Article

Chang (2013) "Voice of the Voiceless? Multiethnic Student Voices in Critical Approaches to Race, Pedagogy, Literacy and Agency"

Article

Chang (2013) "Voice of the Voiceless? Multiethnic Student Voices in Critical Approaches to Race, Pedagogy, Literacy and Agency"

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Abstract

(*Free to download at: https://www.academia.edu/3312619/_Voice_of_the_Voiceless_Multiethnic_Student_Voices_in_Critical_Approaches_to_Race_Pedagogy_Literacy_and_Agency_) In this article, the author utilizes critical and sociocultural approaches to race, language and culture to examine the intersectional experiences of a multiethnic and ‘mixed race’ cohort of students in an inner-city, working-class neighborhood between their elementary and high school years. This article examines the students’ experiences in a nine-year educational process focused on critical pedagogy, sociocultural learning, and community engagement in and out of classrooms. More specifically, the article looks at interview, participant observation, and narrative data with a Latina/o and Asian American male student, and an Asian American female student, and how they made sense of their experiences over time with regards to issues of race, pedagogy, literacy, and agency.

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... Some educators believe that by examining schooling from a local context, it will be easier to see that schools are reproducing imperialistic institutions because educational organizations are structured to reinforce the colonization of Indigenous and underrepresented communities rather than teaching liberation (Emdin, 2016;Grande, 2015;Paris & Alim, 2017). Schools often have discriminatory systemic policies where students of color find themselves blamed for the achievement gap or academic inequalities (Bonner & Adams, 2012;Chang, 2013;Gay, 2018;Kendi, 2019;Tippeconnic II, 2015). In addition, social inequalities continue to plague our schools; the use of universal principles ignore the needs of many communities of color, and place Western views of progress at the center of schools (McLaren, 2015). ...
... Culture is like air; it is always there but it can be hard to identify because it is everywhere. Culture is powerful; we breathe it, we identify with it, we interpret our experiences using it, we live it (Chang, 2013;Erickson, 2015;Pang, 2005). Cajete (1994), an educator from New Mexico, sees culture as a large holistic sense of who one is, what one believes, and how one acts. ...
... However, we see students' cultures as important assets and should be built upon in the cognitive process (Lee, 2001(Lee, , 2017. Teachers who hold a cultural-asset orientation recognize the strengths and benefits of students and their families, and they integrate student knowledge, experiences, and practices into the learning process (Chang, 2013;Lee, 2001;Sanchez, 2020;Waitoller & King, 2016). These educators do not believe that the culture students live must be White and mainstream because White culture is objective and unbiased (Emdin, 2016). ...
Article
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Students bring valuable cultural ways of knowing and worldviews to the classroom. Teachers who build on student cultures are able to motivate and make learning more meaningful. We believe that teachers should Think Local within a holistic orientation to create a student-centered and culture-centered education that arises out of student cultural knowledge, life experiences, and belief systems. Like the Farm to Table movement in agriculture, teachers need to think about reaching students using a Think Local perspective. We highlight three examples of culturally relevant programs and how their holistic programs are based on thinking local. From these three cases, we recommend that teachers consider utilizing five cultural competencies that will assist them in integrating the local expertise of students into schooling.
... One of the central tenets of CRT is to counteract the stories of the dominant group to shift the frame in which the superiority of white groups appears natural (Crenshaw, 1989;Delgado, 1989). As both an epistemological and a methodological tool, CRT has helped in analysis of the experiences and perspectives of under-represented students in order to raise their voices (Chang, 2013;Howard, 2008;Lynn et al., 2002). This is particularly important for developing emancipatory conceptual and pedagogical approaches in research (Asimeng-Boahene, 2010). ...
... Through engaging in a more critical and contextualized approach to studying the acculturation processes of people, acculturation scholars can benefit from the tenets of CRT in shifting the frame that makes the superiority of dominant groups appear natural (Crenshaw, 1989;Delgado, 1989). One way of doing this would be to study the experiences and perspectives of underrepresented students in order to raise their voices (Chang, 2013;Howard, 2008;Lynn et al., 2002). Belgian descent peers. ...
... Designing curriculum in a way that is relevant and meaningful for all students could increase intergroup awareness and sensitivity and prevent students from reinforcing their stereotypes about others. Also, including the experiences and views of students in this process can help to develop emancipatory pedagogical approaches and policies (Asimeng-Boahene, 2010;Chang, 2013;Howard, 2008;Lynn et al., 2002). A more self-reflective approach towards curriculum seems to be more common in some faculties (e.g., Humanities) than others. ...
Thesis
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This PhD dissertation examines the experiences of Turkish and Belgian descent students at a Flemish university, by studying their meanings of acculturation, dynamics of exclusion, and students’ relations with peers on the university campus. Through focusing on how students’ acculturation processes play out in a higher education setting, it ultimately seeks to understand the role of institutional practices in shaping students’ intercultural experiences. The first aim of this study is to address how acculturation is viewed as a responsibility only for people with a migration background. Even though acculturation is defined as a mutual adaptation process, the findings unpack how Belgian descent students expect ethnic minorities to demonstrate their cultural adaptation and initiate contact with them. Moreover, combining aspects of ethnic culture and Flemish culture is perceived to be conflictual by ethnic majority students even though ethnic minority students belong to and combine these two cultures. Based on the findings, this study argues that such one-sided acculturation expectations perpetuate the unequal power relations between members of dominant and non-dominant groups. The second aim of the research is to uncover Turkish origin students’ experiences of discrimination by peers and teachers across the secondary school and higher education. By addressing how open and subtle forms of interpersonal and institutional discrimination are reproduced in education, the study seeks to offer insights into patterns of exclusion. The findings underscore that institutional practices and systems tend to disadvantage students from ethnic minority groups, albeit in nonaggressive ways. Similarly, Turkish origin students experience various forms of exclusion and subtle discrimination by peers. These discrimination experiences seem to negatively impact Turkish Belgian students, throwing their belonging at the university into question. This study also discusses how Turkish Belgian and Belgian descent students experience contact in different ways in order to unpack the various factors and processes that shape students’ relations with peers. Factors such as ethnic and social homophily, social exclusion, and the distinct meeting opportunities afforded by the relatively more ethnically diverse university setting explain same-ethnic and interethnic friendship preferences among Turkish origin students. For Belgian descent students, in contrast, open and meaningful relations with ethnic and religious minority students seem limited due to intergroup anxiety, negative assumptions, and stereotypes. Furthermore, the implications of interethnic friendships on students’ attitudes tend to differ depending on their group status. Finally, the findings indicate that a range of institutional policies and practices are central to the experience of acculturation on campus, often acting to hinder successful adaptation by excluding ethnic minority students. As such, following suggestions for policy and practice are crucial to providing equitable experiences to all students in an inclusive educational environment. First, the findings highlight the need for a greater focus on equity. In particular, both institutional policies/practices and patterns of interpersonal contact are failing ethnic minority students, who experience discrimination on both counts. This limits the chances of meaningful intergroup outcomes on university campuses. Second, the findings show that encouraging intergroup contact requires that experiences of discrimination among ethnic minority students be addressed and intergroup knowledge, sensitivity, and empathy within the ethnic majority promoted. Third, all university and college policies must reflect and advance full inclusion so that students’ distinct interests and cultural backgrounds are recognized and valued. Suggested steps include promoting diversity in the student body and staff, providing students with spaces for cultural learning and expression, incorporating diverse experiences and views in the curriculum, and putting greater emphasis on fighting discrimination.
