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Tablets, Touchscreens, and Touchpads: How Varying Touch Interfaces Trigger Psychological Ownership and Endowment

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Abstract

As mouse-driven desktop computers give way to touchpad laptops and touchscreen tablets, the role of touch in online consumer behavior has become increasingly important. This work presents initial explorations into the effects of varying touch-based interfaces on consumers, and argues that research into the interfaces used to access content can be as important as research into the content itself. Two laboratory studies using a variety of touch technologies explore how touchscreen interfaces can increase perceived psychological ownership, and this in turn magnifies the endowment effect. Touch interfaces also interact with importance of product haptics and actual interface ownership in their effects on perceived product ownership, with stronger effects for products high in haptic importance and interfaces that are owned. Results highlight that perceptions of online products and marketing activities are filtered through the lens of the interfaces used to explore them, and touch-based devices like tablets can lead to higher product valuations when compared to traditional computers.

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... Behavioral research in marketing has explored how mobile devices can systematically influence consumers' attitudes and behaviors (e.g., Bart et al., 2014;Grewal & Stephen, 2019;Melumad et al., 2019, Melumad & Meyer, 2020Song and Sela, 2022), and some work has focused on how specific features of mobile devices play a role. For example, scholars have demonstrated that the touchscreen feature on these devices can influence both psychological ownership and consumer choices (Brasel & Gips, 2014;Shen et al., 2016). Other work by Hadi and Valenzuela (2020) has shown device-delivered haptic feedback can improve consumer responses to communications. ...
... Therefore, we leant on both extant literature and intuitive logic to compile an extensive list of potential alternative processes to assess. For example, previous research has suggested that consumers may perceive ownership of digitally displayed products (Atasoy & Morewedge, 2018;Brasel & Gips, 2014), and this seemed particularly worth exploring given AR's ability to superimpose products onto one's peripersonal space. Work by Elder et al. (2017) shows how imagined sensory experiences vary in psychological distance, which can positively influence product evaluations. ...
... We also add to a growing body of behavioral research in marketing that explores how technological features in mobile devices can systematically influence the way consumers process information and behave. While previous scholars have examined the touchscreen (Brasel & Gips, 2014;Shen et al., 2016), haptic feedback (Hadi & Valenzuela, 2020) and photo-taking (Diehl et al., 2016) functionality of mobile devices, the current research demonstrates that AR superimposition using a mobile device's camera can also alter consumers' perceptions and influence real-world behaviors. ...
Article
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Unlabelled: Augmented reality (AR) technology has generated enormous industry investment and buzz, with the food and beverage sector quickly embracing this technology in an effort to enhance the customer experience. However, academic research has only just begun to empirically explore how and why this technology might influence consumer judgements and behaviors in such contexts. Across two field studies involving consequential behavior and two controlled laboratory studies, we find that AR's unique ability to visually superimpose objects onto a real-time environment increases consumers' ability to mentally simulate consuming a pictured food, which in turn increases their desire and purchase likelihood of the food item. Further, we find the increased mental simulation produced by AR is itself preceded and driven by an increased sense of personal relevance of the food items. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11747-022-00919-x.
... However, not just touching has an impact on consumers' decision-making. Recent research has found that also mental visualisation (e.g., imagine the haptic perception of a product) could increase perception and positive feelings toward the item, thus implying that both physical and digital/virtual touching play a relevant role in the shopping experience (Brasel & Gips, 2014. Hence, according to these studies, for individuals to be able to perceive the haptic sense of an item is sufficient that they have a clear memory of the item in terms of materials, emanated heat, and physical factors. ...
... In this context, previous research highlights two different key aspects: (a) the physical contact with the device surface and (b) the utilisation of digital technology to simulate haptic perception. As far as the former aspect is concerned, existing literature has conducted studies aiming to demonstrate a positive effect between touching device screens and consumers' willingness to buy a product (e.g., Brasel & Gips, 2014). Hence, the consumer's desire to purchase an item increases when individuals use haptic touch during mobile retailing advertising. ...
... Further than this, our results also suggested AR despite being able to reactivate the memory about the product, and enrich the shopping behaviour with emotional and hedonic values, is not necessarily driven consumers to be more willing to buy the product. Thus, despite challenging the theoretical-driven idea related to the ability that AR might have in substituting lack of touch that a fully digitalized domain generates for consumers, show that AR effectively stimulates consumers' memory, especially about the materials used to produce it and its related packaging and, in turn, somehow stimulate the haptic sense of consumers (Brasel & Gips, 2014. ...
Article
The recent movement restrictions due to the COVID-19 outbreak, and subsequent booming in online buying, show consumers the crucial role of touch as a pre-purchase indicator of good quality products, especially in grocery and fashion sectors. During the pandemic time, consumers were somehow forced to find different alternatives to understand the quality of items before buying. Among these, the adoption of multi-sensory technologies (e.g., augmented reality, AR) or the visual activation of the memory of a material (e.g., wool) was certainly attracting attention from consumers. In this scenario, the purpose of this paper is to explore how AR can activate the memory of products and consumers’ willingness to purchase. Building on qualitative data from semi-structured interviews with 18 Italian consumers, our analysis reveals that AR might enhance consumers’ memory of products, with this sometimes occurring unconsciously. Our findings further deepen the scientific and managerial debate around the role AR might have in influencing/altering consumers’ shopping routines. Contributions to the body of knowledge and managerial implications are discussed and suggestions for further research are given.
... This relates to the effectance motivation in which agency over one's environment can manifest or arise from feelings of control. For example, exercising physical control by simply touching a target increases feelings of ownership (Atasoy & Morewedge, 2018;Brasel & Gips, 2014;Peck & Shu, 2009) ...
... target is digital (Brasel & Gips, 2014), or the hand is virtually displayed (Luangrath et al., 2022a). Thus, control need not be physically experienced, the mere perception of control is enough to induce feelings of ownership. ...
... The sense of touch affords control which can increase the feeling of ownership (Brasel & Gips, 2014;Peck & Shu, 2009;Reb & Connolly, 2007), even for negatively valanced textures (Shu & Peck, 2011). In the context of online shopping, Brasel and Gips (2014) find that the degree of interface touch (mouse vs. touchpad vs. touchscreen) influences PO with touchscreens resulting in more PO than a mouse or a touchpad. ...
Article
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Research on psychological ownership is prevalent in the consumer domain. This article details the theoretical core of psychological ownership, integrating research in consumer psychology and marketing. The underlying motivations behind psychological ownership are also considered as well as the antecedents and consequences of feeling ownership. This article discusses how consumers signal and infer a sense of ownership, acknowledging that the characteristics of the target of ownership vary greatly to include physical targets as well as those that are intangible. Research is discussed on the lifecycle of ownership considering the formation, perception, and eventual dissolution of psychological ownership. The authors note various avenues for future research in psychological ownership with the aim to spur research in consumer psychology and feelings of ownership.
... Prior studies have shown that touch (either actual or virtual) results in higher psychological ownership than non-touch (Peck et al., 2013;Peck and Shu, 2009). A similar effect occurs when comparing a touchscreen interface (e.g., tablet) with a non-touchscreen interface (e.g., desktop computer) (Brasel and Gips, 2014). These effects are more specific to nonfood products like sweatshirts and tents. ...
... Would a similar effect be replicated with food items (e.g., hedonic food)? Nonfood products are more relevant to the sense of touch (Brasel and Gips, 2014). In contrast, hedonic food items are more associated with multisensory factors like taste and smell (Elder and Krishna, 2022;Vosgerau et al., 2020). ...
... Third, existing studies have shown that psychological ownership is a reliable predictor of consumer behavior. For instance, psychological ownership results in higher purchase intentions (Luangrath et al., 2022) and willingness to pay (Atasoy and Morewedge, 2018;Brasel and Gips, 2014). This research explores the impact of interface mode on the downstream consequences of psychological ownership, including willingness to pay and purchase intentions. ...
Touchscreen interfaces (e.g., smartphones and tablets) provide marketers with an excellent opportunity to reach more consumers. This research investigated how and why the interface mode (touchscreen vs. non-touchscreen) impacts psychological ownership and its downstream consequences in the food domain. In a series of three experiments, participants were asked to complete food-related tasks through either a touchscreen (e.g., smartphone) or a non-touchscreen (e.g., personal computer) interface. The results show that touchscreen (vs. non-touchscreen) interfaces induce higher psychological ownership. Two experiments demonstrated the mediating role of mental imagery using the measurement-of-mediation (experiment 1) and experimental-causal-chain design (experiment 2), respectively. The results also show that touchscreens (vs. non-touchscreens) result in positive product evaluations (i.e., willingness to pay and purchase intentions), and these effects are mediated through mental imagery and psychological ownership (experiment 3). Additionally, the results show that the effect of interface mode on mental imagery and the corresponding mediation effects are more likely to occur among unrestrained (vs. restrained) eaters (experiments 1&3). The results of an exploratory study found that consumers think these effects are undesirable and that they would benefit from avoiding these effects.
... Similar to the physical touch of a product, several positive outcomes are reported from the virtual touch of product images while using touch-screen devices for shopping. Compared with nontouch devices, the use of touch-screen devices led them to overvalue the product (Brasel and Gips, 2014), increased the number of alternatives searched, increased anticipated satisfaction with their product choices (Brasel and Gips, 2015) and inflated consumers' confidence in product choices (Hattula et al., 2017). In addition, particularly for consumers with low involvement, using a touch-screen device led to higher purchase intentions and an increased likelihood to make immediate purchase decisions for hedonic product choices (Chung et al., 2018). ...
