ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

The use of vegetal extracts requires toxicological and genotoxic evaluations to establish and verify safety before being added to human cosmetic, pharmaceutical medicine, or alimentary products. Persea americana seeds have been used in traditional medicine as treatment for several diseases. In this work, the ethanolic seed extract of Persea americana was evaluated with respect to its genotoxic potential through micronucleus assay in rodents. The frequency of micronuclei in groups of animals treated with avocado seed extract showed no differences compared to the negative control (vehicle); therefore, it is considered that the avocado seed extract showed no genotoxic activity in the micronucleus test.
This content is subject to copyright. Terms and conditions apply.
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
e Scientic World Journal
Volume , Article ID , pages
http://dx.doi.org/.//
Research Article
Acute Toxicity and Genotoxic Activity of Avocado Seed Extract
(Persea americana Mill., c.v. Hass)
Eduardo Padilla-Camberos, Moisés Martínez-Velázquez,
José Miguel Flores-Fernández, and Socorro Villanueva-Rodríguez
Centro de Investigaci´
on y Asistencia en Tecnolog´
ıa y Dise˜
no del Estado de Jalisco, A.C., Avenida Normalistas 800,
Colonia Colinas de la Normal, Guadalajara 44270, JAL, Mexico
Correspondence should be addressed to Eduardo Padilla-Camberos; epadilla@ciatej.net.mx
Received  August ; Accepted  September 
AcademicEditors:D.MatthopoulosandI.V.Sharakhov
Copyright ©  Eduardo Padilla-Camberos et al. is is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons
Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is
properly cited.
e use of vegetal extracts requires toxicological and genotoxic evaluations to establish and verify safety before being added to
human cosmetic, pharmaceutical medicine, or alimentary products. Persea americana seeds have been used in traditional medicine
as treatment for several diseases. In this work, the ethanolic seed extract of Persea americana was evaluated with respect to its
genotoxic potential through micronucleus assay in rodents. e frequency of micronuclei in groups of animals treated with avocado
seed extract showed no dierences compared to the negative control (vehicle); therefore, it is considered that the avocado seed
extract showed no genotoxic activity in the micronucleus test.
1. Introduction
e fruit of Persea americana, commonly known as avocado,
is an edible fruit from Central America which is easily
adaptable in tropical regions []. e avocado has an olive-
green peel and thick pale yellow pulp that is rich in fatty
acids such as linoleic, oleic, palmitic, stearic, linolenic, capric,
and myristic acids. is fruit is normally used for human
consumption, but it also has been used as a medicinal plant
in Mexico and elsewhere in the world [].
e avocado seed represents –% of the fruit, and it
is a byproduct generally not utilized. Normally, the seed is
discarded during the processing of the pulp. e seed waste
may represent a severe ecological problem []. However,
atthesametime,itmaybeofinteresttoindustryasa
source of bioactive compounds. Its chemical composition is
comprised of phytosterols, triterpenes, fatty acids, and two
new glucosides of abscisic acid [].
Several biological activities of the avocado seed have
been reported such as antioxidant, antihypertensive, larvi-
cidal, fungicidal, hypolipidemic, and recently amoebicidal
and giardicidal activities []. Additionally, several studies
havefocusedontheevaluationofacutetoxicityofthefruit
and leaves []. Avocado leaves showed cardiotoxic eects in
mammals and birds []. Similarly, the mutagenicity of
fruit and leaves extracts in human lymphocytes has been
assessed []. However, no study has been done to examine
the possible genotoxic activity of avocado seed extract. In
this study, we evaluate the genotoxic eect of a P. americana
seed extract in vivo, by induction of micronuclei in blood
polychromatic erythrocytes of BALB/c mice.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Plant Material. Avocados were purchased from Micho-
ac´
an, Mexico. e seeds were dried at Candvacuum
packaged until use.
2.2. Avocado Seed Extract. e P. americana seed extract is an
ethanolic extract obtained through soxhlet reux equipment
and evaporated on a rotary evaporator as mentioned by
Ramos et al. in  []. Dried avocado seeds ( g) were
ground to powder in a laboratory mill, defatted with petrol
ether (–C),andmaceratedwithfreshlydistilledethanol
e Scientic World Journal
until exhaustion. Aer ltration, extracts were concentrated
under vacuum at C.
2.3. Animals. Forty-ve, eight-week-old male BALB/c mice
( ± g) were purchased from the Zooterio of the University
of Guadalajara. e mice were fed Standard Diet 
Tekland and water. ey were kept at room temperature
under a  hours of light and  hours of dark cycle at C.
irtymicewereemployedforacutetoxicitytestandeen
mice for genotoxicity test. Animals were handled following
the animal care guidelines in accordance with regulations
enacted by the Federal Government of Mexico (NOM--
ZOO- and NOM--ZOO-).