... Of the corpus of original critical race theory studies of multimodal literacy practices reviewed, the largest proportion were conducted in teaching contexts in the USA, supplemented by research from Canada (van de Kleut 2011), and Australia (Ford 2013). African-American teachers and students comprised the largest racial participant group (Turner 2012), followed by Latino/Latina participants (Fr anquiz, Salazar, and DeNicolo 2011;Rodriguez 2011), and to a lesser extent, participants of Korean (Han 2014), Japanese (Shao-Kobayashi 2013), and multiethnic (Chang 2013), White (Anderson 2008), and Indigenous Australian ethnicities (van de Kleut 2011). Race, equity and textual practices were sometimes shown as intersecting with gender (Haddix 2012), transgender identities (Blackburn 2003), migrant and refugee status (Chang 2013), economic advantage (Martin 2014), urban identities (Godley and Loretto 2013), remoteness (Han 2014), and other characteristics. ...
... African-American teachers and students comprised the largest racial participant group (Turner 2012), followed by Latino/Latina participants (Fr anquiz, Salazar, and DeNicolo 2011;Rodriguez 2011), and to a lesser extent, participants of Korean (Han 2014), Japanese (Shao-Kobayashi 2013), and multiethnic (Chang 2013), White (Anderson 2008), and Indigenous Australian ethnicities (van de Kleut 2011). Race, equity and textual practices were sometimes shown as intersecting with gender (Haddix 2012), transgender identities (Blackburn 2003), migrant and refugee status (Chang 2013), economic advantage (Martin 2014), urban identities (Godley and Loretto 2013), remoteness (Han 2014), and other characteristics. The reviewed studies were conducted across all levels of education, with the largest proportion conducted with adolescents in high school settings (Chang 2013;Hoffman and Carter 2013;Knaus 2009;Thomas 2013) or community groups (Blackburn 2003). ...
... Race, equity and textual practices were sometimes shown as intersecting with gender (Haddix 2012), transgender identities (Blackburn 2003), migrant and refugee status (Chang 2013), economic advantage (Martin 2014), urban identities (Godley and Loretto 2013), remoteness (Han 2014), and other characteristics. The reviewed studies were conducted across all levels of education, with the largest proportion conducted with adolescents in high school settings (Chang 2013;Hoffman and Carter 2013;Knaus 2009;Thomas 2013) or community groups (Blackburn 2003). This is followed by studies in early childhood and elementary schools (Brown, Souto-Manning, and The findings are discussed in the following sections, demonstrating how language teachers need to: (a) critically challenge the discursive construction of race through talk, (b) make strategic use of racial counter-narratives, (c) use literature as a key site for deconstructing race, and (d) use music, visual and performing arts, and digital media for the counter-hegemonic performance of racial identities. ...
Preprint
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Issues of race periodically rupture in the national and international consciousness, while at other times there is a false belief that society has arrived at a post-racial era. Either way, there remains impetus for the critical interrogation of the racialization of multimodal literacies in education, and Critical Race Theory (CRT) is a leading approach. This article reviews original studies that collectively analyze multimodal texts and practices to understand the construction of race in education. Multimodal texts have proliferated in online textual ecologies due to the ease of production and rapid global dissemination of image-based texts in the twenty-first century. Such texts combine two or more modes, such as images, words, sounds, and gestures. Sites for the circulation of multimodal literacies- online and offline-serve to disrupt, reify, or perhaps even exacerbate racial identities, prejudice, and subordination in education. The review highlights the prevalent themes: (a) Discursive construction of race in the spoken mode, (b) Anti-racist and Multimodal Counter-Narratives, (c) The racialization of multimodal literature for children and adolescents, and (d) Race in music, visual and performing arts, and digital media. Limitations and future challenges are posed for CRT in post-colonial societies in the context of cultural and technological change. Keywords: multimodal literacy, critical race theory, oral history, literature, digital literacy
... Often these works have combined critical pedagogy with other disciplines (e.g. sociolinguistics, geography, legal studies), to provide more intersectional approaches to equity (Chang, 2013;Kubota & Miller, 2017). In Hong Kong, critical pedagogy has been theorised and applied for over fifteen years (Hui & Chan, 2006;Lin, 2004;Mason, 2000). ...
Article
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(*Free to download at: https://www.academia.edu/34097723/_Building_a_Higher_Education_Pipeline_Sociocultural_and_Critical_Approaches_to_Internationalisation_in_Teaching_and_Research_) This article discusses the use of critical and sociocultural approaches to more dynamically 'internationalise' higher education in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China. The article explores the integration of critical pedagogy and sociocultural learning theory in developing more engaging and rigorous education practices for tertiary institutions that are looking to steer their campuses towards international standards in education for the shorter and longer term. This article's specific context is a program that helps develop diverse undergraduates to be more effective teachers and researchers and be concerned with addressing social justice issues in their work and everyday lives. Through what can be called an educational pipeline that begins with undergraduates and branches off into teaching, postgraduate studies, and research, this article discusses sustainable contributions that can be made to 'internationalisation' when the pipeline is grounded in pedagogies and methodologies which help to develop educational equity and a more humanising education.
... It addresses religious ecologies such as attitudes, values, and practices concerning nature within the world's religions and outside of those traditions. It identifies ways of interacting with nature or divinity that inspire human responses of respect, and protection (Chang, 2013). ...
Article
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Most of the work done to understand and combat the COVID-19 pandemic has been based on epidemiological models. These models are often devoid of human factors such as ethics, religion and communication. In this article, I endeavour to close this gap by examining whether or not religion can help in the understanding and management of the COVID-19 pandemic. Past research has made contradicting conclusions as to the influence of religion, ethics and communication on health. One body of research has concluded that strong religiosity results in greater adherence to health regulations because of the rule-abiding norms and philanthropic tendencies of religious people. On the contrary, another body of research concluded that stronger religiosity results in lower adherence as an intrusive personal and religious freedom. To address this quandary, this article attempts to answer two questions: One, what theoretical, procedural and epistemological questions does the COVID-19 pandemic invoke about the intersectionality of religion and health in the 21 first century? Two, how can we increasingly understand and discourse about the interactions of religion and health in the light of the COVID-19 pandemic without reifying and essentialising them? The article concludes by contending that an understanding of the objective and subjective nature of religion can provide the much needed nexus to understand and respond to the COVID-19 pandemic.
... Using frameworks that draw from ethnic studies, funds of knowledge, Borderlands, action research, and decolonizing traditions, these classrooms bridge servicelearning with community engagement from the elementary to the secondary level, both in the suburbs and in the inner-city (de los Rı´os, 2013;Duncan-Andrade, 2007). Elsewhere, I have discussed a similar longterm educational process that I was a part of for many years (Chang, 2013), which tied together classrooms, families, and community groups that had a range of emphases like sports, college access, martial arts, and organizing. It is through the participation or study of these transformative spaces that the concept of community reorganizing emerged for me. ...
Article
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(*Free to download at: https://www.academia.edu/24905404/_In_the_Service_of_Self-Determination_Teacher_Education_Service-Learning_and_Community_Reorganizing_) Influenced by Third World Liberation social movements in the United States and abroad, this article applies a serve-the-people concept to service-learning in education. Rooted in pedagogies more traditionally associated with ethnic studies and community organizing, and informed by sociocultural and critical frameworks in education, this article offers insights from school community spaces that serve K–12 youth from different urban working-class neighborhoods. Transformative opportunities for grassroots collaboration, learning, agency, and community reorganizing are explored with implications for students, teachers, teacher educators, and community workers concerned with social justice.
... Qualitative research has been further championed for 'giving a voice' to individuals or groups who are often under-acknowledged or otherwise marginalised (both in research and society more broadly). Examples of such research can be found across a range of fields include feminist studies (Haigwood 2012, Belford andLahiri-Roy 2018), disability studies (Goodley and Runswick-Cole 2015, Liddiard et al. 2018) and race studies (Chang 2013, Louis et al. 2016). ...