... Probably because the study about touch-screen devices in the field of consumer behavior has only emerged recently, only a few researchers have investigated the underlying mechanism for positive outcomes from touch-screen devices. Some researchers explained that the positive consumer response from touch-screen devices is due to the increased engagement with the shopping experience (Chung et al., 2018) or the increased subjective feeling of ownership (Brasel and Gips, 2014). Another notable explanation for the positive outcome is the facilitation of mental simulation for touch; that is, consumers' hand motion from virtually touching a product elicits mental simulation of touching the product. ...
... First, this study finds that virtual touch influences fashion product attitudes in online shopping. Several previous studies have explored the effects of virtual touch through touch-screen devices on consumers' online shopping behaviors, such as product evaluation (Brasel and Gips, 2014), anticipated satisfaction (Brasel and Gips, 2015), confidence in product choices (Hattula et al., 2017) and purchase intentions (Chung et al., 2018). However, this study is the first attempt to apply the virtual touch effect to the fashion products domain, where tactile exploration is essential to evaluate products (Workman, 2010). ...
Article
Purpose This study aims to explore consumers' vicarious experience of touch, namely, mental simulation for touch, through product pictures as visual stimuli and the use of touch devices as motion stimuli in the context of online fashion shopping. Design/methodology/approach Participants were randomly exposed to one of the two texture conditions (weak vs strong tactile sensitivity). The responses from the participants who used a laptop as a non-touch device and a touch device were considered in the analysis. A total of 179 responses were analyzed with analysis of variance and the PROCESS procedure for path analysis using SPSS 20.0. Findings The interaction effects of tactile sensitivity and device types on mental simulation for touch were significant; seeing a less tactile-sensitive product facilitated a greater mental simulation for touch when using a touch device; however, seeing a tactile-sensitive product produced a similar mental simulation for touch, regardless of device types. Furthermore, browsing a less tactile-sensitive product using a touch device increased favorable product attitudes, fully mediated by mental simulation for touch. Originality/value This study contributes to the literature on online shopping behaviors of fashion consumers by showing the role of mental simulation for touch that is shaped by the tactile qualities of products and device types. Exploration of this topic can contribute significantly to online fashion retailers because studies on consumers' mental simulation for touch are limited.
... Hence, studies on the sensory processes of consumers have increased in number, and when the compilations on the field are evaluated in terms of reference, it is indicated that they attract attention (Parise & Spence, 2012). Sensory marketing research is valuable because it shows how different tools that come into our lives with changing technology are perceived and how they affect consumer psychology (Brasel & Gips, 2014). The subject of perception constitutes a part of the interest and often the subject of research in the studies examined. ...
... In general, the studies conducted on perception are gathered within the framework of the effects on the product, brand, and experience. In these studies, consumers' perceptions of products (Harris & Bray, 2007;Aydınoğlu & Krishna, 2012;Litt & Shiv, 2012;Estes et al., 2012;Puccinelli et al., 2013;Zwebner et al., 2014;Brasel & Gips, 2014;Semin & Palma, 2014;Moore & Konrath, 2014;Gilbert et al., 2016;Si & Jiang, 2017;Streicher & Estes, 2016;Haws et al., 2017;and Schneider et al, 2020) draw attention. Among these studies, there are studies on cognitive stimuli (Haws et al., 2017;Puccinelli et al., 2013) that examine the effect of prices on product labels as well as sensory stimuli such as visual Aydınoğlu & Krishna, 2012;Puccinelli et al., 2013;Moore & Konrath, 2014;Semin & Palma, 2014;Gilbert et al., 2016) and tactile (Brasel & Gips, 2014;Streicher & Estes, 2016) products. ...
... In these studies, consumers' perceptions of products (Harris & Bray, 2007;Aydınoğlu & Krishna, 2012;Litt & Shiv, 2012;Estes et al., 2012;Puccinelli et al., 2013;Zwebner et al., 2014;Brasel & Gips, 2014;Semin & Palma, 2014;Moore & Konrath, 2014;Gilbert et al., 2016;Si & Jiang, 2017;Streicher & Estes, 2016;Haws et al., 2017;and Schneider et al, 2020) draw attention. Among these studies, there are studies on cognitive stimuli (Haws et al., 2017;Puccinelli et al., 2013) that examine the effect of prices on product labels as well as sensory stimuli such as visual Aydınoğlu & Krishna, 2012;Puccinelli et al., 2013;Moore & Konrath, 2014;Semin & Palma, 2014;Gilbert et al., 2016) and tactile (Brasel & Gips, 2014;Streicher & Estes, 2016) products. ...
... Our main proposition is that consumers who gain confidence in their choice from touching products in physical contexts-that is, who are high in instrumental needfor-touch (INFT; Peck and Childers 2003) 2 -experience an analogous boost in confidence when they choose among products using direct-touch devices. Four experimental and observational studies 3 support our proposition and demonstrate that 1 Consistent with the literature (e.g., Brasel and Gips 2014;Shen et al. 2016), we define a "direct-touch interface" as an interface that enables consumers to directly touch images of products displayed on the computer screen. In contrast, we speak of a "traditional interface" when consumers operate a device via mouse or keyboard (Shen et al. 2016 use the term "nontouch computer interface" to refer to such traditional interfaces). ...
... Recent studies on the effects of touchscreens suggest that consumers may not sufficiently distinguish between touching products in physical contexts (e.g., products in a store) and touching digital representations of products on computer screens (Shen et al. 2016). For instance, Brasel and Gips (2014) the screen, similar to the effects of actually touching these products in physical contexts (Peck and Shu 2009). Specifically, in one study, consumers who touched the computer screen to shop for a sweatshirt indicated more ownership of the sweatshirt than those who used a mouse to interact with the device. ...
... Specifically, in one study, consumers who touched the computer screen to shop for a sweatshirt indicated more ownership of the sweatshirt than those who used a mouse to interact with the device. Typically, it is assumed that such touchscreen-induced effects are mediated by consumers' imagination to physically touch the displayed products (Brasel and Gips 2014;Peck et al. 2013). Specifically, it is argued that the act of touching product images on a computer screen is similar to reaching out and touching the products in physical environments. ...
Article
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As traditional computer interfaces (mouse, keyboard) are increasingly replaced by touchscreens, an interesting question that arises is how, and for whom, might this shift in interface technology affect choice processes and outcomes. Our main proposition is that consumers who gain confidence in their choices from touching products in physical contexts—that is, who are high in instrumental need-for-touch—experience an analogous boost in confidence when they make product choices using touchscreen-based devices. Four studies support our proposition and demonstrate that consumers with high instrumental need-for-touch are more confident in their choices, less likely to see risks associated with their choices, and they are more likely to make (vs. defer) purchase decisions when using touchscreens. Our studies explore the mechanism behind these effects, indicate that consumers find these effects undesirable, and show that informing consumers about our findings helps them to become less susceptible to these effects.
... Peck et al. (2013, Study 3) showed that vivid haptic imagery increased physical control and psychological ownership, and this study examined the influence of this process on purchase intention. Since psychological ownership is associated with greater willingness to pay (Brasel & Gips, 2014) as well as purchase intention (Spears & Yazdanparast, 2014), it would be reasonable that haptic imagery could influence purchase intention through physical control and psychological ownership. In fact, Iseki and Kitagami (2016) showed that haptic imagery increased purchase intention by increasing physical control and psychological ownership. ...
... This study showed that imagining touching a product without closing one's eyes increased purchase intention through physical control and psychological ownership compared to not imagining it. Academically, this finding further extends previous research on haptic imagery (e.g., Brasel & Gips, 2014;Iseki & Kitagami, 2016, 2017Krishna & Schwarz, 2014;Peck et al., 2013) or psychological ownership (e.g., Peck & Shu 2009;Pierce et al., 2003;;Reb & Connolly, 2007;Shu & Peck, 2011;Wolf et al., 2008). From a practical perspective, this result might be useful for marketing https://doi.org/10.1017/exp.2023.1 Published online by Cambridge University Press 5 strategies. ...
... This modality shift results in changing consumer perception and purchase behavior in implicit ways. For example, prior research finds that touch-based interaction, compared with mouse-based interaction, can elicit a greater sense of ownership and increase consumers' purchase intention on online shopping websites (Brasel and Gips 2014). Other studies also show that touchbased interaction facilitates the choice of an affect-laden alternative over a cognitively superior one (Shen et al. 2016, Liu andJiang 2020). ...
... In addition, whereas the traditional information systems literature suggests that users' decision making often determines final user actions and behaviors, our findings show that decisions can also be subliminally influenced by user actions and behaviors. In (Brasel and Gips 2014), creating new ways to interact with screen content. In the past, embodied cognition has informed a stream of research on embodied interaction, that is, drawing on natural body movements and body-mind associations to design mobile, wearable, and other body-controlled user interfaces (Dourish 2004, Marshall et al. 2013). ...
Article
Mobile health interventions are widely used to facilitate individuals’ management of their health behavior. A notable issue is that health interventions with obvious persuasive intent may cause negligence and reactance. In this study, we propose a subtle but powerful way to bolster self-regulation in maintaining healthy behavior by leveraging embodied interaction design. Our study shows that bodily actions in interacting with digital devices can trigger thoughts about prior associated experiences and, thus, be strategically designed to affect individuals’ judgments, decisions, and behavior. Specifically, in three experiments, we find that firmly pressing a touchscreen during mobile interaction (as compared with gently tapping a touchscreen) can activate users’ approach motivation and, thus, induce their preference for a healthy over a tasty beverage, lead to more challenging exercise goals and more exercise, and reduce personal hygiene lapses after receiving hygiene education. Hence, designers of digital health products may consider designing interaction with pressing gestures to facilitate users’ self-regulation and attainment of health-related goals. Policymakers can also encourage the adoption of relevant app designs to improve citizens’ health wellbeing.
