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Principal turnover and student achievement

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Abstract

Principals have important management roles, including responsibilities for teachers, curricula and budgets. Schools change principals frequently; about 20% of public school principals in the United States leave their positions each year. Despite the significance of principals and the regularity of principal departures, little is known about how turnover affects schools. Using twelve years of administrative data from North Carolina public schools, this paper explores the relationship between principal turnover and student achievement. Principal departures follow a downturn in student performance. Achievement continues to fall in the two years following the installation of a new principal and then rises over the next three years. Five years after a new principal is installed, average academic performance is no different than it was five years before the new principal took over. Increases in student achievement following a principal transition may reflect mean reversion rather than a positive effect of principal turnover.

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... Though the independent effect that specific school leaders have on student outcomes is notoriously difficult to estimate (Branch, Hanushek, & Rivkin, 2009), there is little doubt that effective principals are essential for developing high-quality public schools. Recent studies have found evidence that disruptions from transitioning between principals cause reductions in student achievement and increase teacher turnover within a school in the few years following the change Henry & Harbatkin, 2019;Miller, 2013). Yet the full range of the effect of principal transitions remains an understudied component of school leadership policy (Bartanen, 2019;Henry & Harbatkin, 2019). ...
... Through staffing decisions, they can effectively influence school quality by hiring and retaining more effective teachers while also dismissing ineffective teachers . Through their managerial effectiveness and other school policies, principals may also influence school climate, school discipline, and provide instructional support in ways that enhance working and learning conditions that positively affect teachers' productivity and satisfaction, as well as improve the learning environment for students and the school community (Bacher-Hicks, Billings, & Dem-ing, 2019;Ingersoll, 2001;Johnson, Kraft, & Papay, 2012;Kraft, Marinell, & Shen-Wei Yee,2016;Miller, 2013). Thus far, existing research has tended to employ administrative data on teacher turnover and student achievement. ...
... Thus far, the effects of turnover on student achievement and teacher turnover have been largely consistent across a number of studies. Examining the effects of principal turnover on student achievement in North Carolina, Miller (2013) found that principal departures were followed by downturns in student achievement that returned to average levels within 5 years. Rowan and Denk (1984) similarly found negative effects for principal turnover in schools with higher proportions of students in poverty, though as the percentage of students in poverty decreased the effects turned positive. ...
Article
Transitions to a new principal are common, especially within urban public schools, and potentially highly disruptive to a school's culture and operations. We use longitudinal data from New York City to investigate if the effect of principal transitions differs by whether the incoming principal was hired externally or promoted from within the school. We take advantage of variation in the timing of principal transitions within an event-study approach to estimate the causal effect of principal changes. Changing principals has an immediate negative effect on student test scores that is sustained over several years regardless of whether hired internally or externally. However, externally hired principals lead to an increase in teacher turnover and a decline in perceptions of the school's learning environment, whereas transitions to an internally promoted principal have no such effects. This pattern of results raises important questions about leadership transitions and the nature of principal effects on school quality.
... Negative results could accrue from a feeling of instability within a school after principal turnover (Béteille et al., 2012;Ni et al., 2015). Not only are new principals less familiar with the student populations, teachers, and the school communities (Miller, 2013), they are also unfamiliar with the school climate and culture altogether . Given these feelings of instability, higher than usual staff turnover could result, followed by decreased school performance Eberts & Stone, 1988;Miller, 2013). ...
... Not only are new principals less familiar with the student populations, teachers, and the school communities (Miller, 2013), they are also unfamiliar with the school climate and culture altogether . Given these feelings of instability, higher than usual staff turnover could result, followed by decreased school performance Eberts & Stone, 1988;Miller, 2013). Frequent change could also be deleterious. ...
... Frequent change could also be deleterious. A constant churn of principals could make it difficult for schools to implement consistent policies and programs and to commit to improvement Miller, 2013;Miskel & Cosgrove, 1985), particularly since it can take up to seven years to see positive school reform and increases in student achievement Coelli & Green, 2012;Miller, 2013;Tran, 2017). ...
Article
This study asks: What is the relationship between principal turnover and school performance? We use data on all Colorado public schools for the years 2013 and 2018 to examine the relationship between turnover and school performance. Analyses included difference-in-difference and ordinary least squares regression after first differencing. Results indicated almost 50% of schools experienced principal turnover. The number of turnover events ranged from zero to three. Results showed no significant differences in school performance based on turnover status or number of leadership changes.
... The learning Policy Institute conducted a survey to measure and study principal turnover, and through its research, found that the "national average tenure of principals in their schools was four years as of 2016-2017" with "35 percent of principals being at their school for less than two years" (Bradley & Levin, 2019, p. 3). Continuity of leadership is important for the academic, social, and emotional health of schools (Farley-Ripple, Solano, & McDuffie, 2012;Meyer, Macmillan, & Northfield, 2009;Miller, 2013) as principals have a direct and often powerful impact of the climate of a school. A lack of continuity in leadership, therefore, has an impact on students, staff, and community, the implications of which require further study. ...
... 357). Research has shown that when schools experience a change in leadership, they also experience an impact on the climate of the school, student achievement, and teacher retention (Henry & Harbatkin, 2019;Miller, 2013). Understanding the impact of this change can help schools plan for these transitions, predict the impact of leadership change, and mitigate the negative impacts of sudden shifts of practice, policy, or consistency. ...
... Principals are expected to be instructional leaders, disciplinarians, public envoys to the community, representatives of the school, and morale builders for staff and students. Research has shown that the principal has an impact on student achievement (Hallinger, Bickman, & Davis, 1996;Miller, 2013;Nettles & Herrington, 2007;Ross & Gray, 2006). Research also shows that the principal directly affects the work environment of a school (Meyer, Macmillan, & Northfield, 2009), including influencing staff decisions on whether to remain at the school or seek employment elsewhere. ...
Article
School climate affects student achievement, feelings of safety within the school, and teacher job satisfaction. Concurrently, the principal is often seen as someone with a direct influence on the climate of the school, and therefore someone who has a direct role in shaping these aspects of school climate. Recent data suggests that about one in five principals leaves the profession every year, which means that every year, one in every five schools experiences a change to its climate, and a change to its achievement, safety, and teacher satisfaction. If this trend continues, schools are going to continue to feel the effects of inconsistency in the principalship. Through studying the effect of leadership change on school climate, we can better understand the ways in which climate is impacted by frequent changes in the principalship. Additionally, aspiring principals can learn a lot about the potential impact of their entrance into a school, and thus prepare for a successful transition into their new school and their new profession. Lastly, if administrators are prepared for the change in climate, hopefully they will have more success staying as the principal during those first challenging years.
... One principal characteristic that has received scant research attention is how a principal's effectiveness is associated with the likelihood of turnover (Grissom & Bartanen, 2019a, 2019bHusain, Miller, & Player, 2019). While principal turnover may be detrimental to school performance in the short term (Miller, 2013), longer term principal turnover may ultimately be positive if higher turnover rates occur for lower performing principals (Grissom & Bartanen, 2019a). Grissom and Bartanen used measures of teachers' perceptions of principal quality, school value-added scores, and principal effectiveness ratings made by supervisors to construct a measure of principal effectiveness in Tennessee, and examined their relationship to different types of principal turnover, such as inter-and intradistrict moves, exits from the education system, and demotions to non-principal positions. ...
... Principals are responsible for human capital management, including processes to strategically hire and retain teachers who are likely to be successful in the school's context; these management processes may suffer during disruptions (Grissom & Bartanen, 2019b). Indeed, research suggests that higher rates of principal turnover are related to higher teacher turnover rates (Miller, 2013;Ronfeldt, Loeb, & Wyckoff, 2013); for example, one study found that the odds of teacher turnover were 10% higher in the year after a principal departed, and that principal turnover was linked to increased chances of the most effective teachers leaving the school (Béteille, et al., 2012). Miller (2013) documented increased turnover of teachers during the year before a principal exited and in the year following the exit, followed by rates that returned to the levels found prior to the principal's departure. ...
... Indeed, research suggests that higher rates of principal turnover are related to higher teacher turnover rates (Miller, 2013;Ronfeldt, Loeb, & Wyckoff, 2013); for example, one study found that the odds of teacher turnover were 10% higher in the year after a principal departed, and that principal turnover was linked to increased chances of the most effective teachers leaving the school (Béteille, et al., 2012). Miller (2013) documented increased turnover of teachers during the year before a principal exited and in the year following the exit, followed by rates that returned to the levels found prior to the principal's departure. ...
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Principals are critical to determining teaching quality, and in turn, student learning and achievement; retaining effective principals therefore is paramount, particularly in schools striving for rapid improvement. Principal turnover is higher in public charter than traditional public schools, in part because many charter schools are located in economically disadvantaged areas which have higher turnover rates generally. Less effective principals are more likely to leave their schools, which may imply the chance for improved school outcomes if they are replaced by more effective principals; however, research has yet to explore the extent to which this occurs. Working conditions found to influence principal turnover include negative disciplinary environments, lack of autonomy in decision-making regarding personnel and finances, and salary, whose impact is moderated by job benefits and other nonmonetary working conditions. District and policy characteristics such as tenure/union membership and policies intended to reduce teacher turnover also reduce the likelihood of principal turnover, as do high-quality professional development and support programs. Principal turnover incurs significant financial costs, and often leads to increased teacher turnover and decreased student achievement, unless a ready supply of more effective principals is available to replace low-performing ones. Evidence-based strategies to improve principal retention include coaching, mentoring and leadership supports tailored to a principal’s school context, and pipeline initiatives designed to increase the supply of high-quality candidates through recruitment, preparation, and ongoing development and support. Targeted financial incentives to work in high-needs schools coupled with improvements to principals’ working conditions can enhance retention, as can principal accountability systems that given principals increased autonomy but that also focus on ensuring they can build teacher capacity for the use of evidence-based instructional strategies.
