Article
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

We examine design factors that may evoke positive emotions in learners and investigate the effects of these positive emotions on learning. Recent research showed that the emotional design of multimedia learning material can induce positive emotions in learners that in turn facilitate comprehension and transfer. We sought to replicate these results with a different population and different mood induction procedure and examine individual emotions, and to decompose the effects of the design elements of color and shape. Study 1 showed that well-designed materials induced positive emotions and facilitated comprehension, though transfer performance was not affected by emotional design. Study 2 found that round face-like shapes both alone and in conjunction with warm color induced positive emotions. Warm colors alone, however, did not affect learners' emotions. Comprehension was facilitated by warm colors and round face-like shapes, independently as well as together. Transfer was facilitated by round face-like shapes when used with neutral colors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... The present study also builds on the emerging research base on what has been called emotional design, i.e., examining the role of instructional design features that convey emotion (Loderer et al., 2020;Mayer, 2020b;Pawar et al., 2019;Plass & Kaplan, 2016). In a set of groundbreaking studies, Plass et al. (2014) and Um et al. (2012) added emotional design components into a computer-based lesson on immunization in order to understand how learners react. In both studies, students learned better when the characters in the lesson were more emotionally appealing, i.e., displayed in warm colors (rather than gray) and with rounded faces and bodies (rather than square ones). ...
... The final-and most educationally important step-is that the emotional tone of the instructor affects the learning outcome, that is, the learner builds a better understanding of the material with a positive instructor than with a negative instructor. This statement reflects a tobe-tested research hypothesis rather than an established fact, but is consistent with much of the research base on emotional design (Mayer & Estrella, 2014;Mayer, 2020a;Plass & Kalyuga, 2019;Plass & Kaplan, 2016;Plass et al., 2014;Um et al., 2012). ...
... Designing lessons with positive emotion applies to computer-based learning from instructional video, because even in a video lecture, the emotional tone of the instructor affects learning processes and outcomes. Displaying positive emotion in video lectures can be seen as a form of emotional design (Loderer et al., 2020;Mayer & Estrella, 2014;Mayer, 2020b;Plass & Kaplan, 2016;Plass et al., 2014;Um et al., 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
The positivity principle states that people learn better from instructors who display positive emotions rather than negative emotions. In two experiments, students viewed a short video lecture on a statistics topic in which an instructor stood next to a series of slides as she lectured and then they took either an immediate test (Experiment 1) or a delayed test (Experiment 2). In a between-subjects design, students saw an instructor who used her voice, body movement, gesture, facial expression, and eye gaze to display one of four emotions while lecturing: happy (positive/active), content (positive/passive), frustrated (negative/active), or bored (negative/passive). First, learners were able to recognize the emotional tone of the instructor in an instructional video lecture, particularly by more strongly rating a positive instructor as displaying positive emotions and a negative instructor as displaying negative emotions (in Experiments 1 and 2). Second, concerning building a social connection during learning, learners rated a positive instructor as more likely to facilitate learning, more credible, and more engaging than a negative instructor (in Experiments 1 and 2). Third, concerning cognitive engagement during learning, learners reported paying more attention during learning for a positive instructor than a negative instructor (in Experiments 1 and 2). Finally, concerning learning outcome, learners who had a positive instructor scored higher than learners who had a negative instructor on a delayed posttest (Experiment 2) but not an immediate posttest (Experiment 1). Overall, there is evidence for the positivity principle and the cognitive-affective model of e-learning from which it is derived.
... Emotional design refers to a range of design attributes that can evoke changes in affective and motivational states in learners to enhance learning (Plass & Kalyuga, 2019;Plass & Kaplan, 2016). To evoke positive affect, some emotional design uses warm colors (Mayer & Estrella, 2014;Plass et al., 2014), round shapes (Münchow & Bannert, 2019;Navratil et al., 2018), anthropomorphic images (Schneider et al., 2019;Stárková et al., 2019), positive facial expression of characters (Ba et al., 2021;Horovitz & Mayer, 2021;Liew et al., 2016;Plass et al., 2020), positive vocal characteristics of speakers/agents (Beege et al., Liew et al. Smart Learning Environments (2022) 9:5 2020; Endres et al., 2020;Horovitz & Mayer, 2021;Liew et al., 2017Liew et al., , 2020, visual styles of agents (Ali & Hamdan, 2017;Segaran et al., 2021), and aesthetically pleasing fonts (Kumar et al., 2016(Kumar et al., , 2019. ...
... Contrariwise, negative affect can signal that particular needs or goals are yet to be accomplished, thereby decreasing the amount of cognitive resources available for learning and impeding creativity (Isen et al., 1987) and learning performance (Pekrun & Linnenbrink-Garcia, 2012). Moreover, within the multimedia learning context, positive affect can increase intrinsic motivation, leading to enhanced learning performance (Moreno & Mayer, 2007;Plass et al., 2014;Um et al., 2012). ...
... As used in prior studies (Park et al., 2015;Plass et al., 2014;Um et al., 2012); the positive affect scale (PAS) from the PANAS scale (Watson et al., 1988) measured the level of positive emotion experienced by the learners in the present experiment. The survey asked learners to report the degree to which they experienced ten types of positive feelings, using a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (very slightly or not at all) to 5 (very much). ...
Article
Full-text available
Emotional design refers to imbuing a multimedia learning environment with design attributes that promote learners’ positive affect and motivation to enhance learning. One such feature is anthropomorphism, in which human-like attributes are infused into learning elements in a multimedia learning environment. This study examines the affective, motivational, and cognitive effects of incorporating cute and funny human-like images and dialogues into learning objects depicting malware, bots, and servers in an animation conveying a lesson on how a distributed denial-of-service attack occurs. A between-subjects online experiment was conducted in which undergraduates from a large Asian university (n = 70) engaged with either the anthropomorphized or non-anthropomorphized multimedia lesson. The findings partially supported the anthropomorphism effects on learners’ affective-motivational states insofar as the anthropomorphized multimedia lesson evoked a significantly greater change of positive affect but did not differently affect intrinsic motivation and learning outcome than the non-anthropomorphized version. Concerning cognitive load, anthropomorphism led to significantly lower perceived difficulty regarding the learning topic (intrinsic load), which conforms with most emotional design findings. There was a marginal trend in which learners engaged longer with the anthropomorphized than the non-anthropomorphized multimedia lesson. This study offers insights on anthropomorphism in multimedia learning that extends to cultural factors unique to Asian learners and information technology subject domain. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed through the lens of cognitive-affective theory of learning with media, integrated cognitive affective model of learning with multimedia, and cognitive load theory. Future directions concerning anthropomorphism research in the multimedia learning context are addressed in this paper.
... It has already been proven that the use of different learning design features impacts learners' emotions and cognitive load (Um et al., 2012;Mayer and Estrella, 2014;Plass et al., 2014Plass et al., , 2020Park et al., 2015). In our previous study (Liu et al., 2021), we tested the effectiveness of color coding on the learning of computer programming students who were learning from video lectures. ...
... Our results are in line with the emotional design hypothesis (e.g., Mayer and Estrella, 2014;Plass et al., 2014). The emotional design hypothesis suggests that learning material with color effects is a positive emotional design, while grayscale material has a neutral emotional design. ...
... The emotional design hypothesis suggests that learning material with color effects is a positive emotional design, while grayscale material has a neutral emotional design. Positive emotion design can reduce cognitive load (Um et al., 2012;Plass et al., 2014;Park et al., 2015). Figure 4 illustrates that the participants who watched the color-coded learning material had lower entropy than those who watched the grayscale learning material. ...
Article
Full-text available
We aimed to investigate the relationship between emotional activity and cognitive load during multimedia learning from an emotion dynamics perspective using electroencephalography (EEG) signals. Using a between-subjects design, 42 university students were randomly assigned to two video lecture conditions (color-coded vs. grayscale). While the participants watched the assigned video, their EEG signals were recorded. After processing the EEG signals, we employed the correlation-based feature selector (CFS) method to identify emotion-related subject-independent features. We then put these features into the Isomap model to obtain a one-dimensional trajectory of emotional changes. Next, we used the zero-crossing rate (ZCR) as the quantitative characterization of emotional changes ZCREC. Meanwhile, we extracted cognitive load-related features to analyze the degree of cognitive load (CLI). We employed a linear regression fitting method to study the relationship between ZCREC and CLI. We conducted this study from two perspectives. One is the frequency domain method (wavelet feature), and the other is the non-linear dynamic method (entropy features). The results indicate that emotional activity is negatively associated with cognitive load. These findings have practical implications for designing video lectures for multimedia learning. Learning material should reduce learners’ cognitive load to keep their emotional experience at optimal levels to enhance learning.
... Emotional design is characterized by human-like features, round shapes, and appealing colors. Several studies have been carried out to investigate the effect of emotional design on learning, affective state, and mental effort (Um et al., 2012;Plass et al., 2014;Park et al., 2015;Plass and Kaplan, 2016;Uzun and Yıldırım, 2018). Some findings support the assumption that emotional design evokes emotions and enhances learning (Um et al., 2012;Mayer and Estrella, 2014;Brom et al., 2018;Tien et al., 2018;Wong and Adesope, 2020), while other findings showed that emotional design did not impact emotions and learning (Park et al., 2015;Münchow and Bannert, 2019;Stárková et al., 2019). ...
... Since studies on emotional design focus on the learners' general emotional state rather than specific types of emotions, in this study, the generic term "affect" is used to refer to emotion and mood (for a similar approach, see Plass et al., 2014;Park et al., 2015;Uzun and Yıldırım, 2018). According to the circumplex model of affect by Russell (2003), emotions can be categorized in a two-dimensional system with valence as a continuum from positive to negative (affect) as one dimension and activation as a continuum from activated to deactivated as the other. ...
... An a priori statistical power analysis using G * Power 3.1.9.2 was performed for sample size requirements. For studies by Um et al. (2012) and Plass et al. (2014), large effect sizes of d PositiveAffect = 0.79 and d PositiveAffect = 0.88 were reported but in the meta-analysis by Brom et al. (2018) a marginal effect for positive affect (d PositiveAffect = 0.11) was found. Since in the meta-analysis by Brom et al. (2018), studies were included in which only the color of a learning environment was varied, we consider the effect sizes gained by Um et al. (2012) and Plass et al. (2014) to be a better guide value for our study. ...
Article
Full-text available
A concept map is a powerful method that promotes meaningful learning and is highly recommended for use in biology classes. According to multimedia research, the effectiveness of concept maps could be improved by incorporating pictorial elements. Apart from using realistic images, a new field of research claims that specific design manipulations, including human-like features with appealing colors ( emotional design ), influence learners’ affective state and improve learning. A positive affective state is assumed to evoke emotions and provoke deeper cognitive processing, which increases the cognitive resources available for a task. We conducted two experiments with a total of N = 249 junior high school students, comparing the effect of concept maps with emotional design illustrations (emotional design), with non-emotional design illustrations (neutral design), and without illustrations (control design). Experiment 1 examined the influence of these designs on students’ perceived affective state , perceived cognitive load (extraneous, intrinsic, and germane load) , perceived task difficulty , and learning performance ( n = 202), experiment 2 focused on the perceived affective state of the students ( n = 47). We found that emotional design led to a significant decrease in perceived task difficulty , but we neither found an effect on learning performance nor the positive affective state . Learning with pictorial concept maps (in emotional or neutral design) reduced the negative affect compared to learning with control concept maps. Other than expected, the neutral design led to reduced perceived extraneous and intrinsic cognitive load . Consequently, in terms of learning, emotional design in concept maps did not hamper learning but did not foster it either.
