Article

How societal culture influences friction in the employee–organization relationship

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Abstract

The proposed model unpacks societal culture's multi-level influence on friction in the employee–organization relationship (EOR), resolving two knowledge gaps: overreliance in EOR research on employee-centered concepts, ignoring the influence of the organization; and minimal theoretical analysis on why societal culture contributes to relational problems between the organization and its employees (Coyle-Shapiro & Shore, 2007). We argue that societal culture influences friction in employee–organization relationships through the individual-level mediator of work motives and the organization-level mediator of EOR strategy. Although EOR friction commonly occurs when employee work motives from one culture interact with EOR strategies from another, studies rarely examine the mechanisms that explain these relational challenges. Drawing on individualism, in-group collectivism and institutional collectivism, we explain two primary causes for EOR friction in each mismatched cultural condition, and offer potential solutions for reducing friction stemming from each source. Our arguments suggest that organizations who effectively adapt their HRM practices to the societal culture in which they operate will be less likely to experience EOR friction than organizations who adopt a more ‘one size fits all’ relational EOR strategy.

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... In spite of the widespread use of the Hofstede and GLOBE frameworks, critics of these frameworks have pointed out that their validity only extends to assessing culture at the national-level and are not valid for assessing culture at the individual or organisational level (Brewer and Venaik, 2012;McSweeney, 2013). However, while the Hofstede or GLOBE frameworks may not be applicable for measuring the values of an individual or organisation, several theoretical mechanisms have been identified whereby the values of a society can influence organisational culture and the behaviour of organisational members (Fitzsimmons and Stamper, 2014;Dickson et al., 2004). Fitzsimmons and Stamper (2014) propose that national culture can influence organisational strategies through both normative and cognitive institutional forces. ...
... However, while the Hofstede or GLOBE frameworks may not be applicable for measuring the values of an individual or organisation, several theoretical mechanisms have been identified whereby the values of a society can influence organisational culture and the behaviour of organisational members (Fitzsimmons and Stamper, 2014;Dickson et al., 2004). Fitzsimmons and Stamper (2014) propose that national culture can influence organisational strategies through both normative and cognitive institutional forces. Normative institutional forces include pressure to adopt practices seen as legitimate by industry associations or external force, whereas cognitive institutional forces include values and beliefs of employees and senior managers of the organisation. ...
Article
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In this paper, we examine the relationship between national culture and corporate diversification using a sample of 840 firms in 28 countries. The results of our analysis show that the cultural dimensions of power distance, collectivism, and uncertainty avoidance each have a positive and significant impact on corporate diversification. We find no significant impact of cultural masculinity on diversification. Our results provide evidence that cultural aversion to risk may help explain differences in corporate diversification between countries.
... While a culture can be characterized in many ways (Hofstede, 2003;Stoermer et al., 2016), the individualistic/collectivist distinction has garnered most attention from scientists conducting research on PIS and organizational citizenship behaviors (Gelfand et al., 2007;Haar et al., 2018;Harris et al., 2016;Hofstede, 1984;Hui et al., 2015;Wang et al., 2017). In collectivist culturesincluding many indigenous cultures Haar and Staniland, 2016;Redpath and Nielsen, 1997)employees seek to meet group objectives, to preserve harmony and give high importance to relationships, customs and traditions, whereas in individualistic cultures employees are more inclined to satisfy their own interests, consider themselves autonomous and central to decision making, have a competitive spirit, and communicate less (Fitzsimmons and Stamper, 2014;Hofstede, 1984Hofstede, , 2003Ramamoorthy and Carroll, 1998). As PIS is about group objectives and interestsbelongingness, equity and empathy (Nishii, 2013;Pless and Maak, 2004)it is more compatible with a collectivist standpoint Hui et al., 2015;Wang et al., 2017). ...
... Commonwealth of Australia (2005) Understanding cultural particularities. Cultural differences can affect relational preferences and the capacity to fulfill the psychological contract Durie, 2003;Fitzsimmons and Stamper, 2014;Pearson and Daff, 2013;Ramamoorthy and Carroll, 1998). Supervisors that actively encourage a personal, humane, transparent, frank and on-going dialog (Ferdman, 2014;Pless and Maak, 2004) can better adjust to different cultural norms and values (Mor Barak, 2000). ...
Article
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Purpose - While companies in developed countries are increasingly turning to indigenous employees, integration measures have met with mixed results. Low integration can lead to breach of the psychological contract, i.e. perceived mutual obligations between employee and employer. The purpose of this paper is to identify how leadership and organizational integration measures can be implemented to promote the perceived insider status (PIS) of indigenous employees, thereby fostering fulfillment of the psychological contract. Design/methodology/approach - A search for relevant literature yielded 128 texts used to identify integration measures at the level of employee-supervisor relationships (leader-member exchanges, inclusive leadership) and at the level of employee-organization relationships (perceived organizational support, pro-diversity practices). Findings - Measures related to leadership included recruiting qualified leaders, understanding cultural particularities, integrating diverse contributions and welcoming questions and challenges. Organizational measures included reaching a critical mass of indigenous employees, promoting equity and participation, developing skills, assigning meaningful tasks, maintaining good work relationships, facilitating work-life balance, providing employment security, fostering support from communities and monitoring practices. Originality/value - While PIS has been studied in western and culturally diverse contexts, it has received less attention in indigenous contexts. Yet, some indigenous cultural values are incompatible with the basic assumptions of mainstream theories. Furthermore, colonial policies and capitalist development have severely impacted traditional indigenous economic systems. Consequently, indigenous people are facing many barriers to employment in ways that often differ from the experiences of other minority groups.
... Both intra-and inter-group perceptions can be explained by means of the Social Identity Theory ( Tajfel and Turner, 1986) where individuals identify themselves as members of a social or cultural group, assimilating the attitudes and behaviour as determined by the group norms and expectations (Fitzsimmons and Stamper, 2013;Yildiz 2015: 53). Central to assimilating attitudes and behaviours is the concept of self, which refers to the "content with which individuals construe themselves" (Fitzsimmons and Stamper, 2013: 83). ...
... Findings show that members of the cultural groups define themselves with regard to their own group expectations (Fitzsimmons and Stamper, 2013;Yildiz 2015:53). Only one Tanzanian (a manager who was born in Zambia, but lived in Tanzania) described herself as part of the Chinese ingroup in terms of competitiveness and selected cultural values. ...