... Recent research has recognised that psychological ownership, a mental state wherein one feels a technology or application to be his or her own, plays a crucial role in individuals' willingness to adopt and use new technologies (e.g., Kirk and Swain 2018;Brasel and Gips 2014;Fuchs et al. 2010;Zhao et al. 2016;Sinclair and Tinson 2017). It has been suggested that many digital applications and platforms possess unique empowering and co-creative features (cf. ...
... Kirk and Swain 2018). Among the research contexts considered are social media (Zhao et al. 2016;Karahanna et al. 2015), music streaming services (Sinclair and Tinson (2017), online crowdsourcing (e.g., Fuchs et al 2010), virtual worlds/spaces or communities (e.g., Lee and Chen 2011), and touch interfaces (e.g., Brasel and Gips 2014). What makes digital services and applications interesting in this respect is that they are often designed to offer consumers more opportunities to participate in controlling the value-creating processes and in investing personal resources in them (e.g., Hair et al. 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Incentive-based health insurance applications have been implemented to trigger lower insurance premiums when the individual follows healthy living habits. It has been recognised that this benefit notwithstanding, consumers’ perceptions related to such applications in the life-insurance field and health tracking are not necessarily positive. Recent research has recognised that psychological ownership, a mental state wherein one feels a technology or application to be his or her own, plays a crucial role in individuals’ willingness to adopt and use new technologies. It has been suggested that many digital applications and platforms possess unique empowering and co-creative features that offer special potential to facilitate the emergence of psychological ownership and satisfy the underlying needs. The aim of our study, proceeding from these premises, was to identify and thematize hurdles to take-up of incentive-based health insurance applications with regard to meeting needs that drive development of psychological ownership. We achieved this by conducting a thematic analysis of perceptions of consumers who were not willing to adopt a specific application of the relevant type. The resulting framework, which recognises 14 thematized hurdles in all, holds important implications for scientific and managerial use both.
... Another subject closely related to the emergence of psychological ownership is the endowment effect, which causes people to overvalue objects they own (Kahneman, Knetsch & Thaler, 1990). Specifically, the amount of money people are willing to pay to obtain an object (willingness to pay) is lower than the amount of money they are willing to accept to give away the object after gaining ownership (willingness to accept), and the effect increases as psychological ownership increases (Brasel & Gips, 2014;Shu & Peck, 2011). Thus, psychological ownership is key for causing the endowment effect, and these are often addressed in the same context. ...
... Next, we measured willingness to accept (WTA) and willingness to pay (WTP) using the WTA/market price (WTA index), WTP/market price (WTP index), and WTA/WTP (endowment effect index). People have been shown to estimate a higher monetary value for things they feel psychological ownership over (Shu & Peck, 2011) and that the endowment effect is mediated by psychological ownership (Brasel & Gips, 2014;Shu & Peck, 2011). Thus, a moderate or stronger positive correlation between the feeling of ownership and monetary value indicators is expected (Shu & Peck, 2011). ...
Article
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The present study addresses the need for a valid instrument for measuring dimensions of psychological ownership, including that of owned and non-owned objects, for use in the language and culture of Japan. Although the theory of psychological ownership has expanded self-extension theory, the most widely used scale of psychological ownership does not measure the extent to which one feels that it (the owned object) is a part of them. Thus, the present study aimed to develop a Japanese version of the Psychological Ownership Scale (POS-J) and examine its reliability and validity. Study 1 measured the POS-J of an owned object, finding the POS-J to have a two-factor structure (possession-self link and feeling of ownership) and its internal consistency and reliability to be adequate. Moreover, POS-J scores were positively correlated with perceived control and self-extension tendency, but not monetary value, indicating that conceptual validity was generally supported. To confirm whether the POS-J could be used for a non-owned object, Study 2 rephrased the expressions of item descriptions and examined the effect of imagining touching a non-owned object on the POS-J scores, showing that doing so increased the POS-J scores for the object. Our findings suggest that the POS-J is a reliable and valid measure of the psychological ownership of owned and non-owned objects for use in Japan.
... Due to the limited sensory interaction in the online environment, a product bought online often turns out to be somehow different than what the consumer imagined it to be (Ketron, 2018); consequently, a lack of sensory information can lead to a lessened perceived value of the online offerings, as well as dissatisfaction and unease with the online experience (Heller et al., 2019). The lack of being able to touch products is indeed a widely acknowledged practical challenge for online shopping (Citrin et al., 2003;Lederman & Klatzky, 2004;Yazdanparast & Spears, 2012), and it is likely that consumers' need for touch reduces the attractiveness of online shopping (Brasel & Gips, 2014;Kühn et al., 2020). ...
Article
The inability to touch products is a fundamental shortcoming in online shopping because humans typically use the sense of touch to evaluate the utilitarian product functionality and to obtain hedonic sensory enjoyment, which the instrumental and autotelic need for touch capture. This study of 900 consumers looks at the interplay between need for touch and imagination to study how imagination compensates for the lack of touch when consumers shop in a 360-virtual store. The study finds that while telepresence of a 360-virtual store improves consumer attitudes toward virtual shopping, the need for hedonic sensory enjoyment – autotelic need for touch – significantly reduces this effect. Further, imagination can compensate for the need for touch; yet this finding holds only for the instrumental need for touch, not for the autotelic need for touch. Consequently, we conclude that imagination can compensate for the utilitarian need to touch products in a 360-virtual store.
... Stimulating the sense of touch (even indirectly, i.e., via tactile/ haptic mental imagery) is important in online shopping experiences (Brasel and Gips, 2014; see also Lacey et al., 2012). In the virtual world, engaging the customer's sense of touch/haptics via the interface (e.g., screen touch, mouse touch) has been shown to increase the interactivity of images as well as the consumers' feelings of ownship (Vries et al., 2018). ...
Article
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With the continuing development of internet technologies, an increasing number of consumers want to customise the products they buy online. In order to explore the relationship between perception and purchase intent, a conceptual framework was developed that was based on the link between multisensory perception, positive emotions, and purchase intent in fashion e-customisation marketing. We discuss the outcomes derived from consumers' experiences in fashion e-customisation and analyse the relationships between variables. Questionnaires were used to collect data for this quantitative study (n = 398 participants). The data was analysed using factor analysis, correlation analysis, and regression analysis. The findings contribute to the field of clothing e-customisation by identifying the effects of visual perception, haptic imagery, and auditory stimulation on arousal, and purchase intent. Visual perception and haptic imagery exerted a positive influence over dominance. We also identify the effects of arousal and dominance on purchase intent, and assess the mediating effects of these variables on visual perception, haptic mental imagery, and purchase intent. The results highlight how fashion e-customisation marketing strategies can be adopted by managers in order to increase positive emotions and how multisensory perception can potentially be used to influence consumers' purchase behaviour.
... The "placebo" effect indicates that irrelevant or Frontiers in Psychology 03 frontiersin.org non-diagnostic information will affect consumers' judgment (Shiv et al., 2005;Brasel and Gips, 2014;Abrate et al., 2021). Therefore, attention to haptic cues in MVL can be transferred to target products to a certain extent. ...
Article
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Introduction There is a common phenomenon of tactile missing in online retail. How to realize consumer tactile compensation is a consensus problem in the field of e-commerce. More and more marketeers and scholars convey their ideas via visual display, but few researches have focused on the tactile compensatory effect of visual language. Methods Study 1 collected data from nearly 13,000 online purchases to analyze the impact of haptic cues on sales in real online shopping platforms; Study 2 used a experimental research method to design three experimental groups: hand haptic cue group vs. Object haptic cue group vs. control group ( N = 165) to investigate whether the main effect of haptic cues and the dual mediating effect of mental simulation held. Study 3 also adopted a simulated experimental research approach to design a two-factor group: 2 (haptic cue: hand vs. object) × 2 (product type: tactile functional product vs. tactile experiential product) ( N = 198). To further explore whether the moderating effect of product type holds based on Study 2. Results Therefore, based on the visualization theory and mental simulation theory, and through a second-hand data experiment and two simulated experiments, this study confirmed that visual language did have a compensation effect on tactile missing specifically. Haptic cues in metaphorical visual language can actively compensate for consumers’ tactile loss, thus affecting the purchase intention. Mental simulation plays a mediating role in the tactile compensation effect. Product type has a moderating effect, and the use of hand (object) haptic cues in metaphorical visual language in tactile functional products (tactile experiential products) can lead to a more active purchase intention. Discussion This study not only enriches the theoretical research on the tactile compensation effect of visual language, but also provides valuable management enlightenment for e-commerce enterprises to improve the effectiveness of online product display and online sensory marketing strategies.
... Previous studies have found differences in consumer thinking patterns depending on the shopping scenario, such as shopping online versus offline (Lynch and Ariely, 2000; Rosen and Howard, 2000;Chen and Tian, 2018), shopping using mobile versus shopping using PC (Dijksterhuis and Olden, 2006;Brasel and Gips, 2014;Huang and Wang, 2019), etc. This study focuses on the live streaming platform scenario and finds that the type of platform and consumers jointly affect the thinking patterns of live streaming consumers, which enriches the research findings related to shopping thinking in live streaming shopping scenario. ...
