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The Jewish and Christian view on female genital mutilation

Authors:

Abstract

Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a practice involving the removal of all or parts of the female external genitalia. It has been documented in 28 African countries and in some countries in Asia and the Middle East, but due to increasing immigration from these countries to the western world, FGM has become a worldwide human rights and health issue. Contrary to the belief that it is a practice carried out by Muslims only, it is also practiced by Christians and a minority group of Ethiopian Jews. However, FGM is neither mentioned in the Torah, nor in the Gospels, and – like in Islam – bodily mutilation is condemned by both religions. In fact, FGM is a mix of mainly cultural and social factors which may put tremendous pressure on the members of the society in question.
African
Journal
of
Urology
(2013)
19,
127–129
Pan
African
Urological
Surgeons’
Association
African
Journal
of
Urology
www.ees.elsevier.com/afju
www.sciencedirect.com
Editorial
The
Jewish
and
Christian
view
on
female
genital
mutilation
I.
El-Damanhoury
Researcher
in
religious
studies,
Mainz,
Germany
Received
22
December
2012;
received
in
revised
form
7
January
2013;
accepted
7
January
2013
KEYWORDS
Female
genital
mutilation;
Jewish;
Christian;
View
Abstract
Female
genital
mutilation
(FGM)
is
a
practice
involving
the
removal
of
all
or
parts
of
the
female
external
genitalia.
It
has
been
documented
in
28
African
countries
and
in
some
countries
in
Asia
and
the
Middle
East,
but
due
to
increasing
immigration
from
these
countries
to
the
western
world,
FGM
has
become
a
worldwide
human
rights
and
health
issue.
Contrary
to
the
belief
that
it
is
a
practice
carried
out
by
Muslims
only,
it
is
also
practiced
by
Christians
and
a
minority
group
of
Ethiopian
Jews.
However,
FGM
is
neither
mentioned
in
the
Torah,
nor
in
the
Gospels,
and
like
in
Islam
bodily
mutilation
is
condemned
by
both
religions.
In
fact,
FGM
is
a
mix
of
mainly
cultural
and
social
factors
which
may
put
tremendous
pressure
on
the
members
of
the
society
in
question.
©
2013
Pan
African
Urological
Surgeons’
Association.
Production
and
hosting
by
Elsevier
B.V.
All
rights
reserved.
According
to
the
World
Health
Organization
(WHO),
female
geni-
tal
mutilation
(FGM),
also
referred
to
as
“female
circumcision”
or
“female
cutting”,
“comprises
all
procedures
that
involve
partial
or
total
removal
of
the
external
female
genitalia,
or
other
injury
to
the
female
genital
organs
for
non-medical
reasons”
[1].
The
WHO
esti-
mates
that
about
140
million
girls
and
women
worldwide
are
living
Corresponding
author.
Tel.:
+49
15205725769.
E-mail
address:
hoda1958@yahoo.de
Peer
review
under
responsibility
of
Pan
African
Urological
Surgeons’
Association.
1110-5704
©
2013
Pan
African
Urological
Surgeons’
Association.
Production
and
hosting
by
Elsevier
B.V.
All
rights
reserved.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.afju.2013.01.004
with
the
consequences
of
FGM
and
that
every
year
in
Africa
alone,
about
3
million
girls
are
at
risk
for
genital
mutilation
[1].
FGM
has
been
documented
in
28
African
countries
and
in
some
countries
in
Asia
and
the
Middle
East
[2].
However,
it
has
also
become
a
human
rights
and
health
issue
in
western
countries
where
the
practice
is
continued
by
immigrants
from
countries
where
FGM
is
commonly
performed
[3].
For
instance,
the
German
organization
“Terre
des
Femmes”
estimates
that
about
30.000
girls
and
women
living
in
Germany
have
undergone
or
are
at
risk
of
being
subjected
to
FGM
[4].
Given
the
fact
that
some
Sunni
Muslims
legitimate
FGM
by
quot-
ing
a
controversial
hadith
(a
saying
attributed
to
the
Prophet
Mohammed)
in
which
the
Prophet
allegedly
did
not
object
to
FGM
provided
cutting
was
not
too
severe
[5,6]
and
that
the
least
invasive
type
of
FGM
(partial
or
total
removal
of
the
clitoris
and/or
the
pre-
puce)
is
also
called
“Sunna
Circumcision”
[7],
FGM
is
widely
con-
sidered
to
be
associated
with
Islam.