Conference Paper
Abstract Purpose: The cooperation between Chinese and Tanzanian employees and organisations has a very long tradition in Tanzanian history. The purpose of this paper is to explore and understand how Chinese and Tanzanian employees see themselves and “the other” while cooperating. Methodology: This research presents a study of a single case, conducted in a selected Chinese organisation in Tanzania. It uses a hermeneutical research paradigm. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews and observation and analysed through content analysis, following Terre Blanche’s model. Findings: Findings demonstrate and explain the perspectives which Chinese and Tanzanian employees hold mutually with regard to the group image of self and other within the organisation, as well as perceptions of self and other in terms of organisational, environmental and cultural contexts. Limitations: Since this is a qualitative single organisational case study, the findings are limited to this single organisation and are not generalisable. Practical implications: Conclusions drawn from the new research insights are provided and recommendations are given in terms of how Chinese and Tanzanian perceptions present themselves and how organisations could work with self-image and counter images to improve intercultural cooperation. Keywords: Chinese perceptions on Tanzanian employees, Tanzanian perceptions on Chinese employees, images of self, images of the other, group images, ingroup, intra- and inter-group relations. Acknowledgements: This work is based on the research supported in part by a Research Grant Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa
... These results are more or less in line with the Australian cultural and industrial contexts mentioned earlier. As also noted by Fitzsimmons and Stamper (2014), members of individualistic societies tend to value self-direction and to pursue individual goals over group or societal goals. For instance, prior studies (e.g. ...
... In particular, as Australian employees are largely influenced by an individualistic culture, the emphasis on individual's sense-making of their work and wellbeing is important. As argued by Fitzsimmons and Stamper (2014), a sense of 'mattering' would motivate employees. Thus, organisations and managers need to ensure employees that their jobs and lives outside work do matter to organisations. ...
Article
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This paper examines several individual coping strategies and employees' perception of organisational provision of work–life balance (WLB) programmes with a sample of 700 Australian employees. The combined effects of individual coping strategies and organisational provision of WLB programmes on employee affective well-being are examined, using structural equation modelling. Results indicate that individuals with positive attitudes and life coping strategies were more capable of achieving overall well-being. Both monetary- and non-monetary-based organisational WLB provision had no direct association with employee well-being, but had indirect effects via individual coping strategies to help employees achieve better well-being. Employee well-being was found to have a stronger association with individual effort than organisational deliberation in providing WLB programmes. Theoretical and practical implications of these study outcomes are discussed.
... Finally, as a guiding assumption of this research is that societal culture is important for career approach, career satisfaction and organisational commitment, future research should consider broadening current understanding of the relationship between career satisfaction and all of age, gender, tenure, and promotion; in addition to affective, normative, and continuance commitment, by including cultural values as moderating variables (Fitzsimmons & Stamper, 2014;Kang et al., 2015). Further, as career satisfaction was not affected by gender and tenure, this warrants further investigation in other GCC countries with similar cultural values to further explore these relationships. ...
Thesis
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This thesis investigates the issues related to career satisfaction and organisational commitment. This research was conducted within the Kuwaiti banking sector; and the important feature of Kuwaitisation forms the setting of this research. Grounded in Social Cognitive Career Theory, Career Theory, and Cross Cultural Comparison theories, this research examines the relationship between demographic factors, career satisfaction and organisational commitment within the Kuwaiti banking sector. A systematic review of the empirical literature was undertaken and revealed that these issues are under-researched. The majority of previous studies in these fields have been conducted in different cultural contexts; and research within Kuwait, has been lacking to date. The research approach is a quantitative one. During July 2015, a self-report questionnaire was distributed to employees working in all business departments at a large conventional bank (Alpha Bank) in Kuwait. Mean scores rank ordered, independent t-test, one-way ANOVA test, and structural equation modeling was employed to analyse the data. The findings of this research suggest that age and promotion are related to career satisfaction while gender and tenure are not. In addition, the findings suggest that career satisfaction is positively related to affective, normative, and continuance commitment. Within the geographical and cultural contexts outlined above, this research contributes to the existing literature on career satisfaction and organisational commitment as follows. First, it provides empirical data regarding the relationship between demographic factors, career satisfaction and organisational commitment within the Kuwaiti banking sector. Second, prior studies have assumed career satisfaction to be a unitary construct and limited attention has been given to its comprising aspects. Consequently, this research has examined these aspects in relation to age, gender, tenure, and promotion to provide a deeper understanding of the aspects that mean most in the Kuwaiti context. Third, it extends support to the relevance and applicability of the traditional career approach. Fourth, it contributes new knowledge about normative and continuance commitment as components of organisational commitment in relation to career satisfaction.
... Further, positive leader-member exchange relationships through ERM might provide a strong foundation to help clarify what employees can expect from the organization, as well as what the organization expects from employees' contributions. This will decrease friction between organization and its employees, and at the same time create positive word of mouth (Fitzsimmons & Stamper, 2014;Al-alak, 2014, Chen et al., 2013Zoghbi-Manrique-de-Lara et al., 2013;Dysvik & Kuvaas, 2012;Men, 2011). ...
Research
Full-text available
Employee Relationship Management, Staff word-of-Mouth, Employee Dissent, Seconded Academic Staff, Recruitment Strategy.
... Studies by Hofstede (2001), Nelson and Gopalan (2003), Johns (2006) and Nazariana et al. (2017) have all revealed that, national culture has effect on the activities of organizational culture-such that, national cultural norms, values and beliefs are forced on organizations through societal establishment (Dennis et al., 2007;Fitzsimmons & Stamper, 2014;Gerhart, 2009;Hofstede, Hofstede, & Minkov, 2010). According to Meehan, Rigby, and Rogers (2008), culture has the only exclusive element in making a distinction between top performing companies from ordinary companies. ...
Article
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The study investigated the influence of national culture on organisational culture of multinational companies in Ghana. A survey of 269 questionnaires was sampled from managers in Accra, Tema, Takoradi and Kumasi. Structural Equation Modelling statistical (SEM) technique with AMOS 24. 0 was employed for the study's analysis. It was observed that, high uncertainty avoidance and high power distance cultures of Ghana had significant positive consequence on companies’ organizational culture while collective and masculine cultures had positive effect on the companies' culture but were insignificant in their influence - rejecting the stated hypotheses. The findings contribute significantly to the debate on the influence of national culture on organisational culture in a trifling way due to multinational companies’ resources. It also suggests for further research to examine the relationship using different measurement scales in capturing the diverse ethnic groups and their respective effects on corporate culture of companies
... The recruitment and training new employees is an important issue of corporate HR development. The relationship between the psychological changes in a new employee, and employee fulfillments and contributions as perceived by the employer is a widely argued in HR (Fitzsimmons and Stamper 2014;Bambacas and Kulik 2013;Björkman et al. 2013;Lee et al. 2011;Hui et al. 2004).Wright and McMahan (2011)claimed the difficulties of increasing hired talent in order to produce management associates (MAs). They focused on decreasing the " rial-and-error cost " of between employee and employer and creating an optimal trade-off between investment in employee training and the retention of effective employees. ...