... Establishing the features of principal turnover is a major step in improving student outcomes, reducing shortages, and improving equitable educational opportunities to students. Although many principals transition out of a school for beneficial reasons-to central office or for new prospects (Farley-Ripple et al., 2012;Tekleselassie & Choi, 2019)-research has shown that it can take several years to reconstruct the organizational and social components necessary to support student achievement and growth after a transition (Coelli & Green, 2012;Miller, 2013). While a certain level of turnover is healthy for any organization (Hart, 1993;Hom & Griffeth, 1995), the rate of leadership turnover can be nearly twice as high in schools with high populations of historically and economically disadvantaged students, disproportionately affecting the most sensitive students (Coelli & Green, 2012;Miller, 2013). ...
... Although many principals transition out of a school for beneficial reasons-to central office or for new prospects (Farley-Ripple et al., 2012;Tekleselassie & Choi, 2019)-research has shown that it can take several years to reconstruct the organizational and social components necessary to support student achievement and growth after a transition (Coelli & Green, 2012;Miller, 2013). While a certain level of turnover is healthy for any organization (Hart, 1993;Hom & Griffeth, 1995), the rate of leadership turnover can be nearly twice as high in schools with high populations of historically and economically disadvantaged students, disproportionately affecting the most sensitive students (Coelli & Green, 2012;Miller, 2013). As a result, strategies to improve principal preparation and fit can not only benefit principals themselves but can also help address broader issues of student outcomes and educational equity. ...
... At a national rate of 18% annually, principal turnover has become a significant issue for students, schools, and policymakers (Goldring & Taie, 2018;. Research has been clear that principals are a key factor in school climate, teacher retention, and student achievement Branch et al., 2012;Edwards et al., 2018;Leithwood et al., 2008), and that frequent turnover disrupts these factors and harms student achievement Béteille et al., 2011;Clotfelter et al., 2007;Fuller et al., 2007;Grissom, 2011;Miller, 2013). Furthermore, the frequency and effects of principal turnover are most felt in schools serving high-poverty, low-achieving, and historically disadvantaged student populations (Fuller & Young, 2009;Goldring & Taie, 2018;Pendola & Fuller, 2020). ...
Article
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The objective of this study is to add to the existing literature on principal recruitment and hiring strategies by examining the turnover and retention patterns of internally recruited principals. For many hard to staff schools—particularly urban and rural schools—internal recruitment is considered a primary form of improving recruitment and retention. However, the relation of recruitment source to turnover has yet to be explored. Utilizing techniques including OLS and logistic regression, and discrete-time hazard modeling over seventeen years of administrative data from the Texas Education Agency, this study thereby investigates (1) the personal and school characteristics of internally hired principals, and (2) whether internally hired principals are more stable in their positions than external principals. Results demonstrate that internal hires tend to be from more historically underrepresented groups and serve in urban schools with slightly greater proportions of students of color. Furthermore, internally hired principals are significantly less likely to turnover as compared to external hires. However, results also demonstrate that within-school hires are more likely to turnover than within-district hires. These results suggest that internal recruitment has the potential to help stem the high rate of principal turnover but could be more widely utilized.
... While principal turnover creates an opening for which the AP ostensibly is a prime candidate, districts may prefer to promote from outside the school. Principal turnover may also lead to higher probability of AP transfer or exit, similar to prior findings for teacher mobility Miller, 2013). In fact, we find that the probability of AP mobility doubles in the year of a principal transition. ...
... Given a relatively fixed number of schools, a principal must transfer to a new school or leave the principalship for a position to open up for an AP. Moreover, we hypothesize that principal turnover may also influence the likelihood of AP transfers or exits given prior work on the effects of principal turnover on teacher mobility (e.g., Bartanen et al., 2019;Miller, 2013). We address this gap by explicitly examining the connection between principal turnover and AP mobility. ...
... Purely from the standpoint of stability in school leadership, these high mobility rates are worrisome. Insofar as APs play important roles as members of the leadership team, the high rate of churn could have negative impacts on school performance, as has been shown in turnover among teachers (Ronfeldt et al., 2013) and principals Miller, 2013). Given that the AP role is typically regarded as a stepping stone to the principalship, we might expect higher mobility rates among APs as they fill principal vacancies. ...
Article
Assistant principals (APs) are important education personnel, but empirical evidence about their career outcomes remains scarce. Using administrative data from Tennessee and Missouri, we provide the first comprehensive analysis of AP mobility. While prior work focuses on promotions into principal positions, we also examine APs exiting school leadership and transferring across schools. We find yearly mobility rates of 25% to 28%, with 10% of APs leaving school leadership, 7.5% changing schools, and 7.5% to 10% becoming principals. We also document a strong relationship between AP mobility and principal turnover, where higher-performing APs are substantially more likely to replace their departing principal. Finally, principal transitions appear to increase the likelihood that APs exit school leadership and change schools.
... Several studies document the negative impacts of principal turnover on student achievement and other outcomes. Quantitative studies of schools in Miami-Dade County Public Schools , North Carolina (Henry and Harbatkin 2019;Miller 2013), and Tennessee (Bartanen, Grissom, and Rogers 2019) employing quasi-experimental designs show that student test scores dip in the years following a principal's departure. Across these studies, this dip is 0.01 to 0.02 standard deviations for the average student in the school, which is modest in size but may last multiple school years (Bartanen, Grissom, and Rogers 2019;Miller 2013) and be larger in high-poverty and low-achieving schools . ...
... Quantitative studies of schools in Miami-Dade County Public Schools , North Carolina (Henry and Harbatkin 2019;Miller 2013), and Tennessee (Bartanen, Grissom, and Rogers 2019) employing quasi-experimental designs show that student test scores dip in the years following a principal's departure. Across these studies, this dip is 0.01 to 0.02 standard deviations for the average student in the school, which is modest in size but may last multiple school years (Bartanen, Grissom, and Rogers 2019;Miller 2013) and be larger in high-poverty and low-achieving schools . Midyear and end-of-year principal turnover appear to have similar effects on student achievement (Henry and Harbatkin 2019). ...
... Principal turnover also causes teacher turnover (Bartanen, Grissom, and Rogers 2019;Henry and Harbatkin 2019;Miller 2013), though the impact of teacher turnover does not appear to be the primary mechanism through which principal turnover hurts student achievement (Bartanen, Grissom, and Rogers 2019). Ratings of school climate from teacher surveys decrease with principal turnover as well (Bartanen, Grissom, and Rogers 2019). ...
... However, hiring and retaining effective principals remains a challenge (Levin & Bradley, 2019). Researchers have noted that increased job complexity and stress will further accelerate retirement and attrition of the current principal workforce (Beteille et al., 2012;Miller, 2013). ...
... The research by Pijanowski, Hewitt, and Brady (2009) argues that superintendents often underestimate the principal candidate applicant pool in their own districts by overlooking younger principal candidates and understanding the characteristics of quality principal applicants. Despite inconsistent estimates regarding principal turnover, researchers assert to have a successful school, one must have an effective principal at the helm (Beteille et al., 2012;Branch et al., 2008;Fuller & Young, 2009;Miller, 2013;Seashore-Louis et al., 2010). ...
... According to recent research by Boyce and Bowers (2016) on the influence of principals, the effect within schools is shown to increase over time. In concordance, the leadership of the school principal has an impact directly on the climate of the school and student achievement (Miller, 2013). The research conducted by Supovitz, Sirinides, and May (2010) claims evidence of the influence of the school principal on student achievement over 40 years as reported by Marzano, Waters, and McNulty (2005). ...
Article
School principals’ have a significant impact on student achievement and positive educational outcomes (Beteille et al., 2012; Branch et al., 2013; Miller, 2009; Miller, 2013; Supovitz et al., 2010). There are concerns regarding the high turnover rate and shortage of applicants for school leadership positions currently within the United States (Beteille et al., 2012; Burkhauser et al., 2012; Burkhauser, 2015; Jensen, 2014; Whitaker, 2003). According to research, high poverty schools are significantly impacted by this current state of affairs (Beteille et al., 2012; Miller, 2013). This quantitative research study aimed to contribute to the body of literature regarding principal retention and investigate whether there is a significant relationship between hiring type (i.e., internal or external promotion) and principal retention in the state of Georgia when controlling for potential covariates. Using information obtained through the Georgia Department of Education, insight is provided into identifying leadership candidates, the hiring process, and increasing principal retention rates despite the demands of the job. This knowledge could significantly impact the hiring practices for school districts in addition to the development of leadership programs in the educational community.
... Principal succession is an inevitable process of change in all school systems (Zepeda et al., 2012). This process implies, for both the principal and the school, changes in terms of power relationships (Lee, 2015;Miskel and Cosgrove, 1985), school culture and working environment (Fink and Brayman, 2004;Papa, 2007), school performance (Dillon, 2011;Hart, 1991;Miller, 2013), teacher morale (Meyer et al., 2009), job responsibilities (Miskel and Cosgrove, 1985), goals and expectations (Béteille et al., 2012) and organizational and personal trust (Lee, 2015;Macmillan et al., 2004) among other aspects. Thus, leadership succession is an important force of social and cultural dynamics within schools (Hart, 1991). ...
... For instance, Goldring et al. (2014), based on a national representative sample in the United States using data from 2011 to 2012, indicated that 6% of principals moved to another school (public or private) and 12% left the principalship during that time frame. According to research carried out by Miller (2013), this percentage is higher: about 20% of school principals working in US public school systems leave their roles each year. Previous studies also reported that principals move between six to eight times during their leadership career (Gabarro, 1987). ...