Article
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Under the background of the rapid development of live streaming shopping industry, diversified live streaming platforms have emerged one after another. This study aims to explore the interaction effect of platform types (live streaming embedded in e-commerce platforms/LSEEC vs. e-commerce integrated into live streaming platforms/ECILS) and consumer types (goal-driven consumers vs. recreational consumers) on purchase intention. To verify the effect, this study firstly conducted a laboratory experiment (Study 1), and then carried out a questionnaire survey through the Internet (Study 2). The results indicate that the interaction effect of platform types and consumer types exists (Study 1) and thinking patterns play a mediating role (Study 2): for goal-driven consumers, LSEEC platforms are more likely to stimulate their rational thinking and enhance their purchase intention; for recreational consumers, ECILS platforms are more likely to stimulate their emotional thinking and enhance their purchase intention. The findings expand the depth of research related to live streaming platforms, deepen the understanding of the thinking patterns in live streaming shopping decision-making, and have certain guiding significance for the strategic formulation of enterprises.
... -Psychological ownershipscale used by Vries et. al. (2018) and Brasel and Gips (2014). Responses will be scored on a 7-point Likert scale (7total agreement; 1-total disagreement). ...
... Par ailleurs, l'interaction physique renforce le sentiment d'appartenance et d'incarnation psychologique des consommateurs (Brasel et Gips, 2014) ainsi que le sentiment de propriété et de dotation du corps impactant alors positivement l'intention d'achat de la part des consommateurs (Shu & Peck, 2011 ;Peck & Shu, 2009). (Skelia, 2017 ;Daugherty et al, 2008). ...
Thesis
Résumé : La réalité virtuelle (RV) réunit les plus grandes marques et les consommateurs dans le métavers pour vivre des expériences de consommations ludiques sur le « web 4.0 », révolutionnant l’expérimentation et la découverte d’offres. En interagissant physiquement, le consommateur devient l’acteur principal, au plus près de l’expérience réelle. L’objectif de la thèse est de comprendre dans quelle mesure les composantes expérientielles influencent ce sentiment d’incarnation et quels sont les effets de ce dernier sur l’attitude et le comportement du consommateur. La démarche de recherche hypothético-déductive nous amène à construire un cadre théorique en marketing expérientiel puis d’explorer le phénomène par des études qualitatives à visées exploratoires afin d’élaborer un modèle conceptuel. Le modèle intègre la position du corps (assis vs. debout) et les défis (absence vs. modérés vs. avancés) tels les déterminants de l’incarnation ainsi que l’immersion et le plaisir tels les facteurs explicatifs de l’incarnation et des intentions comportementales. L’étude quantitative (n=328) est analysée par un modèle d’équations structurelles PLS. Six unités expérimentales composent le contexte expérientiel relatif la visite d’une destination touristique virtualisée. Les résultats confirment le rôle des effets prédictifs ainsi que ceux joués par des médiateurs et modérateurs entre certaines relations du modèle conceptuel. La recherche présente les apports méthodologiques et théoriques et formule des préconisations à destination des professionnels et de chercheurs dans le cadre de futures recherches.
... Product touch research has gone beyond the retail setting (Brasel & Gips, 2014;Hattula et al., 2022). Recent studies are extending haptic research to the online shopping environment by investigating augmented reality, virtual reality, or 3-dimensional image technologies (Alzayat & Lee, 2021;Gatter et al., 2022;Mishra et al., 2021). ...
Article
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Touch is a powerful means to explore one's environment and a critical sensory modality for information gathering. Previous research has shown the positive effects of product touch on key outcomes such as perceived product ownership and choice confidence, yet only in the context of consumers examining a solitary product or a small choice set. The current research draws on the choice overload hypothesis to examine whether a large choice set size attenuates the positive effects of touch. Our findings suggest that product touch results in more positive outcomes when choice sets are small (vs. large), with perceived choice difficulty mediating this effect (Experiment 1). The interactive effect of choice set size and touch is diminished in situations where touch conveys limited additional product information (Experiment 2). Further, we find that touching a large choice set can be advantageous among certain consumers, as those with a maximizing mindset respond more favorably to a large choice set when they can touch the items versus not (Experiment 3). We discuss research implications for the literatures on product touch, choice overload, and consumer mindsets, and practical implications for marketers as pertaining to assortment management, message framing, and online retail shopping environments.
... While some initial evidence for the nonconscious influence of incidental tactile experiences has been provided, consideration can be extended to other tactile experiences encountered in a consumer survey context. For example, the instrument (the pen or pencil) used, bodily position (sitting or standing), the qualities of the items being used to support the questionnaire (a wobbly table or a weighty clipboard) and the possible impact of handling instruments, other than questionnaires, such as the use of a tablet, personal computer or smartphone to answer a survey (Brasel & Gips, 2014). ...
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Embodied cognition provides the epistemological means from which new insights into hapticsensations can be explored within the field of consumer psychology. Extant research has shownthat incidental haptic sensations can, nonconsciously, influence the judgement of objects that arenon-diagnostic (unrelated) for the actual qualities of the item being judged; this would includethe perception customers have of products. The application of this conception to the use of selfreportquestionnaires in consumer research lead to the hypothesis that the haptic experienceof a self-report questionnaire (weight and firmness of the paper) could, nonconsciously, triggerphysically grounded mental frameworks. In turn, this could lead consumers to form strongerproduct judgments when encountering an incidental, tactile experience of strength (firmness)in a self-report questionnaire. In two experiments (N = 178 and N = 128) evidence was found tosupport this hypothesis. Implications of the findings and future research directions are discussed.
... Another key concern is that consumers' innate need for touch (NFT) can reduce the attractiveness of online shopping (Brasel & Gips, 2014;Kühn et al., 2020). Peck and Childers (2003) conceptualized NFT as a personality trait that controls consumers' preferential reliance on haptic information. ...
Article
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The COVID‐19 pandemic has put online shopping at the forefront of retailing, however, the issue related to shopping cart abandonment remains an eternal nemesis of e‐retailers. To understand extant research on online shopping cart abandonment (OSCA), a framework‐based systematic literature review was conducted with the purpose of gaining more insights into existing studies in this context. Specifically, this review examined the literature related to OSCA in terms of theory, context, characteristics, and methods to provide (i) a comprehensive review of the current state of research, and (ii) constructive future research agenda in the area. Using scientific procedures, a total of 52 research articles were retrieved from Scopus and Web of Science (WoS) databases published during the period 2003‐2022. The results revealed that most research is founded by the stimulus‐organism‐response (S‐O‐R) model and the buyer behavior theory, focused in the context of the United States and China, and appeared to use quantitative methods. As a result, this review is expected to assist researchers in better understanding the OSCA context, thus paving the way for further research and development in the area. In addition, providing practitioners with a better panorama to address the issue by expanding the literature review and highlighting the inhibiting factors of OSCA.
... Device type effects Multiple studies [39][40] [41] have reported that touchscreen interfaces positively or negatively influence users' overall perceptual and cognitive experiences. The results of the three studies in Table 2 [39] [40] [41] are consistent, such that consumers who viewed products on a touchscreen are likely to display a stronger interest in acquiring the product (willingness to accept [WTA]) and in buying the product (purchase intentions). ...
Article
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In-car touchscreen infotainment systems have transformed traditional driving experiences into interface-driven user experiences by incorporating multiple features into the system. Although the innovation offers exciting new driving experiences, there are many potential safety issues that need to be addressed urgently.
... mouse-clicking on an item in the case of a desktop-based browser). Moreover, touch-based interfaces can see users' differing perceived importance of product attributes and may increase the number of alternatives searched (Brasel & Gips, 2014). Thus, while customers' more traditional desktop browser-based interactions remain important, a growing role of mobile app-based interactions is observed (Newman et al., 2018). ...
Article
The growing use of mobile technologies is spawning firms’ adoption of mobile relationship-building techniques, including via mobile apps. However, despite the rapid rise of these technologies, little remains known regarding consumers’ mobile app- (vs. desktop browser) related behaviours, and this is therefore investigated in this paper. Specifically, we explore the effect of customer engagement (CE) and customer experience (CX) on customers’ relationship quality/loyalty intention across mobile app- (vs. desktop browser)-based interactions. Using structural equation modelling, we analyse data collected from 420 customers. The results reveal a stronger positive association between CE/CX and relationship quality/loyalty intention for mobile app- (vs. desktop browser)-based interactions, revealing the former’s strategic importance. We conclude by discussing key implications that arise from our analyses.
... The pervasiveness of computer in the contemporary society goes beyond the utilization of traditional desktop PCs (Brasel & Gips, 2014;Lundin et al., 2010). In healthcare settings, the preponderance of touch and mobile devices has supported a wide variety of information and communication needs of healthcare practitioners. ...
... This newer approach may generate different shopping experiences, prompting a stream of research into the distinct psychological drivers of individual decisionmaking across the interactive interfaces of touchscreens versus a keyboard/mouse. Building on Peck and Shu's (2009) research findings that physical touch increases consumers' psychological ownership, Brasel and Gips (2014) show that touch-based devices generate stronger endowment effects than traditional computers because the digital touch can also elicit psychological ownership. Zhu and Meyer (2017) reveal that touchscreen users prefer hedonic over utilitarian products; computer users instead prefer utilitarian products, seemingly because a touchscreen device tends to evoke an experiential thinking style, whereas a desktop encourages a more rational thinking style. ...