Article
Because the investment in employee education and development represents a significant capital expenditure, the recruitment how employees’ characteristics, professional skills and abilities meet the required standards is an important issue of business management. In small and medium enterprises selecting appropriate individuals to fill management positions has a significant challenge. This paper focused on the case study utilizing the data of 100 management trainees using back propagation neural networks to determine the probability of retaining management associates. Several surprising findings were obtained. Implications for win-win employee-employer relations and practice are addressed.
... Researchers have examined attempts by multinational enterprises to account for SCV differences across their foreign subsidiaries (Luthans, 1993;Wasti, 1998). Other studies have shown that SCV has an impact on: the motivation of public service employees (Ritz and Brewer, 2013); performance appraisal practices (Peretz and Fried, 2012), reward alignment (Magnusson, Peterson and Westjohn, 2014), success of exploratory innovations (Muller, Rosenbusch and Bausch, 2013) and employeeorganization relationships (Fitzsimmons and Stamper, 2014). Other studies have examined the job-life satisfaction balance using SCVs (Georgellis and Lange, 2012). ...
Article
This paper contributes to the growing multidisciplinary body of literature on subjective well-being by investigating the longitudinal stability and impact of societal cultural values (SCVs) - as opposed to the more common organizational values - on job satisfaction. It is assumed that SCVs evolve slowly; hence, their impact on job satisfaction is likely to remain stable over time. False adherence to this assumption could cause misalignment between organizational policies/practices and expectations formed by societal culture, decreasing job satisfaction and adversely affecting productivity, competiveness and prosperity. Four waves of the European Values Study are used to examine whether SCVs have evolved and their impacts on job satisfaction over a relatively short time: 1981-2008. SCVs are parameterized through reference to traditional vs secular-rational, and survival vs self-expression value continuums. Results indicate that the strength of many SCVs has declined, the impacts of traditional societal values on job satisfaction have remained fairly constant, and the impacts of survival societal values on job satisfaction have declined substantially over this sample period. These reductions in SCVs amplify the importance of accounting for such changes when designing new or adjusting existing policies/practices to enhance job satisfaction and stimulate improvements in productivity, competitiveness and prosperity.
... As a result, an individual's socialization process reinforces national culture at the organizational level through individual agents. Multiple studies have demonstrated how socialization at an early age, well before individuals join the workforce, affects work-level behaviors once individuals do join the workforce (e.g., Dennis, Talih, Cole, Zahn-Waxler, & Mizuta, 2007;Farver, Kim, & Lee, 1995;Fitzsimmons & Stamper, 2014). Similarly, empirical studies have demonstrated how socialization within the framework of a national culture occurs at the organizational level; for example, through training, monitoring, control, and other socialization processes (Chow, Kato, & Merchant, 1996;Lincoln & Kalleberg, 1985). ...
Article
The effect of national culture on organizational culture has long been debated by scholars. Institutional theory scholars argue for a strong effect of national culture on organizational culture through institutional isomorphism, whereas organizational culture scholars argue that organizations are capable of creating unique cultures that can bolster their competitive advantage. In this paper, we bridge the gap between the two literatures and propose that tighter cultures are less likely than looser cultures to tolerate deviance from the national culture surrounding them. At the organizational level, diversity strategy can vary dramatically; organizations that purposefully use diversity strategies are more likely to develop unique organizational cultures. Further, the interplay between national and organizational cultures result in greater constraining forces of national culture over organizational culture in tighter cultures than in looser ones; however, diversity strategies in tight cultures are more likely to foster distinct organizational cultures than those found in loose cultures.
... As a result, an individual's socialization process reinforces national culture at the organizational level through individual agents. Multiple studies have demonstrated how socialization at an early age, well before individuals join the workforce, affects work-level behaviors once individuals do join the workforce (e.g., Dennis, Talih, Cole, Zahn-Waxler, & Mizuta, 2007;Farver, Kim, & Lee, 1995;Fitzsimmons & Stamper, 2014). Similarly, empirical studies have demonstrated how socialization within the framework of a national culture occurs at the organizational level; for example, through training, monitoring, control, and other socialization processes (Chow, Kato, & Merchant, 1996;Lincoln & Kalleberg, 1985). ...
... Organizational scholars have suggested that contextual factors play an important role in understanding how employees respond when they perceive that their expectations concerning the employment relationship have been violated (e.g., Rousseau and Schalk, 2000;Coyle-Shapiro and Shore, 2007;Dulac et al., 2008;Fitzsimmons and Stamper, 2014). However, little empirical and theoretical research has sought to clarify how organizational context affects employee reactions to PCB. ...
Article
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Drawing on theories of social exchange and social information processing, we examined whether the influence of psychological contract breach on in-role performance and organization-directed citizenship behavior (OCBO) depends on work group climate levels, specifically procedural justice climate and power distance climate. The findings supported our hypothesis that psychological contract breach more strongly influences in-role performance and OCBO among members of units with favorable procedural justice climates. Support for a hypothesized moderating role of power distance climate was less conclusive. We discuss the implications of our model and findings for theories of employee–organization relationships and practice.
... Incluso, en ocasiones la persona considera necesario compartir su conocimiento exclusivo, pero el deseo de no ser prescindible le genera problemas de competitividad interpersonal con sus colegas que le pueden abocar a renunciar a esta compartición. La prescindibilidad puede intensificarse si las personas sienten que no pertenecen a un grupo y se consi- deran irrelevantes (Fitzsimmons y Stamper, 2014), llegando a dificultar el intercambio porque el conocimiento supone , todavía hoy, seguridad y poder (Santos et al., 2012; Hsu y Chang, 2014). Cuando un trabajador afronta una tarea clave, que muy pocos en la empresa son capaces de realizar, la compartición de sus conocimientos y habilidades es vital para la competitividad y supervivencia de la empresa. ...