Article
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The widespread privileging of children ís voices in recent times has triggered expansion of differing forms of qualitative enquiry that aim to 'give children a voice'. Engaging children in research and eliciting their voices on matters that affect them is often showcased as being a more 'authentic' way to capture children's lived realities and afford their agency. Yet, the uptake of voice in qualitative enquiry, and how it may contribute to the privileging of particular ways of knowing (some) children's lives, is rarely interrogated. Drawing on examples from our own research, in this paper we critically reflect on the frequent invoking of the term voice in qualitative health research with children. In doing so, we challenge claims of authenticity by exposing the tricky epistemological tensions and relations of power that are embedded within the production and legitimation of particular voices as being 'correct' ways of knowing about health - including the ways our research intentions and methods contribute to these processes. We reflect on the methodological and epistemological value of silences, dissenting voices and other modes of expression to highlight forms of resistance to adult-led health agendas. We conclude by illustrating how dominant relations of power are (re)produced within and across research spaces, and through the mobilising or pathologising of particular young voices through research. Possibilities for advancing ways to harness children's preferred modes of expression in qualitative research are also considered.
... In my own work, I drew inspiration from these insights when exploring popular and essentializing conceptualizations of Asians in North America as the "Model Minority" or "Oppressed Minority" (Chang, 2017a), and the detrimental effects those conceptualizations have in educational research, curriculum, policy, and pedagogy. On the other hand, I also drew upon Luke's work when broaching how critical approaches contextualized within Asian American communities can facilitate a more difficult but nuanced conversation about how racialization, privilege, and inequities are entangled in everyday lives (Chang, 2013;Chang & Au, 2008). These conversations move beyond dichotomies like minority/majority, immigrant/white, Spanish/English, and colonized/colonizer that cannot account for the tremendously diverse groups, practices, and experiences that fall under the Asian umbrella category. ...
Article
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(*Free to download at: https://www.academia.edu/39426311/_Two_More_Takes_on_the_Critical_Intersectional_and_Interdisciplinary_Scholarship_Grounded_in_Family_Histories_and_the_Asia-Pacific_) This article engages various works of Allan Luke that innovatively use his personal and family narratives within his intersectional, interdisciplinary, and transnational engagements of education and social science research. The article looks at some of the contributions that Luke’s work makes to the literature, particularly within the context of those who come from minoritized backgrounds, and from Chinese and Asian diasporic communities around the Pacific Rim.
... "But what? Fundamentally you agreed to be involved in today's excursion because you wanted to speak back to the racism you've experienced and continue to experience, no? You're sick of people assuming you're part of this homogenous 'cultural' whole (Yu, 2006) with all its associated deficit assumptions (Chang, 2013). So, how is writing about it in your thesis any different from what you're about to do with the students? ...
Conference Paper
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As a doctoral student, I undertook a practice-led research inquiry, intersecting narrative inquiry combined with experiments in autoethnography and ethnography. I encountered gatekeepers (in the form of powerful institutions). Beneath appearances, I discovered a hidden war. I discovered how hidden power and larger agendas can be masked in what are often claimed to be ‘empowering’ processes. I found a ‘dangerous’ collective story from artists working with communities, one that largely was not evident in the institutional narratives. One of the unexpected effects of the research was the birthing of an autoethnographic and site-specific performance, which has birthed further embodied poetic texts and emerging autoethnographic performances.
... term "East of California" was coined within Asian American studies (Sumida, 1998) paucity of scholarship on "mixed" or "Hapa" Americans who have Asian ancestry also interrupts the conceptualization, naming, and pedagogies for the pan-ethnic Asian American project that is largely constructed around static and singular notions of race and ethnicity (B. Chang, 2013;Harris, 2016). ...
Chapter
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(*Free to download at: https://www.academia.edu/31918267/_Asian_Americans_and_Education_) A review article on the state of educational research concerning communities that are included under the Asian American umbrella category. Abstract and Contents: The communities that constitute the racialized category of Asian Americans consist of approximately 20 million people in the United States, or about 5% of the total population. About 20% or 4 million are of primary or secondary school age, and over 1.1 million are in higher education. Both in popular and academic discourse, “Asian American” generally refers to people who have ethnic backgrounds in South Asia (e.g., Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka), Southeast Asia (e.g., Cambodia, the Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam), and East Asia (e.g., China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan). As “Asian American” is an umbrella term used to categorize a very diverse, heterogeneous, and transnational set of populations, Asian Americans as a group present various challenges to education and research in and about the United States. These challenges can concern paradigms of achievement, citizenship, family involvement, access (e.g., higher education, bilingual education), language and culture, race and ethnicity, and school community. In order to address these paradigmatic challenges, a great deal of scholarship has called for a disaggregation of the data on populations that fall under the pan-ethnic “Asian America” umbrella term, to gain a more nuanced and dynamic understanding of the many diverse populations and their historical, cultural, economic, and political experiences. To further address the problematic framing of Asian Americans in education and related fields, scholars have applied critical lenses to key tensions within conceptualization, policy, curriculum, and pedagogy. More recently, the notions of intersectionality and transnationalism have been generative in the study of Asian Americans, within not only educational research but also Asian American studies, which generally falls under the field of ethnic studies in the U.S. context, but has also been categorized under American studies, cultural studies, or Asian studies. While characterizations of Asian Americans as “the Model Minority” or “the Oppressed Minority” persist, the relevance of such static binaries has increasingly been challenged as the Asian American populations and migrations continue to diversify and increase. Contents: I. Introduction II. Demographics and Naming of Asian America (Key Demographics, History and Politics of Naming) III. Key Tensions within Education (Existing Conceptualizations, Intersectionality and Transnationalism) IV. Moving Forward (Current Issues, Next Steps and Pedagogies) V. Further Reading
... Responding to analyses of critical education as being too theoretical, over the past two decades, a large body of research has emerged from scholar-practitioners that details how critical education curricula and pedagogies have been effectively applied in contexts around the globe (Chang, 2015;Morrell & Duncan-Andrade, 2002). Often, these more recent works have utilized other disciplines (e.g., literacy, sociocultural learning, ethnicity, applied linguistics, legal studies) in collaboration with critical education scholarship, to provide more intersectional and reflexive approaches to educational equity (Chang, 2013;Gutiérrez, Morales, & Martinez, 2009;Haddix & Price-Dennis, 2013). ...
Chapter
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(*Free to download at: https://www.academia.edu/36064323/_Issues_of_Educational_Equity_Curriculum_and_Pedagogy_in_Hong_Kong_) In an effort to address some of the issues of justice and equity within the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China (SAR), this chapter looks at developments with curriculum and pedagogy in the SAR with an emphasis on the years after the ‘handover’ of Hong Kong from the United Kingdom (UK) to mainland China in 1997. Not meant to be an exhaustive study, this chapter focuses on specific issues identified in discussions with a diverse group of tertiary students in Hong Kong who are studying to be teachers in the SAR. Utilizing an analysis informed by critical education scholarship, this chapter’s analysis of curricular and pedagogical issues puts forth implications that are of relevance to international contexts connected to Asia and China, as well as educational issues of diversity, social change, and equity.
... Counternarratives powerfully and directly challenge racist assumptions and ideologies, allowing alternative or previously unobserved racial understandings to become relocated as official knowledge (Godley & Loretto, 2013). Counter-storytelling can provide vital heuristics that help to enlighten educational experiences and outcomes of racial groups, while disrupting hegemonic conceptions of meritocracy based on White values in society (Chang, 2013). ...