... Motivation is important for student learning and can be influenced by video content and design styles (Plass & Kaplan, 2016;Schneps et al., 2010;Van Der Hoeven Kraft, 2017;Wijnker et al., 2019). The importance of motivation in digital learning, including on geosciences topics, is also acknowledged (Lin et al., 2017;Makransky et al., 2019;McConnell & van Der Hoeven Kraft, 2011;Plass et al., 2014;Van Der Hoeven Kraft et al., 2011) and this applies to videos as well (Mayer, 2020). Other studies confirm that well-designed videos can motivate students' learning or increase students' engagement (e.g. ...
... This is recommended by CLT (Sweller et al., 1998(Sweller et al., , 2019 as well as in the pre-training principle, which states that learners need to know the names and characteristics of key concepts before they can comprehend a complex system (Mayer & Pilegard, 2014). Also, motivation, situational interest and emotion play important roles in student learning and are influenced by video content and design styles (Hidi & Renninger, 2006;Renninger & Hidi, 2019;McConnell & van Der Hoeven Kraft, 2011;Plass et al., 2014;Plass & Kaplan, 2016;Schneps et al., 2010;Van Der Hoeven Kraft et al., 2011;Wijnker et al., 2019). Several studies also suggest that videos can motivate students' learning (Schneps et al., 2010;Rasi & Poikela, 2016). ...
Article
Geographic context is important for Earth Science education but different places have different geological complexities and effectively establishing geoscientific context can be difficult. Well-designed videos can help geoscience educators introduce geologically significant places to undergraduate geoscience students. However, there is no established framework to guide geoscientists who want to create instructional videos for place-based geoscience education. In this commentary, we share a framework including writing a narrative and generating visual materials as well as considering key psychological principles and universal design elements to improve geoscience video effectiveness. The design framework was created based on the place-based education framework, salient elements of cognitive theory of multimedia learning, and the framework of motivational design. More design recommendations were given by summarizing our experience of making and assessing a 6-minute geosicence video about the Permian Basin of W. Texas and SE New Mexico and other best practice of making the same type of videos in peer reviewed articles. We find that well-designed geoscience videos can improve geoscience majors’ knowledge about local geology and understanding of connections between place and people. The generalized video-making workflow and design recommendations can help geoscientists make their own geoscientific videos for undergraduates.
... Therefore, research on emotional design aims to artificially evoke positive emotions in learners through the provision of emotional design features. Building on the pioneering work of Um et al. [72], the features color [e.g., 54,72] and facial anthropomorphisms in non-human graphical elements [e.g., 54,64] have been widely investigated [7,78]. In fact, two recent meta-analyses revealed significant effects of emotional designscompared to neutral designs (i.e., colorless; no facial anthropomorphisms) -on intrinsic motivation, liking/enjoyment, positive affect, and on learning performance [7,78]. ...
... Therefore, research on emotional design aims to artificially evoke positive emotions in learners through the provision of emotional design features. Building on the pioneering work of Um et al. [72], the features color [e.g., 54,72] and facial anthropomorphisms in non-human graphical elements [e.g., 54,64] have been widely investigated [7,78]. In fact, two recent meta-analyses revealed significant effects of emotional designscompared to neutral designs (i.e., colorless; no facial anthropomorphisms) -on intrinsic motivation, liking/enjoyment, positive affect, and on learning performance [7,78]. ...
Article
Interest in science topics is an important prerequisite for science learning and achievement. Here, as part of a field experiment, we studied whether teenagers’ interest and learning of physics topics would be influenced by the aesthetics of a multimedia learning app. More specifically, we investigated with the example of learning about energy (types of power plants) how different interface designs of a multimedia learning app would influence aesthetic experience, interest, and learning outcome. In our study Swiss high school students (N = 108) were assigned to one of two conditions (i.e., game-style vs. industrial-style) differing in various aesthetic features. Results indicate that high-quality interfaces support learning and expressive aesthetic design features additionally foster interest in order to engage with the topic. Moreover, our findings on aesthetic experience suggest that deep perceptual processes, such as emotion and cognitive stimulation induced by interfaces, further impact interest and learning. Thus, our study gives implications for the design of interest-generating and learning-supporting science apps for teenagers and emphasizes the significance to consider aesthetic experience in future research.
... In contrast to these findings, investigations have also failed to identify effects of elements of fun on affective-motivational outcomes and cognitive engagement (e.g., positive affect, flow, situational interest; Brom et al., 2016;Lusk, 2008;Plass et al., 2014;Shen et al., INTRODUCTION 14 2020;Wouters et al., 2013). Additionally, the motivation principle has been criticized for suggesting that elements of fun increase interest in, motivation, and attention to the overall learning task, while they might only be fostering those factors for the "fun part" (e.g., the decorative picture itself, the gaming character; e.g., Garner et al., 1991;Magner et al., 2010;Mitchell, 1993; see also chocolate-covering principle). ...
... Regarding emotional design and DGBL, research has not yet delivered clear evidence for the cognitive load principle (e.g., Endres et al., 2020;Schneider et al., 2019;Schrader and Bastiaens, 2012). For emotional design, many researchers assume that it hardly increases extraneous cognitive load because almost no additional information is added (e.g., Brom, Strárková et al., 2018;Plass et al., 2014). However, few studies applied contemporary cognitive load scales to investigate this claim . ...
Thesis
To foster students’ mood and motivation during learning, teachers and instructional designers sometimes incorporate elements of fun into their material. Different kinds of such elements are the focus of educational research, for example, in studies on seductive details, emotional design, and digital game-based learning. Especially research on seductive details – interesting, but irrelevant text segments and/or pictures (e.g., fun-facts, anecdotes, and comics) – showed that such elements do not just convey the desired positive effects, but can be detrimental to learning performance (oftentimes called seductive details effect). This doctoral thesis aims to further analyze the potential and pitfalls of using seductive details in particular, and elements of fun in general, thus also bringing the diverse research fields closer together. First, I provide an overview of the theoretical reasons for adding or not adding elements of fun to learning. The second part focuses on seductive details, enabling a closer look at the specific conditions under which the details convey their effects. Finally, the results of two studies conducted as part of this doctoral thesis are presented. Both yielded additional evidence for the negative seductive details effect. Study 1 revealed, however, that this negative effect only occurs when students are uninformed about the details’ irrelevance. The positive effects on students’ affective state or self-control expected for the end of the strenuous learning session did not appear. By applying a retrospective think-aloud technique, Study 2 shed more light on the detrimental cognitive processes seductive details can elicit, revealing that the details mainly activated irrelevant thoughts and prior knowledge (diversion) which in turn led to worse recall performance of the relevant content. These results will be discussed with respect to the potential and pitfalls of using seductive details, as well as implications for elements of fun in general.
... The theory posits that learners' emotion comes from their judgment or appraisal of the value of the task and their control over the task, resulting in emotion including two main dimensions: Valence (evaluation of pleasantness, or positive vs. negative feelings), and activation/arousal (physiologically activating or deactivating emotion) (Pekrun, Goetz, Titz, & Perry, 2002;Pekrun & Perry, 2014). Generally, increased appraisal of positive value and control, and increased positive valence are associated with positive outcomes in academic settings (Goetz, Pekrun, Hall, & Haag, 2006;Pekrun, Goetz, Frenzel, & Barchfeld, 2011;Pekrun, Lichtenfeld, Marsh, Murayama, & Goetz, 2017;Pekrun & Perry, 2014), experimental studies (Heidig, Müller, & Reichelt, 2014;Münchow & Bannert, 2019;Park, Knörzer, Plass, & Brünken, 2015;Plass, Heidig, Hayward, Homer, & Um, 2014), and in intervention/training programs (Duffy et al., 2018). Results for the second dimension, arousal were mixed. ...
Article
Full-text available
This registered study aimed at testing the role of emotion in the intervention effect of an experimental intervention study in academic settings. Previous analyses of the National Study of the Learning Mindset (Yeager et al., 2019) showed that in a randomized controlled trial, high school students who were given the growth mindset intervention had, on average higher GPA than did students in the control condition. Previous analyses also showed that school achievement levels moderated the intervention effect. This study applied a sentence-level text analysis strategy to detect participants' attentional focus in five emotional dimensions (valence, arousal, dominance/control, approach-avoidant, and uncertainty) across three writing prompts students wrote during the intervention. Linear mixed models were conducted to test if emotional dimension scores computed using the text analysis predicted a higher intervention effect (i.e., higher post-intervention GPA given pre-intervention GPA). The moderating role of school achievement levels was also examined. The results of this study have implications on the possibility of applying text analysis strategies on open-ended questions in interventions or experimental studies to examine the role of the emotion-attentional focus of participants during intervention or experimental studies on the intervention or experimental outcomes, especially those that are conducted in academic settings.
... Considering the design of multimedia principles is recommended for transferring information to memory instead of unplanned presentations designed with multi-sources [9,15,40]. These principles highlighted the significance of using multi-sources, sources simultaneously, and integrating [49,56]. When multisources were not presented considering the principles adapted by Multimedia Learning Theory frameworks, they could cause increased mental effort for learners [61]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to evaluate the split-attention effect in multimedia learning environments via objective measurements as EEG and eye-tracking. Two different multimedia learning environments in a focused (integrated) and split-attention (separated) format were designed. The experimental design method was used. The participants consisted of 44 students divided into two groups for focused attention and split-attention. There were significant differences between the fixation, brain wave, and retention performance of the two groups. Fixations of the split-attention group were higher than the focused attention group. A significant difference was found in the focused attention group in the alpha brain wave in the frontal region for intra-group comparisons and in the split-attention group in the beta brain wave in the frontal area for the inter-group comparison. The retention performance of the focused attention group was higher than the split-attention group. Accordingly, more cognitive activity emerged in environments where the text was not integrated into the picture. Additionally, the narration of text instead of printed text is effective for focusing attention. To prevent the emergence of a split-attention effect, the text should be integrated into the picture in designs. Due to the split-attention effect, the eye-tracking and EEG data were different between the groups.
... Positive emotions represent enjoyment, pride and satisfaction, and negative emotions represent anger, depression and anxiety. When learning tools can satisfy the learner's heart, it will trigger positive emotions, which in turn will inspire learners and improve learning effectiveness [14,47,57]. In addition, positive emotions can increase attention, stimulate curiosity and creativity [20,69]. ...