Article
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El objetivo de este trabajo es identificar y analizar la influencia que el comportamiento y las relaciones humanas ejercen en el intercambio del conocimiento en la empresa para dos tipos de trabajadores: los recién incorporados o “novatos” y los experimentados o “veteranos”. Se abordan los efectos de tres variables concretas: la hostilidad del conocimiento, entendida como la negativa del trabajador a compartir su conocimiento; la prescindibilidad del trabajador o percepción de pérdida de relevancia por transmitir el conocimiento a otros; y el interés del conocimiento, que es la motivación por adquirir nuevos conocimientos. Para salvar la dificultad que supone contrastar tales relaciones en la realidad de la empresa, se ha utilizado la metodología de simulación con multiagentes en Netlogo, configurando el estudio sobre tres tipos de simulación con tres opciones para cada una y generando 2.000 simulaciones con 250 ciclos de movimientos en cada simulación. Esta metodología ha permitido representar y obtener conclusiones muy valiosas, abriendo un amplio campo de posibilidades para la investigación de fenómenos relacionados con la Gestión del Conocimiento. El trabajo presenta dos novedades importantes: la identificación de las variables estudiadas y la metodología utilizada para la investigación. De los resultados obtenidos destacamos que la hostilidad favorece el intercambio cuando aumentan los trabajadores veteranos y lo contrario para el caso de los novatos. El sentimiento de prescindibilidad dificulta la compartición de los conocimientos entre veteranos y novatos, y el interés provoca siempre un aumento de los intercambios, independientemente del número y la categoría de los trabajadores.
... Further, positive leader-member exchange relationships through ERM might provide a strong foundation to help clarify what employees can expect from the organization, as well as what the organization expects from employees' contributions. This will decrease friction between organization and its employees, and at the same time create positive word of mouth (Fitzsimmons & Stamper, 2014;Al-alak, 2014, Chen et al., 2013Zoghbi-Manrique-de-Lara et al., 2013;Dysvik & Kuvaas, 2012;Men, 2011). ...
... Studies indicate congruence between HRM practices and societal culture is a precursor to positive employee attitudes, behaviors, and job performance (Robert et al., 2000). It results in less distracted and more productive employees (Schuler and Rogovsky 1998), reduced organizational friction (Fitzsimmons & Stamper, 2014), perceived procedural justice (Wu & Chaturvedi, 2009), and job satisfaction (Hui, Au, & Fock, 2004;Robert et al., 2000). Misalignment, inconsistency, and limited fit between societal culture and HRM practices indicate friction or incompatibility between leadership and workforce expectations. ...
Article
This paper assesses whether societal culture moderates the relationship between human resource management (HRM) practices and organizational performance. Drawing on matched employer–employee data from 387 organizations and 7187 employees in 14 countries, our findings show a positive relationship between HRM practices combined in High-Performance Work Systems (HPWS) and organizational performance across societal cultures. Three dimensions of societal culture assessed (power distance, in-group collectivism, and institutional collectivism) did not moderate this relationship. Drawing on the Ability–Motivation–Opportunity (AMO) model, we further consider the effectiveness of three bundles of HRM practices (skill-enhancing, motivation-enhancing, and opportunity-enhancing practices). This analysis shows opportunity-enhancing practices (e.g., participative work design and decision-making) are less effective in high-power-distance cultures. Nevertheless, in markedly different countries we find combinations of complementary HPWS and bundles of AMO practices appear to outweigh the influence of societal culture and enhance organizational performance.
... Consequently, an individual's socialization process reinforces national culture at the organizational level through individual agents (Chow, Kato, & Merchant, 1996). This view has support from studies that have shown that socialization at an early age subsequently affects individuals' later work-level behaviors (e.g., Dennis, Talih, Cole, Zahn-Waxler, & Mizuta, 2007;Fitzsimmons & Stamper, 2014). ...
Preprint
This paper proposes a new framework of Leadership as a Medium of Corporate Social Identity (LeaM-CSI) linking cultural values at a state level with corporate diversity and inclusivity. In this framework, leadership, through communication of cultural values, increases the salience of these values at a corporate level, increasing the corporate social responsibility, especially in the domain of promoting diversity and inclusivity. The proposed framework is tested using a combination of a natural experiment, machine learning and econometric analysis. Focusing on companies leading on diversity and inclusivity for the years 2018 and 2019, we first identify cultural values important for diversity and inclusivity and find that corporate leaders in diversity and inclusivity tend to have headquarters in states where egalitarianism is an important value orientation. Furthermore, the topic recognition exercise conducted using these companies' mission statements revealed that many of the leading diversity and inclusion companies focus on public good provision egalitarianism salience rather than "diversity" or "inclusivity" salience. We then compare the annual CEO statements of top 100 companies with diverse and inclusive social identities between 2018 and 2019 and, using the supervised topic recognition exercise fueled by machine learning, establish how the change in translated values affect the companies' standing in the diversity and inclusivity ranking. Increase in the salience of egalitarianism and public good provision egalitarianism values is associated with the higher propensity to become a global corporate diversity and inclusivity business leader.
... Our study's findings indicate that managers should accord high importance to values fit with organizational culture when recruiting new organizational members (Edwards 2008). Because HRM practices are intertwined with organizational culture (Jackson and Schuler 1995), organizations should also ensure that their HRM systems are internally consistent with respect to having an individualistic or collectivistic orientation (Fitzsimmons and Stamper 2014;Ramamoorthy and Carroll 1998). Individualistic employees are more likely to be attracted to, motivated by, and remain in firms with more individualistic HRM practices (e.g., formal recruitment and performance appraisal processes, individual-based reward systems, merit-based promotion systems). ...
Article
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Many single-country studies have examined compatibility between the individual values of the employee and organizational cultural values, typically referred to as person-organization (P-O) fit. However, little progress has been made in understanding whether P-O fit relationships generalize across countries and, if so, whether and how societal values impact this relationship. Because of this void, it is important to extend the P-O fit literature cross-culturally to explain not only how individual values relate to organizational values but also how societal values influence P-O fit relationships. Our study of 1,307 business professionals across six diverse countries focused on individualism/collectivism values at societal, organizational, and individual levels. We found that individual values are consistently congruent with organizational cultural values in individualistic societies, but found mixed results for P-O values fit in collectivistic societies. Our results provide more support for the contingency perspective (rather than the nested theory of culture) on how societal values influence P-O values fit relationships. Implications for the cross-cultural generalizability of extant P-O fit theory as well as for organizations are discussed.
... Studies by Hofstede (2001), Nelson and Gopalan (2003), Johns (2006) and Nazariana et al. (2017) have all revealed that, national culture has effect on the activities of organizational culture-such that, national cultural norms, values and beliefs are forced on organizations through societal establishment (Dennis et al., 2007;Fitzsimmons & Stamper, 2014;Gerhart, 2009;Hofstede, Hofstede, & Minkov, 2010). According to Meehan, Rigby, and Rogers (2008), culture has the only exclusive element in making a distinction between top performing companies from ordinary companies. ...
... CCOP scholars have used similar individualistic models of multiculturals in international business (Fitzsimmons, 2013;Fitzsimmons et al., 2017). Fitzsimmons and colleagues (Fitzsimmons, 2013, Fitzsimmons & Stamper, 2014 suggest that organizations and organizational groups offer social identity categories which can overlap or conflict. Managers who have integrated multiple cultural identities have well-developed cross-cultural schema, good access to social and relational capital (Fitzsimmons et al., 2017), and strong team performance in globalized competitive environments (Szymanski et al., 2019). ...