Chapter
Critical Race Theory (CRT) distinguishes itself from other forms of critical theorizing by unapologetically focusing on race. Herein is a brief and selective history of the founding of CRT, a description of major contributions to the field, and a discussion of its application in U. S. education research over the last 20 years. In addition, there is an explication of its connections to literacy research that examines its application and use in analysis, methods, pedagogy, and theory. A review of extant literature reveals that CRT literacy research can help to demystify and reveal the blockages that disrupt literacy progress by: (a) unveiling the construction of race as biological and the privileging of whiteness, (b) challenging institutional and systemic racism within policies and laws that use citizenship/immigration status to deny access and opportunity for literacy; (c) addressing unspoken racist assumptions that underpin demands for standardized literacy testing (emphasis on individual merit and the insistence of the dominant culture‘s language); (d) critiquing the use of coded language that supports “colorblind” rhetorical stances toward race (cultural imperialism, economic and social oppression, ethnic and cultural devaluation, and social and political marginalization); and (e) providing an examination of the laws and policies as well as traditions and customs that determine citizenship status, class, and racial categories of inclusion/exclusion. Moreover, there is an examination of CRT literacy research in progress and a discussion of problems and difficulties. The entry concludes with a description of multiple pathways available for future directions of CRT literacy scholarship.
Article
As new technology has changed adolescents’ literate life pathways outside of school in remarkable ways, new uses of terminology, such as mutiliteracies, are necessary to capture the multidimensional nature of literacy. However, there have been few studies on the multiliteracies experiences of Korean adolescent English learners (ELs). In this article, through a case study, Pyo examines how an adolescent EL cultivated his literate identity through an inquiry-based multimodal project. The findings reveal that the participant integrated his computer-related practices and local experiences into the multimodal project. He used various modalities and orchestrated them for meaning making while inscribing an author's identity, which conveyed his message more comprehensively than writing alone could have done. This suggests that a multimodal literacy approach can be a powerful tool for ELs to connect in-school and out-of-school literacies.
Article
Southeast Asians were some of the first refugees arriving in the United States of America with federal refugee assistance after the passage of the Refugee Act of 1980. A large population from Cambodia entered the United States in the 1980s as a result of one of the greatest tragedies of the twentieth century. In this paper, I investigate the scope and motives for remittances from the United States that are transferred to Cambodia, the country of origin of the refugees. This will be done by taking a closer look at trends in remittances between 1992 and 2013, factors that contribute to the decisions to send remittances, and the characteristics of remittance recipients. The study found out that: (1) around half of the total remittances in the world transferred to Cambodia were derived from the United States, while amounts from each individual sender depended upon the economic condition of Cambodian Americans and the financial needs of their target recipient; (2) factors influencing decision-making in sending remittances included regular communication, age, amount of time for arrival to the receiving country, and closer association to Cambodian communities in the United States; and (3) remittances were primarily transferred to senior and younger family members for use in daily expenditures, health care and educational support.
Chapter
Critical Race Theory (CRT) distinguishes itself from other forms of critical theorizing by unapologetically focusing on race. Herein is a brief and selective history of the founding of CRT, a description of major contributions to the field, and a discussion of its application in U. S. education research over the last 20 years. In addition, there is an explication of its connections to literacy research that examines its application and use in analysis, methods, pedagogy, and theory. A review of extant literature reveals that CRT literacy research can help to demystify and reveal the blockages that disrupt literacy progress by: (a) unveiling the construction of race as biological and the privileging of whiteness, (b) challenging institutional and systemic racism within policies and laws that use citizenship/immigration status to deny access and opportunity for literacy; (c) addressing unspoken racist assumptions that underpin demands for standardized literacy testing (emphasis on individual merit and the insistence of the dominant culture‘s language); (d) critiquing the use of coded language that supports “colorblind” rhetorical stances toward race (cultural imperialism, economic and social oppression, ethnic and cultural devaluation, and social and political marginalization); and (e) providing an examination of the laws and policies as well as traditions and customs that determine citizenship status, class, and racial categories of inclusion/exclusion. Moreover, there is an examination of CRT literacy research in progress and a discussion of problems and difficulties. The entry concludes with a description of multiple pathways available for future directions of CRT literacy scholarship.
Article
Post-secondary institutions are increasingly encouraging partnership engagement with the community; however, community engagement from an academic perspective does not necessarily benefit the community. This is partially due to the power differential in this relationship and the emphasis on students’ learning at the community’s expense. The content of this article is drawn from experiences gleaned from 11 students of the “Perspectives with Diverse Communities” (institute component) course at Memorial University, Canada. Of the group, eight identified as cisgender, heterosexual, white females. The professor—a Black woman—and two students deviated from this in terms of gender identity, sexual orientation, and race. During a week of on-campus education, the students participated in community engagement activities prompted by the 2017 United States ban on immigration and refugees. Through a Critical Race Theory (CRT) lens, the students acknowledged their own identities as mostly white cisgender women, given the institutional racism surrounding them. As graduate students, they are taught self-reflexive practice, but question whether this is enough to effectively work with Black, Indigenous, and racialised groups. During the course institute, they steered towards a course of action that was familiar to them instead of developing deeper levels of understanding in working with Black, Indigenous, and racialised populations. This article details one aspect and the process of community engagement undertaken by the class and provides a critical reflection on how the students could have better engaged the community and challenged power dynamics and epistemology while using CRT.
Chapter
The study presented in this chapter examines young people’s identity work and informal literacy practices in two separate, yet intertwined settings: in a “bilingual” school context located in Sweden and a social network site. Drawing on sociocultural approaches and (n)ethnographic data, the main aim of the chapter is to expand understandings dealing with identity work and heteroglossic languaging, including informal literacy practices, in settings across the offline-online continuum. Through analysis of data sets consisting of video recordings, photographs and screen grabs, the concepts of languaging and identity-as-agency are explored from a discourse analytical perspective. The findings illustrate the ways in which interactions, agency and social positionings emerge at the intersection of people, discourses, spaces, practices and technologies. Portraying identity positions and negotiating being and belonging becomes possible in and through practices where multiple aspects of communicative repertoires and modalities are employed.
Article
Little research has been done exploring how Islam has been mediated by English language teachers and learners in the classroom through the prism of dominant discourses in social circulation. Drawing on an ethnographic English for academic purposes (EAP) classroom case study, this article explores how particular meanings of Islam were framed and challenged in this classroom context by examining how an instructor and her two Muslim students engaged with these discourses featured in a panel discussion video. Employing a mediated discourse analysis approach (Scollon & Scollon, 2004; Wortham & Reyes, 2015), two interrelated aspects are examined: In what ways did the participants engage with the video's discursive framings of Islam to open up critical and dialogic spaces to contest particular pernicious discourses about Islam? And what emerges from the instructor's ensuing reflections on her classroom approaches in addressing the controversial topic of religion with her students that can help further critical theories and practices in English language teaching (ELT) classrooms? The article argues that the dialogic spaces the instructor co‐constructed with her students allowed both the development of the students’ literacy skills and important mutual learning moments in which dominant discourses were questioned and challenged. The article concludes with these implications for EAP pedagogy.
Article
Scholars contend that agency is at the heart of cultivating equitable learning spaces for all learners. While it is intuitive that literacy educators support agency during instruction, there is diverse terminology surrounding the concept of agency in the field. As a result, aligning the construct to instructional practices and developing a conceptual understanding of agency in practice has been challenging. Our research team completed a systematic literature review of agency during literacy instruction. In this article, we describe findings of this review of empirical research on agency in literacy spanning from 1975–2017. Findings highlight the complexities associated with defining agency as well as the need for diverse methodological approaches to examining agency in literacy contexts.
