences. The findings indicate that the difference between success and failure in these projects lies primarily in the extent to which knowledge integration and integration between knowledge processes have taken place. These findings demonstrate that, of the four knowledge processes, knowledge integration had the most significant impact on product development project success. The study demonstrates furthermore that higher degrees of interactions between knowledge processes were also associated with project success. Despite the limitations of this study, these results provide empirical support for the claim that integration is a key factor in organizations in general and in innovation projects in particular. For academics, this suggests further research on knowledge integration, and integration between knowledge processes, is warranted. For practitioners, it means that integration is a key process to be considered when choosing and executing new product development projects.
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Purpose ‐ This paper seeks to propose the factors that increase or lessen an individual's tendencies to acquire knowledge from others and uncovers the difference between an expert and a novice in the knowledge domain. Design/methodology/approach ‐ The study adopted a survey method and examined hypotheses by applying the structural equation model method. The unit of analysis was an individual. Findings ‐ The research illustrates that individual knowledge acquisition is influenced by the recipient's perceived value of knowledge content and knowledge source. The influence differs between those who are experts and those who are novices in the acquired knowledge domain. Research limitations/implications ‐ The data were collected from organizations that were willing to participate in the study and not randomly selected; the possibility that the samples were atypical of a more general population exists. This study advances theoretical development by highlighting individual knowledge acquisition which fills the gap between two main knowledge management processes, i.e. knowledge transfer and knowledge application. Practical implications ‐ Management interest in enhancing knowledge exchange should pay attention to value signals both from knowledge content and knowledge source that influence acquiring knowledge by recipients. Originality/value ‐ By revealing the value factors associated with individual knowledge acquisition and providing empirical evidence, the study contributes to richer understanding of what should be perceived by potential knowledge recipients in order to enhance their acquiring knowledge from others.
Article
This paper uses the context of the Sydney Organising Committee of the Olympic Games (SOCOG) as a case study. It examines how information and knowledge management (KM) were utilised through a specific knowledge project (the Sydney 2000 Games Information System) in an event‐driven organisation with a limited lifespan and increasing staff numbers. This project helped ensure that SOCOG's KM processes became aligned with the corporate objective of sharing knowledge across the organisation, rather than it remaining in the programs or divisions where it was created.
Article
Ikujiro Nonaka e Hirotaka Takeuchi establecen una vinculación del desempeño de las empresas japonesas con su capacidad para crear conocimiento y emplearlo en la producción de productos y tecnologías exitosas en el mercado. Los autores explican que hay dos tipos de conocimiento: el explícito, contenido en manuales y procedimientos, y el tácito, aprendido mediante la experiencia y comunicado, de manera indirecta, en forma de metáforas y analogías. Mientras los administradores estadounidenses se concentran en el conocimiento explícito, los japoneses lo hacen en el tácito y la clave de su éxito estriba en que han aprendido a convertir el conocimiento tácito en explícito. Finalmente, muestran que el mejor estilo administrativo para crear conocimiento es el que ellos denominan centro-arriba-abajo, en el que los gerentes de niveles intermedios son un puente entre los ideales de la alta dirección y la realidad caótica de los niveles inferiores.
Article
Although the literature on utilization of social science research is large and growing rapidly, the body of empirical studies on utilization is relatively small and discontinuous. A review of this literature yielded 27 empirical studies with data we considered relevant to the question of how to improve utilization of organizational research. In order to integrate and assess the results of these empirical studies, a conceptual framework of the utilization process in user systems is developed and used. Several types of use and various issues that recur are then identified and discussed within this framework. Twelve recommendations based on our analysis and synthesis of the accumulated empirical results are offered to assist interested organizational researchers in achieving greater utilization of their own and others' research and in improving research on the utilization of research.
Article
Purpose – The topic of organizational learning is populated with many theories and models; many relate to the enduring organizational learning framework consisting of knowledge acquisition, knowledge dissemination, and knowledge use. However, most of the research either emphasizes structural knowledge acquisition and dissemination as a composite construct, or focuses solely on the structural aspect of knowledge acquisition and dissemination. The primary objective of this study is to develop and test a model of organizational learning that incorporates both structural and informal knowledge acquisition and dissemination and as separate processes. The predictors of these processes are also proposed Design/methodology/approach – A model of organizational learning that incorporates both structural and informal knowledge acquisition and dissemination constructs, along with three predictors of these organizational learning constructs were developed and quantitatively tested. Findings – An inference to the research questions and hypotheses suggests that informal knowledge acquisition and dissemination have significant paths to market knowledge use, whereas structural knowledge acquisition and dissemination have, at best, a weak association with market knowledge use. Although the results were based on exploratory analysis, they provide tentative quantitative evidence that informal knowledge processes are at least as important as structural knowledge processes in market-based organizational learning. Originality/value – While the hypothesized model did not satisfy the goodness-of-fit tests, data-driven exploratory analysis helped to refine two separate structural and informal models for future testing. The statistical explanation provided and procedures used to remedy the non-fit issues should help future researchers to deal with structural equation-modeling issues when similar non-fit problems arise.