Article
Social Identity Theory ( SIT) as used in cross-cultural organizational psychology (CCOP) shows individualistic biases by envisioning an autonomous person whose culture supports temporary, largely independent, and readily interchangeable relationships with multiple categorical groups, organizations, and other collectives. We seek to reduce these biases in CCOP by drawing from recent social psychological analyses, notably Motivated Identity Construction Theory, that have refined identity theory’s original principles. To make a broad range of organizational applications, we rely heavily on our cross-cultural psychology audience’s familiarity with basic SIT topics and controversies by discussing them quite briefly. We apply such refinements to theories about correlates of organizational identification (OI) measures, interpretive OI theorizing, and an intrapersonal network approach to OI. We conclude by extending these refinements to other constructs linking individuals to organizations: organizational commitment, attachments to organization groups and components, and roles and norms.
... CCOP scholars have used similar individualistic models of multiculturals in international business (Fitzsimmons, 2013;Fitzsimmons et al., 2017). Fitzsimmons and colleagues (Fitzsimmons, 2013, Fitzsimmons & Stamper, 2014 suggest that organizations and organizational groups offer social identity categories which can overlap or conflict. Managers who have integrated multiple cultural identities have well-developed cross-cultural schema, good access to social and relational capital (Fitzsimmons et al., 2017), and strong team performance in globalized competitive environments (Szymanski et al., 2019). ...
... Studies indicate congruence between HRM practices and societal culture is a precursor to positive employee attitudes, behaviors, and job performance (Robert et al., 2000). It results in less distracted and more productive employees (Schuler and Rogovsky 1998), reduced organizational friction (Fitzsimmons & Stamper, 2014), perceived procedural justice (Wu & Chaturvedi, 2009), and job satisfaction (Hui, Au, & Fock, 2004;Robert et al., 2000). Misalignment, inconsistency, and limited fit between societal culture and HRM practices indicate friction or incompatibility between leadership and workforce expectations. ...
... Leaders and managers should work to identify cultural differences in constituent expectations of fellow volunteers, coworkers, and partner organizations; these might be in the form of incentives, along with constituent contributions to the organization (Fitzsimmons & Stamper, 2014). Cultural diversity within an organization is paramount in this work. ...
Article
Volunteers are the lifeblood of many nonprofit organizations. They are essential for guidance and governance on boards, for administrative support, and in some cases, to physically deliver the nonprofit's program in support of its mission. Research suggests that volunteer motivation varies somewhat by individual, and alignment with the nonprofit's mission may be one of the primary factors. Changing generational leadership, national demographics, and perspectives of tolerance may affect the volunteer base and the influence volunteers have over a nonprofit's culture. Using the Boy Scouts of America (BSA) as a case in point, I examine how the changing attitudes in culture and society influenced its membership policy. The history and culture of the BSA, volunteerism within the organization, the influence of changing generational leadership on volunteerism, organizational culture, and membership policy is also considered. Additionally, I suggest ways in which other nonprofit organizations' leadership might learn from the BSA's challenges as they navigate the effects of society's changing attitudes on volunteerism and the resulting impact on organizational culture.
... Leaders and managers should work to identify cultural differences in constituent expectations of fellow volunteers, coworkers, and partner organizations; these might be in the form of incentives, along with constituent contributions to the organization (Fitzsimmons & Stamper, 2014). Cultural diversity within an organization is paramount in this work. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Using the Boy Scouts of America (BSA) as a case in point, I examine how the changing attitudes in culture and society influenced its membership policy. The history and culture of the BSA, volunteerism within the organization, the influence of changing generational leadership on volunteerism, organizational culture, and membership policy is also considered. Additionally, I suggest ways in which other nonprofit organizations' leadership might learn from the BSA’s challenges as they navigate the effects of society’s changing attitudes on volunteerism and the resulting impact on organizational culture.
... Incluso, en ocasiones la persona considera necesario compartir su conocimiento exclusivo, pero el deseo de no ser prescindible le genera problemas de competitividad interpersonal con sus colegas que le pueden abocar a renunciar a esta compartición. La prescindibilidad puede intensificarse si las personas sienten que no pertenecen a un grupo y se consi- deran irrelevantes (Fitzsimmons y Stamper, 2014), llegando a dificultar el intercambio porque el conocimiento supone , todavía hoy, seguridad y poder (Santos et al., 2012; Hsu y Chang, 2014). Cuando un trabajador afronta una tarea clave, que muy pocos en la empresa son capaces de realizar, la compartición de sus conocimientos y habilidades es vital para la competitividad y supervivencia de la empresa. ...
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Conference Paper
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Book
The nature of human resource development (HRD) has been, and remains, a contested topic - the debate was sparked in part by Monica Lee's seminal 2001 paper which refused to define the discipline of HRD, but has been accentuated by increasing globalization, political unrest, inequality and the erosion of boundaries. Should HRD now be seen as more than 'training,' or a sub-function of large western bureaucracy? This book represents a very wide view of HRD: that it is at the core of our 'selves' and our relationships, and that we continually co-create ourselves, our organisations and societies. These ideas are hung upon a model of Holistic Agency, and supported from sources as diverse as evolutionary psychology, science fiction, the challenges of transitional economies, and the structural uncertainties of contemporary society. Examining the tensions between self and other, agency and structure, the book draws inspiration from an almost-autoethnographic approach. This yields a text that is personal, entertaining, and easier to read than many academic tomes - yet considers the depth and development of the human condition, and locates HRD within that.
Chapter
The employee–organization relationship (EOR) is a construct for examining the complex perceptions of both employees and employers/managers and their expectations of one another in the workplace. Based in social exchange theory (and economic exchange theory) and the inducements–contributions model, study of the EOR enables scholars and professionals to analyze the contributions of internal communications and organizational development practices on productivity, employee engagement, satisfaction, and organizational trust. Employee–organization relationships, by way of impact on these concepts, affect internal and external organizational outcomes.
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Chapter
This chapter discusses how individualism is associated with direct communication while collectivism is associated with indirect communication. Examples are provided to explain how this primary point of conflict needs to be addressed. The idea that individualism is associated with a task orientation is also contrasted with how collectivistic cultural members are more relationship orientated. This fundamental difference is also presented together with examples such as the classic misunderstanding of signing a contract right away as opposed to vacationing first. Finally, the issue of how collectivistic millennials are somewhat different in their collectivistic outlook is also discussed.