Article
There have been recent calls to support student agency in the field of literacy. Agency, which we define in the context of schooling, is a multidimensional construct where individuals exert influence and create opportunities in the learning context through intentions, decisions, and actions. We propose highlighting agency as an interconnected construct, which includes self-perception as readers and writers, intentionality, choice-making, persistence, and interactiveness. Elementary students (n = 1,726) completed surveys of their agency along with standardized literacy assessments. Statistical analyses largely aligned with the hypothesized dimensions of agency. Relationships to student literacy achievement were stronger in grades 3rd–5th than in 1st–2nd grades. Discussion highlights how elementary students have a voice in their agency as it pertains to literacy. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
Article
This article provides a systematic and critical review of all behavioral science research articles about Asian Americans published in 2013. As the fifth review of the series, we followed the methodology and format employed in the first annual review of Asian American psychology articles published in earlier reviews (Juan, Lee, & Bates, 2012; Kim, Wong, & Maffini, 2010; Okazaki, Kassem, & Tan, 2011; Yeh, Yoo, & Lizarraga, 2013) to discuss the trends in content and methods of published research articles in this field. A search using PsycINFO identified 271 articles that were coded for topic areas, research methodology, and populations studied. Similar to previous results, all the reviewed topic areas fit into 3 broader categories of applied issues, specific populations, and culture-specific constructs. Among the 20 topics identified in this review, 11 topics focused on an applied issue (i.e., health and health-behavior, families, psychopathology, counseling and clinical issues, stress/coping, educational experiences, violence, career, spirituality, interpersonal relationships, and measurement). Six topics focused on specific populations (i.e., immigrants and refugees, older adults, women, youth, LGBTQ, and men and masculinity). Three topics focused on culture-specific constructs (i.e., acculturation and enculturation, identity, and racism and discrimination). Finally, we provided a narrative summary of the articles and highlighted 1 or 2 studies for each topic area that either represented the types of studies conducted or demonstrated innovative ways to study Asian American psychology.
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(*Free to download at: https://www.academia.edu/201671/_YOURE_ASIAN_HOW_COULD_YOU_FAIL_MATH_Unmasking_the_myth_of_the_model_minority_) This article addresses educational issues related to the diverse communities that comprise the racialized category of "Asian Americans" in the US. Topics include curriculum, pedagogy, teacher education, and policy.
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Equal educational opportunity is highly dependent on the beliefs and abilities of teachers. However, there is a dearth of research on Asian American Pacific Islander (AAPI) education and the beliefs of successful AAPI educators. Their contributions have been marginalized in the field of education. This research studied the beliefs of nineteen AAPI educators of a successful low-income (82%), 98 percent minority (75% AAPI and 23% Latino) K–8 school. Student achievement levels are beyond what would be expected with an Academic Performance Index (API) of 860. Any score above 800 is considered exceptional in California. Cultural values are embedded in the belief system of the teachers, and these beliefs result in high teacher personal efficacy and collective efficacy. These then influence teacher behaviors as evidenced by utilized instructional strategies, contributed informal leadership roles, and the long-term stability of the school.
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(*Free to download at: https://www.academia.edu/1527646/_Community-based_Asian_American_Students_Parents_and_Teachers_in_the_Shifting_Chinatowns_of_New_York_and_Los_Angeles_) This article examines the experiences of children, parents, and teachers in the New York and Los Angeles Chinatown public schools, as observed by two classroom educators, one based in each city. The authors document trends among the transnational East and Southeast Asian families that comprise the majority in the local Chinatown schools and discuss some of the key intersections of communities and identities within those schools, as well as the pedagogies that try to build upon these intersections in the name of student empowerment and a more holistic vision of student achievement. Ultimately, this article seeks to bring forth the unique perspectives of Chinatown community members and explore how students, families, teachers, school staff and administrators, and community organizers can collaborate to actualize a more transformative public education experience.
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In a study of socioeconomically disadvantaged children's acquisition of school literacies, a university research team investigated how a group of teachers negotiated critical literacies and explored notions of social power with elementary children in a suburban school located in an area of high poverty. Here we focus on a grade 2/3 classroom where the teacher and children became involved in a local urban renewal project and on how in the process the children wrote about place and power. Using the students' concerns about their neighborhood, the teacher engaged her class in a critical literacy project that not only involved a complex set of literate practices but also taught the children about power and the possibilities for local civic action. In particular, we discuss examples of children's drawing and writing about their neighborhoods and their lives. We explore how children's writing and drawing might be key elements in developing "critical literacies" in elementary school settings. We consider how such classroom writing can be a mediator of emotions, intellectual and academic learning, social practice, and political activism.
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This chapter explores the intellectual origins and historical precursors of Critical Race Theory (CRT), a lively branch of critical social theory. One of the goals of this work is to help novice educational scholars learn more about the history of CRT and to specifically see how it is used by contemporary scholars in the field of education to address a range of equity issues. The chapter begins by contextualizing contemporary discourse on race and education. It then chronicles the life work of key individuals whose antiracist, anti- colonial ideas and actions helped lay the foundation for the body of legal thought that was eventually coined “CRT” during the Civil Rights Era. The legal origins of CRT are discussed and definitions of key CRT constructs are outlined. The chapter concludes with a close examination of two articles that exemplify how educational scholars are using CRT to address equity issues around research and teaching.
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This article outlines and advocates a historicized writing approach that leads (im)migrant Latina/o and Hmong students to reflect upon, reread, and rewrite their socially and culturally situated experiences. Students explored their own identities through readings, writing, and discussion based on larger umbrella social themes such as historicality and sociality, language and culture, race and class, and gender. This exploration took place in an environment which valued hybrid language practices that valued and legitimized students' lives while fostering critical thinking around issues related to farmworker experiences. Further case study analysis of the writing and reflection of two migrant students detail the ways that students were encouraged to grapple with challenging texts that extended to an examination of the ways such texts led them to question their lived experiences and work toward individual and social transformation.
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Synthesizing literature from critical pedagogy, sociocultural psychol- ogy, and cultural studies with popular cultural texts and experiences from actual classroom practice, this article conceptualizes the critical teaching of popular culture as a viable strategy to increase academic and critical literacies in urban secondary classrooms. Relying on scholarship that views youth popular culture as a powerful, but oftentimes underutilized point of intervention for schools, we discuss the impact of using youth popular culture to reconnect with otherwise disenfranchised school- ing populations. We rebut criticisms associated with the teaching of popular culture by showing how teachers can simultaneously honor and draw upon the sociocultu- ral practices of their students while also adhering to state and national standards. Further, the article demonstrates the social relevance, academic worthiness, and in- tellectual merit of hip-hop artists such as the controversial Eminem and popular film texts such as The Godfather trilogy (Coppola 1972, 1974, 1990). The article con- cludes with a call for postmodern critical educational leaders—vigilant advocates for students who are willing to combine academic content knowledge with a commit- ment to an engaging multicultural curricula. According to the National Reading Conference on adolescent literacy, there is a growing gap between the levels of literacy learned in schools and the types of literacy skills demanded in an information age (Alvermann, 2001). This literacy gap, seen particularly in urban schools, carries serious social and economic consequences (i.e., incarceration, unemployment, etc.). School leaders have been besieged on all sides (parents, teachers, district level administration, state and federal policy makers, and the
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This article examines the political rationale of the “model minority” stereotype about Asian Americans and its ramifications on education. Created by white elites in the 1960s as a device of political control, the model minority stereotype continues to serve the larger conservative restoration in American society today. By over-emphasizing Asian American success and misrepresenting it as proof of the perceived equal opportunity in American society, proponents of the stereotype downplay racism and other structural problems Asians and other minority groups continue to suffer. The theory that Asians succeed by merit (strong family, hard work, and high regard for education) is used by power elites to silence the protesting voices of racial minorities and even disadvantaged Whites and to maintain the status quo in race and power relations. In education, the model minority thesis has always supported conservative agendas in school reform. Now it goes hand in hand with the meritocracy myth and promotes educational policy that emphasizes accountability, standards, competition, and individual choice, while trivializing social conditions of schooling and unequal educational opportunities facing different student groups. It is the responsibility of educators to deconstruct the “model minority” stereotype and any other stereotypes or myths prevailing in education discourse, and seriously challenge racism, class division, and other structural problems. Social justice and equality must become a guiding principle for school reform and educational policy.