Article
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Principal succession is an inevitable phenomenon in school systems. Given the relevance of principal succession for leadership quality and school improvement, there has been a lack of research in recent decades that has synthesized principal succession. This study aims to review the literature from 2003 to 2019 on principal succession in schools. Using a systematic review as the methodological approach, the eight core educational management and administration leadership journals were selected to collect the sources. Among this corpus of data, four main topics emerged: (a) factors affecting principal succession; (b) the dilemma between change and continuity; (c) the impact of principal succession on teachers; and (d) the evaluation of succession programs. We found that the volume of evidence on principal succession in K-12 schools is low and narrow, even with the importance of the topic. Given the increasingly common pattern of principal movements across the school system, it is urgent to research principal succession in greater detail. Otherwise, the association between principal succession and school failure will be maintained.
... Because our study implicitly involves principal turnover within schools, we return to the broader literature on determinants of and implications of principal turnover in the methods section (e.g. Grissom and Bartanen 2019;Henry and Harbatkin 2019;Miller 2013). ...
... A second concern arises if the transition from one type of principal to another occurs nonrandomly within schools (Miller 2013, Henry and Harbatkin 2019. ...
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Nationwide, school principals are given wide discretion to use disciplinary tools like suspension and expulsion to create a safe learning environment. There is legitimate concern that this power can have negative consequences, particularly for the people who are excluded. This study uses linked disciplinary, education, and criminal justice records from 2008 to 2016 in North Carolina to examine the impact of principal-driven disciplinary decisions on middle school student outcomes. We find that principals who are more likely to remove students do appear to create safer schools through a reduction in minor student misconduct. However, this deterrence comes at a high cost-these harsher principals generate more juvenile justice complaints and reduce high school graduation rates for all students in their schools. Students who committed minor disciplinary infractions in a school with a harsh principal suffer declines in attendance and test scores. Revealed racial bias in principal disciplinary decisions incurs additional negative consequences specific to Black and Hispanic students.
... Because our study implicitly involves principal turnover within schools, we return to the broader literature on determinants of and implications of principal turnover in the methods section (e.g. Grissom and Bartanen 2019;Henry and Harbatkin 2019;Miller 2013). ...
... Although school fixed effects account for any stable characteristics of the school that may be associated with principal PTR, transitions within schools from one type of principal to another could still occur non-randomly (Miller 2013, Grissom and Bartanen 2019, Henry and Harbatkin 2019. For example, if the hiring of a more severe principal is caused by a surge in student misconduct, we could incorrectly attribute changes in student outcomes to the principal instead of to unobservable changes within the school environment that led to principal turnover. ...
Article
Nationwide, school principals are given wide discretion to use disciplinary tools like suspension and expulsion to create a safe learning environment. There is legitimate concern that this power can have negative consequences, particularly for the students who are excluded. This study uses linked disciplinary, education, and criminal justice records from 2008 to 2016 in North Carolina to examine the impact of principal-driven disciplinary decisions on middle school student outcomes. We find that principals who are more likely to remove students lead to reductions in reported rates of minor student misconduct. However, this deterrence comes at a high cost – these harsher principals generate more juvenile justice complaints and reduce high school graduation rates for all students in their schools. Students who committed minor disciplinary infractions in a school with a harsh principal suffer additional declines in attendance and test scores. Finally, principals exhibiting racial bias in their disciplinary decisions also widen educational gaps between White and Black students.
... As their tenure at a school increases, principals become increasingly more effective at improving student achievement-a condition lost with each transition (Bartanen, 2019). Overall, high leadership churn has negative consequences on students and teachers , as building the organizational and social components necessary to support student achievement and growth can take several years (Coelli & Green, 2012;Miller, 2013) and can trigger downstream turnover of other staff (Béteille et al., 2011;Felps et al., 2009). ...
... However, if salaries are considered an indicator of employee quality, then these low-salary employees would also be less likely to be hired elsewhere (immobile), making salary a diverging force on principal transitions (Becker & Huselid, 1992;Lazear & Rosen, 1981). Conceptually, while a certain amount of leadership mobility can be positive (Virany et al., 1992) and may result in improved principal-school fit (Farley-Ripple, Raffel, et al., 2012), in general, principal turnover has shown to have detrimental impacts on teachers and students Miller, 2013). As such, while mobility may in some ways be positive for principals themselves and may certainly be needed in certain situations, teachers and students have generally shown to be better served in schools with stable leadership. ...
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Utilizing a dataset that includes more than 17,000 principals over 17 years, we employ discrete time hazard modeling and heckit regressions to identify characteristics that simultaneously explain principal turnover and selection. We then construct a framework comparing the two dimensions of stability and mobility to identify how features such as race and student achievement can help explain sites of frequent principal turnover risk. We find certain characteristics—such as experience with low performing schools—combine to increase the likelihood of both turnover and selection, while other characteristics—such as salary—increase stability but reduce mobility. Results demonstrate which combinations of features may explain higher likelihood of frequent turnover, and further help to identify systematic trends in principal hiring to better understand where policy interventions may be leveraged.
... Thus, the departure of a principal can have severe consequences for a school. Studies have shown that principal turnover has several adverse effects, including but not limited to decreased student achievement (Branch et al., 2009;Burkhauser et al., 2012;Kearney et al., 2012;Mascall & Leithwood, 2010), poor school climate and culture (Hanselman et al., 2016;Noonan & Goldman, 1995), lower graduation rates (Weinstein et al., 2009), the financial costs of principal replacement (Tran et al., 2018), and teacher turnover (Bétille et al., 2012;Miller, 2013;Ronfeldt et al., 2013). The principal retention research has also linked principal stability to student achievement (see: Akiba & Reichardt, 2004;Branch et al., 2009;Fuller & Young, 2009;Miller, 2009;Vanderhaar et al., 2006). ...
... Henry and Harbatkin (2019) assert that principal turnover due to voluntary departures is associated with an increase of 1.7 percentage points in teacher turnover. Finally, Miller (2013) examined the impact of teacher turnover on student achievement and its association with principal turnover and found a 1.3% (b = -1.221) increase in teacher turnover in the year preceding a principal's departure. ...
Article
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This article investigates the critical influence principals have on mitigating or exacerbating teacher turnover. Both South Carolina Department of Education (SCDE) data and National Center of Education Statistics (NCES) Common Core of Data (CCD) from Academic Years 2016 to 2020 were used to analyze the research question. A Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) mixed-effects multiple regression model determined that there was a statistically significant relationship between principal turnover and teacher turnover (p ≤ 0.01; b=-1.079) as well as Principal retention and teacher turnover (p≤ 0.001; b=0.169). The article provides evidence that retaining principals and reducing principal turnover can significantly reduce teacher turnover.
... Por una parte, está bien documentado que las escuelas con una alta rotación directiva presentan mayor frecuencia de problemas en la cultura escolar e influencia negativa en los aprendizajes de los estudiantes (Meyer, MacMillan & Northfield, 2009). Miller (2013) encontró que los aprendizajes de los estudiantes descendían significativamente durante los primeros dos años después de la llegada de un nuevo director, y no retomaban la línea base hasta cinco años luego del cambio directivo. Hargreaves, Moore, Fink, Brayman y White (2003) sugieren que los directores tienen que estar un mínimo de cinco años para observar algún tipo de cambio significativo en la escuela, y que la salida anticipada de un director no solo puede detener el mejoramiento, sino que también retrocederlo. ...
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La relevancia del liderazgo para el mejoramiento del aprendizaje de los estudiantes es innegable, pero los estudios advierten de una crisis global en el reclutamiento y retención de directores debido a las complejidades asociadas al cargo. En Chile, la selección directiva favorece el reclutamiento de candidatos externos por sobre la promoción interna, lo que conlleva dificultades derivadas de la inserción en una cultura escolar nueva, en un contexto de alta rotación directiva. Este artículo presenta una mirada alternativa y, a través de un estudio de casos cualitativo, analiza la trayectoria de 10 directores de establecimientos municipales elegidos por Alta Dirección Pública (ADP), luego de un proceso de promoción interna. Los resultados se organizan utilizando el marco propuesto por Moorosi (2010): Anticipación, los futuros directores son identificados tempranamente, ejercen liderazgo de manera informal y acceden a oportunidades de aprendizaje profesional; Adquisición, los futuros directores acceden a puestos de liderazgo formal, desarrollando conocimientos profesionales y aumentando su visibilidad frente a la comunidad escolar; y Desempeño, los directores enfrentan la transición al cargo y deben manejar las relaciones con otros actores relevantes. A partir de estos hallazgos, se discuten cinco lecciones acerca de la promoción interna de líderes escolares de modo que complemente el reclutamiento externo en una futura carrera directiva en Chile.
... Schools that experience high turnover of school principals tend not to experience an increase in student achievement, this is in line with what Ashley Miller stated that student achievement in two years has decreased and will then increase in the next three years. Meanwhile, Ciamis Regency tends to have a high turnover of school principals [12]. This is thought to have an impact on student achievement. ...
... La elección de la ventana de tiempo definida para establecer el punto de evaluación y la situación ex ante (año 2017 y 2011) se justifica, entre otras cosas, ya que los convenios de contratación según esta nueva medida duran un período de cinco años. Además, porque la evidencia muestra que el impacto de un cambio directivo puede tener un comportamiento no lineal en el tiempo, observándose resultados negativos en una ventana próxima al cambio, que luego se tornan a positivos al cabo de cinco años (Miller, 2013). Así, lo que se busca es contar con un horizonte suficiente para identificar los impactos positivos, de modo de testear la hipótesis nula en línea con lo que se ha evidenciado en la literatura. ...