Article
Full-text available
With the advancement of technology and the spread of the COVID19 epidemic, learning can no longer only be done through face-to-face teaching. Numerous digital learning materials have appeared in large numbers, changing people’s learning mode. In the era of information explosion, how to capture the learners’ attention to teaching videos and improve learning effectiveness is the common goal of every designer of e-leaning teaching content. Previous researches focused on the analysis of learning effectiveness and satisfaction. Instructional designers only provided design elements with high learning effectiveness or high satisfaction, and lacked in-depth analysis of the learners’ perspectives. The opinions of these e-learning users are often the key to the success of online teaching videos. Therefore, this study aims at the design elements that will be used in the teaching film. The operation mode of the piano mechanism will be employed as the content of the teaching film. Based on eight elements including arrow cueing, dynamic arrow cueing, spreading-color cueing, contrary to cueing, font style, color application, anthropomorphic, and audiovisual complementarity, we use Refined Kano Model to analyze learners’ needs of categorization of each element, and discover learners’ expectations for teaching videos. In addition, this study also conducts in-depth data analysis through decision trees algorithm, and stratification analyses using different variables (such as design expertise, using frequency, and usage experience, etc.) to find out the key design factors that affect learners’ learning. Depending on the learner’s background, the use of e-learning experience, using frequency, and the length of the learning video, our results could provide for reference when designing teaching videos. Instructional designers can better understand how to effectively use design elements, so that the teaching videos can achieve the best learning effect.
... Positive Effekte von Emotionen konnten über diverse Medien hinweg festgestellt werden. So werden beispielsweise Farben und Formen (Plass et al., 2014) sowie emotional aufgeladene Bilder genutzt, um Emotionen in statischen Lernmaterialen zu erzeugen und Lernprozesse zu beeinflussen. Weiterhin wird beispielsweise Enthusiasmus in der Stimme (Beege et al., 2018) verwendet, um Emotionen in dynamischen Lernmaterialien zu generieren und das Lernen zu fördern. ...
Chapter
Lernen mit digitalen Medien ist ein zwar junges aber weit erforschtes Feld der psychologischen Forschung. Ein Großteil der Forschung widmete sich dabei der Erforschung kognitiver Prozesse bei der Selektion und Verarbeitung sowie der Speicherung und dem Abruf von Informationen. Erst in den letzten 20 Jahren wurden verstärkt begleitende psychische Prozesse wie der Motivation, der Emotion, sozialer Prozesse sowie der Metakognition untersucht. Dieser Beitrag gibt einen Überblick über grundlegende und um zusätzliche Prozesse erweiterte Theorien zum Lernen mit digital präsentierten Lernmaterialien. Darüber hinaus werden alle Prozessarten, die am Lernvorgang beteiligt sein können, näher beleuchtet um ein ganzheitliches Bild des Lernens mit digitalen Medien zu zeichnen. Gleichzeitig wird anhand aktueller Forschung aufgezeigt, in welchen Bereichen noch bestehende Forschungslücken herrschen.
... Colors are significant for sensing and recognizing our surroundings because they carry abundant information [1,2]. The digital world developed by humans demands vibrant colors with the advancement of the digital technology [3,4]. ...
Article
Metasurfaces with the capability of spectrum manipulation at subwavelength can generate structural colors. However, their practical applications in dynamic displays are limited because their optical performance is immutable after the fabrication of the metasurfaces. In this study, we demonstrate a color-tunable metasurface using numerical analysis. Moreover, we select a low-refractive-index dielectric material, Si3N4, which leaks the electric field to its surroundings. We investigate the potencial of these metasurfaces by simulations to achieve color-tuneable devices with encrypted watermarks. This modulation of colors can be applied to encrypted watermarks, anti-counterfeiting, and dynamic displays.
... A welldesigned app can elicit positive emotions and arouse curiosity in the child (Wang et al., 2017). Emotional design research has identified ways in which good design properties can promote positive emotions (Norman, 2004;Plass et al., 2014;Um et al., 2012) in users. These design features (Grevisse et al., 2017) may stimulate positive emotional responses such as pleasure, enjoyment (Tuch et al., 2010), and excitement (Chang et al., 2012) as well increase their interest (Heidig et al., 2015) to continue interacting with the app. ...
... During the character creation phase of the game, players appraise their creation, resulting in character identification, which makes players feel connected to their character (Trepte and Reinecke, 2010), and then the character identity can influence the players' flow state, such as playfulness and concentration (Soutter and Hitchens, 2016). Keeping in mind Plass et al.'s (2014) observation that design elements of color and shape in multimedia materials can evoke positive emotions in learners, if the game character in an AR game can be designed with an attractive appearance, provide various character abilities, and be personalized by players, then players will have a positive emotional fit. In the context of Pok emon Go, if the game provides various skills for the characters or provides unique visual appearances in the game, player will feel immersed with the virtual characteristics. ...
Article
Purpose Augmented reality (AR) has become a trend, and the effects of Pokémon Go, the most popular online and mobile game, have been explored in many studies. However, few studies have developed questionnaires of fit to investigate the relationship between the fit and the integration of the game's virtual world and reality. The paper intends to integrate the models of stimulus-organism-response (S-O-R) and information systems success with cognitive fit theory to explore the fit and reactions of users in the integration of real and virtual worlds. Design/methodology/approach Following MacKenzie's scale development, two surveys were conducted. The first survey was conducted to perform a scale development of fit. The second survey was collected from 315 Pokémon Go players to validate the fit scale and it was analyzed via structural equation modeling. Findings The results show that scale development of fit has good reliability and validity. Furthermore, game information quality, game system quality and virtual (Pokémon) characteristics have significantly positive effects on cognitive and emotional fit. Cognitive and emotional fit have significant positive effects on user satisfaction, and user satisfaction has significant positive effects on continued intention to play. The results suggest that maintaining the quality of the game and improving the virtual interface will provide a better fit between the real and virtual worlds, enhancing user satisfaction with the fit as well as their intention for continued use. Originality/value Although fit has been widely studied in various contexts, the application of AR has been rarely discussed. This study develops a scale of fit and takes Pokémon Go as the subject to validate the fit measurement and discuss players' cognition and feelings regarding the game. The authors measure user reactions to different stimuli and explore cognitive and emotional fit as well as the integration of virtual worlds and reality. In sum, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is one of the earliest studies to explore and develop a cognitive and emotional fit scale for future researchers and practitioners.
... The results also provide evidence for the emotional design hypothesis (e.g., Mayer and Estrella, 2014;Plass et al., 2014). Making essential elements visually appealing (i.e., colored) directs cognitive processing (i.e., selecting) in the learning process by guiding attention, maintaining cognitive processing, and helping learners better understand the essential material (i.e., organizing and integrating) -thereby leading to better learning (Pekrun, 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
In the present study, we tested the effectiveness of color coding on the programming learning of students who were learning from video lectures. Effectiveness was measured using multimodal physiological measures, combining eye tracking and electroencephalography (EEG). Using a between-subjects design, 42 university students were randomly assigned to two video lecture conditions (color-coded vs. grayscale). The participants’ eye tracking and EEG signals were recorded while watching the assigned video, and their learning performance was subsequently assessed. The results showed that the color-coded design was more beneficial than the grayscale design, as indicated by smaller pupil diameter, shorter fixation duration, higher EEG theta and alpha band power, lower EEG cognitive load, and better learning performance. The present findings have practical implications for designing slide-based programming learning video lectures; slides should highlight the format of the program code using color coding.
... A similar procedure was employed by Toker et al. (2013) to test graph design using eye-tracking. Participants were previously notified that they would later be tested on these answers so should attempt to remember them; a method utilised by van Weert et al. (2011) and Plass et al. (2014). Once participants found the answer to the question, they were asked to read it aloud to the researcher. ...
Article
Full-text available
Infographics are becoming a common tool in the communication of public-health information. However, research-based resources in how to create effective infographics are rare. The application of design principles in the creation of infographics has been shown to more effectively communicate information. Here, the research explores the adherence of 84 research-based infographic design principles on 3 designs of varying levels of application. A multi-method approach, including eye-tracking, was used to record information location efficiency, memorability and user perception. Support was found in favour of utilising design principles in the creation of public health infographics; resulting in improved user opinion and information location.
... The high level of interactivity and emotions offered by Cozmo resulted in a higher level of engagement compared to two-dimensional Scratch characters on a computer screen. This is supported by findings that students were more engaged working with physical rather than simulated robots [36] and that emotional stimuli embedded into interfaces increase learners' engagement [37]. The Scratch group experienced no technical issues and their engagement scores were similar throughout the intervention, but engagement in the Cozmo group steadily declined on each consecutive day when the app was crashing; however, engagement scores increased after the technology began working again. ...
... For example, according to CVT, the optimal level of challenges and scaffolding in HoloLAB Champions may promote a higher perceived control and value of learning chemistry, and, consequently, induce more positive achievement emotions (e.g., enjoyment) and less negative achievement emotions (e.g., boredom). Thus, game design and instructional design, particularly emotional design, aim to trigger more positive emotions and less negative emotions (Loderer et al., 2020;Plass et al., , 2019, such as using happy expression, warm color, and round shape rather than sad and neutral expression, cold color, and square shape (Park et al., 2015;Plass et al., 2014Plass et al., , 2019Plass & Kaplan, 2015;Um et al., 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
Game‐based learning (GBL) may address the unique characteristics of a single subject such as chemistry. Previous systematic reviews on the effects of GBL have yielded contradictory results concerning cognitive and motivational outcomes. This meta‐analysis aims to: (a) estimate the overall effect size of GBL in chemistry education on cognitive, motivational, and emotional outcomes compared with non‐GBL (i.e., media comparison); (b) examine possible moderators of the effects; and (c) identify the more effective game design and instructional design features (i.e., value‐added comparison). We screened 842 articles and included 34 studies. This study is the first GBL meta‐analysis that employed a three‐level random‐effects model for the overall effects. Moderator analysis used a mixed‐effects meta‐regression model. Results from the media comparison suggest chemistry GBL was more effective for cognition (g = 0.70, k = 30, N = 4155), retention (g = 0.59, k = 20, N = 2860), and motivation (g = 0.35, k = 7, N = 974) than non‐GBL and the substantial heterogeneity (I2 = 86%) for cognitive outcomes. No study reported emotional outcomes, and studies considering value‐added comparisons of GBL with versus without specific design features (k = 3) were too few to perform a meta‐analysis. Moderator analyses implied that except for publication source and sample size, no other moderator was related to effect sizes. There may be the small‐study effects, particularly publication bias. Although we conclude that GBL enhances chemistry learning more than non‐GBL, the results also make clear that additional high‐quality value‐added research is needed to identify design guidelines that may further improve chemistry GBL. More GBL meta‐analyses on subjects other than chemistry are also needed. As the first GBL meta‐analysis that emphasizes emotion, we call for more research on emotion and on relationships between cognition, motivation, and emotion in GBL.
... Likewise, anthropomorphic images were gendered more than non-anthropomorphic images, which was expected based on prior research (Smith, 1995). In addition, research reported participants preferred anthropomorphic images (Plass et al., 2014). This study had similar findings. ...
Experiment Findings
Full-text available
The purpose of the research study was to explore the possibility of bias in popular selling, award winning, early childhood, STEM literature. The study defined how children gendered images in the STEM literature, and where bias existed the researcher quantified the existence. Sociocultural elements were identified that may affect children's genderization of images.
... In other words, an essential aspect of human cognition is perceiving processes in the immediate environment automatically, and those perceptions can, unintentionally or subconsciously, affect skill acquisition as well as behavior [8]. Previous research on the influence of shape and color on the learning process [9] implies a relationship between the physical environment and emotions and cognition [10]. A case in point is studies of kindergarten children-as the one conducted by Godwin and Fisher [11]-that demonstrate that children's attention allocation and learning depend on the classroom visual environment. ...