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Current popular discussion about the role of literacy in the workplace is often based on the largely unquestioned beliefs that workers are deficient in basic literacy skills and, further, that there are clear links among illiteracy, poor job performance, and the declining economy. These assumptions lead to demands for school-based, skill-driven literacy programs tied to the workplace. In this article, Glynda Hull challenges these demands and the characterizations of workers that underlie them, suggesting that these demands are based on overly simplistic notions about literacy and its relationship to job performance and the economy. Hull argues that ethnographic research on literacy and the workplace demonstrates that the relationship between work and literacy is far more complex than the current popular discussion would have us believe. She concludes that we must pay more attention to how literacy skills are actually used in the workplace and that we can best do this by asking workers about their experiences in workplace-related instructional programs.
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This article describes some implications of using a multiple literacies perspective in the construction and implementation of literacy curriculum, pedagogy, and assessment in early childhood and elementary classrooms. After briefly laying out a theoretical perspective in sections focusing on early literacy, academic learning, literacy beyond schools, literacy and social justice, and assessment, the article grounds the theoretical claims in examples of classroom practice. The article closes with the argument that by shifting the focus of the teaching and learning of literacy from an autonomous model to include a multiple literacies perspective, we can construct authentic spaces for learning that prepare students for equitable participation in a global communication and information economy.
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Data presented in a previously reported ethnographic research project indicated that an urban elementary school regularly subjects its students to dated curricular materials and supplies. As reported, this occurred even though the school had at its disposal updated and even state‐of‐the‐art resources, such as computers, visual aids, curriculum and photocopying machines. The critical race analysis presented in this article demonstrates that these practices are expressions of allochronic discourses that ingrain racial oppression in US schools and society. This article considers the roles of narrative and ethnography as measures to explicate allochronic discourses that inform public education. It also considers what American post‐industrialism and globalization mean for US public education and concludes with a discussion of the implications of critical race theory for contemporary urban school reform.
Chapter
According to Ali Shariati, an Iranian philosopher, each of us exists within four prisons.1 First is the prison imposed on us by history and geography; from this confinement, we can escape only by gaining a knowledge of science and technology. Second is the prison of history; our freedom comes when we understand how historical forces operate. The third prison is our society's social and class structure; from this prison, only a revolutionary ideology can provide the way to liberation. The final prison is the self. Each of us is composed of good and evil elements, and we must each choose between them. The analysis of our four prisons provides a way of understanding the movements that swept across America in the 1960s and molded the consciousness of one generation of Asian Americans. The movements were struggles for liberation from many prisons. They were struggles that confronted the historical forces of racism, poverty, war, and exploitation. They were struggles that generated new ideologies, based mainly on the teachings and actions of Third World leaders. And they were struggles that redefined human values- The values that shape how people live their daily lives and interact with each other. Above all, they were struggles that transformed the lives of "ordinary" people as they confronted the prisons around them. For Asian Americans, these struggles profoundly changed our communities. They spawned numerous grassroots organizations. They created an extensive network of student organizations and Asian American Studies classes. They recovered buried cultural traditions and produced a new generation of writers, poets, and artists. But most importantly, the struggles deeply affected Asian American consciousness. They redefined racial and ethnic identity, promoted new ways of thinking about communities, and challenged prevailing notions of power and authority. Yet, in the two decades that have followed, scholars have reinterpreted the movements in narrower ways. I learned about this reinterpretation when I attended a class recently in Asian American Studies at UCLA. The professor described the period from the late 1950s to the early 1970s as a single epoch involving the persistent efforts of racial minorities and their white supporters to secure civil rights. Young Asian Americans, the professor stated, were swept into this campaign and by later anti-war protests to assert their own racial identity. The most important influence on Asian Americans during this period was Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., who inspired them to demand access to policy makers and initiate advocacy programs for their own communities. Meanwhile, students and professors fought to legitimize Asian American Studies in college curricula and for representation of Asians in American society. The lecture was cogent, tightly organized, and well received by the audience of students-many of them new immigrants or the children of new immigrants. There was only one problem: The reinterpretation was wrong on every aspect. Those who took part in the mass struggles of the 1960s and early 1970s will know that the birth of the Asian American movement coincided not with the initial campaign for civil rights but with the later demand for black liberation; that the leading influence was not Martin Luther King Jr., but Malcolm X; that the focus of a generation of Asian American activists was not on asserting racial pride but on reclaiming a tradition of militant struggle by earlier generations; that the movement was not centered on the aura of racial identity but embraced fundamental questions of oppression and power; that the movement consisted of not only college students but large numbers of community forces, including the elderly, workers, and high school youth; and that the main thrust was not one of seeking legitimacy and representation within American society but the larger goal of liberation. It may be difficult for a new generation-raised on the Asian American code words of the 1980s stressing "advocacy," "access," "legitimacy," "empowerment," and "assertiveness"- To understand the urgency of Malcolm X's demand for freedom "by any means necessary," Mao's challenge to "serve the people," the slogans of "power to the people" and "self-determination," the principles of "mass line" organizing and "united front" work, or the conviction that people-not elites- make history. But these ideas galvanized thousands of Asian Americans and reshaped our communities. And it is these concepts that we must grasp to understand the scope and intensity of our movement and what it created. But are these concepts relevant to Asian Americans today? In our community- where new immigrants and refugees constitute the majority of Asian Americans- can we find a legacy from the struggles of two decades ago? Are the ideas of the movement alive today, or have they atrophied into relics- The curiosities of a bygone era of youthful and excessive idealism? By asking these questions, we, as Asian Americans, participate in a larger national debate: The reevaluation of the impact of the 1960s on American society today. This debate is occurring all around us: in sharp exchanges over "family values" and the status of women and gays in American society; in clashes in schools over curricular reform and multiculturalism; in differences among policy makers over the urban crisis and approaches to rebuilding Los Angeles and other inner cities after the 1992 uprisings; and continuing reexaminations of U.S. involvement in Indochina more than two decades ago and the relevance of that war to U.S. military intervention in Iraq, Somalia, and Bosnia. What happened in the 1960s that made such an impact on America? Why do discussions about that decade provoke so much emotion today? And do the movements of the 1960s serve as the same controversial reference point for Asian Americans?.
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In this article, to illustrate my evolution as a teacher, I have organized my experiences chronologically, beginning with my first year of teaching. From each year I focus on the most relevant student activities. Instead of just presenting a showcase of student work, I explain the underlying discovery process for students and myself. The liberatory teaching practices I include are: students writing petitions and gathering signatures to improve their school; supporting striking Los Angeles janitors; publishing their own immigration stories; resisting textbook bias by creating their own "peoples' encyclopedia"; and rallying together to replace a classmate's stolen watch. By doing these types of activities, a new teacher slowly gains the confidence and experience to transform the classroom into a community of learners practicing "teamwork" and "people power." My hope is that by understanding how I have struggled - and continue to struggle - others will be able to take their own steps toward liberatory teaching.