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La educación municipal en Chile ha perdido relevancia en los últimos años, cuestión que se refleja en una fuerte caída en la matrícula. La política pública ha creado diversos instrumentos para revertir esta situación, donde la evidencia muestra que el factor directivo puede ser fundamental para la obtención de mejores resultados. En 2011 se aprobó una ley que determinó que los directivos escolares debían ser definidos sobre la base de procesos competitivos similares a la alta dirección pública. El objetivo de este trabajo fue explorar los posibles efectos de esta política, utilizando bases de datos públicas a nivel de establecimiento para proponer distintos modelos de diferencias en diferencias y medir el impacto en varios indicadores. Los resultados indican efectos positivos en la prueba Simce de matemáticas de entre 2,1 y 4,2 puntos en un período de seis años; el tratamiento tiene un efecto positivo en este indicador a medida que aumenta el tiempo de exposición; no se encuentran efectos en la prueba de lenguaje, tampoco en distintos indicadores no cognitivos; por último, no se observan cambios en indicadores de gestión educativa como asistencia promedio o movilidad docente. Los resultados están parcialmente en línea con la literatura, lo que permite suponer que, a varios años de transcurrida la aprobación de la ley, aún existe espacio para mejoras en esta temática.
... Some indicate the need for a residency-based experience, where preservice leaders are placed in diverse settings under the supervised guidance of experienced principals (Hutchins, Epstein, & Sheldon, 2012). School districts, on the other hand, can provide more on-the-job support, with intentional induction and mentoring programs to help new leaders acclimate to their jobs and, eventually, improve their retention and give them the time and space to affect school outcomes (Béteille, Kalogrides, & Loeb, 2012;Branch et al., 2012;Burkhauser, Gates, Hamilton, & Ikemoto, 2012;Coelli & Green, 2012;Miller, 2013). When leader preparation programs and school districts groom new leaders well and have the personnel and tools to analyze the hiring opportunities, working conditions, and employment constraints that find and keep their newly placed leaders, the educational landscape will indeed improve. ...
... In fact, when the principal is racially congruent with students, the principals themselves are less likely to turnover (Gates et al., 2006). This is important given that repeated principal turnover hurts student achievement and is more likely to occur in non-White majority schools (Miller, 2013;Ronfeldt et al., 2013). They also escalate personnel replacement costs (Tran et al., 2018), which deprive resources from instruction and academic operations. ...
Article
This case highlights a high school that struggles with inequities perpetuated by a noninclusive environment. To help confront these issues, the school will hire an assistant principal of diversity. Readers are presented with a dilemma concerning the legality of hiring based on race and research that supports the benefits of racial congruency between administrators, students, and faculty. Readers are then challenged to use the hiring process to first reflect on the school’s state of affairs, have the courageous conversations to chart a different path, and ultimately hire someone with the mind-set that can help the school do so.
... Since leaders of color are most likely to work in high-poverty urban schools, when they persist in those settings, they are able to exert positive influences on students of color in terms of academic and affective outcomes (Fairchild et al., 2012). Teachers of color are more likely to stay in schools where they work under a principal of the same race, which may result in less turnover and fewer resources allocated to replacing faculty (Grissom & Keiser, 2011;Miller, 2013). Furthermore, instructional management is likely to be strengthened by principals of color who are uniquely positioned to improve teacher retention, especially in hard-to-staff schools. ...
Article
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Recent scholarship highlights the many benefits of diversity among principals, including improved teacher retention and student outcomes. We use survival analysis to assess the probability and time to promotion for 4,689 assistant principals in Texas from 2001 to 2017. We find that race and gender are associated with the probability of promotion to school leadership. Holding education, experience, school level, and urbanicity constant, Black principals are least likely to be promoted and wait longer for promotion when compared to White assistant principals. Additionally, findings suggest that even though women have over a year more experience on average before being promoted to assistant principal, they are less likely to be promoted to high school principal, and when they are, it is after a longer assistant principalship.
... To address this challenge, Bartanen, Grissom and Rogers treat the principal transition as the unit of observation and arrange the data to have one observation per event per time. This is often known as "stacking method" due to "stacking" the data (Miller, 2013). For example, if a school was treated in 2010 and 2012 and untreated in all other years between 2001-2015, then this school would appear in fifteen rows as two treated observations and thirteen control observations. ...
Preprint
The Difference in Difference (DiD) estimator is a popular estimator built on the "parallel trends" assumption. To increase the plausibility of this assumption, a natural idea is to match treated and control units prior to a DiD analysis. In this paper, we characterize the bias of matching prior to a DiD analysis under a linear structural model. Our framework allows for both observed and unobserved confounders that have time varying effects. Given this framework, we find that matching on baseline covariates reduces the bias associated with these covariates, when compared to the original DiD estimator. We further find that additionally matching on the pre-treatment outcomes has both cost and benefit. First, it mitigates the bias associated with unobserved confounders, since matching on pre-treatment outcomes partially balances these unobserved confounders. This reduction is proportional to the reliability of the outcome, a measure of how coupled the outcomes are with these latent covariates. On the other hand, we find that matching on the pre-treatment outcome undermines the second "difference" in a DiD estimate by forcing the treated and control group's pre-treatment outcomes to be equal. This injects bias into the final estimate, analogous to the case when parallel trends holds. We extend our bias results to multivariate confounders with multiple pre-treatment periods and find similar results. Finally, we provide heuristic guidelines to practitioners on whether to match prior to their DiD analysis, along with a method for roughly estimating the reduction in bias. We illustrate our guidelines by reanalyzing a recent empirical study that used matching prior to a DiD analysis to explore the impact of principal turnover on student achievement. We find that the authors' decision to match on the pre-treatment outcomes was crucial in making the estimated treatment effect more credible.
... Whether a school performs well or poorly can be attributed to effective or poor leadership. It all boils down to the capability and competency of the school principal (Badenhorst & Koalepe 2014;Miller 2013;Sun & Ni 2016). Questions are asked about how successful school principals lead and manage, how transparent their decisionmaking process is, whether they appoint the best teachers, how strong their relationships with the learners, the teachers and the community are and whether their leadership style has an impact on the school climate. ...
Chapter
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Heads of departments, DPs and principals are part of the SMT that forms the core of school leadership. They lead and oversee curriculum support and delivery in schools. SMTs influence a number of areas, including the quality of teaching and learning in their schools. Their influence can only be realised if they understand what their roles are and how to go about executing these. The literature review reveals that there is a great need for SMTs to be trained in what they are doing and in leading their schools for successful curriculum implementation. It is with this in mind that this research undertook to explore the need for curriculum leadership training programmes for SMTs. During the research, a qualitative, phenomenological approach, underpinned by an interpretative paradigm, was followed. Sampling was done purposefully, where participants were selected because of their proximity and their knowledge and understanding of the researched phenomenon. The research used semi-structured, open-ended questions for data collection. The participants were members of the SMTs (principals, DPs and HoDs) of sampled schools. Data were also collected through field notes and audio-recording devices. The data were later transcribed into text and coded. Themes were formed out of texts with similar topics for the researcher to conclude on the findings and make recommendations for the research.
... This approach is useful to plan and design training programs that allow principals to be aware of their I-positions in situated contexts and to contribute to professional identity development through dialogue among such I-positions. We consider such approach would offer an alternative to overcome the lack of evidence regarding the impact of existing training proposals either on principals' competencies, teachers' development or students' learning, repeatedly highlighted from research (Branch et al., 2012;Grissom et al., 2015;Miller, 2013). ...
Chapter
Becoming a competent principal who positively impacts the students, teachers and the school learning and development involves a process of continuous professional identity development. In this chapter we propose to delve into the mechanisms involved in the construction of the identity of school principals from the perspective of Dialogical Self Theory (DST), with the purpose of gaining knowledge regarding how principals’ positioning in everyday situations relate to their professional identity development. Based on that knowledge we also aim at providing recommendations and guidelines for building innovative training proposals that facilitate the professional development of school principals. To this end, we first state the European trends and policies that characterize functions and roles of school principals and revise what we know from research on how different leadership approaches impact on school and students learning. Second, we draw on two cases with different expertise and trajectories as school principals to analyze their dialogical self as principals and identify dialogue among positions when dealing with professional duties and challenges. In the last section, we reflect on how understanding the mechanisms guiding principals’ positioning is useful and suggest the required principles to create evidence-based training proposals promoting the professional identity development of the school principal.
... This approach is useful to plan and design training programs that allow principals to be aware of their I-positions in situated contexts and to contribute to professional identity development through dialogue among such I-positions. We consider such approach would offer an alternative to overcome the lack of evidence regarding the impact of existing training proposals either on principals' competencies, teachers' development or students' learning, repeatedly highlighted from research (Branch et al., 2012;Grissom et al., 2015;Miller, 2013). ...
Chapter
The university of the 21st century is undergoing a radical and accelerated transformation. Factors such as the continuous increase in students with very different profiles, global competition between universities, the impact of ICT or the emergence of new pedagogical paradigms, such as teaching by competencies, or formative assessment, require new abilities of the university teacher, traditionally based on their academic status, not very permeable and flexible. This chapter identifies and analyzes, from the perspective of the Dialogical Self Theory, the professional positions most commonly held by university teachers and advocates the re-construction of their professional identity, in order to be more adjusted to current challenges, offering some advice and guides for their training.
... En el presente modelo se asume que la estructura de riesgos es común a todos los profesores; sin embargo, es posible que la forma de las tasas de riesgo varíe de acuerdo con los subsectores de profesores. En esta línea, estudios realizados con directores de escuelas indican que el peak en su rotación no se produce luego del primer año, sino al segundo (Miller, 2013). De este modo, es posible que los profesores también difieran respecto al año de mayor rotación si se considera su mayor o menor dotación en el mercado docente; por ejemplo, es posible que los profesores de física en secundaria difieran con respecto al año de mayor rotación si se comparan con profesores de primaria. ...