However,
during
a
conference
128
Editorial
held
in
Cairo/Egypt
in
2006,
Muslim
scholars
from
various
nations
declared
FGM
to
be
un-islamic
[8,9]
and,
in
fact,
the
traditional
cultural
practice
of
FGM
predates
both
Islam
and
Christianity.
Herodotus
wrote
about
FGM
being
practiced
in
Egypt
as
early
as
500
BC
[3],
while
the
Greek
geographer
Strabo
who
visited
Egypt
in
about
25
BC
reported
that
one
of
the
Egyptian
customs
was
“to
circumcise
the
males
and
excise
the
females”
[10].
According
to
the
U.S.
Department
of
Health
and
Human
Services,
FGM
is
actu-
ally
practiced
by
Muslim,
Christian
and
Jewish
groups.
There
are
countries,
such
as
Nigeria,
Tanzania
and
Niger,
where
the
prevalence
of
FGM
is
even
greater
among
Christian
groups
[11].
In
Egypt,
FGM
is
also
practiced
on
Coptic
girls
[12],
while
in
Ethiopia,
the
Beta
Israel
or
Falashas,
a
Jewish
minority,
subject
their
girls
to
genital
mutilation
[5].
In
this
context,
it
will
be
interesting
to
have
a
look
at
the
attitude
of
Christianity
and
Judaism
toward
FGM.
Jewish
view
on
FGM
While,
according
to
the
Hebrew
bible,
circumcision
is
required
for
all
male
Jewish
children
in
observance
of
God’s
commandment
to
Abraham
(Genesis
12-17),
female
circumcision
was
never
allowed
in
Judaism,
according
to
the
Oxford
Dictionary
of
the
Jewish
Reli-
gion
[13].
Buff,
in
his
letter
to
the
editor,
states
that
“any
form
of
female
circumcision
would
be
considered
bodily
mutilation
and
forbidden
under
Jewish
law”
[14].
Yet,
a
Jewish
minority
group
living
in
Ethiopia,
the
so-called
Falashas
or
Beta
Israel,
practice
rit-
ual
female
genital
surgery
[15].
Buff
believes
that
“as
a
persecuted
and
isolated
Jewish
enclave
for
thousands
of
years,
the
Falashas
did
not
have
access
to
either
definitive
Jewish
texts
or
informed
rab-
binical
sources”
[14].
In
fact,
the
Falashas
practice
an
archaic
form
of
Judaism,
strictly
adhering
to
the
Pentateuch,
the
five
books
of
Moses.
They
do
not
speak
or
read
Hebrew.
Their
bible
is
written
in
Ge’ez,
which
is
the
clerical
language
of
the
Ethiopian
and
Eritrean
orthodox
church,
and
they
do
not
know
the
other
important
reli-
gious
scriptures
of
Judaism,
the
Talmud
and
the
Mishnah
[16,17].
The
Falashas
consider
themselves
descendants
of
the
tribe
of
“Dan”,
one
of
the
10
“lost
tribes
of
Israel”,
and
were
acknowledged
as
such,
and
therefore
as
being
officially
Jewish,
by
the
Israeli
government
in
1975
[17].
This
entitled
them
to
the
right
of
settling
in
Israel.
While
until
1984
only
few
of
them
immigrated
to
Israel,
the
major-
ity
of
Ethiopian
Jews
were
taken
to
Israel
in
the
course
of
two
air
bridge
operations,
one
between
November
1984
and
January
1985,
rescuing
about
8200
Ethiopian
Jews
who
had
fled
to
Sudan
from
a
famine
in
Ethiopia,
and
the
second
one
in
May
1991,
rescuing
14,087
Ethiopian
Jews
from
political
constraints
in
the
Ethiopian
capital
of
Addis
Abeba.
After
their
immigration
to
Israel,
the
Ethiopian
Jews
were
converted
to
orthodox
rabbinic
Judaism.
Nowadays,
only
a
minority
is
still
living
in
Ethiopia
[17].
In
a
study
conducted
by
Grisaru
et
al.
on
113
Ethiopian
Jewish
immi-
grant
women
in
Israel,
the
authors
found
a
variety
of
lesions
in
one
third
of
the
women,
with
27%
showing
partial
or
total
clitoridec-
tomy.
Although
not
all
the
women
interviewed
had
undergone
FGM,
all
of
them
stated
that
FGM
was
normative
among
Jews
in
Ethiopia,
but
they
did
not
consider
it
related
to
religion.