Chapter
This chapter adds culture to the facework process. Concepts of national culture and cultural dimensions are laid out. The cultural dimensions power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism, collectivism, power distance, masculinity, femininity, long-term orientation and short-term orientation are explained. Furthermore, concepts relating to those dimensions such as exclusionism, in-groups, out-groups, universalism, indulgence, restraint, monumentalism, self-promotion, and flexumility are also described. Schwartz’ theory and the GLOBE’s theory are presented. Then, related theory such as low-context and high-context communication as well as how harmony and hierarchy relate to communication are explicated. The functional approach is explained as well.
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Chapter
The importance of knowledge sharing to a company is such that it can, to a large extent, determine the success or failure of the competitiveness and survival of the organisation. One of the problems facing the management of knowledge, to ensure its application in the company, is the existence of barriers or impediments to effective exchange. Some of these impediments are due to the personality and personal circumstances of the employee, as well as certain management decisions, which have an influence on the willingness of workers to share their knowledge. The aim of this paper is to look at individual strategies that people employ so as not to share knowledge, as well as to identify certain management decisions and behaviour which may hamper this exchange. As far as the empirical work is concerned, a survey has been prepared, aimed at employees, unemployed workers and students in their final year at university, which was completed by a total of 1088 people. Some of the most pertinent results point to initial proactive attitudes towards knowledge exchange that weaken, depending on a person’s age, their professional situation, type of contract, their salary, and their level of motivation. Similarly, the management decisions that contribute most to the success of knowledge sharing are ensuring good organization, a suitable organizational culture and climate, compatible leadership styles and fair recruitment, pay, and promotion policies in the eyes of employees.
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The article looks at different perspectives on paternalistic leadership and assesses the current state of research and literature on the subject. Paternalistic leadership is typically defined as a leadership style that is based on fatherly benevolence combined with strong discipline and authority. It has been described as benevolent dictatorship and negatively received by much of the Western management literature available. Views on paternalistic leadership imply that managers take interest in the personal lives of workers and look out for their personal well-being. Cross-cultural studies have shown that employees in Mexico report higher paternalistic values than employees in the U.S. due to Mexican cultural values that promote strong familial relationships and respect for hierarchy.
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This chapter discusses the psychological and societal processes involved in the phenomenon of multiculturalism. An emphasis is placed on reviewing and integrating relevant findings and theories stemming from cultural, personality, and social psychology. The chapter includes sections devoted to defining multiculturalism at the individual, group, and societal level, discussing the links between acculturation and multiculturalism, how to best operationalize and measure multicultural identity, the issue of individual differences in multicultural identity, and the possible psychological and societal benefits of multiculturalism. The chapter concludes with a discussion of future challenges and needed directions in the psychological study of multiculturalism.
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Organizations are experiencing a rise in a new demographic of employees multicultural individuals, who identify with two or more cultures and have internalized associated cultural schemas. I create a map of possible ways to organize more than one cultural identity, based on identity integration, which ranges from separated to integrated, and identity plurality, which ranges from single to multiple. Cognitive and motivational mechanisms drawn from social identity theory explain how identity patterns then influence both benefits and challenges for multicultural employees, categorized into personal, social, and task outcomes. Organizational identification and organizational culture moderate relationships between multicultural identity patterns and outcomes. The framework presented in this article offers a theoretical basis for understanding how multicultural employees may contribute to their organizations.
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Integrating and extending literature on international management and team effectiveness, we examined how macro context in multinational organizations (MNCs) influences work team learning and how team learning influences task performance and interpersonal relations. We examined these influences in a multimethod study of 115 teams in 20 subsidiaries of five MNCs. Controlling for micro contextual features, including team type, training, feedback, and autonomy, we found that organizational contexts emphasizing global integration reduced team learning, but those emphasizing responsiveness and knowledge management increased team learning. Team learning in turn positively influenced both task performance and the quality of interpersonal relations.
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The present article has two objectives. First, general issues for developing and testing cross cultural multi-level models such as variable identification, measurement, sampling and data analysis are discussed. A second aim is to illustrate some of these issues by developing a multi-level framework incorporating variables at an individual, organizational and national level. The goal is to explain cross cultural differences in extra-role behaviour. Based on a review of previous multi-level research and cross cultural research it is proposed that the effect of national culture on work attitudes and behaviour is mediated by organizational practices. The framework is formulated using recent recommendations for the development of multi-level models.
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This paper explores the relationship between national culture and individuals' psychological contracts. Predicted relationships were drawn from prior theory that identified cognitive and motivational mechanisms through which culture manifests its influence. The dominant forms of psychological contracts were evaluated against predictions based on the national-level cultural values of vertical and horizontal individualism and collectivism in four countries. Results of interviews with 57 participants indicated that French interviewees (vertical individualist) described their psychological contracts as primarily exploitive, Canadians (horizontal individualist) as primarily instrumental, Chinese (vertical collectivist) as primarily custodial and Norwegians (horizontal collectivist) as primarily communitarian. Exploration of the conditions under which patterns deviated from those predicted by the theory indicates potential areas for future theoretical development.
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In the face of globalization, scholars continue to debate about whether a convergence in human resources practices will prevail, or a trend of divergence perspective will persist. Building on institution theory, this article helps to explicate this debate by examining how globalization may interact with different dimensions of local institutional forces to lead to convergence, divergence, or crossvergence in international HRM practices for enhanced performance. We also present useful propositions for guiding future empirical research and theory development on the interaction between globalization and different forms of local institutional forces, which in turn influence the formation of successful international HRM practices. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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This study tests the effect of collectivism-oriented HRM (C-HRM) and that of firm strategy on firm performance among samples of international firms. Based on the relevant literature, we predict that C-HRM should have a positive effect on firm performance. Moreover, we argue that a contingent factor, i.e. firm strategy of product diversification, should have a direct negative effect on firm performance. Moreover, this firm strategy should also moderate the relationship between C-HRM and firm performance. Analyzing empirical data from multiple sources to test relevant hypotheses in a major emerging economy, i.e. P.R. China, we found evidence supporting our hypotheses. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of the findings.
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This study presents alternative measures of S. H. Schwartz's theory of values using pairwise comparisons and goal concepts. Not only did the three measures of values-the Schwartz Value Survey (SVS), the Pairwise Comparison Value Survey (PCVS), and the Personal Striving Value Survey (PSVS) -converge but they were also correlated in similar ways with the Individualism-Collectivism Scale (ICS). This provides evidence that the newly developed scales can be alternatives to the SVS, which allows future studies of values using multiple measures. Moreover, the findings provide support for Schwartz's conception of values as higher order goals. The present findings have several implications for the study of values and their linkage to the study of individualism-collectivism and the self-concept.