... Instead, they should enable learners to fully feel the pleasure of being immersed in it. For example, some researchers find that colorful and personalized learning content in a multimedia environment could successfully trigger students' positive emotions and improve their academic performance (Plass et al., 2014). Meanwhile, online learners also need to actively organize and adjust their learning state to improve the learning effect. ...
Article
Full-text available
As coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) swept the world in early 2020, all the Chinese universities and colleges adopted online learning to fulfill the directive saying “classes suspended but learning continues.” Understanding the impact of this large-scale online learning experience on the future online learning intention of Chinese university students can help design better blended-learning activities. This study applies flow experience and theory of planned behavior (TPB) to construct a theoretical framework for assumption making and the assumptions made are validated by data gained from questionnaires. A total of 6,933 students from 54 institutions in China participated in the investigation, with 5,456 valid questionnaires returned. This study employs partial least squares (PLS) regression and confirmative factor analysis (CFA) to analyze and estimate the measurement model and the structural model. The results indicate that the experience of home-based learning significantly influenced the attitudes of Chinese university students, which in turn had a positive influence on their intention to continue online learning. The research findings provide a theoretical framework and practical guidelines on building a scientific online learning platform with appropriate online learning environments and tasks for a post-COVID-19 era blended-learning in Chinese universities.
... Multimedia learning researchers have used a variety of pictures to induce learners' emotion in multimedia learning environments. Such pictures feature the appearance of facial expressions and gestures (Schneider, Nebel, & Rey, 2016), natural scenery (Chung, Cheon, & Lee, 2015), social events (Porter, Spencer, & Birt, 2003), shapes and colors (Plass, Heidig, Hayward, Homer, & Um, 2014;Um, Plass, Hayward, & Homer, 2011). There is mounting research evidence (Genuchten, Scheiter, & Schüler, 2012;Arndt, Schuler, & Scheiter, 2015;Mayer, 2010;Richter, Scheiter, & Eitel, 2016) demonstrating that learners learn better with both verbal and pictorial representations instead of only verbal information. ...
... de interacción social son desfavorables, el motivo probablemente está relacionado con el diseño de la actividad que estuvo destinada para la casa. Por su parte, las debilidades de estética quizás se deben al uso de la terminal de Linux como interfaz gráfica porque es limitada para proporcionar una apariencia agradable, y, además, imposibilitando la inclusión de elementos con formas redondas que propicien emociones positivas para el aprendizaje (Plass et al., 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
La comprensión de algoritmos es una de las dificultades para estudiantes de cursos introductorios de programación a nivel universitario. Aunque ya existen estrategias para estimular la comprensión de algoritmos, no se encontró una estrategia que cubra las necesidades de la asignatura “Programación 1” de la Universidad de Los Andes, por lo tanto, en esta investigación se propone un juego serio, orientado a esta asignatura, para la comprensión de algoritmos, aplicando la metodología ADDIE (Análisis, Diseño, Desarrollo, Implementación y Evaluación). Las etapas de Análisis, Diseño y Desarrollo se destinaron a la construcción de JUSECA (Juego Serio para la Comprensión de Algoritmos); en la etapa de Implementación se proporcionó el juego a un grupo de estudiantes; y en la etapa de Evaluación se aplicó una evaluación ad hoc de rendimiento en la comprensión de algoritmos, y se aplicó MEEGA+ (Modelo para la Evaluación de Juegos Educacionales) para evaluar la experiencia de los estudiantes y la usabilidad del juego. Los resultados de la evaluación ad hoc indicaron que el juego fomentó en los estudiantes la resolución correcta del algoritmo más fácil. Por otro lado, los resultados de MEEGA+ permitieron conocer que el juego propuesto cumple moderadamente con los requerimientos de un juego educacional.
... The results also provide evidence for the emotional design hypothesis (e.g., Mayer and Estrella, 2014;Plass et al., 2014). Making essential elements visually appealing (i.e., colored) directs cognitive processing (i.e., selecting) in the learning process by guiding attention, maintaining cognitive processing, and helping learners better understand the essential material (i.e., organizing and integrating) -thereby leading to better learning (Pekrun, 2006). ...
Book
Full-text available
Increasing numbers of students around the world are suffering from mathematics anxiety. The main objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between mathematics anxiety and gender, grade, career choices, and academic achievement in Grade 10, 11, and 12 students. This study used the Revised Version of the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale to survey 1,548 high school students (570 males and 978 females) from high schools in Vietnam. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) test, Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression were used to analyze data. The results show that there are significant differences in the influence of grade, academic achievement, and students’ career choices on mathematics anxiety. Academic coping strategies, gender, grade, and career choices are significant predictors of mathematics anxiety. Grade 12 students have higher levels of mathematics anxiety than others. Students with high average mathematics scores (9.0–10.0) have higher levels of mathematics anxiety than students with lower scores. Besides, students choosing finance and economics or industrial engineering to pursue into higher education also experienced higher levels of mathematics anxiety than others. This study contributes to the general discussion about the nature of mathematics anxiety and the relationship between mathematics anxiety and academic achievement.
... Feelings and emotions play an important role in learning goals (Kormos and Pr efontaine, 2017;Krathwohl et al., 1964;Leutner, 2014;Park et al., 2014;Plass et al., 2014). Positive emotions, such as satisfaction in learning (Kirkpatrick and Kirkpatrick, 2016), boost engagement and willingness to complete a course (Heidig et al., 2015;Loderer et al., 2020). ...
Article
Purpose Student motivation underpins the challenge of learning, made more complex by the move to online education. While emotions are integral to students' motivation, research has, to date, overlooked the dualistic nature of emotions that can cause stress. Using approach-avoidance conflict theory, the authors explore this issue in the context of novel online students' responses to a fully online class. Design/methodology/approach Using a combination of critical incident technique and laddering, the authors implemented the big data method of sentiment analysis (SA) which results in approach tables with 1,318 tokens and avoid tables with 1,090 tokens. Using lexicon-based SA, the authors identify tokens relating to approach, avoid and mixed emotions. Findings The authors implemented the big data method of SA which results in approach tables with 1,318 tokens and avoid tables with 1,090 tokens. Using lexicon-based SA, the authors identify tokens relating to approach, avoid and mixed emotions. These ambivalent emotions provide an opportunity for teachers to rapidly diagnose and address issues of student engagement in an online learning class. Originality/value Results demonstrate the practical application of SA to unpack the role of emotions in online learner motivation.
... For instance, a childlike appeal is not only applicable for characters but can also be transferred to the design of objects in an environment (Marcus, 2015;Nittono, 2016). Such an integration of rounded and face-like shapes generates a charming and delightful scene (Plass et al., 2014;Rossi et al., 2014;Nittono, 2016). Also, situations are appraised as pleasant by the absence of threats. ...
Article
Full-text available
Virtual environments (VEs) can evoke and support emotions, as experienced when playing emotionally arousing games. We theoretically approach the design of fear and joy evoking VEs based on a literature review of empirical studies on virtual and real environments as well as video games’ reviews and content analyses. We define the design space and identify central design elements that evoke specific positive and negative emotions. Based on that, we derive and present guidelines for emotion-inducing VE design with respect to design themes, colors and textures, and lighting configurations. To validate our guidelines in two user studies, we 1) expose participants to 360° videos of VEs designed following the individual guidelines and 2) immerse them in a neutral, positive and negative emotion-inducing VEs combining all respective guidelines in Virtual Reality. The results support our theoretically derived guidelines by revealing significant differences in terms of fear and joy induction.
... In an early study, children with reading difficulties found it easier to follow the story during reading comprehension when authentic events rather than abstract verbal information were presented (Newby et al., 1989). If designed beautifully, colorful and visually appealing graphic novels with personified characters can direct and even maintain attention during reading, as postulated by the emotional design hypothesis in the cognitive affective theory of learning with media (CATLM; Moreno, 2007;Moreno & Mayer, 2007;Plass et al., 2014;Um et al., 2012). In additional to emotional factors, pictures are better suited to represent spatial relations or complex imagery that cannot be described by text efficiently (Larkin & Simon, 1987). ...
Article
Full-text available
Children with developmental language disorder (DLD) have consistently showed poor performances in reading comprehension. Extending from previous studies that presented pure-text, this study aims to test the performances of graphic novel reading. We tested 24 Chinese children who have been diagnosed as DLD and 24 typical readers matched with age and nonverbal IQ. These children were asked to complete a battery of tests assessing graphic novel reading comprehension and related visual-cognitive skills. The results of group comparison indicated that children with DLD performed similarly to the typical readers in graphic novel comprehension. Moreover, significant links between comic convention understanding and both passage and graphic novel reading were found in both groups. Our results imply the benefits of using graphic novel to facilitate reading to learn in children with DLD. (129 words).
... The colour and material of floor, walls, roof, ceiling and furniture also make an impact on the level of student engagement. As revealed by Greene, Bell, & Boyer (1983) and Plass, Heidig, Hayward, Homer, & Um (2014), warm colors such as yellow and orange, rather than using the cold colors such as gray which are used in materials can enhance students' learning and engagement. The findings of the positive impacts of size and shape on student engagement are congruent with the findings of the studies done by Roskos and Neuman (2011) and Yang et al. (2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
The restrictions imposed due to the outbreak of Coronavirus 2019 led to a paradigm shift in terms of the learning arrangements. In such a situation, since curfew was imposed in Sri Lanka, the universities commenced their all-academic activities using different virtual platforms such Zoom and MS Teams to continue teaching and learning process. Active student engagement is vital for the success of the process. However, evidence shows that the level of student engagement is low in academic activities in an online learning setting and the studies that explored the impact of the physical environment on this situation are rare. Therefore, this study aims to study the impact of ambient and spatial attributes in the physical environment on the level of students' academic engagement in an online learning setting. Data were collected from a purposive sample of 238 undergraduates of University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka and were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling with AMOS. The model fit assessment, path coefficient estimation and hypotheses testing were done at the data analysis. The study finding empirically validate the impact of ambient and spatial attributes of the physical environment on student engagement in an online learning setting. Out of ambient attributes, noise and lighting level were recorded as the most influencing factor while size and shape of the study area were recorded as highly influencing factors out of spatial attributes. The impact of air quality, layout and pattern on student engagement was found insignificant. The study finding broadens the components taken as physical resources considered in the Engagement Theory and provide insights for students, university officials, housing developers and policy makers on the importance of the physical learning environment for the student academic engagement in an online leaning setting.
... The study of methods to seamlessly induce emotions that are aligned with learning outcomes is a relatively new field of investigation in the video game literature (Huang et al., 2016;Mayer & Estrella, 2014;Plass et al., 2014;Um et al., 2012). Thus, despite the fact that these design factors are likely to play an important role in game design for impact, in order to provide specific design specifications, it would be crucial to accumulate evidence about the proper use of emotions to summon attention, reduce load and facilitate processing so as to positively impact learning outcomes. ...