Article
Background/Context Despite recent gains from a number of students in U.S. schools, African American males continue to underachieve on most academic indices. Despite various interventions that have attempted to transform the perennial disenfranchisement, their school failure has persisted. Conversely, their failure in schools frequently results in poor quality of life options. Purpose/Objective/Focus of Study The objective of this study was to use critical race theory as a paradigmatic lens to examine the schooling experiences of African American males in PreK-12 schools. The focus of the study was to shed light on how African American males believe race and racism play as factors in their schooling experiences. Research Design The article includes qualitative data from a case study of African American males who offer counterstorytelling accounts of their schooling experiences. This article also explores the utility and appropriateness of critical race theory as a methodological tool to examine and disrupt the disenfranchisement of African American males in U.S. public schools. Findings/Results The results from this study revealed that the participants were keenly aware of how race shaped the manner in which they were viewed by their teachers and school administrators. The data also revealed how the participants explicitly fought to eradicate negative racial stereotypes held about African American males. Finally, the use of counter-storytelling within a critical race theory framework seemed to provide the participants a platform to discuss race-related issues in a manner that many of the participants felt was lacking in their school environments. Conclusion/Recommendations The findings from this study reveal some of the difficult obstacles that many African American males seek to overcome in order to become academically successful. Moreover, the findings suggest that educators must become more conscious of the role that race and racism plays in their schooling environments. Furthermore, educational researchers who are concerned with disrupting school failures of students of color and from low-income backgrounds should consider conceptual and methodological frames that place race, class, and gender at the center of their analysis.
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In this article, Vivian Louie examines how social class influences Chinese immigrant parents' expectations, strategies, and investment in their children's education. Her findings suggest that, across social class, Chinese immigrant parents have high expectations for their children, reflecting both immigrant optimism and immigrant pessimism about their children's outcomes. However, Louie finds significant differences in the resources and educational strategies pursued by working-class parents and their middle-class counterparts. Louie concludes that the role of the immigrant family is more multifaceted than suggested by previous theories on Asian American educational performance.
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Context What Varenne and McDermott described as “conventional schooling” is characterized by underlying values of competition and credentialism implicit in an unconscious, cultural framework for U.S. institutional schooling. Schools that define themselves in opposition to this cultural heritage consider themselves innovative schools and tend to explicitly reject conventional practice in favor of a collaborative “free-choice learning environment.” Focus of Study We analyze the institution of conventional U.S. schooling through the interpretive lens of students who were experiencing it for the first time in their first year of high school. We were interested in how students who had attended an innovative collaborative elementary school interpreted their former innovative and current conventional schools and how they used these interpretations to form coping strategies for success in the new environment. Setting The study was based at the Newark Center for Creative Learning (NCCL). Founded in 1971, the school terminates after the eighth grade. Participants We followed a cohort of 13 ninth-grade NCCL “graduates” through their first year of conventional high school. We also solicited views from their parents and former (NCCL) teachers. Research Design We employed a qualitative case study approach designed in collaboration with teachers. Data Collection and Analysis We conducted four focus-group interviews with NCCL alumni and analyzed their postings to a private asynchronous Web discussion set up exclusively for them to discuss their experiences. We also surveyed their parents, invited parents, staff, and students to a videotaped discussion of our emerging results, and invited personal e-mail feedback on our emerging interpretations. Findings The students in our study were generally academically successful in their new high schools yet clearly expressed a distinction between what they considered authentic learning and what they considered strategies for academic success in their new conventional schooling environments. Analysis of their discourse revealed distinct response patterns characterizing concurrent (sometimes complementary, sometimes contradictory) projects of self-actualization and institutional achievement. Recommendations Our analysis suggests that a certain critical ambivalence toward credentialism and competition can be part of a healthy strategy for school success and that efforts to improve minority school performance should be modified to take into account the effect of the institution of conventional schooling itself, an aspect that has, to date, been underanalyzed.
Article
What kind of instruction is optimal for a particular child? Without doubt, this question is immediately comprehensible to any committed teacher in virtually any country in the world, and most of them are likely to want concrete answers to the question, not only as a theoretical puzzle, but in relation to their immediate practices. If one were to look to scientific psychology and educational research for advice in relation to this practical problem, what would the answer(s) look like? This simple question raises several profound problems. Normative and political issues about the goals of instruction and the resources available for realizing these goals must be resolved. A theory of learning is needed that can explain how intellectual capabilities are developed. If instruction is not viewed as an end in itself, then a theory about the relationship between specific subject-matter instruction and its consequences for psychological development is also needed. This last problem was the main tension against which Vygotsky developed his well-known concept of zone of proximal development, where the zone was meant to focus attention on the relation between instruction and development, while being relevant to many of these other problems. Vygotsky's concept of zone of proximal development is more precise and elaborated than its common reception or interpretation. The main purpose of this chapter is to provide a comprehensive introduction to and interpretation of this concept, along with comments about predominant contemporary interpretations. The chapter concludes with some perspectives and implications derived from the interpretation presented here.
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Our field is ushering in a new generation of teachers who need experiences that will prepare them to acknowledge the multiple worldviews of the diverse student population they will teach. For preservice teachers working in urban under-resourced classrooms, constructing alternative practices rooted in critical ideology that honors their students' inquiry is a difficult task. To examine the complexities of this process, this article presents findings from a case study designed to understand how one pre-service teacher navigated the sociopolitical terrain of her middle school curricula and the pedagogical choices she made to create an engaging learning environment. Findings indicate that she fostered pedagogical third spaces to mediate conversations about diversity, equity, and social change with her middle school students.
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In this article, the author draws on critical race theory to examine Black female preservice teachers’ perspectives on their racial identity in relation to how they are positioned inside and outside the context of a traditional teacher education program in the United States. The author shares findings generated from a year-long ethnographic and sociolinguistic study of the discursive practices of Black female preservice teachers, all nonstandard language and dialect speakers, across three settings, including the university classroom, the K-12 practicum teaching classroom, and a social setting. Critical race theories and conversational analysis proved useful for revealing the deliberate decisions that these preservice teachers made about social and personal engagement and how these choices positioned themselves and each other as insiders within and beyond the dominant context of teacher education.
Article
Despite high levels of disengagement in urban literacy classrooms, few teachers have seen fit to explore spoken word - the performance of poetry - as a tool to engage students in literacy. Spoken word poetry serves as a powerful means of self-representation for youth that are traditionally portrayed as threatening, menaces to society that do not know how to productively manage their temperaments. Drawing on prior, spoken word, poetry research in education, the article examines the impact of a performance poetry unit on students' critical thinking, literacy and voice from the perspective of a teacher/researcher in an urban classroom. Bridging the critical and the performance aspects of spoken word poetry in a South Los Angeles high school composition classroom, this article offers a concrete example of this praxis and reports on a curriculum project that empowered students to examine issues of privilege, social control and oppression in U.S. society. The article concludes with pedagogical implications for using, and going beyond, performance poetry as a teaching tool for creating student- centred, critical discursive spaces in schools.
Article
Drawing from data collected through classroom observations and in-depth interviews, this article describes and analyzes practices identified as culturally responsive by Latinos students in an urban, multiethnic/racial context. The findings suggest that culturally responsive pedagogy must be more broadly conceptualized to address the cultural identities of students who have complex identities because of their experiences with peers of many varied identities, those whose urban roots have resulted in hybrid identities, and those who are multiethnic/multiracial. Based on these findings, the article forwards the concept of “cultural connectedness” as a framework for practicing a non-essentializing, dynamic approach to culturally responsive pedagogy that acknowledges the hybrid nature of culture and identity.