Article
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La investigación en torno a la movilidad docente indica que existen altas tasas de rotación durante los primeros años de ejercicio profesional que afectan directamente la efectividad de las escuelas, el aprendizaje de los estudiantes y la equidad educativa. La presente investigación se enfoca en los factores escolares relacionados con la movilidad de los profesores chile-nos. Se utilizan los datos de la Encuesta de Idoneidad Docente para seguir a la cohorte de profesores de 2007 a 2018 y se emplea un modelo de historia a eventos multinivel para estudiar la relación entre factores escolares y la movilidad docente. Los resultados indican que las escuelas que presentan mayor rotación son las subvencionadas, las rurales y las que cuentan con mayor concentración de estudiantes vulnerables. La consideración de es-tos elementos resulta relevante para la formulación de políticas públicas relacionadas con la retención de profesores. Research on teacher mobility shows high teacher turnover rates during the first years of their professional practice which directly affect schools' effectiveness , student learning, and educational equity. This research focuses on the school factors that cause the mobility of Chilean teachers using data from the Teacher Suitability Survey in order to follow the teachers from 2007 to 2018. We also used a multilevel event history model to study the relationship between school characteristics and teacher mobility. Our results indicate that the schools with the highest turnover rates are subsidized schools, rural schools, and those with the highest concentration of vulnerable students. Therefore, it is important to take these factors into consideration for the formulation of public policies focused on the retention of teachers. Palabras clave Movilidad docente Abandono Permanencia Rotación Modelos multinivel Historia a eventos
... Previous research (e.g., Béteille, Kalogrides, and Loeb 2012;Mascall and Leithwood 2010) indicated that principals' years of experience has a positive impact on student achievement, while teacher turnover rate has a negative effect. Researchers (i.e., Béteille, Kalogrides, and Loeb 2012;Miller 2013) found higher principal turnover was related to an increase in teacher turnover. Although our study does not directly investigate the relationship between teacher turnover and principal experience, it is instructional for researchers, practitioners, and policymakers to understand the correlation between student achievement, teacher turnover, and principals' years of experience. ...
Article
We examined student reading achievement in rural and non-rural school districts in Texas. Our research questions probed the improvement in student performance over time, differences in the number of students achieving at different performance levels, and the impact of district-level characteristics on reading achievement. Through quantitative analyses of district-level aggregated data, we compared student growth trajectories over three years. We employed growth hierarchical linear modelling to explore to what extent time, school location, and their interaction impacted student outcomes, as measured by the state reading test. We found that both rural and non-rural students improved in all three performance levels. Location differences were only found in the higher performance levels. We further added 11 district-level factors that might influence student reading performance into the model. The percentages of at-risk and economically disadvantaged students, student mobility rate, and teacher turnover rate had a statistically significant negative impact for all reading levels.
... Constructive instructional leadership in elementary science has been found to be essential to supporting and encouraging some of the critical pieces needed to be in place for effective science education including (a) collaboration, (b) alignment of the curriculum, (c) implementing modes of teaching science that complement teacher strengths through staff organization, and (d) providing professional development (Casey et al., 2012). The prioritized policies, decisions, and actions administrators enact, often evolve as administrators change positions (Lanier et al., 2009), present substantial structural challenges that elementary science educators must work out through their agential positioning (Lewthwaite, 2004;Miller, 2013). ...
Article
In-service teachers of science work with unique content and pedagogical experiences. Understanding teacher agency in these circumstances will help researchers understand the actions that these teachers take, actions that are consequential for shaping teaching patterns and supporting the development of students’ scientific practices. The purpose of this study was to understand how the agency of six elementary (K–5) in-service teachers was expressed discursively during a global pandemic. The teachers’ agency was qualitatively analyzed using a case study approach (Yin, 2012, 2017) that applied discourse analysis to identify the ways in which science teacher agency is conceptualized, afforded, and constrained through consequential saying, being, and doing (Gee, 2010) within elementary classrooms. I found that elementary science teachers conceptualize and operationalize their agency in service to the student, thus, deprioritizing their own needs as teaching professionals. The teachers have a clear sense of agency, primarily framed by a structure-agency dialectic, the scale of expression is their classroom. I also found that centering the teacher voice during the research process increased teachers’ reflexivity about their professional agency. Recommendations are addressed including future considerations of in-service K-5 teacher agency in science education research.
... to reduce the use of exclusionary discipline (Federal Commission on School Safety, 2018; U.S. Department of Education, 2014). At smaller scales, individual districts and schools often take on multiple new programs, technologies, or curricula in quick succession (Bryk et al., 1993;Coburn, 2004), while teaching and administrative staff also turn over rapidly (Grissom & Andersen, 2012;Miller, 2013). For example, in Chicago, the last 15 years have brought nine different district CEOs (with a 10th currently being recruited); the closing, turnaround, or reconceiving of 176 schools at the same time that 127 new schools were being opened (Lutton et al., 2018); and seven years of changes in high school graduation requirements (Chicago Board of Education, 2020). ...
Article
Context For decades, educational leaders and researchers have faced a puzzle: Too often, promising new initiatives are adopted only to be quickly discontinued, while other longstanding practices persist despite efforts to undo them. Purpose We provide a framework for analyzing both change and persistence that we argue can shed new light on what sticks and why. Our MoRe institutional approach focuses analytic attention on self-activating modes of reproduction and their observable outcomes. Doing so allows for engagement with processes of both institutionalization and de-institutionalization. Research Design We make the case for our MoRe institutional framework by synthesizing across theoretical and empirical literature from both within and outside education. We address common treatments of persistence and change, as well as briefly review scholarship on institutional theory, and identify seven modes of reproduction structuring educational outcomes. We illustrate the utility of our approach concretely using the case of high-stakes testing. Synthesizing existing research across multiple levels of analysis, we demonstrate the ways that high-stakes testing is institutionalized via multiple mechanisms at multiple levels, while also analyzing possibilities for its de-institutionalization. Recommendations We conclude with implications for using the framework, focusing on strategies for supporting transformative equity-oriented change. These include processes for analyzing existing educational structures and identifying possible avenues for change, as well as design principles for protecting new practices from churn.
... In a school context, systems must be put in place in order to guide and encourage teachers to work to the best of their abilities. The study revealed that in a school where principals and their teachers are engaged in communicating about school teaching and learning, there is no time for gossip (Heide, Claren, Johansson & Simonsson, 2005;Miller, 2013). Under this situation, it can be concluded that the core business in schools, which is quality teaching, is not compromised owing to an enabling school environment that has proper channels of communication. ...
... We first assess that the treatment did not have an impact on principal turnover itself (see Table A.15), but note that sim43% of schools change principals at some point in those three years. While high principal turnover may be a barrier to improving learning outcomes (Miller, 2013;Bartanen, Grissom, & Rogers, 2019), there is no heterogeneity in treatment effects on management practices or learning outcomes by teacher turnover (see Table A.16). ...
Article
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We use a large-scale randomized experiment (across 1,198 public primary schools in Mexico) to study the impact of providing schools directly with high-quality managerial training by professional trainers vis-à-vis through a cascade-style “train the trainer” model. The training focused on improving principals’ capacities to collect and use data to monitor students’ basic numeracy and literacy skills and to provide feedback to teachers on their instruction and pedagogical practices. After two years, the direct training improved schools’ managerial capacity by 0 .13σ (p-value 0.018 ) (relative to “train the trainer” schools), but had no meaningful impact on student test scores (we can rule out an effect greater than 0.08σ at the 95% level).
... hievement (Yildirim, Acar, Bull, & Sevinc, 2008). Teachers' participation in distributed leadership at least indirectly affects academic achievement (Chang, 2011). Whipple, Evans, Barry, and Maxwell (2010) identified professional turnover (teacher mobility) as one of the major educational risk factors associated with academic achievement (see also A. Miller, 2013). ...
Article
Background/Context Students, classrooms, teachers, and schools form hierarchical units of any schooling system that compete for, say, educational resources and sometimes blame one another for the failure to meet a certain societal goal. Little educational research exists that separates competing effects on schooling outcomes across these educational levels. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study We aimed to fill in this gap in the literature by simultaneously examining in one model students, classrooms, teachers, and schools for competing effects on science achievement and identifying factors at each of these educational levels critical to science achievement. Population/Participants/Subjects We used data from the Program for Regional Assessment and Promotion of Basic Education Quality, a program in China. Data described learning and teaching practices of eighth-grade students and their science teachers (physics, biology, and geology) and school principals. Research Design: A four-level hierarchical linear model was developed to perform secondary analysis of science achievement data with students nested within classrooms, nested within teachers, nested within schools. Findings/Results Across physics, biology, and geology, the proportion of variance in science achievement attributable to students was 75%–78%, 7%–9% to classrooms, 1%–4% to teachers, and 10%–14% to schools. Across the three content areas of science, male students, younger students, and students with higher parental socioeconomic status outperformed their counterparts respectively (at the student level), and students in schools with higher student expenditure outperformed students in other schools (at the school level). Teacher effects were diverse across the three content areas of science. Conclusions/Recommendations The breakdown of institutional contributions to science achievement across the three content areas of science indicates a hierarchy of importance of educational units in the order of schools, classrooms, and teachers in China. From a global perspective, in China, gender differences were stronger, socioeconomic differences were weaker, age effects deviated from the international tradition, and school effects associated with student expenditure were stronger. We conclude that preparation and development are as critical for school administrators as they are for classroom teachers and that professional development organized by science content area may be more effective than pooling all science teachers together.
Article
This study examines the leadership characteristics and skills of school principals who work within the franchise model framework. This model consists of a successful flagship school principal who is given the charge to be the principal of nearby schools while attempting to align practices and structures of the newly adopted schools to that of the successful flagship school. Three franchise model school principals, fourteen assistant principals, and forty-two teachers were interviewed. Data analysis revealed franchise principals’ characteristics to be seasoned, successful principals with experience leading low-performing schools; challenging the status quo; shared leadership; and visionary leadership to align all franchise campuses. Given the novelty of franchise model schools, it has the potential to develop and retain effective principals for high-needs schools.