Article
Full-text available
Over the past 20 years, the proposal that immersive media, such as video games, can be leveraged to enhance brain plasticity and learning has been put to the test. This expanding literature highlights the extraordinary power of video games as a potential medium to train brain functions, but also the remaining challenges that must be addressed in developing games that truly deliver in terms of learning objectives. Such challenges include the need to: (1) Maintain high motivation given that learning typically requires long-term training regimens, (2) Ensure that the content or skills to be learned are indeed mastered in the face of many possible distractions, and (3) Produce knowledge transfer beyond the proximal learning objectives. Game design elements that have been proposed to support these learning objectives are reviewed, along with the underlying psychological constructs that these elements rest upon. A discussion of potential pitfalls is also included, as well as possible paths forward to consistently ensure impact.
Article
Engagement in educational games was conceptualized as four dimensions but few studies have examined the four dimensions together. Additionally, game features vary greatly in different game genres that demand different engagement dimensions. However, engaging game features were studied in general and did not inquire specific game genres in extant literature. This study aimed at filling in this gap by examining students’ engagement patterns as well as what and how game features provided engagement opportunities in a personalized computerized role-playing game environment through the lens of the four-dimension engagement framework. Results showed the instability of engagement and certain engagement dimensions would predominate in different gameplay stages. Students exhibited cognitive engagement both during and after gameplay. Behavioral engagement dominated during gameplay while affective engagement dominated after gameplay. This study also found that gender, age, employment status, and gameplay experience affected engagement during gameplay. All features of personalized computerized role-playing game could engage students but manipulating a fictional world and portraying game characters could best engage students. Implications and future research were also discussed in the study.
Article
The purpose of this study was to discuss the development of an Android-based App Pie application as one of the learning media for students of the Welfare Education Study Program. In addition, this study also aims to measure the improvement of student’s learning when using this application. The research method uses a type of development research with the ADDIE (Analyse, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluate) approach to test the effect of the application. The media feasibility test is carried out by material experts and media experts. After learning media is considered feasible, a large group test consists of 30 students who have taken the Child and Guidance Course. The effectiveness test assessment instrument in the form of a questionnaire using the Guttmann scale, to measure 1) Media Functions, 2) Media Images, 3) Media Colours and, 4) Media Posts. The result of the Children Counselling Product effectivity according to the media accept with 4 test indicators yielding an average of 84.07% with a very good category.
Article
AbstrakPenelitian ini bertujuan menghasilkan dan mengungkapkan keefektifan media video animasi pada subtema cara hidup manusia, hewan dan tumbuhan yang layak digunakan untuk meningkatkan motivasi belajar dan karkater demokratis siswa kelas V SD di Kecamatan Ketanggungan, Brebes. Penelitian dan pengembangan ini mengacu pada langkah yang dikembangkan oleh Borg Gall. Desain pengembangan meliputi sembilan langkah, yaitu: (1) studi pendahuluan, (2) perencanaan, (3) pengembangan produk awal, (4) uji coba lapangan awal, (5) revisi produk awal, (6) uji coba lapangan, (7) revisi produk hasil uji lapangan, (8) uji coba lapangan operasional, (9) dan revisi produk akhir. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa media video animasi efektif meningkatkan motivasi belajar dan karakter demokratis siswa kelas V SD di Kecamatan Ketanggungan. Keefektifan dapat dilihat dari perbedaan signifikan skor motivasi dan karakter sebelum dan sesudah menggunakan media video animasi. Kata kunci: media video animasi, motivasi belajar, karakter demokratis. DEVELOPING ANIMATION VIDEO MEDIA TO ENHANCE THE LEARNING MOTIVATION AND DEMOCRATIC CHARACTER OF THE 5TH GRADE STUDENTS IN PRIMARY SCHOOL Abstract This research aims to produce and describe the effectiveness of a viable animation video media on the Subtheme Cara Hidup Manusia, Hewan dan Tumbuhan to increase the learning motivation and character of democratic of the 5th grade students of SD (Primary School) Kecamatan Ketanggungan, Brebes. This research and development refered to the steps formulated by Borg and Gall. The developmental design consisted of nine steps: (1) preliminary study, (2) planning, (3) preliminary product development, (4) preliminary field testing, (5) main product revision, (6) main field testing, (7) operational product revision, (8) operational field testing, (9) final product revision. The result of the study shows that the developed animation video media is effective for increasing the learning motivation and democratic character of the 5th grade students of SD Kecamatan Ketanggungan, Brebes. The effectiveness can be seen from the significant difference of learning motivation and character score before and after using the animation video media. Keywords: animation video media, learning motivation, character of democratic
Article
Full-text available
Background With the rapid popularization of e‐learning, how to improve online learning has aroused widespread concern. A human‐like pedagogical agent (PA) that displays eye gaze and gestures, is often added to online multimedia lessons to increase social connection and improve learning in e‐learning environments. However, there has been a debate about how PAs affect learning processes and learning outcomes. Objectives Social agency theory holds that learners can build a social connection with PAs, which affects learning processes and outcomes. This study seeks to reveal how PAs influence learning by exploring the influence of PAs on learning outcomes and brain activity during learning. Methods College students viewed a multimedia lesson on the process of chemical synaptic transmission either with or without an embodied PA on the left side of the screen that pointed to the graphic as she lectured. During learning students' brain cortical activity was measured by a functional near‐infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) system, and after learning students completed learning outcomes post‐tests. Results and Conclusions Consistent with social agency theory, students learning with a PA performed better on learning outcome tests and showed greater brain activity in the social areas of the brain during learning based on fNIRS measures. Implications By using fNIRS technology, this study provides preliminary new support for the idea that learners engage in social processing during online learning with an embodied PA that leads to improved learning outcomes.
Article
The color combination is an important factor affecting dashboard visual design and is key to triggering the operator's visual harmony and emotion. However, in the actual design process, the relationship among the different color schemes of a dashboard and the operator's harmony, pleasure, and cognitive load has not been effectively analyzed. To solve this problem, two methods, questionnaire measurement and eye movement tracking, were used to evaluate the effects of 24-color combinations under four-color schemes of a dashboard by analyzing the changes in color harmony, pleasure, eye movement indicators. The four schemes were red–yellow–blue, green–purple–orange, blue green–blue purple–yellow green, and red orange–yellow orange–red purple. The research results show that the degrees of color harmony and pleasure show a positive correlation. Cognitive load is not affected by color harmony. The larger the amount of information, the higher the cognitive load. This research can be used as a reference when designing and optimizing the color scheme of a business intelligence dashboard.
Article
In recent years, the importance of emotions in learning has been increasingly recognized. Applying emotional design to induce positive emotions has been considered a means to enhance the instructional effectiveness of digital learning environments. However, only a few studies have examined the specific effects of emotional design in game‐based learning. This quasi‐experimental study utilized a value‐added research approach to investigate whether emotional design applied to scaffolding in a game‐based learning environment improves learning and motivational outcomes more than emotionally neutral scaffolding. A total of 138 participants, mean age of 11.5 (SD = 0.73) participated in the study. A total of 68 participants played the base version of a fraction learning game (Number Trace), where scaffolding was provided with emotionally neutral mathematical notations, and 70 participants played the value‐added version of the game using emotionally designed animated scaffolding agents. Pre‐and post‐tests were used to measure conceptual fraction knowledge and self‐reported measures of situational interest and situational self‐efficacy to evaluate motivational outcomes. Our results indicate that the emotional design applied to scaffolds can improve the educational value of a game‐based learning environment by enhancing players' situational interest and situational self‐efficacy. However, although the intervention improved the participants' conceptual fraction knowledge, there was no significant difference between the scaffolding conditions in participants' learning outcomes. The results suggest that emotional design can increase the educational impact of game‐based learning by promoting the development of interest, as well as improving self‐efficacy. Learning games that include scaffolding can enhance learning outcomes. Emotional design can enhance learning outcomes. Only a few studies have examined effects of emotional design in game‐based learning. There are no studies examining the effects of emotional design of scaffolding. The study is the first to examine the effects of emotionally designed scaffolds in game‐based learning. Emotional design applied to scaffolds did not enhance learning more than emotionally neutral scaffolds. Emotional design applied to scaffolds enhanced participants' situational interest and situational self‐efficacy. The study confirms that math games that include number line mechanics and scaffolding can be effective. The results demonstrated that emotional design of scaffolds did not harm learning. The results confirm that emotional design of instructional features is useful as it can enhance motivational outcomes. Learning effects of emotionally designed features should be examined with longer interventions.
Article
This study examined the impacts of adding emotional design features to a multimedia lesson (color alone, anthropomorphism alone, or color & anthropomorphism together) on college students’ affective processes (measured by ratings of experienced emotion during learning), cognitive processes (measured by eye-tracking metrics), and learning outcomes (measured by retention and transfer test scores). One-hundred students were randomly assigned to watch a short multimedia lesson in one of four conditions: no emotional design, colorful emotional design, anthropomorphism emotional design, and colorful and anthropomorphism emotional design. The study results showed that compared to the no emotional design group, the colorful and anthropomorphism emotional design group showed the higher positive emotion rating (d = .726), the shortest time to first fixation on an emotional design area ( d = - .877), the longest fixation duration on emotional design areas ( d = .640), and the best transfer test score ( d = .679). In contrast, the anthropomorphism emotional design group outperformed the no emotional design group only on rating of positive emotion, and the colorful emotional design group outperformed the no emotional design group only on transfer test score. The results show that two emotional design features are more effective than one in multimedia lessons. A structural equation model indicated that positive emotion (tapping affective processing) and fixation duration (tapping cognitive processing) mediated the pathway from emotional design to learning performance. These results partially support the Cognitive-Affective Model of E-Learning.
Article
Despite the growing importance of blended learning environments (BLEs) across disciplines, the extant research provides inconsistent results on their performance effects. While many studies find positive effects of BLEs on learning outcomes, others either find no significant performance differences between BLEs and traditional lectures or reveal that learners prefer face-to-face encounters. These contradictory findings suggest that differences in the effects of BLEs and other instruction formats on learning outcomes might be more nuanced than conceptualized in prior research. Specifically, research in the fields of management education and educational psychology indicates that these inconsistent findings might be addressed by carefully analyzing specific design characteristics of BLEs and by considering indirect effects of psychological characteristics. Thus, we introduce flow theory, which describes a learner's complete immersion in an activity, and we propose that experiencing flow mediates the positive effects of flexibility and interaction—two central characteristics of BLEs—on learning outcomes. The results of a quasi-experiment with 115 graduate-level management students support our hypotheses. We contribute to blended learning research by looking beyond the direct effects of instruction formats on learning outcomes and by investigating the mechanisms as well as the boundary conditions behind active knowledge construction in BLEs from a constructivist perspective. Our results suggest that instructors should ensure that they promote both flexibility and interaction in BLEs, and they should account for learners' cognitive characteristics.
Article
Full-text available
Despite the recognized importance of emotion in learning (Kim and Pekrun in Handbook of research on educational communications and technology, 4th ed., Springer, pp. 65–75, 2014), instructional material design research primarily focuses on cognition, tending to ignore the affective dimension (Brom et al. in Educ Res Rev 25:100–119, 2018). To understand the complex phenomenon of how students’ emotional responses to instructional materials are formed, this qualitative thematic study explored factors thought to affect their visual perceptions of instructional materials by utilizing the general framework of approach and avoidance motivation. Four sets of printed instructional materials were prepared, each with the same content drawn from finite mathematics, but with different visual designs. A total of 25 students were invited to a laboratory room and asked to select and study one out of the four sets of materials. The entire process was observed, and students were interviewed to share their experiences. The results showed that students selected instructional materials based on their holistic impression of the materials and on their individual expectations as shaped by previous experiences. For example, students who had math anxiety selected materials that did not look like math textbooks, although opinions regarding which materials did or did not look like textbooks were diverse due to different material experiences. While existing studies tend to be deterministic about the attractiveness of visual materials (e.g., Plass et al. in Learn Instruct 29:128–140, 2014), the present study confirms that there is no universal design that elicits comfortable experiences for everyone. This paper concludes with sets of guidelines and methods to accommodate students’ diverse visual perceptions, which is critical for enhancing learning as a holistic experience.