Article
The purpose of this article was to understand the government stakeholder group's coordination issues and strategies in mega-events, here, the 2010 Olympic Games. The case study was built by means of archival material, interviews, and observations. All three levels of government were included (i.e., the two host municipalities, the host province, and the federal government). Findings highlight five contextual-based issues (time, geography, funding, other resources, and the political situation) and eleven other types of issues (accountability/authority, activation/leveraging, knowledge management, legal, operational, planning, power, relationships, social issues, structure, and turnover). Eight strategies were used to address these issues: communication processes, decision-making frames, engagement, flexibility, formalized agreements, human resource management procedures/principles, strategic planning, and structural framework. The relationships between issues and from issues to strategies are discussed, as are within-group stakeholder heterogeneity and the impact the findings have on public administration theory and practice.
Article
A working paper in the INSEAD Working Paper Series is intended as a means whereby a faculty researcher's thoughts and findings may be communicated to interested readers. The paper should be considered preliminary in nature and may require revision.
Chapter
Providing a complete portal to the world of case study research, the Fourth Edition of Robert K. Yin's bestselling text Case Study Research offers comprehensive coverage of the design and use of the case study method as a valid research tool. This thoroughly revised text now covers more than 50 case studies (approximately 25% new), gives fresh attention to quantitative analyses, discusses more fully the use of mixed methods research designs, and includes new methodological insights. The book's coverage of case study research and how it is applied in practice gives readers access to exemplary case studies drawn from a wide variety of academic and applied fields.Key Features of the Fourth Edition Highlights each specific research feature through 44 boxed vignettes that feature previously published case studies Provides methodological insights to show the similarities between case studies and other social science methods Suggests a three-stage approach to help readers define the initial questions they will consider in their own case study research Covers new material on human subjects protection, the role of Institutional Review Boards, and the interplay between obtaining IRB approval and the final development of the case study protocol and conduct of a pilot case Includes an overall graphic of the entire case study research process at the beginning of the book, then highlights the steps in the process through graphics that appear at the outset of all the chapters that follow Offers in-text learning aids including 'tips' that pose key questions and answers at the beginning of each chapter, practical exercises, endnotes, and a new cross-referencing tableCase Study Research, Fourth Edition is ideal for courses in departments of Education, Business and Management, Nursing and Public Health, Public Administration, Anthropology, Sociology, and Political Science.
Article
Purpose – This paper aims to analyze how formal, horizontal knowledge communities contribute to knowledge application. In large, complex organizations employees face multiple roles that compete for their time and may be conflicting. The paper seeks to analyze the interplay between the communities, the line organization, and the employees; specifically, to examine how the quality of management of the communities, the attitudes of line managers, and the employees' motivation for participating in the communities facilitate knowledge application. Design/methodology/approach – The authors conducted a survey in an organization with several specialized, horizontal knowledge communities. In total, 2,517 responses were obtained from members of 131 different communities. Findings – First, community management, line support and intrinsic motivation have a positive impact on knowledge application. Second, the effect of line support is stronger when employees are intrinsically motivated. Research limitations/implications – The study is limited to one organization. Future research could study knowledge processes in matrix-like organization, as well as the role of community coordinators for knowledge sharing and application. Practical implications – To enhance knowledge sharing and knowledge application, commitment from both line managers and community coordinators is vital. In a matrix-like organization, dialogue and communication are important in order to reconcile supplementary goals and considerations. Originality/value – The paper presents a study that is one of the first to analyze antecedents of knowledge application in formal communities of practice.
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impact of specific knowledge management resources (i.e. knowledge management enablers and processes) on organizational performance. Design/methodology/approach – The study uses survey data from 189 managers and structural equation modeling to assess the links between specific knowledge management resources and organizational performance. Findings – The results show that some knowledge resources (e.g. organizational structure, knowledge application) are directly related to organizational performance, while others (e.g. technology, knowledge conversion), though important preconditions for knowledge management, are not directly related to organizational performance. Research limitations/implications – The survey findings were based on a single dataset, so the same observations may not apply to other settings. The survey also did not provide in-depth insight into the key capabilities of individual firms and the circumstances under which some resources are directly related to organizational performance. Practical implications – The study provides evidence linking particular knowledge resources to organizational performance. Such insights can help firms better target their investments and enhance the success of their knowledge management initiatives. Originality/value – Prior research often utilizes composite measures when examining the knowledge management-organizational performance link. This bundling of the dimensions of knowledge management allows managers and researchers to focus on main effects but leaves little room for understanding how particular resources relate to organizational performance. This study addresses this gap by assessing the links between specific knowledge management resources and organizational performance. The results show that some resources are directly related to organizational performance, while others are not.