Chapter
Consumers use their sense of touch to interact with products and salespeople in direct marketing; they use touchscreen devices to interact with products and others on e-commerce and mobile commerce platforms. Understanding the role of touch in consumers’ experiences in both physical and digital realms is essential for businesses to implement effective haptic strategies and for scholars to advance knowledge in touch literature. This chapter offers an initial review of the role of touch, touchscreens, and haptic technology through an interactive marketing lens. Specifically, it proposes a conceptual framework for continued research by situating current haptic and tactile research within an interactive marketing frame. It summarizes new knowledge of three important topics in interactive marketing: technology adoption, customer behavior, and multichannel marketing. It also draws readers’ attention to the multifaceted research of touch from psychology and neuroscience perspectives. The first half of the chapter summarizes the most up-to-date research findings and theories (e.g., psychological ownership) on haptic and tactile effects that substantially affect interactions between consumers and products and between consumers and service providers. Then a summary of recent research outlines how touchscreen devices (e.g., smartphones, tablets) and haptic technology (e.g., smart wearables) influence consumers’ experiences in the digital world.
... There are several types of ownership, such as factual, legal, psychological-subjective , or implicit ownership such as by merely touching an object, touching an image of an object, or imagining one owns an object Shu & Peck, 2011;Brasel & Gips, 2014). ...
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Mere ownership effect is the phenomenon that people tend to value what they own more than what they do not own. This classic effect is considered robust, yet effect sizes vary across studies, and the effect is often confused for or confounded with other classic phenomena, such as endowment or mere exposure effects. We conducted a pre-registered meta-analysis of 26 samples published before 2019 (N = 3024), that resulted in psychological ownership on valuing effect of g ~ 0.55 [0.43, 0.66]. Suggestive moderator analyses supported the use of replica and valuing type as the strongest moderators. Mere ownership effects were different from the null across all moderator categories and in most publication bias adjustments. We consider this as suggestive evidence that psychological owning leads to valuing, yet caution that much more research is needed. All materials, data, and code are available on https://osf.io/fdyqw/
... Sensory marketing offers potential explanations as previous research supports that sensory cues (e.g., brightness, softness, temperature) drive consumers' purchase decisions (e.g., Girard, Lichters, Sarstedt, & Biswas, 2019, Spence et al., 2014. Accordingly, consumers' innate need for touch can lower the appeal of online grocery shopping (Brasel & Gips, 2014, Yazdanparast & Spears, 2013. ...
Article
Grocery shopping has changed in significant ways over the last 150 years – all to allow customers to choose their own items (Strasser, 1989). Within the last decade, large U.S. supermarkets, like Kroger, Walmart, and Safeway have rolled out online stores (Perez, 2015). However, in 2017, when the Internet-based giant, Amazon, acquired Whole Foods and developed the Amazon Go concept store, the march toward online-only sales came into question. The purpose of this research is to attempt to understand the preferences associated with Millennials regarding online versus in-store grocery shopping preferences. This paper provides the following contributions. First, it extends research on grocery shopper preferences regarding online and in-store environments. Second, the findings provide a deeper understanding of an individual’s mindset currently utilizing online and in-store purchasing channels. Finally, it provides initial evidence on the relative importance of online and in-store characteristics.
... Use of a smartphone device may increase measurement error due, for example, to smaller screens sizes, lower response times or a greater propensity to multitask (Lugtig and Toepoel 2016). Human-computer interactions may also be influenced by the touch interface and ownership (Brasel andGips 2014, Melumad andPham 2020), whether via psychological channels (e.g., emotional benefits, sense of privacy) or functional mechanisms (e.g., ...
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Recent technological advances enable the implementation of online, field and hybrid experiments using mobile devices. Mobile devices enable sampling of incentivized decisions in more representative samples, consequently increasing the generalizability of results. Generalizability might be compromised, however, if the device is a relevant behavioural confound. This paper reports on a battery of common economic games and decision-making tasks in which we systematically randomize the decision-making device (computer versus mobile phone) and the laboratory setup (physical versus online). The results offer broad support for conducting decision experiments using mobile devices. For six out of eight tasks, we find robust null results in terms of average treatment effects and variability. This should give researchers confidence to conduct studies out-of-laboratory via mobile phones. However, we find two caveats. First, with respect to decisions, subjects using a mobile phone are significantly more risk averse and offer less during bargaining. Second, decision response times and the time taken to read instructions are significantly shorter for the online-mobile treatment. These caveats suggest the importance of ensuring device consistency across treatments in the digital age of experimentation.
... This sense of ownership is not based on legal recognition and protection, but it reflects the close link between the target and the consumer's self-concept. The influencing factors of the formation of psychological ownership mainly include: sense of control, devotion, and familiarity (Furby, 1978;Belk, 1988 [18,9,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27]. ...
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In shared consumption, the anonymity of products, consumers do not have the legal ownership of shared products, and the "quasi-public product" attributes of shared products can easily induce misbehavior in shared consumption. Observation and research have found that product-identity link can affect the occurrence of misbehavior in shared consumption. After three experiments, this study found that: (1) product-identity link can effectively alleviate the occurrence of shared consumption misbehavior; (2) psychological ownership plays a role in the influence of product-identity link on shared consumption misbehavior Intermediary effect; (3) The moderating effect of social value orientation on psychological ownership affecting consumers' unethical behavior. The research conclusion not only has important theoretical significance for deepening product-identity link, shared consumption misbehavior, and psychological ownership, but also has important management enlightenment and practical significance for enterprises to alleviate shared consumption misbehavior.
... Valuation arising from psychological ownership exists for individually owned goods, as manifested by the endowment effect, which suggests that consumers value consumption based on the status of owning it (Morewedge & Giblin, 2015). Thus, psychological ownership can increase consumer attachment to the product and to the perceived economic value of the product (Dickert et al., 2018), thereby leading to endowment effects, as such people are more likely to retain an object they own than acquire that same object when they do not own it (Brasel & Gips, 2014). Hence, the feeling of psychological ownership becomes an asset of great importance for brands, which then results in high demand and purchase intention for the product (Morewedge et al., 2021). ...
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This research investigates the consumer purchase intention of products with geographic indications (GIs) based on a sample of 351 valid responses in three representative regions that are well known for their GIs of navel orange brands. Drawing on theories of consumer‐brand relationship, social identity or consumer identification with the brand, and psychological ownership, our empirical results support our research hypotheses. Specifically, it is found that consumers tend to have a higher purchase intention for hometown GI brands than for non‐hometown GI brands. Meanwhile, the impact of brand origin, i.e., hometown vs. non‐hometown GI brand, on consumer purchase intention of GI products is found to be mediated by consumer identification with the GI brands. In addition, psychological ownership moderates the impact of hometown GI brands on purchase intention in that high psychological ownership enhances the impact of brand origin on purchase intention, whereas low psychological ownership negates this effect. Theoretical contributions and managerial implications are provided.
... Haptic experiences that are enabled by devices such as a touch screen appear to improve the affective and conative dimensions of consumer learning (Brasel & Gips, 2014) compared to the traditional interaction using a mouse. Hence, consumers' haptic experiences appear to affect attitude towards products, and are important and helpful to rely upon when making a purchase decision (Schwarz, 2011). ...
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Online shops have become increasingly interactive, using different technologies to create virtual experiences that attempt to simulate a realistic product experience. We explore the impact of high sensory enabling (HSE) virtual product presentation modes using state-of-the-art virtual reality (VR) technology that allows consumers to imitate natural movement and interactions via head-mounted displays (HMD) and dual hand VR controllers. This will compare the HSE virtual product presentation mode with a typical low sensory enabling (LSE) virtual product presentation mode that utilises conventional computer screens, along with mouse and keyboard inputs, on a desktop computer. For the HSE virtual product presentation mode, the results show significantly higher values for the studied variables, including presence, perceived diagnosticity, attitude towards product, and purchase intention. Shopping frequency has a moderating effect on the significant differences of presence between presentation modes. Our research contributes to theory by building on attitude theory, cue summation theory, as well as repetitive learning and memory to explore and explain the effects of HSE virtual product presentation modes on the constructs considered. For managers and industry leaders, this study identifies the importance of using state-of-the-art technology when creating HSE virtual experiences for their products.
Article
This paper examines how input devices of human-computer interaction (HCI) affect consumers’ attitudes and purchase intentions. Across four studies (one study with two secondary data and three experiments), we demonstrate that consumers using direct HCI (touch with fingers) will generate more favorable attitudes and greater purchase intentions than those using indirect HCI (click with a mouse). This effect is mediated by the sense of immersion and moderated by the product haptic importance. Specifically, the sense of immersion significantly mediates the effect of input devices on consumers’ attitudes and purchase intentions for high haptic products. In contrast, the mediating effect of the sense of immersion becomes weaker for low haptic products. These findings make important theoretical contributions to the HCI and touch literature. We also provide some practical implications for firms to improve product evaluations and purchase behavior through human-computer interaction.
Article
Crowdfunding has empowered individual investors to make investment decisions anytime and anywhere. However, research exploring the time of day effect and the ensuing time–IT relationship in the crowdfunding context still lags. This study proposes a novel theoretical framework of diurnal variations in investment decisions. We collect and analyse data from a large lending-based crowdfunding platform in China. We find robust evidence that investors invest most in the morning, moderately in the afternoon, and least in the evening; they invest fastest in the afternoon, moderately in the morning, and slowest in the evening. Furthermore, the diurnal variations in terms of investment amounts and speed become more prominent in mobile-based interactions than in desktop-based interactions. Our findings contribute to the crowdfunding literature and provide managerial implications for crowdfunding platforms.