The
reasons
for
FGM
varied
according
to
the
province
the
women
originated
from,
ran-
ging
from
the
intention
to
create
adhesions
that
prevent
premarital
intercourse
to
esthetic
reasons.
The
authors
also
found
that
the
cus-
toms
of
FGM
is
readily
given
up
by
Ethiopian
Jews
right
after
their
immigration
to
Israel,
as
“they
see
themselves
a
part
of
a
Jewish
society
without
FGM”
[15].
Christian
view
on
FGM
Literature
dealing
with
the
Christian
view
on
FGM
is
very
scarce,
however,
Christian
authorities
unanimously
agree
that
FGM
has
no
foundation
in
the
religious
texts
of
Christianity
[18–22].
During
the
2006
conference
of
The
East
Africa
Program,
the
attending
Christian
(Coptic)
leaders
emphasized
that
“Christian
doctrine
is
clear
on
the
sanctity
of
the
human
body”
[22].
Yet,
as
has
already
been
mentioned
before,
FGM
is
practiced
among
Christian
groups,
e.g.
in
Egypt,
Nigeria,
Tanzania
and
Kenya.
Although
FGM
is
not
prescribed
by
religious
law,
many
of
those
practicing
it
may
consider
it
a
religious
obligation,
as
female
sexual
purity
plays
an
important
role,
not
only
in
Christianity,
but
in
all
monotheistic
religions.
As
described
above,
FGM
cannot
be
justified
by
any
of
the
three
monotheistic
religions.
The
reasons
for
FGM
are
various
and
are
clearly
a
mixture
of
cultural,
social
and
religious
factors
[1].
In
societies,
where
FGM
is
practiced,
the
social
pressure
on
the
families
is
very
high
and
the
necessity
to
conform
to
what
is
considered
right
may
be
reason
enough
to
continue
the
practice.
But
whatever
reason
there
may
be,
the
fact
is
that
FGM
represents
a
violation
of
human
rights
which
has
to
be
fought
until
it
has
been
totally
eliminated.
Conflict
of
interest
The
author
has
no
conflict
of
interest.
References
[1]
WHO
fact
sheet
No.
241,
February
2012.
www.who.int/mediacentre/
factsheets/fs241/en
[2]
WHO.
Sexual
and
reproductive
health.
Female
genital
mutilation
and
other
harmful
practices.
www.who.int/reproductivehealth/topics/
fgm/prevalence/en/index/html
[3]
Moukhyer
M.
Female
genital
mutilation
(FGM):
against
women’s
health
and
the
human
rights.
Women
and
health
learning
package
devel-
oped
by:
The
Network:
TUFH
Women
and
Health
Taskforce,
second
edition,
September
2006.
http://www.the-networktufh.org/sites/
default/files/attachments/basic
pages/
WHLP
Female
Genital
Mutilation.pdf
[4]
www.strassenkinderreport.de/index.php?goto=388&user
name=#vor
[5]
www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Religious
views
on
female
mutilation
[6]
www.sheikyermami.com/2007/05/31/female-genital-mutilation-is-part-
of-the-sunna-of-the-prophet
[7]
Sunna
circumcision.
In:
Segen’s
medical
dictionary,
Farlex
Inc.,
2012.
www.medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Sunna+Circumcision
[8]
www.theage.com.au/news/world/muslim-scholars-rule-female-
circumcision-unislamic/2006/11/24/1163871589618.html
[9]
Female
genital
mutilation
(FGM).
Debates
about
FGM
in
Africa,
the
Middle
East
&
Far
East.
www.religioustolerance.org/fem
cirm.html
[10]
Knight
M.
Curing
cut
or
ritual
mutilation?
Some
remarks
on
the
practice
of
female
and
male
circumcision
in
Graeco-Roman
Egypt.
Isis
2001;92:317–38.
[11]
www.womenshealth.gov/publications/our-publications/fact-sheet/
female-genital-cutting.cfm#e
[12]
Refugee
Review
Tribunal
Australia,
RRT
Research
Response,
Research
Response
Number:
EGY32910,
Egypt,
15
February
2008.
[13]
Circumcision.Zwi
Werblowsky
RJ,
Wigoder
G.,
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Oxford
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tionary
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the
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Oxford
University
Press:
New
York
&
Oxford;
1997.
Jewish
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Christian
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female
genital
mutilation
129
[14]
Buff
DD.
Letter
to
the
editor.
Female
circumcision.
New
England
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Medicine
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[15]
Grisaru
N,
Lezer
S,
Belmaker
RH.