Article
Language learning has long been a topic of interest, and instructional videos which allow students to learn anywhere and anytime have become an important language learning tool. However, the emotional characteristics of both instructors and students, which have the potential to influence students’ second language learning from instructional videos, have yet to be fully explored. The current study investigated the interaction effects of an instructor’s emotions (positive vs. negative vs. neutral) and students’ emotional intelligence (low vs. high) on students’ second language vocabulary learning from instructional videos with consideration of attention paid to the learning material (i.e., average fixation time, referring to the duration of each fixation on the learning material), learning experience (i.e., motivation, engagement, interaction), and learning performance (both immediate and delayed). Results showed that (1) only the interaction effect on attention was verified, and that (2) students with high emotional intelligence showed a larger average fixation time in the positive condition than in the negative condition, while (3) students with low emotional intelligence showed a smaller average fixation time in the neutral condition than in the negative condition. Furthermore, the results verified the benefits of the instructor’s positive emotion on students’ motivation, interaction, and immediate performance. Our findings shine a light onto the influence of an instructor’s emotions and students’ emotional intelligence on second language learning, and provide practical implications for the design of instructional videos and second language learning.
Article
Full-text available
The goal of the present study is to explore whether the affective states (happy or neutral) of a pedagogical agent (PA) in an online multimedia lesson yields different learning processes and outcomes, and whether the effects of affective PAs depend on the learners' emotion regulation strategies and their prior knowledge. In three experiments, undergraduates were asked to view a narrated animation about synaptic transmission that included either a happy PA (smiling expression and enthusiastic voice) or a neutral PA (neutral expression and calm voice) and subsequently took emotions, motivation, cognitive outcomes tests. Across three experiments, the happy PA group reported more positive emotions (ds = 0.70, 0.46, and 0.60) and higher level of motivation (ds = 0.76, 0.49, and 0.51) than the neutral PA group. Moreover, the happy PA prompted higher germane load (d = 0.41) than a neutral PA in Experiment 3. However, adding a happy PA to the screen did not improve learning performance. In addition, in Experiment 2, learners' usage of emotion regulation strategies moderated the effectiveness of affective PA on positive emotions in learners. Specifically, happy PAs increased the positive emotions of students who used expressive suppression strategy (d = 0.99) but not those who used cognitive reappraisal strategy (d = 0.13). In Experiment 3, the effectiveness of affective PAs was not moderated by learners' prior knowledge. Results support the cognitive affective theory of learning with media (CATLM) that students are happier and more motivated when they learn from happy PAs than from neutral PAs.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Covid-19 has been an alarming bifurcation in the last three years. Education and learning are among the areas most affected. Online learning environments are not a choice or a model for learning modernization, but it is an obligation and a unique solution to ensure educational continuity. This has led to a growing interest in MOOCs, which reveals the importance of taking into account some appropriate information to ensure learner-centered learning to overcome the requirements of the massiveness of learners and their scattering in front of the numerous services of MOOCs. Following this direction, we propose a deep study of different approaches to personalize MOOCs. Our study aims to consider affective information as one of the main personalization parameters in the learner model, to guarantee a high-quality education with a high recommendation accuracy.
Chapter
Time is a complex concept having been developed and built gradually over years. An 18-month-old toddler has started developing rough cognition of time, yet most of children still cannot understand the concept completely until getting entering elementary school. In the long process of learning time, the range of communication in daily life becomes challenging and restricted, and even cause the situation that people misunderstand and fight with each other, which could have been avoided at first place. The study is focusing on “Sundial”, which is a shining ball-shaped learning device, and enables assists children to acquire the idea of duration of time and to know how to read the time corresponding to it. Children can learn the concept of time in the place where they are familiar with by utilizing with the device with tangible user interface. The research is aims to discuss the following issues. Firstly, whether “Sundial” help children learn the concept of time effectively? Secondly, whether the device distract children’s attention from learning or decrease the rate of physical activity? Lastly, how do children feel about the device when learning and what are their expectation? By quantifying and doing qualitative data analysis with the observation data, which would be compare with learning performance and the later interview materials, during the experiment. The effect of the device on arousing children’s interest on learning can be evaluated. The expected result from the study would be based on the current prototype of “Sundial”. I would improve and fix the test result, a leading to the experimental results and in turn redesign device that can be utilized in our daily lives and assist parents to teach their children the concept of time effectively.
Article
Full-text available
One-to-one online tutoring provided by human tutors can improve students’ learning outcomes. However, monitoring the quality of such tutoring is a significant challenge. In this paper, we propose a learning analytics approach to monitoring online one-to-one tutoring quality. The approach analyzes teacher behaviours and classifies tutoring sessions into those that are effective and those that are not effective. More specifically, we use sequential behaviour pattern mining to analyze tutoring sessions using the CM-SPAM algorithm and classify tutoring sessions into effective and less effective using the J-48 and JRIP decision tree classifiers. To show the feasibility of the approach, we analyzed data from 2,250 minutes of online one-to-one primary math tutoring sessions with 44 tutors from eight schools. The results showed that the approach can classify tutors’ effectiveness with high accuracy (F measures of 0.89 and 0.98 were achieved). The results also showed that effective tutors present significantly more frequent hint provision and proactive planning behaviours than their less-effective colleagues in these online one-to-one sessions. Furthermore, effective tutors sequence their monitoring actions with appropriate pauses and initiations of students’ self-correction behaviours. We conclude that the proposed approach is feasible for monitoring the quality of online one-to-one primary math tutoring sessions.
Article
With the developments in digital technologies, the increase in the amount of accessible information and the multimedia concept, it has become necessary to present complex information in a simplified manner. Along with this requirement, one of the current concepts that draw attention within the scope of multimedia concept is the infographic. The main purpose in the multimedia learning process is to achieve meaningful learning, and the effectiveness of the teaching material used in this process has gained importance. In this context, it was aimed to examine the reflections of different material designs on academic achievement, cognitive load, and motivation, including visual intense infographic, text intense infographic, and text only material. Based on the execution of all experimental mixed design was conducted with 58 teacher candidates. According to the quantitative and qualitative findings of the research, while academic achievement, cognitive load, and motivation vary significantly depending on the type of material, the aforementioned differences are significant in favor of the visual intense infographic expressed by the participants as a simple and concrete and therefore understandable.
Article
Full-text available
Traditional developmental research in memory and reasoning, as well as current investigations in such disparate areas as theory of mind, epistemological understanding, knowledge acquisition, and problem solving, share the need to invoke a meta-level of cognition in explaining their respective phenomena. The increasing influential construct of metacognition can be conceptualized in a develomental framework. Young children's dawning awareness of mental functions lies at one end of a developmental progression that eventuates in complex metaknowing capabilities that many adults do not master. During its extended developmental course, metacognition becomes more explicit, powerful, and effective, as it comes to operate increasingly under the individual's conscious control. Enchancing (a) metacognitive awareness of what one believes and how one knows and (b) matastrategic control in application of the strategies that process new information is an important developmental and educational goal.
Article
Full-text available
The present study was undertaken to verify findings surrounding sex differences in color preferences, and to extend this realm of inquiry by looking for possible differences in color preferences associated with sexual orientation. Based on a large sample of North American college students, significant gender differences were found, with the main difference being a greater preference for shades of blue by males than by females. Females, on the other hand, tended to be more evenly divided than males between preferring both green and blue. Regarding sexual orientation, we found no significant differences between heterosexuals and homosexual/bisexuals of either gender. In other words, male and female homosexuals/bisexuals exhibited essentially the same configuration of color preferences as did their heterosexual counterparts.