Article
Organizations often provide workers with knowledge management systems to help them obtain knowledge they need. A significant constraint on the effectiveness of such systems is that they assume workers know what knowledge they need (they know what they don't know) when, in fact, they often do not know what knowledge they need (they don't know what they don't know). A way to overcome this problem is to use visual ontologies to help users learn relevant concepts and relationships in the knowledge domain, enabling them to search the knowledge base in a more educated manner. However, no guidelines exist for designing such ontologies. To fill this gap, we draw on theories of philosophical ontology and cognition to propose guidelines for designing visual ontologies for knowledge identification. We conducted three experiments to compare the effectiveness of guided ontologies, visual ontologies that followed our guidelines, to unguided ontologies, visual ontologies that violated our guidelines. We found that subjects performed considerably better with the guided ontologies, and that subjects could perceive the benefits of using guided ontologies, at least in some circumstances. On the basis of these results, we conclude that the way visual ontologies are presented makes a difference in knowledge identification and that theories of philosophical ontology and cognition can guide the construction of more effective visual representations. Furthermore, we propose that the principles we used to create the guided visual ontologies can be generalized for other cases where visual models are used to inform users about application domains.
Article
Is organizational culture a catalyst of competence development? This paper argues it is. The reason for this is that organizational culture fosters the process of learning and competence building and works as a glue between people and the organization they belong to. We employ a most recently developed approach belonging to market process theory, the so-called ‘competence-based theory of the firm’, to explain these causal relationships.
Article
Full-text of this article is not available in this e-prints service. This article was originally published [following peer-review] in Journal of Information Science, published by and copyright Sage Publications Ltd. This paper revisits the data–information–knowledge–wisdom (DIKW) hierarchy by examining the articulation of the hierarchy in a number of widely read textbooks, and analysing their statements about the nature of data, information, knowledge, and wisdom. The hierarchy referred to variously as the ‘Knowledge Hierarchy’, the ‘Information Hierarchy’ and the ‘Knowledge Pyramid’ is one of the fundamental, widely recognized and ‘taken-for-granted’ models in the information and knowledge literatures. It is often quoted, or used implicitly, in definitions of data, information and knowledge in the information management, information systems and knowledge management literatures, but there has been limited direct discussion of the hierarchy. After revisiting Ackoff’s original articulation of the hierarchy, definitions of data, information, knowledge and wisdom as articulated in recent textbooks in information systems and knowledge management are reviewed and assessed, in pursuit of a consensus on definitions and transformation processes. This process brings to the surface the extent of agreement and dissent in relation to these definitions, and provides a basis for a discussion as to whether these articulations present an adequate distinction between data, information, and knowledge. Typically information is defined in terms of data, knowledge in terms of information, and wisdom in terms of knowledge, but there is less consensus in the description of the processes that transform elements lower in the hierarchy into those above them, leading to a lack of definitional clarity. In addition, there is limited reference to wisdom in these texts.
Article
“I shall reconsider human knowledge by starting from the fact that we can know more than we can tell,” writes Michael Polanyi, whose work paved the way for the likes of Thomas Kuhn and Karl Popper. The Tacit Dimension argues that tacit knowledge—tradition, inherited practices, implied values, and prejudgments—is a crucial part of scientific knowledge. Back in print for a new generation of students and scholars, this volume challenges the assumption that skepticism, rather than established belief, lies at the heart of scientific discovery. “Polanyi’s work deserves serious attention. . . . [This is a] compact presentation of some of the essentials of his thought.”—Review of Metaphysics “Polanyi’s work is still relevant today and a closer examination of this theory that all knowledge has personal and tacit elements . . . can be used to support and refute a variety of widely held approaches to knowledge management.”—Electronic Journal of Knowledge "The reissuing of this remarkable book give us a new opportunity to see how far-reaching—and foundational—Michael Polanyi's ideas are, on some of the age-old questions in philosophy."—Amartya Sen, from the new Foreword
Article
Libro de metodología cualitativo para investigación en las ciencias sociales. La utilización de la computadora, el uso de datos y la recolección de los mismos. Se describen detalladamente numerosos métodos de datos y análisis.
The bitter-sweet awakening: The legacy of the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games
  • R Cashman
Cashman, R. (2006). The bitter-sweet awakening: The legacy of the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games. Sydney, Australia: Walla Walla Press.
Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques Empowerment, knowledge conversion and dimensions of organizational learning. Learning Organization