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Analysis of data from 797 residents of university housing cooperatives demonstrated that psychological ownership was positively related to extrarole behavior. In addition, mediated regression analysis supported the hypothesis that the relationship between psychological ownership and extrarole behavior was mediated by organizational commitment. Furthermore, psychological ownership was superior to satisfaction in predicting extrarole behavior. The article concludes with a discussion of potential managerial implications and recommendations for future research.
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This contribution develops a model that explicates the origin and function of dynamic collectivism in Korean business organizations. Dynamic collectivism is a heuristic device, capturing dynamic and conflicting features embedded in Korean corporate culture. Specifically, we show how cultural legacy, founder leadership and social climate lead to dynamic collectivism. Next, we analyze dynamic collectivism in terms of multiple cultural dimensions, metaphors and behavioural norms. Finally, we show how dynamic collectivism influences business practices such as strategy formulation, organizational design and human resource management: also, we discuss how dynamic collectivism could change in the near future along with rapid organizational transformations and globalization.
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This study investigates the contribution of organizational support and personal relations in accounting for Chinese workers' affective commitment to the organization for which they work and their organizational citizenship behavior. In a sample of 605 matched cases of employees and their immediate supervisors from a large, reformed state-owned firm, organizational support was found to relate to affective commitment more strongly than to organizational citizenship behavior. Personal relations, however, were found to relate similarly to affective commitment and organizational citizenship behavior. Moderator effects are evident with the less-traditional Chinese employees manifesting greater citizenship behavior than do more-traditional Chinese, in response to a high-quality relationship with their supervisor. More-traditional Chinese contribute citizenship behavior that is moderately high, regardless of the quality of their relationship with their supervisor. These findings suggest a need to revise certain assumptions regarding the nature of the employee-employer exchange relationship in China and in similar transitional societies.
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The growing interest in paternalistic leadership research has led to a recent proliferation of diverse definitions and perspectives, as well as a limited number of empirical studies. Consequently, the diversity of perspectives has resulted in conceptual ambiguities, as well as contradictory empirical findings. In this article, the authors review research on paternalistic leadership in an effort to assess the current state of the literature. They investigate the construct of paternalistic leadership and review the findings related to its outcomes and antecedents as well as the various measurement scales used in paternalistic leadership research. On the basis of this review, the article concludes with an agenda for future theoretical and empirical research on this emerging and intriguing new area for leadership research.
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This paper attempts to interpret the HRM practices studied through the CRANET research in the light of the general societal culture tendencies as revealed by the GLOBE study. The study analyses the nine dimensions of societal culture, using data from 19 countries that have participated in both studies (Australia, Austria, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany (former East and West), Greece, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, The Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and UK). The most significant correlations between societal culture and HRM have been isolated and will be discussed. Results show that the function that seems to be related the most to culture is internal communication, while the least related is rewards and benefits. This study's findings could serve as a guide in transferring HRM policies within MNCs or across countries, as they give an indication of the most culture-sensitive practices and the way they are related to societal culture characteristics.
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Deriving predictions from congruence theory, we explored the personal and situational sources of cooperation by contrasting behavior under conditions of personality fit and misfit with culture in an organizational simulation. We assessed MBA students' disposition to cooperate and randomly assigned them to simulated organizations that either emphasized collectivistic or individualistic cultural values. We found that cooperative subjects in collectivistic cultures were rated by coworkers as the most cooperative; they reported working with the greatest number of people, and they had the strongest preferences for evaluating work performance on the basis of contributions to teams rather than individual achievement. Results also showed that cooperative people were more responsive to the individualistic or collectivistic norms characterizing their organization's culture: They exhibited greater differences in their level of cooperative behavior across the two cultures than did individualistic people. We discuss the organizational implications of the conditions influencing behavioral expressions of personal cooperativeness.
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Employees develop exchange relationships both with organizations and immediate superiors, as evidenced by research on perceived organizational support (POS) and leader-member exchange (LMX), respectively. Despite conceptual similarities between these two constructs, theoretical development and research has proceeded independently. In an attempt to integrate these literatures, we developed and tested a model of the antecedents and consequences of POS and LMX, based on social exchange theory. Results indicated that POS and LMX have unique antecedents and are differentially related to outcome variables, providing support for the importance of both types of exchanges.
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Recently, the psychological contract has attracted increased attention because of a perception that employment relationships, particularly in the United States, are undergoing a period of dramatic change and that contract violations are becoming more commonplace. The psychological contracts literature has largely ignored the idea that cultural differences might be important to the employment relationship. In this paper, we propose that cultural variation influences contract formation, perceptions of contract violation, and responses to perceived contract violations.
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Last week, Israeli Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu went on a mission to an unlikely area of the world—Japan and South Korea, neither nation known to be particularly friendly to Israel. His purpose: to propose to the region's corporate giants that they form partnerships linking Israel's strength in high-tech innovation with Japan and South Korea's prodigious production and marketing capabilities. Netanyahu was the consummate pitch man. According to U.S. and Israeli newspaper accounts of a speech he delivered to foreign correspondents, he cited impressive facts and figures: Israel has 1,000 new start-up companies in high technology, second in number only to the U.S. Moreover, Israel has a very large population of highly educated scientists and engineers—115 scientists per 10,000 population, well ahead of Japan, the U.S., and other industrialized nations. He pointed out that Israel's educated workforce is in part an unintended benefit of huge investments in the Israeli military and in part a result of ...
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This essay conveys my views of the past 40 years of organization studies. It is written from a micro perspective, representing my roots in psychology. The successes and the disappointments - what I believe the field has accomplished or failed to accomplish - over these four decades are reviewed, followed by some thoughts about what I think ought to happen in the future if the field is to continue to advance.
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Purpose ‐ The primary purpose of this research paper is to understand the role of national cultural dimensions on "best" HRM (human resource management) practices in India. India is considered a major emerging economy in the world today. US multinationals are significantly increasing their presence in India. An understanding of "best" local HRM practices will help global practitioners adopt better HRM strategies. Design/methodology/approach ‐ This qualitative paper uses a multiple-case design method of three "best" Indian companies. The interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed to understand the interview material clearly. The cases were analyzed independently followed by a cross-case synthesis of the results. Construct validity, internal reliability, and external validity were followed according to scholarly guidelines required for a quality case analysis. Findings ‐ This research identifies the role of national cultural dimensions of power distance, uncertainty-avoidance, in-group collectivism, and future-orientation on "best" HRM practices. It was observed that these three organizations have a strong focus on employee referrals (collectivist orientation), elaborate training and development (future orientation), developmental performance management (collectivist orientation), egalitarian practices (power-distance), and family friendly practices (collectivist orientation). The various HRM practices are elaborated in the results section. Practical implications ‐ This study provides preliminary guidelines for global practitioners who may be interested in doing business in India. The paper provides a model of "best" HRM practices adopted by these three companies and also a strategic model integrating the national cultural dimensions to understand the HRM practices better. Originality/value ‐ This qualitative research integrates national cultural dimensions and "best" practices to provide a better understanding of culture. Studies have not examined the role of national cultural dimensions and best practices per se. Traditionally most studies on culture adopt the national cultural dimensions of Hofstede's ‐ this study uses the scores of the GLOBE cultural study which is considered contemporary and distinguished in its research.