Article
With the spread of mobile payment services, reward point systems have been frequently promoted in recent years. Therefore, the number of short-term users who enroll for the purpose of earning reward points is increasing, although the low retention rate of mobile payment services has become an issue. This study examined whether or not perceived control and psychological ownership can enhance the intention to reuse mobile payment services by focusing on touch interface when using payment services. The results of these two studies revealed that payment methods requiring users to manually input the monetary amount, thereby using increased screen contact (as opposed to payment methods not requiring the input of a monetary amount), increased the sense of control over payment services, and that perceived control increased the sense of psychological ownership. In addition, it was confirmed that the improvement in psychological ownership caused by screen contact increases the intention to reuse the mobile payment service.
Article
With the expansion of the online environment, recently, recommendation systems have become established as an essential element of any online service. Following this trend, the issue of how to present recommended information effectively to users is attracting attention not only in companies but also in the research field. This paper presents a between-subjects study that aimed to elicit whether there is a difference in consumer’s attitudes towards the user-centric and content-centric recommendation approaches based on their level of psychological ownership towards the online service. Our findings indicated that users with high psychological ownership toward the online service prefer the user-centric recommendation approach, while users with low psychological ownership prefer the content-centric recommendation approach.
Purpose Through a critical synthesis and reflection on the theoretical foundations and empirical evidence related to sensory marketing, this study aims to offer meaningful insights for hospitality operators and provides future research directions on sensory marketing in hospitality. Design/methodology/approach Building on an extensive review of sensory marketing studies across disciplines, this paper presents critical discussions of the theories and findings on the five senses in the context of hospitality. Findings The critical synthesis and discussion indicate that sensory marketing is highly relevant and applicable to operations in various hospitality sectors such as hotels and restaurants. Still, empirical evidence is required to lend support to the discussions. Although scholarly interest in sensory marketing has surged in the past decade, some research streams, such as sensory incongruence, cross-modal correspondence and sensory intensity, have yet to be extended. These under-researched areas provide directions for future hospitality research. Practical implications Through discussions of empirical evidence related to the five senses, mental simulation, cross-modal correspondence and sensory congruence, this paper provides implications for managing customers’ sensory experiences and behavior in hospitality settings. Originality/value Despite the increase of research on sensory marketing in the past decade, its full implications in the context of hospitality remain unknown. Through a critical synthesis and reflection on the hospitality literature, this paper offers research directions for a systematic expansion of sensory marketing.
Article
As e-shopping continues to grow, with a significant nudge from the pandemic, more research is needed to find out how we can deal with reluctance caused by people’s inability to touch online bought products. Previous studies found that psychological ownership is an important predictor of individuals’ attitudes, while the endowment effect, in particular, impacts the finalization of economic transactions. In this article, we explore the impact of direct interaction with virtual objects through touchscreens on enhancing psychological ownership and endowment effect. Moreover, we explore if the product type influences the degree of psychological ownership manifested by consumers and if the individual differences in terms of need for touch moderate the relationship between the interface and psychological ownership, respectively endowment effect. We also analyzed if virtually touching the products through a tactile interface impacts psychological ownership and endowment effect compared to the situation when the products are analyzed on a mouse interface. Results highlight that studying products on a touchscreen will not lead to an increased psychological ownership and enhanced endowment effect compared to studying them on a no-touch interface. However, participants who studied the material products on touchscreen reported a higher psychological ownership. Touchscreens lead to an enhanced perceived touch, which will trigger a higher level of psychological ownership. Comparing the impact of touch on two touchscreen devices, results showed that tablets will determine an increased psychological ownership compared to smartphones.
Chapter
Durch die fortschreitende Digitalisierung findet Konsumentenverhalten in zunehmendem Maße auf digitalen Kanälen wie Internet und Social Media statt. In Forschung und Marketingpraxis stellt sich die Frage, wodurch sich das Verhalten von Konsumenten in einer digitalisierten Welt auszeichnet und wie sich Unternehmen und Marken darauf einstellen können. Der Beitrag betrachtet die heutige digital geprägte Konsumwelt aus einer psychologischen Perspektive, indem er das Erleben und Verhalten der Konsumenten in den Fokus stellt. Er zeigt auf, welchen psychologischen Themen in diesem Kontext eine besondere Bedeutung zukommt. Neben inhaltlichen Aspekten aus verschiedenen Gebieten der Psychologie wird skizziert, welchen methodischen Beitrag die Psychologie bei der Erforschung des Konsumentenverhaltens und dem Generieren von Customer Insights leisten kann.
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Industry 4.0 encompasses different processes, such as robotics, Internet of Things, big data, artificial intelligence, and others. Therefore, researching implementation of Industry 4.0 remains a difficult task. The study aimed at providing better insights into barriers and benefits of Industry 4.0 implementation in Poland. The results showed that almost 40% of participants are familiar with the term Industry 4.0. In the researched group, senior managers were the most educated (46%), while owners turned out to be the least educated (36%). Among the processes of Industry 4.0, artificial intelligence is the most recognized (86% have heard or use it), while the least recognized is augmented reality (62% have heard or use it). The results showed that companies perceive the Industry 4.0 digitalization processes as an element of resource optimization and reduction (over 60% companies). The benefits of digitalization were measured in financial, operational, and strategic areas. No less than half of participants described the benefits as positive to the organization in all the researched areas. Human, financial, and technology resources were indicated as the most important internal limitations to digitalization, and the internet, lack of experienced service providers, and lack of external funds were referred to as external limitations. The study also enhanced the Industry 4.0 concept by providing the perspective of the use of professional social
Chapter
The interactive experiences play a significant role in maintaining customer loyalty both offline and online and the human touch in particular remains a necessity when it comes to purchasing luxury goods. There is a rising trend towards adopting Augmented Reality (AR) technology, or Virtual Reality (VR), for a store-like shopping experience from the comfort of the customer’s home. The chapter examines how luxury fashion brands can improve customer experience online by adopting technology-centric business models and AR/VR.
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Previous research in the last years estimates that cranes cause over 30% of fatal accidents out of the total number of accidents in the industry. However, it still ignores biomechanical and visual problems during every day crane operators' work. Industry 4.0 solutions, such as visual guidance system, such as one proposed in project SPRINCE, have the potential to lower the rates of accidents caused by impacts between the crane or its load and objects or other equipment, which as primary cause have operator's limited or poor visibility of the surrounding workspace. This chapter analysis human and organizational factors and gives an economic appraisal on the visual guidance system installed in the Serbian context. It has been concluded that special attention must be paid to the visual guidance systems' interface design and leadership and administration factors. Also, it has been confirmed that savings resulting from the exploitation of the VGS are € 6776 per year if installed on the existing cranes in Serbian SMEs. Accordingly, the idea of using a visual guidance system installed in a Serbian context is economically justified.
Article
Smart technologies promise to enhance customer experience to new levels in next-generation retail stores. Offline retailers increasingly employ technology-enabled personalization (TEP) strategies to digitally enhance in-store customer experience. To send personalized messages to in-store customers, retailers can choose from two types of smart devices: customer-owned smartphones or retailer-owned immersive screens. Although these smart devices may largely determine customers’ experiences in future retail, research rarely addresses device-related determinants of the effectiveness of personalized messages in stores. Building on assemblage theory, the authors consider the role of these devices in influencing customer experience and eventually consumer shopping behavior. Through two experiments and a mediated moderation analysis, they investigate the interplay of personalized content and device technology in customers’ response to TEP. The results illustrate that consumers react differently to message content depending on the device through which it is conveyed; that is, personalized (standardized) messages are more effective on customer-owned smartphones (retailer-owned screens) because they become integrated into (remain separate from) the customer's extended self. Relational customer experiences, or the extent to which a customer feels positively connected to store assemblages, mediate the effect on shopping behavior. To build TEP strategies, retailers should therefore use smart devices integrated into customers’ extended selves.
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Objective The COVID‑19 pandemic has increased the popularity of online shopping, and companies are looking for ways to provide consumers with experiences that online shopping cannot provide, such as touching products and imagining them in use. In this context, the importance of tactile imagery of products showcased online is increasing. This study replicated and extended Peck, Barger, & Webb's (2013) finding that haptic imagery mediates physical control and influences psychological ownership. ResultsThe present study showed that imagining touching a product increases purchase intention through the mediation of physical control and psychological ownership compared with not imagining, conceptually replicating Peck et al.’s (2013) study. This study also examined the moderated mediation effect of product involvement and showed that this mediation effect was achieved regardless of the degree of product involvement.
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Digitalisation and sustainability are by far the two most dominant megatrends in the latest decades. The business implications of these two areas and the relationship between the two trends are popular research topics among both academics and practitioners. Each company has its own ability to adapt and respond to changing environmental challenges and it is an unfortunate fact that some of them are not always able to implement the latest technologies to their practices. Small- and medium-sized enterprises are particularly vulnerable in this respect, for whom digitalisation in particular is not just a competitive advantage but an unavoidable imperative of development, without which their survival may be at stake. Based on the opinions of 112 Hungarian small- and medium-sized company owners and top managers, this paper aims to explore the relationship between digitalisation and corporate sustainability in the SME environment, in order to identify the most appropriate development strategies to meet the needs of such businesses. The results showed that respondents have a realistic view of the impact of digitalisation on the sustainability dimensions and that they see the benefits of digital transformation mainly in terms of positive economic impacts.