Article
Full-text available
We tested key predictions of a theoretical model positing that confusion, which accompanies a state of cognitive disequilibrium that is triggered by contradictions, conflicts, anomalies, erroneous information, and other discrepant events, can be beneficial to learning if appropriately induced, regulated, and resolved. Hypotheses of the model were tested in two experiments where learners engaged in trialogues on scientific reasoning concepts in a simulated collaborative learning session with animated agents playing the role of a tutor and a peer student. Confusion was experimentally induced via a contradictory information manipulation involving the animated agents expressing incorrect and/or contradictory opinions and asking the (human) learners to decide which opinion had more scientific merit. The results indicated that self-reports of confusion were largely insensitive to the manipulations. However, confusion was manifested by more objective measures that inferred confusion on the basis of learners' responses immediately following contradictions. Furthermore, whereas the contradictions had no effect on learning when learners were not confused by the manipulations, performance on multiple-choice posttests and on transfer tests was substantially higher when the contradictions were successful in confusing learners. Theoretical and applied implications are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
In 4 experiments, students who read expository passages with seductive details (i.e., interesting but irrelevant adjuncts) recalled significantly fewer main ideas and generated significantly fewer problem-solving transfer solutions than those who read passages without seductive details. In Experiments 1, 2, and 3, revising the passage to include either highlighting of the main ideas, a statement of learning objectives, or signaling, respectively, did not reduce the seductive details effect. In Experiment 4, presenting the seductive details at the beginning of the passage exacerbated the seductive details effect, whereas presenting the seductive details at the end of the passage reduced the seductive details effect. The results suggest that seductive details interfere with learning by priming inappropriate schemas around which readers organize the material, rather than by distracting the reader or by disrupting the coherence of the passage. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
Investigated in 3 experiments with 25 undergraduates the ethological hypothesis that the perception of cuteness can be elicited by certain physical characteristics of infants. A transformation that models the morphological changes in head shape during development was applied to 1 frontal and 2 profile drawings of human heads to create 3 series varying only in global cephalic shape. The responses of Ss to these drawings indicated that perceived cuteness decreases as the shape of the head changes due to aging. (27 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
In 4 experiments, college students viewed an animation and listened to concurrent narration explaining the formation of lightning. When students also received concurrent on-screen text that summarized (Experiment 1) or duplicated (Experiment 2) the narration, they performed worse on tests of retention and transfer than did students who received no on-screen text. This redundancy effect is consistent with a dual-channel theory of multimedia learning in which adding on-screen text can overload the visual information-processing channel, causing learners to split their visual attention between 2 sources. Lower transfer performance also occurred when the authors added interesting but irrelevant details to the narration (Experiment 1) or inserted interesting but conceptually irrelevant video clips within (Experiment 3) or before the presentation (Experiment 4). This coherence effect is consistent with a seductive details hypothesis in which the inserted video and narration prime the activation of inappropriate prior knowledge as the organizing schema for the lesson. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
Studied the differential effect on training performance, transfer performance, and cognitive load for 3 computer-based training strategies. The conventional, worked, and completion conditions emphasized, respectively, the solving of conventional problems, the study of worked-out problems, and the completion of partly worked-out problems. The relation between practice-problem type and transfer was expected to be mediated by cognitive load. It was hypothesized that practice with conventional problems would require more time and more effort during training and result in lower and more effort-demanding transfer performance than practice with worked-out or partly worked-out problems. With the exception of time and effort during training, the results supported the hypothesis. The completion strategy and, in particular, the worked strategy proved to be superior to the conventional strategy for attaining transfer. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
Task-irrelevant background sound disrupts serial recall. One account of this effect assumes that irrelevant events close to or during the presentation of a to-be-remembered list will interfere by disrupting temporal codes. A second account predicts that disruption will be greatest when the burden on rehearsal is high, as order cues in the auditory sequence interfere with those in the memory set. The authors tested these predictions by restricting the sound to different phases of the serial recall task. Sound presented just before the list and sound presented early in list presentation did not disrupt recall, but sound presented late in the list or after list presentation produced significant disruption. Sound presented after the list was more disruptive of recall for early list items than sound presented at the same time as those items. An account based on disruption of serial rehearsal, not the disruption of temporal codes, is supported. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
A textbook lesson may be made more interesting by promoting emotional interest through adding entertaining text and illustrations or by promoting cognitive interest through adding signals for structural understanding such as summary illustrations with captions. In Experiment 1, skilled readers who read summary text and illustrations about the process of lightning performed worse on retention of important information and on transfer when entertaining text, illustrations, or both were added. In Experiment 2, skilled readers rated entertaining text and illustrations relatively high in emotional interest and low in cognitive interest and rated summary illustrations and text relatively low in emotional interest and high in cognitive interest. The results suggest benefits of cognitive interest over emotional interest for helping students learn scientific explanations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
Adhering to the view that emotional reactivity is organized in part by underlying motivational states--defensive and appetitive--we investigated sex differences in motivational activation. Men's and women's affective reactions were measured while participants viewed pictures with varied emotional and neutral content. As expected, highly arousing contents of threat, mutilation, and erotica prompted the largest affective reactions in both men and women. Nonetheless, women showed a broad disposition to respond with greater defensive reactivity to aversive pictures, regardless of specific content, whereas increased appetitive activation was apparent for men only when viewing erotica. Biological and sociocultural factors in shaping sex differences in emotional reactivity are considered as possible mediators of sex differences in emotional response. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
Psychophysical experiments were conducted in the UK, Taiwan, France, Germany, Spain, Sweden, Argentina, and Iran to assess colour emotion for two-colour combinations using semantic scales warm/cool, heavy/light, active/passive, and like/dislike. A total of 223 observers participated, each presented with 190 colour pairs as the stimuli, shown individually on a cathode ray tube display. The results show consistent responses across cultures only for warm/cool, heavy/light, and active/passive. The like/dislike scale, however, showed some differences between the observer groups, in particular between the Argentinian responses and those obtained from the other observers. Factor analysis reveals that the Argentinian observers preferred passive colour pairs to active ones more than the other observers. In addition to the cultural difference in like/dislike, the experimental results show some effects of gender, professional background (design vs. nondesign), and age. Female observers were found to prefer colour pairs with high-lightness or low-chroma values more than their male counterparts. Observers with a design background liked low-chroma colour pairs or those containing colours of similar hue more than nondesign observers. Older observers liked colour pairs with high-lightness or high-chroma values more than young observers did. Based on the findings, a two-level theory of colour emotion is proposed, in which warm/cool, heavy/light, and active/passive are identified as the reactive-level responses and like/dislike the reflective-level response. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Col Res Appl, 2012
Article
Full-text available
Cet article esquisse les grandes lignes d'une modélisation de l'influence des émotions sur la formation et la réussite des étudiants. De tels effets ont été abordés empiriquement pour ce qui est de l'anxiété due au testing et de l'état d'esprit positif ou négatif. On peut soutenir que bien d'autres émotions agissent sur la performance. L'élaboration d'hypothèses sur ce genre d'influences présuppose qu'elles doivent être médiatisées a) par des mécanismes cognitifs de stockage, de traitement et de restitution de l'information; par l'impact de l'émotion sur l'attention et b) par les motivations intrinsèques et extrinsèques liées au travail universitaire. On fait l'hypothèse que les effets globaux des émotions dépendent de l'intéraction de différents mécanismes. Les effets nets des émotions positives sont supposés être positifs dans la plupart des cas tandis que les effets bruts des émotions négatives peuvent être ambivalents. Les principales retombées sur la recherche en psychologie appliquée sont décrites. This paper outlines assumptions of a model on how emotions influence students' learning and achievement. Such effects have been studied empirically for test anxiety, and for positive vs. negative mood. It may be assumed, however, that many other emotions exert effects on performance as well. Assumptions on such influences imply that they may be mediated: (1) by cognitive mechanisms of storage and retrieval of information, of processing information, and of emotion's attentional demands; and (2) by motivational mechanisms of intrinsic and extrinsic academic task motivation. The overall effects of emotions are hypothesised to depend on the interplay of different mechanisms. The net effects of positive emotions are assumed to be positive in most cases, whereas overall effects of negative emotions may be ambivalent. General implications for applied psychological research are described.
Article
Full-text available
A theory is proposed that emotions are cognitively based states which co-ordinate quasi-autonomous processes in the nervous system. Emotions provide a biological solution to certain problems of transition between plans, in systems with multiple goals. Their function is to accomplish and maintain these transitions, and to communicate them to ourselves and others. Transitions occur at significant junctures of plans when the evaluation of success in a plan changes. Complex emotions are derived from a small number of basic emotions and arise at junctures of social plans.
Article
Cognitive Load Theory John Sweller, Paul Ayres, Slava Kalyuga Effective instructional design depends on the close study of human cognitive architecture—the processes and structures that allow people to acquire and use knowledge. Without this background, we might recognize that a teaching strategy is successful, but have no understanding as to why it works, or how it might be improved. Cognitive Load Theory offers a novel, evolutionary-based perspective on the cognitive architecture that informs instructional design. By conceptualizing biological evolution as an information processing system and relating it to human cognitive processes, cognitive load theory bypasses many core assumptions of traditional learning theories. Its focus on the aspects of human cognitive architecture that are relevant to learning and instruction (particularly regarding the functions of long-term and working memory) puts the emphasis on domain-specific rather than general learning, resulting in a clearer understanding of educational design and a basis for more effective instructional methods. Coverage includes: • The analogy between evolution by natural selection and human cognition. • Categories of cognitive load and their interactions in learning. • Strategies for measuring cognitive load. • Cognitive load effects and how they lead to educational innovation. • Instructional design principles resulting from cognitive load theory. Academics, researchers, instructional designers, cognitive and educational psychologists, and students of cognition and education, especially those concerned with education technology, will look to Cognitive Load Theory as a vital addition to their libraries.
Book
For hundreds of years verbal messages such as lectures and printed lessons have been the primary means of explaining ideas to learners. Although verbal learning offers a powerful tool, this book explores ways of going beyond the purely verbal. Recent advances in graphics technology have prompted new efforts to understand the potential of multimedia and multimedia learning as a means of promoting human understanding. In Multimedia Learning, Second Edition, Richard E. Mayer asks whether people learn more deeply when ideas are expressed in words and pictures rather than in words alone. He reviews twelve principles of instructional design that are based on experimental research studies and grounded in a theory of how people learn from words and pictures. The result is what Mayer calls the cognitive theory of multimedia learning, a theory introduced in the first edition of Multimedia Learning and further developed in The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning.
Book
Cognitive load theory (CLT) is one of the most important theories in educational psychology, a highly effective guide for the design of multimedia and other learning materials. This edited volume brings together the most prolific researchers from around the world who study various aspects of cognitive load to discuss its current theoretical as well as practical issues. The book is divided into three parts. The first part describes the theoretical foundations and assumptions of CLT, the second discusses the empirical findings about the application of CLT to the design of learning environments, and the third part concludes the book with discussions and suggestions for new directions for future research. It aims to become the standard handbook in CLT for researchers and graduate students in psychology, education, and educational technology.
Chapter
This chapter is divided into two parts. The first describes the effect of Pat Rabbitt's influence in encouraging the first author to use the increasingly sophisticated methods of ageing research to answer questions about the fundamental characteristics of working memory, together with reflections on why so little of this work reached publication. The second part presents a brief review of the literature on working memory and ageing, followed by an account of more recent work attempting to apply the traditional method of experimental dissociation to research on normal ageing and Alzheimer's disease. The discussion suggests that even such simple methods can throw light on both the processes of ageing and the understanding of working memory.
Article
In 4 experiments, students who read expository passages with seductive details (i.e., interesting but irrelevant adjuncts) recalled significantly fewer main ideas and generated significantly fewer problem-solving transfer solutions than those who read passages without seductive details. In Experiments 1, 2, and 3, revising the passage to include either highlighting of the main ideas, a statement of learning objectives, or signaling, respectively, did not reduce the seductive details effect. In Experiment 4, presenting the seductive details at the beginning of the passage exacerbated the seductive details effect, whereas presenting the seductive details at the end of the passage reduced the seductive details effect. The results suggest that seductive details interfere with learning by priming inappropriate schemas around which readers organize the material, rather than by distracting the reader or by disrupting the coherence of the passage.
Article
The previous chapters have outlined the theoretical background, basic assumptions, and some key applications of Cognitive Load Theory (CLT) in its current state of development. The fundamental idea underlying CLT is that instructional design decisions should be informed by the architecture of the human cognitive system. CLT can therefore be described as a cognitive theory of instructional design. CLT has been very influential in educational research since the 1980s. It has inspired a growing number of research studies aimed at deriving empirically based guidelines for instructional design. Moreover, at its present stage of development, CLT is arguably one of the most influential instructional design theories. However, the extant research on cognitive load raises questions about the assumptions underlying CLT, some of which have not been consistently supported by the empirical data, suggesting the need to update the theory by incorporating recent empirical findings on cognition and learning (Schnotz & Kirschner, 2007). The first goal of this chapter is to summarize the theoretical developments of CLT and highlight some of its strengths and limitations. An additional contribution of CLT research includes efforts to develop practical, valid, and reliable measures of its main construct: cognitive load. However, as suggested in Chapter 9, the existing body of cognitive load research fails to exhibit methodological consistency regarding cognitive load measurement and lacks appropriate methods to measure other relevant constructs, such as the different load types proposed by the theory (DeLeeuw & Mayer, 2008).
Article
This study tested the effects of red and blue in a shopping-related context. Red and blue were selected because of their opposite color properties. Prior color research has shown that red is perceived as negative and tense as well as physically arousing. Blue, on the other hand, has been identified as calm, cool, and positive. Two laboratory experiments were conducted. In both experiments, retail environments were simulated using predominately red or blue colors. Both experiments corroborate the differential effects of red and blue that prior research suggested. Specifically, more positive retail outcomes occurred in blue rather than red environments. More simulated purchases, fewer purchase postponements, and a stronger inclination to shop and browse were found in blue retail environments. The second experiment helps to identify a plausible explanation to color effects. The results indicate that the affective perception of color rather than the arousal dimension of color may be responsible for the outcome. The positive effects of blue and the negative perception of red may have influenced the results. © 1992 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Article
Kirschner, P. A., Kirschner, F. C., & Paas, F. (2009). Cognitive load theory. In E. M. Anderman & L. H. Anderman (Eds.). Psychology of classroom learning: An encyclopedia, Volume 1, a-j (pp. 205-209). Detroit, MI: Macmillan Reference.