Ritual
female
genital
surgery
among
Ethiopian
Jews.
Archives
of
Sexual
Behaviour
1997;26:2.
[16]
www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/5987-falashas
[17]
http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beta
Israel
[18]
Terre
des
Femmes:
frauenrechte.
http://de/online/index.php/themen/
weibliche-genitalverstummelung/begriffsdefinition.htm
[19]
www.gew-bildungsmacher.de/fileadmin/freie
files/Das
bewegt
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[20]
www.library.fes.de/fulltext/iez/00726003.htm
[21]
www.desertflowerfoundation.org/de/2009/10/29/die-katholische-
kirche-spricht-sich-gegen-fgm-aus/
[22]
www.womankind.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/2006-FGM-
Religious-and-Legal-Perspectives-small.pdf
... Although it is not a religious requirement in the Qur'an, some Sunni Muslims legitimatize FGM by quoting controversial hadiths (a saying attributed to the Prophet Mohammed) (Shell-Duncan et al., 2010). Thus, in many countries, the Qur'an is interpreted as implying that FGM facilitates the cleanliness and purification necessary for religious prayer and participation of women (Shell-Duncan et al., 2010;El-Damanhoury, 2013). In a few cases, FGM is also considered to be supported by Jewish and Christian beliefs (El-Damanhoury, 2013). ...
... Thus, in many countries, the Qur'an is interpreted as implying that FGM facilitates the cleanliness and purification necessary for religious prayer and participation of women (Shell-Duncan et al., 2010;El-Damanhoury, 2013). In a few cases, FGM is also considered to be supported by Jewish and Christian beliefs (El-Damanhoury, 2013). ...
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Full-text available
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... Although the findings like other studies (Johansen, 2016;Essen and Johnsdotter, 2004) show religion influences perception, there is need to show some caution in holding the view that religion such as Islamic religion supports not only FGM but specifically infibulation, the more serious form of FGM. This position flows from the fact that Middle Eastern countries like Saudi Arabia do not practice FGM while it is prominent in predominantly Christian countries (El-Damanhoury, 2013;UNICEF, 2013). ...
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The objective of this is to investigate African immigrant women’s perceptions of female genital mutilation (FGM) within the Canadian Criminal Code. Ten African immigrant women resident in Windsor, Canada were selected using snowball sampling for interviews. These women were of three African nationalities, namely Nigeria, Somalia and Sudan. Semi-structured interview protocol with open answer possibilities guided the interviews. Most of the participants (70%) had undergone FGM, 25% had not and 5% were unable to confirm their FGM status. Participants’ perceptions of sexuality remained inconclusive, and were linked to their ethnicity and religion. The participants noted that the association between FGM and infertility in western societies was questionable and Eurocentric. Despite the prevalence of FGM, African nations have high fertility, averaging six or more children. Participants reported the need to provide a prevention protocol that is not based on ethnocentric values but gives adult women the choice to be circumcised or not. Although recent literature in developed countries continue to highlight the negative outcomes of FGM, participants in this study are starting to question the criminalization of FGM based on protecting the rights of women and children because of the restructuring and reconstruction of the vagina’ in developed countries. Keywords: Female genital mutilation (FGM), fertility/infertility, African immigrant women.
... UNICEF estimated in 2016 that 200 million women living today in 30 countries have undergone the procedures. 16,17,18 Knowledge needs to be spread by the scholars to the public who practices FGM as the young females have been reported with clitoral cysts which is also not very commonly known to the medical specialists because of lack of knowledge about FGM. ...
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... FGM is not limited to one specific ethnic or religious group. Followers of various religions, including Islam, Judaism, Christianity (Catholicism, Protestantism, Coptic Christianity), and traditional animist belief systems, and even nonbelievers perform FGM (Dorkenoo 1999;El-Damanhoury 2013). However, there is no Christian scriptural basis for FGM; the Bible does not mention FGM (Dorkenoo 1999). ...
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... FGM is not limited to one specific ethnic or religious group. Followers of various religions, including Islam, Judaism, Christianity (Catholicism, Protestantism, Coptic Christianity), and traditional animist belief systems, and even nonbelievers perform FGM (Dorkenoo 1999;El-Damanhoury 2013). However, there is no Christian scriptural basis for FGM; the Bible does not mention FGM (Dorkenoo 1999). ...