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Digitalisation as the megatrend for industrial and business transformation influences SMEs to various extent. Depending on the sector and the size or even the age of SMEs digitalisation becomes beneficial or even means some limitations to further business development. The present research paper as part of the international project on the ‘Possibilities and barriers for Industry 4.0 implementation in SMEs in V4 countries and Serbia’ explores the attitude of Hungarian SMEs towards digitalisation and investigates what SMEs in Hungary consider as benefits and drawbacks of digitalisation. The results show that while Hungarian SMEs do not experience special pressure for digitalisation from the regulatory bodies and find that digitalisation helps them to operate in a cost-effective way, it also reveals that the advantages of social media and possible software usages are not exploited and limited human resource or finance hinder the digitalisation process.
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Industry 4.0 has penetrated through production and manufacturing industry into trade and services in the last couple of years. At another dimension it was first introduced in capital-strong large companies and infiltrated down to small- and medium-sized companies throughout the years. By now the use of Industry 4.0 is inevitable while the introduction and deployment is still capital intensive. The present research investigates the barriers and possibilities of Industry 4.0 among SMEs in Hungary and reveals the areas where the familiarity and satisfaction with I4.0 are different. The research uses quantitative analyses and concludes that despite the fact that SMEs needs to acquaint more with Industry 4.0 and be trained more, the different sectors apply I4.0 elements where it is the most applicable, ‘middle-aged’ SMEs (between 6 and 11) need more support while medium-sized ‘aged’ SMEs are the most prepared for Industry 4.0. The research reveals that cloud computing is the most used followed by IoT, and the areas in which these elements are deployed are Business and Administration, Logistics and Customer Relationship Management.
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With the advancement of technology and the widespread of coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, catering operators have favored electronic ordering due to its convenience and safety. However, little research has examined whether the change from traditional waiter ordering to electronic device ordering would affect consumers' healthy eating. Based on previous research of self‐control, this article explores whether ordering by electronic device or waiter prompts healthier food choices. Through four experimental studies conducted in China, our findings demonstrated that whether ordering by electronic device or waiter is also one determinant of healthy eating. Compared to waiter ordering, consumers would make healthier food choices through electronic ordering, because it relives the time pressure brought on by the interpersonal waiter interaction. Whereas electronic ordering may be effective only if there is no waiting line or only for consumers who have a relatively low degree of trait self‐control. The findings advance the understanding of determinants of healthy eating, as well as enrich the literature that explores the difference between human and electronic service.
This study develops and investigates the mechanisms through which retail mobile-app cognitions—i.e., interactivity and vividness—are translated into spatial presence experience and subsequently result in customer engagement under the parasol of the hierarchy-of-effects model and the situated cognition theory. The contingency roles of need for cognition and domain-specific interest as individual intrinsic tendencies and issue-specific motivations, respectively, are also scrutinized. A dataset obtained from a survey of 558 customers is employed to estimate the proposed research model. The results indicate that interactivity and vividness significantly stimulate the spatial presence experience, i.e., feelings of “being there” in the mobile-app environment; in turn, this drives customers to become more engaged and contribute to retailers that provide such experiences. The moderating roles of the two motivations are also identified.
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It has previously been suggested that consumers' product evaluations are positively affected by tactile interaction. However, it is not known if it is applicable to products that people usually touch for brief periods of time. This study sets out to explore whether it is possible to influence consumers' tactile perception of fast-moving consumer goods by altering the surface texture. In this study individual tactile sensing and visual appreciation were compared with the combined visual and tactile sensing of surface textures for two types of products (soap and biscuits). Three types of textures on the outside of either a soap or biscuit box and three separate sample swatches of the textures used on the boxes were used in the study. The three soap or biscuit boxes were visually presented to the participants. This was followed by a blind haptic evaluation of the three textures, and then by a combined visual and tactile evaluation of three differently textured boxes (either soap or biscuit boxes). The results suggest that a consumer's perception of the packaging of fast-moving consumer goods is affected more by vision than by touch, which raises some questions with regard to when marketers should encourage consumers to engage in extensive tactile interaction prior to purchase. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Previous research has shown that individuals value objects more highly if they own them, a finding commonly known as the endowment effect. In fact, simply touching an object can create a perception of ownership that produces the endowment effect. Through a series of three studies, we extend this line of research in several ways. First, we investigate the effect of haptic imaging - the mental visualization of touch - on perceived ownership. We find that individuals who imagine touching an object when their eyes are closed experience a level of perceived ownership similar to that of individuals who actually touch the object. We explore the process through which this occurs, demonstrating that, when a person's eyes are closed, haptic imagery leads to perceptions of physical control, which in turn increase feelings of ownership. Moreover, the more vivid the haptic image, the greater the perception of control and the feeling of ownership. This has important implications for marketing in contexts where touch is not feasible, such as online, since haptic imagery could act as a surrogate for touch.
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This research proposes that the concept of emotional attachment, and specifically the independent constructs of psychological ownership and affective reaction, can help explain many of the endowment effect findings documented in the literature. We define these constructs and then test them across a set of nine studies in which we both replicate previous and generate new endowment effect findings, and then show that psychological ownership and affective reaction can mediate the effects. In doing so, we offer direct empirical support for the idea of emotional attachment as a driver of loss aversion while also providing practitioners and future endowment effect researchers with new insights about the psychological processes that underlie the endowment effect.
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Haptic information, or information attained through touch by the hands, is important for the evaluation of products that vary in terms of material properties related to texture, hardness, temperature, and weight. The authors develop and propose a conceptual framework to illustrate that salience of haptic information differs significantly across products, consumers, and situations. The authors use two experiments to assess how these factors interact to impair or enhance the acquisition and use of haptic information. Barriers to touch, such as a retail display case, can inhibit the use of haptic information and consequently decrease confidence in product evaluations and increase the frustration level of consumers who are more motivated to touch products. In addition, written descriptions and visual depictions of products can partially enhance acquisition of certain types of touch information. The authors synthesize the results of these studies and discuss implications for the effect of haptic information for Internet and other nonstore retailing as well as for traditional retailers.
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Purpose This paper examines the value of mobile phones in ethnographic research, and seeks to demonstrate how this particular technology can support and enhance participant observation. Design/methodology/approach Reflecting in detail on one researcher's experience of incorporating this technological device into an ethnographic study, the paper considers how new observational tools can contribute to research beyond data generation. Findings The study suggests that the mobile phone can be an extension of the ethnographer and act as a powerful prosthetic, allowing the researcher to translate ethnographic principles into practice. Research limitations/implications This paper reflects on the uses of a mobile phone in an ethnographic study of young men's consumer experiences. Thus, the discussion focuses on a research site where the mobile phone holds a ubiquitous position. However, there are now more than four billion mobile phones in circulation worldwide, so whilst acknowledging important differences in research sites, this research can be seen to have wide implications beyond the study of young consumers. Practical implications The paper argues that mobile phones allow researchers to record their observations, co‐create data and share experiences with their participants in ways that enhance the quality of ethnographic interpretations and understanding. Originality/value Little research attention has been paid to how emerging technologies support the more traditional participant observer, or how researchers actually embed them within their fieldwork. This paper addresses this gap and considers the wide‐ranging role that technology can have throughout this research process.
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This research demonstrates that visual product depictions within advertisements, such as the subtle manipulation of orienting a product toward a participant’s dominant hand, facilitate mental simulation that evokes motor responses. We propose that viewing an object can lead to similar behavioral consequences as interacting with the object since our minds mentally simulate the experience. Four studies show that visually depicting a product that facilitates more (vs. less) embodied mental simulation results in heightened purchase intentions. The studies support our proposed embodied mental simulation account. For instance, occupying the perceptual resources required for embodied mental simulation attenuates the impact of visual product depiction on purchase intentions. For negatively valenced products, facilitation of embodied mental simulation decreases purchase intentions.
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This research proposes that the concept of emotional attachment, and specifically the independent constructs of psychological ownership and affective reaction, can help explain many of the endowment effect findings documented in the literature. We define these constructs and then test them across a set of nine studies in which we both replicate previous and generate new endowment effect findings, and then show that psychological ownership and affective reaction can mediate the effects. In doing so, we offer direct empirical support for the idea of emotional attachment as a driver of loss aversion while also providing practitioners and future endowment effect researchers with new insights about the psychological processes that underlie the endowment effect.
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120 17-67 yr olds evaluated criteria of ownership by 2 tasks: listing exemplars of things owned and things not owned and rating applicability of criteria to exemplars, and judging the strength of criteria as general arguments for ownership. Cluster analysis suggested that free-recall exemplars of property were selected by 4 principal types of criteria: (1) control criteria referring to the regulation of social access to the property, (2) attachment criteria expressing the psychological proximity of the owner to the property, (3) consumer criteria reflecting important purchases, and (4) special-acquisitions criteria. By the judgment task, only means-of-acquisition criteria were valued as strong arguments for ownership. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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People develop feelings of ownership for a variety of objects, material and immaterial in nature. We refer to this state as psychological ownership. Building on and extending previous scholarship, the authors offer a conceptual examination of this construct. After defining psychological ownership, they address "why" it exists and "how" it comes into being. They propose that this state finds its roots in a set of intraindividual motives (efficacy and effectance, self-identity, and having a place to dwell). In addition, they discuss the experiences that give rise to psychological ownership and propose several positive and negative consequences of this state. The authors' work provides a foundation for the development of a comprehensive theory of psychological ownership and the conceptual underpinnings for empirical testing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This research finds that merely touching an object results in an increase in perceived ownership of that object. For nonowners, or buyers, perceived ownership can be increased with either mere touch or with imagery encouraging touch. Perceived ownership can also be increased through touch for legal owners, or sellers of an object. We also explore valuation of an object and conclude that it is jointly influenced by both perceived ownership and by the valence of the touch experience. We discuss the implications of this research for online and traditional retailers as well as for touch research and endowment effect research.