Article
Purpose How will schools reinvent themselves to respond to the technological and economic demands of the mid-21st century? In response to the demands, a school district in the western region of the United States implemented a model patterned after the franchise business model. Two effective principals were tasked to simultaneously lead multiple high-risk elementary schools and to replicate the success they achieved from their flagship school. This paper aims to introduce the concept of franchise model schools. It also examines the innovative impact of the model as it relates to student achievement and leadership development. Design/methodology/approach The methodology for this research was a case study approach. This case study sought to examine teacher and school leaders' perceptions of the implementation of the franchise model school framework. The setting of this case study was five franchise model elementary schools in the western region of the United States. Participants of this study included 37 grade-level teacher leaders and 133 teacher respondents to an online questionnaire. Semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted with grade-level teacher leaders at each participating school. State and site-based academic assessments were also collected and analyzed. Findings Due to the novelty of the franchise model schools, the long-term effects on student outcomes are not yet discernable. Interviews with the teachers and school leaders revealed that staff morale was low after the initial implementation of the model and student assessment scores also decreased after the first year of implementation. The current pattern of student assessment revealed a decrease after the first year of implementation and a small increase after the second year. Findings revealed assistant principals within the model increased their leadership capacity and efficacy. Assistant principals felt confident in their ability to lead a school as principals. Originality/value The implementation of franchise model schools is unique to the United States education system. Minimal research exists which examines the novelty and impact of franchise model schools. This case study has the potential to inform school systems, policy-makers and educator preparation programs of new practices and innovative structures that can help meet the demands of obtaining a mid-21st-century education. For educational leadership preparation programs, the use of this model provides new practicum and internship opportunities for aspiring school administrators.
Article
Background To stem the tide of teacher turnover and prevent shortages, teacher turnover interventions and policies often focus on new and novice teachers because evidence suggests that teacher turnover is particularly high among these teachers. In addition, researchers continue to investigate the root causes of the high teacher turnover observed in many low-income, high-minority schools and whether this is due more to school demographics or poor working conditions. Purpose This article examines New York City Teaching Fellows (NYCTF) teachers’ risk of leaving their first school in their first 9 years. It both describes the patterns in leaving and examines how school demographics and school climate predict these leaving patterns. Participants The study follows 608 teachers: two cohorts of secondary mathematics NYCTF teachers who entered the classroom in New York City in 2006 or 2007. Research Design This is a quantitative study of survey and retention data that were collected as part of a longitudinal research project on NYCTF mathematics teachers. Data Analysis We use an event history analysis (including a life table and hazard function graphs) to describe patterns in teachers’ timing of leaving their first school. We also use a discrete time hazard model to estimate the relative relationships between the predictors of interest (school demographics and school climate) and teacher turnover. Results The findings from this study provide evidence against the general hypothesis in the field that teachers leave their first schools at the highest rate during their first 1 to 3 years. Second, we also found that the turnover of alternatively certified teachers who began in low-income, high-minority urban schools was driven by both student demographics and school climate conditions, including teacher collegiality and student behavior. Third, we found evidence to support our hypothesis that teachers’ individual perceptions of their school environment are stronger drivers of their turnover compared with the perceptions of their colleagues. Conclusion The results from this study add to our understanding about the timing of teacher turnover among secondary mathematics NYCTF teachers, illustrating that teacher turnover may remain higher later in beginning teachers’ careers than currently assumed. This suggests that teachers in Years 3 to 5 in their careers may be good targets for supports. Our findings support the theory that improving school climate can help retain teachers but also provide a cautionary tale for a complete focus on school climate; stemming teacher turnover may require addressing larger economic forces (e.g., the global trend toward temporary work) and more insidious social forces, such as structural racism and inequality.
Article
This study investigates the effect of top management turnover in public organizations on employee absenteeism, examining school principal turnover in public primary schools. While previous research has focused on the impact of principal turnover on school performance, we analyze how principal turnover influences employee absence. A longitudinal study of 481 employees is conducted. Findings indicate that managerial turnover at schools does indeed influence absence. Absence is particularly high after a new top manager has taken office, and especially for employees where the gap between resignation of one manager and another taking office is short. Findings also show that the absence effect of a new top manager diminishes over time.
Article
Limited research has taken the contingency perspective to analyze the conditions under which the impact of top leader turnover on public organizations’ performance may vary. Using panel data from New York City public high schools, this study not only examines the main effect of principal turnover on schools’ performance but also how the main effect depends on schools’ baseline performance. Two estimation strategies—namely fixed effect models and Blundell–Bond dynamic panel models—find a consistent pattern that leader turnover is negatively associated with subsequent organizational performance, and the negative impact is stronger in low-performing organizations than it is in high-performing organizations. This study contributes to the literature by showing that the disruptive effects of leader turnover outweigh the adaptive effects in some public organizations. Moreover, the contingency perspective highlights the role of pre-turnover performance in moderating the effect of leader turnover.
Article
School principals are facing greater challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic than they have ever faced, which has implications for whether they can conduct their work productively and remain in their jobs over the long term. This article draws on a unique, nationally representative, longitudinal panel of K–12 public school principals across the United States to examine principals’ self-reported resource needs and job demands during the COVID-19 pandemic as well as how those resource needs and demands are related to principals’ dissatisfaction and their intention to leave their job. Although principals’ reported resource needs (which increased over time) and teacher shortages were consistently related to dissatisfaction and intention to leave, various other job demands were predictors of dissatisfaction but not the intention to leave. These results have several implications for supporting and retaining principals as well as the teachers they serve.
Article
Purpose Hiring teachers is among principals' most critical work but what remains uncertain is the relationship between a principal's tenure in a school and the rate at which they hire teachers who will stay. Teacher retention and principal experience are key predictors of school stability. This study therefore investigates the influence of principal tenure on the retention rates of teachers they hire over time. Design/methodology/approach The authors followed 11,717 Texas principals from 1999 to 2017, and tracked the teachers they hired in each year of their tenure in a school to see if principals became more effective at hiring teachers who stay over time. The authors use regression with fixed effects and find that the longer a principal stayed in a school, the more effective they were at hiring teachers who stay to both three- and five-year benchmarks. Findings Principals hire significantly more teachers who persist after they have led their first school for five or more years; however, the average principal in Texas leaves a school after four years thus never realizing those gains. The authors' second main finding indicates that principals who enter an unstable school (less than 69% retention in the two years prior to the principal's arrival) and stay at least five consecutive years, can counteract prior instability. Originality/value This study provides initial evidence that principals establish a great deal of building-specific situational expertise that is not easily portable or applicable in a subsequent school placement.
Article
Given that principals stand at the precipice between policy, the student body, and the community, this article examines the relationship between demographic shocks and principal turnover. In observing more than seven thousand schools in Texas over a seventeen-year period, hazard model results demonstrate that short-term demographic changes are significantly associated with increased principal turnover risk, particularly for changes in the proportion of Students of Color. Results further imply that White and suburban principals were the most sensitive to these changes, suggesting the need for additional training and support to ensure stable leadership for schools undergoing shocks in student composition.
Article
Purpose Recent teacher evaluation reforms around the globe substantially increased the number of teacher observations, consequently raising observers' (typically school administrators') observational loads. The purpose of this study is to examine associations between observational loads and school administrator turnover, reported time use and strain. Design/methodology/approach The study uses education administrative data from the state of Tennessee to examine the link between observational loads and school administrator outcomes of interest. The results present credible regression estimates that isolate variation in observational loads within schools over time and within observers over time. Findings The evidence suggests individual school administrators allocate a set amount of time to observations that is insensitive to observational load and seemingly assign observations to colleagues strategically. School administrator reports do not suggest observational loads are associated with negative unintended consequences on administrator strain or observer turnover. Originality/value The study contributes to the literature on teacher evaluation by shedding light on how the constraints posed by an evaluation system may affect the work of school administrators. It also extends the job demands-resources theory that describes worker responses to new job demands.
Article
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School improvement research has insufficiently considered the importance of intervening in schools with declining academic performance. Fields such as engineering and medicine have prioritized predicting decline to save structures or patients before they are in peril. Unfortunately, in education, school improvement policies and interventions are only enacted once schools reach low levels of academic performance. In this study, we apply sophisticated statistical models to analyze more than 10 years of longitudinal student achievement data in English/language arts and mathematics in the US state of Texas. We find that a considerable number of schools consistently decline over time. Some significant predictors of decline included shifting student demographics and changes in the percent of economically disadvantaged students. Higher starting percentages of students labeled as English language learners also increased the likelihood of decline, but increasing percentages of English language learners over timereduced the rate of decline. Leadership stability also appears to be important to impeding decline. We close by discussing implications for research, policy, and practice.
Article
Purpose: Principals are critical to school improvement and play a vital role in creating inclusive and high-performing schools. Yet, approximately one in five principals leave their school each year, and turnover is higher in schools that serve low-income students of color. Relatedly, high rates of teacher turnover exacerbate challenges associated with unstable learning environments. Our study examines the extent to which principal turnover influences teacher turnover. We build on past work by exploring how the relationship between teacher and principal turnover differs in urban, high-poverty settings and by examining the effects of chronic principal turnover. Research Methods/Approach: We draw on a student- and employee-level statewide longitudinal dataset from Texas that includes all public K-12 schools from school years 1999–2000 to 2016–17. We estimate teacher-level models with school fixed effects, allowing us to compare teacher turnover in schools leading up to and immediately following a principal exit, to otherwise similar schools that do not experience principal turnover. Findings: Teacher turnover spikes in schools experiencing leadership turnover, and these effects are greater among high-poverty and urban schools, in schools with low average teacher experience, and in schools experiencing chronic principal turnover. Implications: Improving leadership stability, especially in urban schools experiencing chronic principal turnover may be an effective approach to reducing teacher turnover. Principal and teacher turnover and their relationship with each other requires further investigation. The field would benefit from qualitative research that can provide important insights into the individual decisions and organizational processes that contribute to principal turnover.