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While arts, human rights and law are well established fields that have emerged and developed through knowledge systems that are rich and extensive in engagement, their confluence has become a significant point of interest in recent years. Arts are as ancient as Africa’s history. To understand Africa, and indeed, the culture of the continent, the role of arts is crucial. Prehistoric records reflect the use of rock arts in many parts of modern day Africa. As early as 8000 BC, arts were engraved on caves and even today gives us a sense of ancient African culture (Ofei 2008, p. 168). The Nok culture in Nigeria possesses notable terracotta sculptures with records doing as far back as 500 BC (Rupp et al. 2008, p. 284). Aside from the rich history of African Saharan trade, which was ‘the vehicle for the transmission of ideas’ (Isichei 1997, p. 218), African arts have been the vehicle of continental civilisation. In more recent years, the arts has become the mechanism for visual representation not only of African history but also communication of culture, feelings, power and knowledge. Across Africa, the arts has become a formidable expression of thoughts and a means of articulating reality in a form that simplifies truth and bolster resolve to advance change. In the human rights context, the arts has become a pertinent tool in expressing thoughts. In contemporary Africa, the potency of arts in human rights has been brought into light through various campaigns on the abduction of children by Joseph Kony in Uganda, the sale of migrants in Libya and the Bring Back Our Girls Campaign in Nigeria. While a plethora of examples abound on how arts has shaped the human rights narrative, scholarship on the intersection between arts and human rights law remains at its infancy. This book examines this intersectionality given the importance of arts in African expression. The arts serve as a formidable way of harvesting the voices of various groups. In recent years, it has become an important tool for engagement in view of the fourth industrial revolution and the power of visuals in representing pertinent issues. However, arts can also be used as to perpetuate dangerous stereotypes and propaganda machinery to entrench practices that violate human rights, usually of the most vulnerable in society. This book explores these intersectionalities within the African context. There are ten chapters in this book. The authors engage the subject of the arts from a plethora of perspectives: music, photographic silhouette, literature, photojournalism, soap operas, visual arts, sculpture and theatre. All ten chapters in this book were peer-reviewed in addition to the internal review process.
... I praksis udføres FGM primaert på 512årige piger, men nogle gange udføres det også på neonatale eller ved giftermål [5]. FGM har sine kulturelle rødder i Afrika og Asien, men associeres de facto fejlagtigt ofte med islam, selvom FGM også praktiseres blandt folke slag, som bekender sig til kristendom, jødedom og ani misme [6]. FGM stammer fra en tid, hvor de store reli gioner var ukendte. ...
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This review discusses female genital mutilation (FGM), which is a culturally founded ritual of unknown origin. The definition is intentional altering or injuring the female genitals for non-medical reasons. The WHO estimates, that more than 200 million women have sequelae from FGM. Acute compli-ca-tions range from haemorrhage and infection to death, while the most common chronic complications are vulvar pain, problems with micturition and childbirth, recurrent infec-tions, dysmenorrhoea, and dyspareunia. Favourable surgical techniques are available. Hitherto, these techniques are limited to certain types of FGM.
... Literature dealing with the Christian view on FGM is very scarce, however, Christian authorities unanimously agree that FGM has no basis in the spiritual texts of Christianity [31]. ...
... 31 • Literature dealing with the Christian view on FGM is very scarce, however, Christian authorities unanimously agree that FGM has no basis in the spiritual texts of Christianity. 32 ...
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Female genital mutilation or female circumcision is a worldwide problem, though it is universally prohibited. The definition, historical origin, indications and types of mutilations, technic of performance, and complication are discussed in this article.
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In 2016, Eritrean artist Aida Silvestri addressed female genital mutilation (FGM) in her solo exhibition, Unsterile Clinic. Silvestri interviewed and photographed East African-born women who were forced to undergo FGM. Unsterile Clinic presented photographic silhouettes of some of these women. Silvestri sewed beads and flowers to pieces of leather whose shapes resemble stylized vulvas in order to evoke the effects of the different kinds of FGM. She affixed the leather pieces to the mouth areas of the silhouettes to visualise the silencing of the women’s voices. As children, their cries of pain and protest against the procedure went unheard and, as adult women, their shame and the taboo nature of the subject made the women reluctant to speak of it. Through Unsterile Clinic, Silvestri intends to bring greater awareness of FGM’s harmful physical and psychological effects thereby encouraging individuals to take a stand against culturally sanctioned gender-based violence. Due to international migration, FGM does not only occur in Africa but has also been reported in Europe, North America, and Australia. Despite the widespread recognition of FGM as a violation of the rights of girls and women and various laws banning FGM in multiple countries, the World Health Organization estimates that millions of girls are still at risk of being subjected to the procedure. For Silvestri, this is unacceptable and the photographic work comprising Unsterile Clinic functions as a means for her to serve as an advocate for the abused, a voice for the silenced, and an educator for the unaware.