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The endowment effect, which predicts undertrading and a willingness-to-accept greater than willingness-to-pay, is studied using responses that remove all reference to buying or selling and focuses only on choice tasks. The results significantly lower the willingness-to-pay/willingness-to accept discrepancy, but the latter is still significant. A high efficiency open display uniform price auction is used to exchange mugs for money. Since mugs are randomly assigned to half of 2N subjects, mugs are predicted to trade. Less than mugs trade on average, but more than previously reported. The phenomenon exists but is less prominent than reported previously.
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Contrary to theoretical expectations, measures of willingness-to-accept greatly exceed measures of willingness-to-pay. This paper reports several experiments that demonstrate that this "endowment effect" persists even in market settings with opportunities to learn. Consumption objects (e.g., coffee mugs) are randomly given to half the subjects in an experiment. Markets for the mugs are then conducted. The Coase theorem predicts that about half the mugs will trade, but observed volume is always significantly less. When markets for "induced-value" tokens are conducted, the predicted volume is observed, suggesting that transactions costs cannot explain the undertrading for consumption goods. Copyright 1990 by University of Chicago Press.
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This research details the development of the "Need for Touch" (NFT) scale designed to measure individual differences in preference for haptic (touch) information. The 12-item NFT scale consists of autotelic and instrumental dimensions. Results are reported that support the scale's hypothesized internal structure as well as its reliability, convergent, discriminant, and nomological validity. Individual differences in chronic accessibility to haptic information across groups varying in NFT were also found in two experiments. Additionally, NFT moderated the relationship between direct experience and confidence in judgment. Copyright 2003 by the University of Chicago.
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The research agenda for this article is to examine how individuals process information presented through virtual interaction with a product (object interactivity) and the impact that this has on their purchase intentions if they are looking for an aesthetic experience (browsers) or to find specific information (searchers). It is proposed that the congruency between users' goals and the delivery of product information will influence discursive processing and thus attitudes. However, what is most effective for creating favorable product attitudes is not necessarily most effective in raising purchase intentions. This is because imagery processing should play a more prominent role in affecting purchase intentions because, when estimating their own behavior, people likely run a mental simulation of themselves performing that behavior. It is predicted that object interactivity will evoke vivid mental images of product use regardless of the users' goals and thus increase intentions. The results of four experiments support these hypotheses. Copyright 2003 by the University of Chicago.
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Two experiments examined the effect of interacting with a virtual object (object interactivity) on true and false memories. Although object interactivity may improve memory of associations compared to static pictures and text, it may lead to the creation of vivid internally generated recollections that pose as real memories. Consequently, compared to information conveyed via static pictures and text, object interactivity may cause people to falsely recognize more nonpresented features. The results support these hypotheses and provide converging evidence that this false-recognition effect is due to using imagery during retrieval and is robust, emerging regardless of individuals' goals (to search or browse) or learning intent. (c) 2006 by JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH, Inc..
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Research in judgment and decision making generally ignores the distinction between factual and subjective feelings of ownership, tacitly assuming that the two correspond closely. The present research suggests that this assumption might be usefully reexamined. In two experiments on the endowment effect we examine the role of subjective ownership by independently manipulating factual ownership (i.e., what participants were told about ownership) and physical possession of an object. This allowed us to disentangle the effects of these two factors, which are typically confounded. We found a significant effect of possession, but not of factual ownership, on monetary valuation of the object. Moreover, this effect was mediated by participants' feelings of ownership, which were enhanced by the physical possession of the object. Thus, the endowment effect did not rely on factual ownership per se but was the result of subjective feelings of ownership induced by possession of the object. It is these feelings of ownership that appeared to lead individuals to include the object into their endowment and to shift their reference point accordingly. Potential implications and directions for future research are discussed.
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People develop feelings of ownership for a variety of objects, material and immaterial in nature. We refer to this state as psychological ownership. Building on and extending previous scholarship, the authors offer a conceptual examination of this construct. After defining psychological ownership, they address "why" it exists and "how" it comes into being. They propose that this state finds its roots in a set of intraindividual motives (efficacy and effectance, self-identity, and having a place to dwell). In addition, they discuss the experiences that give rise to psychological ownership and propose several positive and negative consequences of this state. The authors' work provides a foundation for the development of a comprehensive theory of psychological ownership and the conceptual underpinnings for empirical testing.
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Virtually all discussions and applications of statistical mediation analysis have been based on the condition that the independent variable is dichotomous or continuous, even though investigators frequently are interested in testing mediation hypotheses involving a multicategorical independent variable (such as two or more experimental conditions relative to a control group). We provide a tutorial illustrating an approach to estimation of and inference about direct, indirect, and total effects in statistical mediation analysis with a multicategorical independent variable. The approach is mathematically equivalent to analysis of (co)variance and reproduces the observed and adjusted group means while also generating effects having simple interpretations. Supplementary material available online includes extensions to this approach and Mplus, SPSS, and SAS code that implements it.
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Retailers can benefit from allowing customers to touch their products. The influence of tactile input on evaluation, however, remains undemonstrated in the literature. In four experiments, effects of tactile input were observed for product categories wherein tactile input was diagnostic, and depended on product quality. While this effect was moderated by individual differences in need for touch when there was no opportunity for multiple product comparisons, there was no support for a mediating role of affect. Implications for retailing theory and practice are discussed.
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I define “sensory marketing” as “marketing that engages the consumers' senses and affects their perception, judgment and behavior.” From a managerial perspective, sensory marketing can be used to create subconscious triggers that characterize consumer perceptions of abstract notions of the product (e.g., its sophistication or quality). Given the gamut of explicit marketing appeals made to consumers every day, subconscious triggers which appeal to the basic senses may be a more efficient way to engage consumers. Also, these sensory triggers may result in consumers' self-generation of (desirable) brand attributes, rather than those verbally provided by the advertiser. The understanding of these sensory triggers implies an understanding of sensation and perception as it applies to consumer behavior—this is the research perspective of sensory marketing. This review article presents an overview of research on sensory perception. The review also points out areas where little research has been done, so that each additional paper has a greater chance of making a bigger difference and sparking further research. It is quite apparent from the review that there still remains tremendous need for research within the domain of sensory marketing—research that can be very impactful.
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The endowment effect is based on the loss aversion built into Prospect Theory's asymmetric value function. This paper posits that the level of consumer involvement with a decision is a moderator of the endowment effect. It is proposed that high involvement increases the slope differential between the loss and gain regions of the value function, enhancing loss aversion. The research further posits that higher involvement is accompanied by higher arousal and cognitive processing which produces stronger negativity in thoughts. The argument for these effects is discussed in the context of evolutionary theory. We conclude that consumers are more loss averse in high versus low involvement conditions.
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Many consumers purchase products in stores, where they can physically examine and touch the items. In addition, consumers shop for products online or through direct mail, where they cannot physically examine and touch the merchandise. Building on an analysis of perceptual mechanisms involved in the sense of touch, we find that products with primarily material properties, such as clothing or carpeting, are more likely to be preferred in shopping environments that allow physical inspection than in those environments that do not. We also find that there is no difference in preference across the two environments for products with primarily geometric properties, such as packaged goods, for which vision is highly diagnostic. Furthermore, when the touch properties of a material product are verbally described, this reduces the difference in preference between the two environments.
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Points out that in studying attitudinal responses to product design, researchers too often confront respondents with highly abstract or unrealistic stimuli. For example, a 1981 study by M. B. Holbrook and W. L. Moore (see record 1981-26908-001) examined the role of feature-interaction effects in judging verbal and pictorial presentations of artificial sweater designs. Such cue configuralities may be represented by techniques based on canonical correlation analysis (CCA). These CCA procedures are extended by the present author to embrace consumer judgments of real products. Ss were 25 female students, aged 15–27 yrs, who ranked 20 sweaters on 6 features. Data show that (a) there was the continued presence of strong feature-interaction effects, and (b) tactile cues played a strong role in determining product evaluations. The 1st finding supports the conclusion of the earlier study while the 2nd indicates the importance of using real products in research on merchandising strategy. (26 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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193 players were observed to assess the extent to which nonutilitarian touching might serve territorial functions. Study 1 indicated that spontaneous touching occurred frequently, and may have been used to establish territory. Study 2 indicated that a lengthy touch was used by intruded Ss. In Study 3 a confederate's touching of the machine effectively deterred intrusions relative to other postures or an unmarked machine. Examination of the interloper's behaviors suggested that verbal and nonverbal territorial behaviors were used congruently. Results suggest that touching can serve as a symbolic territorial marker that is recognized by territorial occupants and potential intruders and that a social unit analysis can be useful whether the behaviors occur simultaneously or sequentially. (35 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Research in the cognitive dissonance tradition has shown that choosing between two equally attractive alternatives leads to more favorable evaluations of chosen as compared to rejected alternatives (spreading-of-alternatives effect). The present research tested associative self-anchoring as an alternative mechanism for post-decisional changes of implicit evaluations. Specifically, we argue that choosing an object results in the creation of an association between the chosen object and the self. By virtue of this association, implicit evaluations of the self tend to transfer to the chosen object, such that implicit evaluations of the chosen object depend on implicit evaluations of the self. Importantly, this mechanism can lead to ownership-related changes in implicit evaluations even in the absence of cognitive dissonance. Results from four experiments provide converging evidence for these assumptions. Implications for a variety of phenomena are discussed, including cognitive dissonance, the mere ownership effect, the endowment effect, and ingroup favoritism.
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