Article
Seventeen years ago Gloria Ladson-Billings (1995) published the landmark article “Toward a Theory of Culturally Relevant Pedagogy,” giving a coherent theoretical statement for resource pedagogies that had been building throughout the 1970s and 1980s. I, like countless teachers and university-based researchers, have been inspired by what it means to make teaching and learning relevant and responsive to the languages, literacies, and cultural practices of students across categories of difference and (in)equality. Recently, however, I have begun to question if the terms “relevant” and “responsive” are really descriptive of much of the teaching and research founded upon them and, more importantly, if they go far enough in their orientation to the languages and literacies and other cultural practices of communities marginalized by systemic inequalities to ensure the valuing and maintenance of our multiethnic and multilingual society. In this essay, I offer the term and stance of culturally sustaining pedagogy as an alternative that, I believe, embodies some of the best research and practice in the resource pedagogy tradition and as a term that supports the value of our multiethnic and multilingual present and future. Culturally sustaining pedagogy seeks to perpetuate and foster—to sustain—linguistic, literate, and cultural pluralism as part of the democratic project of schooling. In the face of current policies and practices that have the explicit goal of creating a monocultural and monolingual society, research and practice need equally explicit resistances that embrace cultural pluralism and cultural equality.
Article
This article analyzes the quality of intellectual reasoning of a class of high school students with standardized reading scores in the bottom quartile. The analysis situates the intellectual work on 1 day of instruction in terms of the history of the activity system out of which the dispositions of these students were constructed over time. The analysis deconstructs the historical dimensions of the cultural practices these students learned to acquire. Using a framework of cultural-historical activity theory, the article examines the knowledge base of the teacher, in this case the researcher, to coach and scaffold a radically different intellectual culture among students who were underachieving. The framework for the curricular design implemented and the strategies modeled explicitly aligned the cultural funds of knowledge of the African American students with the cultural practices of the subject matter, in this case, response to literature.
Article
In this article, the authors use and further elaborate a cultural modeling framework to juxtapose two distinct yet analogous literacy practices: 1. The out-of-school practice of translating and interpreting across languages, or "para-phrasing" 2. The cross-disciplinary and school-based practice of paraphrasing or summarizing written texts Data are from field notes based on two years of ethnographic observations conducted in the homes and classrooms of 18 fifth-, sixth-, and seventh-grade students; the students' journals about their translation experiences; focus group discussions with the students; audiotapes of para-phrasing interactions that involved written text; interviews with the students' teachers; and audiotaped process-focused literacy assessments that provided insights on how children read and interpreted two different kinds of texts, putting both in their own words. Through grounded theorizing, the authors first analyze the skills involved in the everyday para-phrasing or translation activities performed by immigrant youth. They then identify analogues between these skills and those required for practices of translation, interpretation, and paraphrasing as they are enacted across disciplines and in an array of discourse practices. Finally, they examine classroom practices to identify points of leverage between home and school practices. The authors contribute to the elaboration of the cultural modeling framework by exploring a set of language and literacy practices that frequently occurs in immigrant communities and yet has been little explored to date, and by considering how schools can better engage the skills of bilingual youths.
Article
IN THIS article we analyze the intersections and disjunctures between everyday (home, community, peer group) and school funds of knowledge and Discourse (Gee, 1996) that frame the school-based, content area literacy practices of middle school-aged youth in a predominantly Latino/a, urban community of Detroit, Michigan, in the United States. Using data collected across five years of an on-going community ethnography, we present findings on the strength of various funds that shape the texts available to a sample of 30 young people in the community and school we studied. We then present the patterns that we analyzed across each of the different documented funds. We use our findings on the funds that youth have available to them outside of school to suggest possibilities for working toward third space (Bhabha, 1994; Gutiérrez, Baquedano-López, Alvarez, & Chiu, 1999; Soja, 1996) around literacy and content learning in the seventh- and eighth-grade, public school science classrooms of these youth, and we draw implications for literacy teaching and research in other content areas.
Article
Using critical race theory and Latina/Latino critical race theory as a framework, this article utilizes the methods of qualitative inquiry and counterstorytelling to examine the construct of student resistance. The authors use two events in Chicana/Chicano student history—the 1968 East Los Angeles school walkouts and the 1993 UCLA student strike for Chicana and Chicano studies. Using these two methods and events, the authors extend the concept of resistance to focus on its transformative potential and its internal and external dimensions. The authors describe and analyze a series of individual and focus group interviews with women who participated in the 1968 East Los Angeles high school walkouts. The article then introduces a counterstory that briefly listens in on a dialogue between two data-driven composite characters, the Professor and an undergraduate student named Gloria. These characters’ experiences further illuminate the concepts of internal and external transformational resistance.
Article
This article examines the complex relationship between Asian American student identity(ies) and perceptions regarding future opportunity and attitudes toward schooling. The article argues that identity and attitudes toward schooling are not static, as some have argued, but are negotiated through experiences and relationships inside and outside of school. Data for this article were collected as part of a larger ethnographic study on Asian American high school students.
Article
In an effort to improve our nation's underperforming schools, education reformers are designing programs to educate and empower urban school parents. Parent involvement can be critical to a child's academic success, yet the education community still knows very little about the impact of specific parent programs. We evaluated a parent program that was part of a major school-university partnership. A responsive evaluation approach initially guided the design of our qualitative case study evaluation. Our social justice-oriented values, however, prompted us to revise our approach and adhere more closely to a social justice evaluation model. This change caused us to highlight the perspectives of low-income Latina mothers and emphasize the gap between parents' and educators' notions of empowerment. In this article, we describe our evaluation and highlight key findings that offer insightful implications for education practitioners, researchers, and evaluators. The findings pertain to the challenge of educators sharing power with urban parents and developing partnerships that are sensitive to the social and cultural factors that affect parents' values, goals, and modes of participation. We also emphasize the relationship between evaluation theory and practice and point to the potential impact of social justice evaluation in education.
Article
In this paper, we argue that teacher‐researchers, especially those in politically contested school communities, should be encouraged to conduct critical action research that is contextually bound. Such a research methodology includes tenets of critical action research, postmodern and feminist theory, and attention to how oppression manifests in educational institutions. Utilizing reflections from our students of action research as well as our own reflective journals, we address three questions: How can action research be more applicable in urban contexts? How can action research be used in processes of urban education reform? How can educational researchers (both university and K–12) continue to advocate for an action research that is critical, emancipatory and empowering for all stakeholders?
Article
What can critical race theory, a movement that has its roots in legal scholarship, contribute to research in education? Plenty, as it turns out. Much of the national dialogue on race relations takes place in the context of education--in continuing desegregation and affirmative action battles, in debates about bilingual education programs, and in the controversy surrounding race and ethnicity studies departments at colleges and universities. More centrally, the use of critical race theory offers a way to understand how ostensibly race-neutral structures in education--knowledge, truth, merit, objectivity, and "good education"--are in fact ways of forming and policing the racial boundaries of white supremacy and racism (Roithmayr, 1999, p. 4).
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This article has three objectives. First, it describes Ogbu's classification of minorities: autonomous, voluntary or immigrant, and involuntary or nonimmigrant minorities. Second, it explains Ogbu's cultural-ecological theory of minority school performance. Finally, it suggests some implications of the theory for pedagogy. The authors regard the typology of minority groups as a heuristic device for analysis and interpretation of differences among minority groups in school experience.
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As scholars examine the successes and failures of more than 50 years of court-ordered desegregation since Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, and 25 years of language education of Black youth since Martin Luther King Elementary School Children v. Ann Arbor School District Board, this article revisits the key issues involved in those cases and urges educators and sociolinguists to work together to revise pedagogies. After reviewing what scholars have contributed, the author suggests the need for critical language awareness programs in the United States as one important way in which we can revise our pedagogies, not only to take the students’ language into account but also to account for the interconnectedness of language with the larger sociopolitical and sociohistorical phenomena that help to maintain unequal power relations in a still-segregated society