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Ritual female genital surgery is usually associated with Muslim countries although it is normative also among Ethiopian Coptic Christians. Ethiopian Jewish women immigrants to Israel report that ritual female genital surgery was normative in their culture in Ethiopia, but expressed no desire to continue the custom in Israel. This contrasts with Israeli Bedouin Muslims, who were reported to regard ritual female genital surgery as an important part of their identity. Physical examination of 113 Ethiopian Jewish immigrant women in Israel found a variety of lesions in about a third of women, with 27% showing total or partial clitoral amputation. The heterogeneity of the physical findings contrasts with uniform verbal reports in interviews of having undergone a ritual of female genital surgery.
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Gavriel Rosenfeld is a contributing author, Biographical essays on Wilhelm Bacher, Adolf Buechler, David Kaufmann, and Moritz Lazarus, pp. 95, 142, 394. Book description: This comprehensive dictionary of the Jewish religion contains nearly 2,400 alphabetically arranged entries ranging from short definitions to lengthy essays on major topics. It is the most accessible and complete one-volume resource available for information on the concepts, beliefs, and practices of historical and contemporary Jewish religious practice. The combined effort of Israeli, American, and European scholars, this dictionary reflects the great variety of Jewish religious expression, from the traditional approaches to such recent variations as Reform, Conservative, and Reconstructionist Judaism. It covers all aspects of Jewish practice, law, and theology as expressed in the Bible and the Talmud and by philosophers throughout history. The work also includes biographical sketches of important personalities associated with the development of the Jewish religion over the centuries, articles on the mystical tradition and folklore, and entries addressing the more recent religious issues posed by the existence of the State of Israel.
Article
Ancient texts and archaeological artifacts provide the starting point for a review of the surgical aspects of female genital mutilation (FGM) in ancient Egypt. Analysis of the ancient surgical procedure incorporates modern experience on the subject as well as ancient literary and cultural perspectives. Comparison of FGM with ancient Egyptian male circumcision and consideration of motivations for the practice contribute to our understanding of FGM. In particular, the documented association between male circumcision and generative ability suggests a novel comparison with a natural process in the female--the breaking of the hymen on first intromission--and ultimately a new hypothesis for the origin of ancient FGM.
Segen's medical dictionary, Farlex Inc., 2012. www.medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Sunna+Circumcision
  • Sunna
  • In
Sunna circumcision. In: Segen's medical dictionary, Farlex Inc., 2012. www.medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Sunna+Circumcision [8] www.theage.com.au/news/world/muslim-scholars-rule-female-circumcision-unislamic/2006/11/24/1163871589618.html
Female genital mutilation (FGM): against women's health and the human rights Women and health learning package devel-oped by: The Network: TUFH Women and Health Taskforce, second edition
  • M Moukhyer
Moukhyer M. Female genital mutilation (FGM): against women's health and the human rights. Women and health learning package devel-oped by: The Network: TUFH Women and Health Taskforce, second edition, September 2006. http://www.the-networktufh.org/sites/ default/files/attachments/basic pages/ WHLP Female Genital Mutilation.pdf [4] www.strassenkinderreport.de/index.php?goto=388&user name=#vor [5] www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Religious views on female mutilation [6] www.sheikyermami.com/2007/05/31/female-genital-mutilation-is-part-of-the-sunna-of-the-prophet
FGM- Religious-and-Legal-Perspectives-small
  • Femmes Terre
Terre des Femmes: frauenrechte. http://de/online/index.php/themen/ weibliche-genitalverstummelung/begriffsdefinition.htm [19] www.gew-bildungsmacher.de/fileadmin/freie files/Das bewegt Material/Gesellschaft/Auszug-U-Mappe-FGM.pdf [20] www.library.fes.de/fulltext/iez/00726003.htm [21] www.desertflowerfoundation.org/de/2009/10/29/die-katholische- kirche-spricht-sich-gegen-fgm-aus/ [22] www.womankind.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/2006-FGM- Religious-and-Legal-Perspectives-small.pdf
Female genital mutilation (FGM): against women's health and the human rights. Women and health learning package developed by: The Network: TUFH Women and Health Taskforce
  • M Moukhyer
Ritual female genital surgery among Ethiopian Jews
  • Grisaru