Article
Purpose: While previous research has examined the impact of school turnaround models, less is known about the principals who lead these turnaround schools. This study examines the personal demographics, experience, educational background, prior school performance, salaries, and turnover of principals who led two turnaround models in Tennessee's lowest performing schools: a state-run Achievement School District (ASD) that has not yielded positive nor negative effects and local Innovation Zones (iZones) that averaged positive effects on student achievement over six years. Methods: We analyze longitudinal, administrative data from the Tennessee Department of Education from 2006–2007 to 2017–2018 to compare pre- and post-reform means and trends in principal characteristics between ASD, iZone, and similarly low-performing comparison schools. Results: ASD schools had higher principal turnover rates and lost principals whose schools performed higher while iZone schools retained more principals and lost principals whose schools performed lower. Moreover, iZone schools employed more experienced principals, more Black principals, and principals with higher graduate degree attainment and paid their principals more than ASD schools. Salary differences between ASD and iZone schools were not explained by principals’ characteristics, such as years of experience. Implications: Our findings reveal differences in leadership characteristics between iZone and ASD schools that were consistent with differences in the effectiveness of the two turnaround approaches.
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An emerging body of research has shown that mindfulness practices for school administrators can result in significant benefits, including a reduction in stress and sense of burnout. Concurrently, nearly 20% of school principals exit their position each year—and cite high levels of stress as a primary motivating factor. In this conceptual paper, we seek to align the benefits of mindfulness practices for educators to the causes of principal turnover, as a means to better support local, low-cost strategies to reduce high levels of leadership attrition. We offer a framework that aligns mindfulness research with principal retention research, and follow with an identification of the organizational, social, and cultural barriers to the adoption of mindfulness practices in public schools. We conclude with specific recommendations for school and district leadership to incorporate mindfulness-based interventions into organizational practices in order to help reduce administrator stress, improve task focus, and ultimately address the underlying sources of leadership turnover.
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To test the impact of work stress on Chinese rural school principal turnover intention, 490 rural school principals in the mainland of China were asked to participate in a survey. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that work stress had a positive relation with turnover intention, while achievement motivation and place attachment had negative relations. Additionally, place attachment was a protective factor that could reduce the negative effect of work stress on job satisfaction or the positive effect of work stress on turnover intention. Additionally, the moderating effects of place attachment were mediated by job satisfaction. These findings can enrich our understanding of the relation between work stress and school principal turnover behavior and can provide some suggestions for reducing school principal turnover intention in developing countries such as the mainland of China.
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It is widely accepted that teachers differ in their effectiveness, yet the empirical evidence regarding teacher effectiveness is weak. The existing evidence is mainly drawn from econometric studies that use covariates to attempt to control for selection effects that might bias results. We use data from a four-year experiment in which teachers and students were randomly assigned to classes to estimate teacher effects on student achievement. Teacher effects are estimated as between-teacher (but within-school) variance components of achievement status and residualized achievement gains. Our estimates of teacher effects on achievement gains are similar in magnitude to those of previous econometric studies, but we find larger effects on mathematics achievement than on reading achievement. The estimated relation of teacher experience with student achievement gains is substantial, but is statistically significant only for 2nd-grade reading and 3rd-grade mathematics achievement. We also find much larger teacher effect variance in low socioeconomic status (SES) schools than in high SES schools.
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The University Council for Educational Administration (UCEA) is an international consortium of prestigious research universities committed to advancing the preparation and practice of educational leaders for the benefit of children, schools and society. UCEA, as a consortium, symbolizes an important aspiration--advancing significantly the field of educational leadership through inter-institutional cooperation, communication, and contribution. While much attention has been focused on the issue of teacher retention, very little evidence exists on the issue of principal retention. A small but growing body of evidence suggests that school leaders play a pivotal role in the school improvement process. Further, the evidence suggests that principals must remain on a school for a number of consecutive years to fully impact a school. This report documents the principal tenure and retention rates of newly hired principals in Texas public schools from 1996 through 2008. The purpose of this report is to provide basic information about the actual length of tenure and retention rates of newly hired principals and explore some possible relationships between personal and school characteristics and the tenure and retention of principals. The results of this study suggest eight major findings: 1) Principal tenure and retention rates vary dramatically across school levels, with elementary schools having the longest tenure and greatest retention rates and high schools having the shortest tenure and lowest retention rates.
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The authors of this paper find that principal behavior and attributes significantly influence individual student achievement. Effective principal activities include instructional leadership (setting clear priorities and evaluating instructional programs, and organizing and participating in staff development programs) and conflict resolution (establishing a consensus on objectives and methods, maintaining effective discipline, and mediating personal disputes). These results, based upon data from a nationally representative sample of over 14,000 elementary school students, provide strong confirmation of the major conclusions from recent case studies, which arc characterized by very limited samples and weak controls for individual student and teacher attributes. In addition, the finding that principals make a difference to student achievement adds further evidence to the debate over whether schools make a difference.
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We estimate the importance of teachers in Chicago public high schools using matched student-teacher administrative data. A one standard deviation, one semester improvement in math teacher quality raises student math scores by 0.13 grade equivalents or, over 1 year, roughly one-fifth of average yearly gains. Estimates are relatively stable over time, reasonably impervious to a variety of conditioning variables, and do not appear to be driven by classroom sorting or selective score reporting. Also, teacher quality is particularly important for lower-ability students. Finally, traditional human capital measures—including those determining compensation—explain little of the variation in estimated quality.
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In this paper, we develop an econometric model to estimate the impacts of Electronic Vehicle Management Systems (EVMS) on the load factor (LF) of heavy trucks using data at the operational level. This technology is supposed to improve capacity utilization by reducing coordination costs between demand and supply. The model is estimated on a subsample of the 1999 National Roadside Survey, covering heavy trucks travelling in the province of Quebec. The LF is explained as a function of truck, trip and carrier characteristics. We show that the use of EVMS results in a 16 percentage points increase of LF on backhaul trips. However, we also find that the LF of equipped trucks is reduced by about 7.6 percentage points on fronthaul movements. This last effect could be explained by a rebound effect: higher expected LF on the returns lead carriers to accept shipments with lower fronthaul LF. Overall, we find that this technology has increased the tonne-kilometers transported of equipped trucks by 6.3% and their fuel efficiency by 5%.
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Analyzing 1978-83 panel data from more than 700 New York State school districts, the authors find evidence that school superintendents were rewarded, both by higher salary increases and by enhanced opportunities to move to better-paying jobs, for having low school tax rates and high educational achievement within their districts, relative to the values of those variables in comparable school districts in the state. The rewards were, however, quite small. The analysis also suggests that the superintendents themselves did not significantly influence either school tax rates or educational test scores in their districts. (Abstract courtesy JSTOR.)
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The authors exploit administrative data combining workers' earnings histories with information about their firms to estimate the magnitude and temporal pattern of displaced workers' earnings losses. They find that high-tenure workers separating from distressed firms suffer long-term losses averaging 25 percent per year. In addition, the authors find that displaced workers' losses (1) begin mounting before their separations; (2) depend only slightly on their age and sex; (3) depend more on local labor-market conditions and their former industries; (4) are not, however, limited to those in a few sectors; and (5) are large even for those who find new jobs in similar firms. Copyright 1993 by American Economic Association.
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This study assessed the effects of a change in principals, called management succession, on school-level basic skills achievement using longitudinal data on 149 schools in the San Francisco Bay Area. The analysis showed that a change in principals at a school did not affect basic skills achievement until the second year of a new principal's tenure. It was also found that the effects of principal change differed depending on the socioeconomic composition of the school. In schools with low proportions of students who receive Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), the effects of succession on achievement were negative, but as the percentage of AFDC students in a school increased beyond 20%, succession effects on achievement turned positive. The findings indicate that changes in school leadership can affect basic skills achievement, but that leadership effects are slow to develop and are conditioned by the socioeconomic context of the school.
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Conventional wisdom maintains that changing administrators will improve school performance. Some research evidence suggests, however, that because leader succession is disruptive to communication, decisionmaking and power processes, it will have either no causal effect or a negative effect on organizational effectiveness. Even if the impacts are modest, leader succession produces a naturally occurring set of events that provides excellent opportunities for researchers to assess administrator effects on school performance. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is threefold: (a) to construct a model that specifies a number of major school process and outcome variables associated with administrator succession, (b) to review the succession literature for each component, and (c) to suggest a variety of research strategies to examine administrator succession and effects of leaders on school processes and outcomes
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Our detailed study of two secondary schools in Nova Scotia which had experienced regular principal succession examined succession and its impact on teacher morale. We found that the process of principal succession and the new principal's practices have the potential to change a school culture and both positively and negatively affect teacher and institutional morale. Our findings suggest that several factors influence the degree to which morale is affected during principal succession: informal leaders, experience level of staff and the degree to which the principal is considered to be an integral part of the school. We suggest that if attention is paid to these factors new principals can influence their successful entry into their new school.
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Leader succession research presents intriguing evidence that leader succession affects school performance. Organizational socialization provides equally tantalizing evidence that leaders are shaped in their organizations. Socialization illuminates processes through which the outcomes of succession can be improved by successors and their superiors. The dynamic interactions among social and personal factors examined by socialization theories, however, are underemphasized by traditional succession frameworks. This omission leaves important gaps in knowledge about leader succession processes and outcomes. A synthesis of traditional succession and socialization research frameworks provides an enriched view of leader succession that can be applied to the study of principal succession, role change, and reform in schools. The literature in organizational socialization and professional socialization applicable to this synthesis is reviewed and compared with earlier succession reviews. Research issues raised by the socialization perspective are discussed.