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An empirical test of the organizational individualism and collectivism constructs and measures was conducted using survey responses from 916 employees from 46 Turkish organizations. Analyses indicated that fit between individuals’ values and perceptions of the organizational culture predicted job attitudes, and that organizational individualism was related to the use of individualistic human resources practices at the organizational level. The utility of this approach for understanding the relationships between individuals, organizations, and societies is discussed.
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Evidence is presented that (a) employees in an organization form global beliefs concerning the extent to which the organization values their contributions and cares about their well-being, (b) such perceived organizational support reduces absenteeism, and (c) the relation between perceived organizational support and absenteeism is greater for employees with a strong exchange ideology than those with a weak exchange ideology. These findings support the social exchange view that employees’ commitment to the organization is strongly influenced by their perception of the organization’s commitment to them. Perceived organizational support is assumed to increase the employee’s affective attachment to the organization and his or her expectancy that greater effort toward meeting organizational goals will be rewarded. The extent to which these factors increase work effort would depend on the strength of the employee’s exchange ideology favoring the trade of work effort for material and symbolic benefits.
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The issue of culture fit is explored through the use of a model that identifies the characteristics of the internal work culture of organizations in developing countries. The context of their sociocultural environment and the manner in which the cultural characteristics are likely to facilitate or hinder the effective use of the state-of-the-art human resource management practices and techniques are discussed. The problems and prospects associated with the uncritical adoption in developing countries of human resource management practices relating to work design, performance management, and reward systems are analyzed.
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Foreword - Harry Triandis Preface - Robert J. House Part 1 Introduction Chapter 1 Introduction - Robert House Chapter 2 Overview of the Globe Research Program - Robert House and Mansour Javidan Part 2 Literature Chapter 3 Literature Review - Mansour Javidan and Robert House Chapter 4 Cultures and Leadership - Peter Dorfman and Robert House Chapter 5 The Impact of Societal Culture and Industry on Organizational Culture - Marcus Dickson, Renee BeShears, and Vipin Gupta Part 3 Project GLOBE: Research Methodolgy - Overview by Paul Hanges Chapter 6 Research Design - Robert House, Paul Hanges, and Peter Dorfman Chapter 7 The Linkage Between GLOBE Findings and Other Cross Cultural Information - Mansour Javidan and Markus Hauser Chapter 8 The Development and Validation of the GLOBE Culture and Leadership Scales - Paul Hanges and Marcus Dickson Chapter 9 Multi-source Construct Validity of GLOBE Scales - Vipin Gupta, Mary Sully de Luque, and Robert House Chapter 10 Regional and Climate Clustering of Social Cultures - Vipin Gupta, Paul Hanges, Peter Dorfman, and Robert House Chapter 11 Rational for GLOBE Statistical Analysis: Societal Rankings and Test of Hypotheses - Paul Hanges, Marcus Dickson, and Mina Sipe Part 4 Empirical Findings - Intro by Mansour Javidan Chapter 12 Performance Orientation - Mansour Javidan Chapter 13 Future Orientation - Neal Ashkanasy, Vipin Gupta, Melinda Mayfield, and Edwin Trevor-Roberts Chapter 14 Cross-Cultural differences in Gender Egalitarianism: Implications for Societies, Organizations, and Leaders - Cynthia G. Emrich, Florence L. Denmark, and Deanne Den Hartog Chapter 15 Assertiveness - Deanne Den Hartog Chapter 16 Individual and Collectivism - Michele J. Gelfand, D.P.S. Bhawuk, Lisa H. Nishii, & David J. Bechtold Chapter 17 Power Distance - Dale Carl, Vipin Gupta with Mansour Javidan Chapter 18 Humane Orientation in Societies, Organizations, and Leader Attributes - Hayat Kabasakal and Muzaffer Bodur Chapter 19 Uncertainty Avoidance - Mary Sully de Luque, Mansour Javidan, and Ram Aditya Chapter 20 Societal, Cultural, and Industry Influences on Organizational Culture - Felix Brodbeck, Paul Hanges, Marcus Dickson, Vipin Gupta, and Peter Dorfman Chapter 21 Leadership and Cultural Variation: The Identification of Culturally Endorsed Leadership Profiles - Peter Dorfman, Paul Hanges, and Felix Brodbeck Part 5 Conclusion Chapter 22 Conclusions, (theoratical and practical) Implications, and future directions - Mansour Javidan, Robert House, Peter Dorfman, Vipin Gupta, Paul Hanges, and Mary Sully de Luque Appendix A Correlations GLOBE Scales - Paul Hanges Appendix B Response bias Outliers - Paul Hanges Appendix C Hierarchical Linear Modeling - Paul Hanges, Mina Sipe, and Ellen Godfrey Appendix D Confidence Internval Demonstration - Paul Hanges
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The tension existing between an inherent desire for companionship and personal identity forms the basis for one of the most highly researched cultural and personal dimensions in the field of management. This dichotomy, commonly called individualism-collectivism, is the focus of our review. Although much attention has been drawn toward this construct, its operationalization and measure have been problematic. In our review, we examine the theoretical and empirical bases for individualism and collectivism and its application in the field of organizational studies.
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This article fleshes out a recently introduced and empirically grounded framework of organizational identity orientation, which refers to the nature of assumed relations between an organization and its stakeholders as perceived by members. I suggest that individualistic, relational, and collectivistic orientations engender distinct patterns of relations with external and internal stakeholders and provide unique potential to advance certain forms of social value. I pay particular attention to relationships with customers, nonprofits, and employees. This framework may advance stakeholder theory and research on interorganizational relationships, the employment relationship, and intraorganizational relationships.
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A bestseller since its First Edition, Institutions and Organizations remains the key source for a comprehensive overview of the institutionalist approach to organization theory. W. Richard Scott presents a historical overview of the theoretical literature, an integrative analysis of current institutional approaches, and a review of empirical research related to institutions and organizations. He offers an extensive review and critique of institutional analysis in sociology, political science, and economics as it relates to recent theory and research on organizations.