Article
Cognitive load theory (CLT) is gaining increasing importance in the design and evaluation of instruction, both traditional and technology based. Although it is well understood as a theoretical construct, the measurement of cognitive load induced by instructional materials in general, and by multimedia instruction in particular, mainly relies on methods that are either indirect, subjective, or both. Integrating aspects of CLT, working memory research, and cognitive theories of multimedia learning, we describe the conceptual basis and practical implementation of a dual-task approach to the direct measurement of cognitive load in multimedia learning. This computer-based instrument provides a direct and objective measure that overcomes many of the shortcomings of other indirect and subjective methods that will enable researchers to validate empirically theoretical predictions of CLT.
Article
We propose a model to explain the dynamics of affective states that emerge during deep learning activities. The model predicts that learners in a state of engagement/flow will experience cognitive disequilibrium and confusion when they face contradictions, incongruities, anomalies, obstacles to goals, and other impasses. Learners revert into the engaged/flow state if equilibrium is restored through thought, reflection, and problem solving. However, failure to restore equilibrium as well as obstacles that block goals trigger frustration, which, if unresolved, will eventually lead to boredom. The major hypotheses of the model were supported in two studies in which participants completed a 32–35min tutoring session with a computer tutor. Their affective states were tracked at approximately 110 points in their tutoring sessions via a retrospective affect judgment protocol. Time series analyses confirmed the presence of confusion–engagement/flow, boredom–frustration, and confusion–frustration oscillations. We discuss enhancements of the model to address individual differences and pedagogical and motivational strategies that are inspired by the model.
Article
Color data from the Osgood et al. 23-culture semantic differential study of affective meanings reveal cross-cultural similarities in feelings about colors. The concept RED is affectively quite salient. BLACK and GREY are bad, and WHITE, BLUE, and GREEN are good. YELLOW, WHITE, and GREY are weak; RED and BLACK are strong. BLACK and GREY are passive; RED is active. The color component Brightness, as determined by comparing data on WHITE, GREY, and BLACK, is strongly associated with positive Evaluation, but also with negative Potency. Eighty-nine previous studies of color and affect were analyzed. They generally support these findings, and, together with the fact that there are very few exceptions in our data or the literature, lead one to believe that there are strong universal trends in the attribution of affect in the color domain.
Article
Academic emotions have largely been neglected by educational psychology, with the exception of test anxiety. In 5 qualitative studies, it was found that students experience a rich diversity of emotions in academic settings. Anxiety was reported most often, but overall, positive emotions were described no less frequently than negative emotions. Based on the studies in this article, taxonomies of different academic emotions and a self-report instrument measuring students' enjoyment, hope, pride, relief, anger, anxiety, shame, hopelessness, and boredom (Academic Emotions Questionnaire [AEQ]) were developed. Using the AEQ, assumptions of a cognitive-motivational model of the achievement effects of emotions, and of a control/value theory of their antecedents (Pekrun, 1992b, 2000), were tested in 7 cross-sectional, 3 longitudinal, and 1 diary study using samples of university and school students. Results showed that academic emotions are significantly related to students' motivation, learning strategies, cognitive resources, self-regulation, and academic achievement, as well as to personality and classroom antecedents. The findings indicate that affective research in educational psychology should acknowledge emotional diversity in academic settings by addressing the full range of emotions experienced by students at school and university.
Article
This article discusses the research on the relations between achievement goals and develops a conceptual model based on a review of extant literature. The model distinguishes between moods and emotions and the relative roles of perceived classroom goal structures and personal goals. In this article, it is suggested that the relation between achievement goals and affect is asymmetrical and bidirectional. However, given differences in the conceptualization and measurement of affect, the empirical findings are somewhat inconsistent and difficult to interpret in some studies. Thus, there is a clear need for more research on the dynamics of achievement goals and affect in classroom settings.
Article
In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Die ursächlichen Wechselbeziehungen, die zwischen den Strukturen des Individuums und denjenigen der überindividuellen Gemeinschaft, zwischen dem unter- und dem übergeordneten Systemganzen bestehen, erfahren von ungemein vielen modernen Soziologen und Völkerpsychologen eine eigenartig einseitige Behandlung. Hatte die alte, atomistische Betrachtungsweise in völliger Verkennung des Wesens organischer Systemganzer den Versuch unternommen, das Wesen der Totalität ausschließlich aus der Summe ihrer Elemente abzuleiten, so schlägt heute das Pendel der wissenschaftlichen „öffentlichen Meinung“ nach der anderen Seite aus. Es wird fast immer nur der Einfluß untersucht, den die Gemeinschaft durch ihren spezifischen Aufbau auf die Persönlichkeitsstruktur des in ihrem Rahmen aufwachsenden Individuums ausübt. Fast niemals wird die Frage nach dem Vorhandensein individuell invarianter, arteigener Strukturen des menschlichen Verhaltens gestellt, die allen menschlichen Sozietäten bestimmte gemeinsame, art-kennzeichnende Züge aufprägen. Es stehen ja auch fast immer nur die Struktur-Unterschiede verschiedener Typen der menschlichen Gemeinschaft im Mittelpunkt der Betrachtung und so gut wie nie die Struktur-Ähnlichkeiten, die sich aus der Invarianz individueller Reaktionsweisen ergeben.
Article
Twenty adults were asked to read a three-paragraph expository text on differences among insects. Information in the text had been rated for importance and interestingness. Half of the adults read the text with "seductive details" (propositions presenting interesting, but unimportant, information), half without. After reading, the adults recalled the important information (a macroprocessing task), rated the text for overall interestingness, reported the single most interesting piece of information read, and matched pictures of animals on the basis of differences mentioned in text (a microprocessing task). The adults presented with seductive details in text were significantly less adept than their peers at including three main ideas in their recall protocols. Microprocessing performance and interestingness ratings were unaffected by text condition. In a second study, with 36 seventh graders, macroprocessing performance in general was weak. Students presented with seductive details in text were significantly less adept at macroprocessing than students given no such irrelevant information and given redundant signaling of the main ideas. Microprocessing success of seventh graders was also affected by the presence of seductive details. Results are examined in the context of current theories of expository text processing.
Article
How positive induced mood states affect reasoning was investigated in three experiments. In Experiment 1, consistent with resource allocation theory (H. C. Ellis & P. W. Ashbrook, 1987), both positive and negative mood suppressed performance on a deontic version of Wason's selection task (P. W. Cheng & K. J. Holyoak, 1985)—participants confirmed where they normally falsify. Experiment 2 revealed the same confirmatory responses for participants performing a concurrent distracter task, indicating that induced mood states suppress reasoning by depleting central executive resources. This hypothesis was directly tested in Experiment 3. Participants in a positive, but not in a negative, mood state showed suppressed performance on the Tower of London task (T. Shallice, 1982)—the classical central executive task. The robust positive mood effects and the confirmation effects are discussed in terms of the D. A. Norman and T. Shallice (1986) model of central executive function and recent accounts of selection task performance (L. Cosmides, 1989; K. I. Manktelow & D. E. Over, 1991; M. Oaksford & N. Chater, 1994). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The authors tested the recommendation that adding bells and whistles (in the form of background music and/or sounds) would improve the quality of a multimedia instructional message. In 2 studies, students received an animation and concurrent narration intended to explain the formation of lightning (Experiment 1) or the operation of hydraulic braking systems (Experiment 2). For some students, the authors added background music (Group NM), sounds (Group NS), both (Group NSM), or neither (Group N). On tests of retention and transfer, Group NSM performed worse than Group N; groups receiving music performed worse than groups not receiving music; and groups receiving sounds performed worse (only in Experiment 2) than groups not receiving sounds. Results were consistent with the idea that auditory adjuncts can overload the learner's auditory working memory, as predicted by a cognitive theory of multimedia learning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Obtained physical measurements and subjective ratings from 80 undergraduates of various facial features for 20 adult male stimulus faces, and these faces were also rated on 5 personality dimensions, physical attractiveness, age, and "babyfacedness" by Ss, to investigate components and consequences of a babyface. The personality dimensions were designated as warm–cold, honest–dishonest, irresponsible–responsible, kind–cruel, and naive–shrewd; physical measurements included narrow–wide nose, full–thin cheeks, close set–wide set eyes, narrow–broad chin, low–high eyebrows, angular–soft face, long–short nose, high–low forehead, round–narrow eyes, small–large eyes, and not attractive–attractive designations. Results show that large, round eyes, high eyebrows, and a small chin yielded the perception of a babyish facial appearance. A weighted linear composite derived from the measures of eye size and chin width accounted for 57% of the variance in ratings of babyfacedness. Both measured composite and subjective babyfacedness ratings were positively correlated with perceptions of the stimulus person's naivete, honesty, kindness, and warmth. Findings suggest that the adaptive value of recognizing natural covariations between certain appearance cues and behavioral affordances may provide an explanation for appearance-based stereotyping. (27 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
give an overview of some of the major aspects of affective states, and their relations with other psychological processes / provide conceptual clarification of the distinctions between the various kinds of affective states [moods, emotion episodes, and emotions] causes and functions of affective phenomena / the structure of affect space / consequents of affective states (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Understanding how to measure cognitive load is a fundamental challenge for cognitive load theory. In 2 experiments, 155 college students (ages = 17 to 22; 49 men and 106 women) with low domain knowledge learned from a multimedia lesson on electric motors. At 8 points during learning, their cognitive load was measured via self-report scales (mental effort ratings) and response time to a secondary visual monitoring task, and they completed a difficulty rating scale at the end of the lesson. Correlations among the three measures were generally low. Analyses of variance indicated that the response time measure was most sensitive to manipulations of extraneous processing (created by adding redundant text), effort ratings were most sensitive to manipulations of intrinsic processing (created by sentence complexity), and difficulty ratings were most sensitive to indications of germane processing (reflected by transfer test performance). Results are consistent with a triarchic theory of cognitive load in which different aspects of cognitive load may be tapped by different measures of cognitive load. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Can multimedia learning environments be designed to foster positive emotions that will improve learning and related affective outcomes? College students (N = 118) were randomly assigned to 4 conditions created by 2 factors related to learners' emotion: external mood induction (positive vs. neutral emotions) and emotional design induction (positive vs. neutral emotions). A computer-based lesson on the topic of immunization was used as multimedia learning material. Results indicate that applying emotional design principles to learning materials can induce positive emotions and that positive emotions in multimedia-based learning facilitate cognitive processes and learning. Controlling for the germane load of the materials, the internal induction of positive emotions through design of the materials increased comprehension and transfer, whereas the external induction of positive emotions through mood induction enhanced transfer but not comprehension. Positive emotions induced through mood induction significantly increased the amount of learners' reported mental effort, whereas positive emotional design reduced the perceived difficulty of the learning task. Positive emotions increased motivation, satisfaction, and perception toward the materials. Mediation analyses suggest that the effect of positive emotions induced externally was mediated by both motivation and mental effort but found no mediators for emotion induced via emotional design, suggesting that positive emotional design has a more direct impact on learning than externally induced emotions. The study suggests that emotions should be considered an important factor in the design of multimedia learning