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This study uses multivariate analysis of a large panel dataset to examine the determinants of principal retention (and, thus, the determinants of attracting a principal away from her current position). The empirical model incorporates measures of a principal's traits and of the organizational structure, culture, and situational context within a school. The discussion focuses on (1) the impact of salary, school characteristics, and principal traits and on (2) their associated policy implications. Evidence from the study suggests that schools with higher proportions of at-risk students and less-qualified teachers are disadvantaged with respect to their ability to retain (and attract) principals. At the same time, the evidence suggests that higher salaries can be used to compensate for these disparities.
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To assess the effects of principal turnover on school organizational structures and effectiveness at elementary and secondary levels, the operations of schools that changed principals were compared to those that retained principals. Studies of organizational dynamics have identified important structural variables that can be applied to school settings, including such variables as organizational linkages that affect instruction (particularly those among school specialists, principals, and teachers). These studies have also revealed effectiveness indicators, including staff perception of effectiveness and job satisfaction and student attitudes toward school. A project conducted at 89 schools in a midwestern state--37 schools with new and 52 with continuing principals--sampled the opinions of teachers on organizational and instructional effectiveness by means of variously derived indexes that measured such institutional variables as intensity of work system interdependence, communication, school discipline, isolation, perceived organizational effectiveness, and indicators of job satisfaction; in addition, students responded to nine items describing their attitudes and the school climate. After the scored responses were averaged, no evidence was found either that principal succession has a significant effect on structural linkages or that succession increases or decreases organizational effectiveness. Further research should examine factors maintaining continuity in structures, possible time-lag effects of turnovers, and the pre- and postarrival phases of principal succession. (JW)
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This guide identifies practices that can improve the performance of chronically low-performing schools--a process commonly referred to as creating "turnaround schools." The four recommendations in this guide work together to help failing schools make adequate yearly progress. These recommendations are: (1) signal the need for dramatic change with strong leadership; (2) maintain a consistent focus on improving instruction; (3) provide visible improvements early in the turnaround process (quick wins); and (4) build a committed staff. The guide includes a checklist showing how each recommendation can be carried out. It uses examples from case studies which illustrate practices noted by schools as having had a positive impact on the school turnaround. The following are appended: (1) Postscript from the Institute of Education Sciences; (2) About the authors; (3) Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest; and (4) Technical information on the studies. (Contains 2 tables.) [This report was produced by the National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences.]
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This paper uses administrative data from two states covering the school years 1987–1988 to 2000–2001 to examine principal turnover and mobility. We use a longitudinal event history modeling approach to examine whether individual characteristics of the principal and the school in which they work are related to different types of principal turnover. We find that over the time period considered, turnover among all school principals was 14 percent in Illinois and 18 percent in North Carolina. Only 20 percent of this turnover was due to principals leaving the system in Illinois; and 13 percent in North Carolina. However, we observe some interesting variation by school characteristics. Specifically, we find that principals in schools with a larger proportion of minority students are more likely to change schools and to leave the principalship, but remain in the system.
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Contemporary educational theory holds that one of the pivotal causes of inadequate school performance is the inability of schools to adequately staff classrooms with qualified teachers. This theory also holds that these school staffing problems are primarily due to shortages of teachers, which, in turn, are primarily due to recent increases in teacher retirements and student enrollments. This analysis investigates the possibility that there are other factors—those tied to the organizational characteristics and conditions of schools—that are driving teacher turnover and, in turn, school staffing problems. The data utilized in this investigation are from the Schools and Staffing Survey and its supplement, the Teacher Followup Survey conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics. The results of the analysis indicate that school staffing problems are not primarily due to teacher shortages, in the technical sense of an insufficient supply of qualified teachers. Rather, the data indicate that school staffing problems are primarily due to excess demand resulting from a "revolving door"—where large numbers of qualified teachers depart their jobs for reasons other than retirement. Moreover, the data show that the amount of turnover accounted for by retirement is relatively minor when compared to that associated with other factors, such as teacher job dissatisfaction and teachers pursuing other jobs. The article concludes that popular education initiatives, such as teacher recruitment programs, will not solve the staffing problems of such schools if they do not also address the organizational sources of low teacher retention.
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This condition report focuses on how principal turnover at new high schools affects school culture and student performance and how principals manage the transition to new leadership to minimize this impact. Using both quantitative and qualitative data on high schools in New York City, we examine the organizational structures that allow a sustained focus on student learning while the leadership is undergoing a transition.
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This paper presents the first large study of public management quality and its effect on program performance. Using 5 years of data from more than 1000 Texas school districts, the authors measure quality as the additional salary paid to school superintendents over and above the normal determinants of salary. This measure of managerial quality is positively correlated with 10 of 11 performance indicators covering organizational goals ranging from standardized tests to school attendance. These relationships hold even in the presence of controls for other determinants of program success. The measure has the potential to be used in tests of existing management theories, thus moving the literature beyond case studies to more systematic research involving many subjects. © 2002 by the Association for Public Policy and Analysis and Management.
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This paper investigates whether and how individual managers affect corporate behavior and performance. We construct a manager-firm matched panel data set which enables us to track the top managers across different firms over time. We find that manager fixed effects matter for a wide range of corporate decisions. A significant extent of the heterogeneity in investment, financial, and organizational practices of firms can be explained by the presence of manager fixed effects. We identify specific patterns in managerial decision-making that appear to indicate general differences in "style" across managers. Moreover, we show that management style is significantly related to manager fixed effects in performance and that managers with higher performance fixed effects receive higher compensation and are more likely to be found in better governed firms. In a final step, we tie back these findings to observable managerial characteristics. We find that executives from earlier birth cohorts appear on average to be more conservative; on the other hand, managers who hold an MBA degree seem to follow on average more aggressive strategies. © 2001 the President and Fellows of Harvard College and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
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This paper reports estimates of the causal effects of a 50 percent increase in the salary of headmasters of high schools in Israel. The results suggest that the program led to significant improvements in twelfth-grade students' academic achievements. However, the effect was relatively modest, comprising increases of about 5-10 percent in the school mean matriculation rate, average score and number of subjects and credit units taken in matriculation programs. Based on these results and the lack of evidence regarding the effect of increasing teachers' salary, it seems that priority should be given to paying higher wages to school principals. Copyright © The editors of the "Scandinavian Journal of Economics" 2008 .
Article
Although school accountability incentives and standards, such as district-mandated goals and state sanctions for poor performance, are increasingly common, few studies have investigated their effectiveness. The author of this paper seeks evidence on whether such policies affect public secondary principal pay and school performance. An analysis of cross-sectional variation in data from the 1999–2000 Schools and Staffing Survey indicates that accountability policies coincided with lower college matriculation rates and lower principal pay, particularly for the best principals. On the other hand, the policies were associated with higher student retention rates at the worst schools. Though principals at those schools may not have been directly rewarded through accountability policies, these principals appear to have acted as agents for students in danger of dropping out.
Article
This paper presents an empirical analysis of the effects of principals on public high school students' academic achievement, using High School and Beyond. Despite policy relevance, previous qualitative and quantitative research provides little systematic evidence on principal effects, at least for high schools. Principal characteristics and variables designed to capture less tangible aspects of the principal's role are included in educational production functions. The results suggest principals do have a measurable impact on student achievement, through the selection of teachers and setting of academically oriented school goals.
Does raising the principal's wage improve the school's outcomes? Quasi-experimental evidence from an unusual policy exper-iment in Israel Public management and organizational performance: The effect of managerial quality
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Lavy, V. (2008). Does raising the principal's wage improve the school's outcomes? Quasi-experimental evidence from an unusual policy exper-iment in Israel. Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 110. Meier, K. J., & O'Toole, L. J., Jr. (2002). Public management and organizational performance: The effect of managerial quality. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 21, 629–643.
Principal attrition and mobility: Results from the 2008–09 principal follow-up survey (NCES 2010-337). U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics
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Battle, D. (2010). Principal attrition and mobility: Results from the 2008–09 principal follow-up survey (NCES 2010-337). U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.
School principals and change
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Frequency of principal turnover in Ohio's elementary schools. Mid-Western Educational Researcher
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Partlow, M. C., & Ridenour, C. S. (2008). Frequency of principal turnover in Ohio's elementary schools. Mid-Western Educational Researcher, 21, 15– 23.
The work of Chicago public schools' principals: Leading in a complex context with high stakes
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Stoelinga, S. R., Hart, H., & Schalliol, D. (2008). The work of Chicago public schools' principals: Leading in a complex context with high stakes. Technical Report Consortium on Chicago School Research.
School choice, information disclosure and sanctions: Evi-dence from an unusually tough school accountability regime
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Hussain, I. (2007). School choice, information disclosure and sanctions: Evi-dence from an unusually tough school accountability regime. Technical Report University College London.
Implicit performance awards: An empirical analysis of the labor market for public school administrators
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Cullen, J. B., & Mazzeo, M. (2008). Implicit performance awards: An empirical analysis of the labor market for public school administrators.
The relationship between principal characteristics
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Fuller, E., Baker, B. D., & Young, M. (2007). The relationship between principal characteristics. School-Level Teacher Quality and Turnover, and Student Achievement.
Succeeding leaders? A study of principal succession and sustainability Technical Report Ontario Principal's Council
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Hargreaves, A., Moore, S., Fink, D., Brayman, C., & White, R. (2003). Succeeding leaders? A study of principal succession and sustainability Technical Report Ontario Principal's Council.
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Are public sector CEOs different? Leadership wages and performance in schools Principals as agents? Investigating accountability in the compensation and performance of school principals
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Besley, T., & Machin, S. (2008). Are public sector CEOs different? Leadership wages and performance in schools. Billger, S. M. (2007). Principals as agents? Investigating accountability in the compensation and performance of school principals. Industrial & Labor Relations Review, 61, 90–107.