2.4. Acute Toxicity Test. To determine the median lethal dose
(LD50)oftheP. americana seed extract, six groups of  mice
each were administered one by one by oral gavage at dierent
dosesconsistingof,,,,andmg/kg
using an orogastric tube (Popper). Mortality was recorded 
hours aer the administration of the extract. Animals were
observed during one week to detect signs of delayed toxicity.
2.5. Genotoxicity Test. e genotoxicological study of the P.
americana seed extract was carried out using an identi-
cation and quantication on the erythrocyte micronucleus
formation test. According to the acute toxicity test results,
the most appropriate extract dose for genotoxic study was
selected. ree groups of  mice each were employed in
the experiment. e rst group was given P. americana seed
extract at a dose of  mg/kg, dissolved in  : alcohol-water
solution; the second group was given colchicine dissolved in
physiological saline at a dose of  mg/kg and was designated
as the positive control, while the third group was assigned
as the negative control and received the vehicle ( : alcohol-
water solution), all solutions in an amount of  mL/kg. At 
hours aer administration of treatments, peripheral blood
samples were collected by perforating the caudal vein, and
drops were placed at the prestained slides with acridine
orange as described by Hayashi and Sofuni,  [].
e micronucleated cells were scored under a uorescence
microscope.  peripheral reticulocytes per mouse were
analyzed, and the frequencies of micronucleated peripheral
reticulocytes were scored in three slides per animal [].
2.6. Statistical Analyses. LD50 value was determined through
Probit analysis []. One-way ANOVA multicomparisons
tests were used to identify any signicant dierence among
genotoxicity tests between animal groups, and Fishers least
signicant dierence (LSD) was used to compare signicant
dierences between groups. A 𝑃value <. was considered
statistically signicant. All data was analyzed using the
soware Statgraphics Version XVI.I.
3. Results
3.1. Acute Toxicity. e P. americana seed extract admin-
istrated at doses of , , and  mg/Kg showed a
mortalityof,,and%,respectively.eanimalgroups
0
0 125 250 500 1000 2000
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Mortality (%)
Dose (mg/Kg)
F : Percentage of mortality for determining the acute toxicity
of the P. americana seed extract.
treatedwithandmg/Kg,aswellasthecontrolgroup,
showed no mortality (Figure ). e LD50 calculated for the
avocado seed extract was . mg/kg. According to these
results, a concentration of  mg/Kg was determined for
genotoxicity testing.
3.2. Genotoxicity Test. e animal groups administered with
 mg/Kg of P. americana seed extract and the negative
control group showed a low amount of micronucleated
cells, while the positive control administered with colchicine
showed clear evidence of harm. ere is no statistically
signicant dierence between the group administered with
the extract of P. americana seed and control group; however,
there is a signicant dierence between both these groups in
regard to the positive control (Table ).
4. Discussion
e avocado (P. americana)isconsumedbyhumansbecause
of its organoleptic characteristics; furthermore, the pulp con-
tains up to % oil, rich in monounsaturated fatty acids [].
e avocado seed is discarded in the majority of countries,
although in some countries such as Niger, it is consumed
[,]. is waste may represent an ecological or human
contaminant.
In a study previously reported on acute and subacute
toxicity of a P. americana aqueous extract, it was not possible
to estimate the LD50 value with the doses tested (up to
 g/kg). Also, in repeated doses, toxicity tests during 
days showed no aectations in hematological and biochem-
ical parameters. erefore, the authors concluded that the
aqueous extract appears safe at least on an acute and sub-
acute basis []. We showed that the ethanolic extract of P.
americana seed presents acute toxicity with a LD50 value
e Scientic World Journal
T : Micronucleated peripheral reticulocytes (MNRET) formed by P. americana seed extract.
Samples Dose (mg/kg) MNRET/ RET
Number %
Alcohol-water solution 10.6 ± 1.1 1.06 ± 0.11
P. americana seed extract  16.4 ± 4.5 1.64 ± 0.45
Colchicine 189.2 ± 19.3 18.92 ± 1.93
e data are presented as mean standard deviation of three repetitions. Asterisks denote statistical dierences compared with control (𝑃 < 0.05).
of . mg/kg. e acute toxicity dierences found in
theaqueousandethanolicextractsmaybeduetochemical
components obtained by dierent extraction methods used.
Micronucleus is an excellent genotoxic biomarker [,];
therefore, the staining technique with acridine orange helps
dierentiate micronucleated cells. e evaluation of micronu-
cleus frequencies in vivo is one of the primary genotoxicity
tests recommended internationally by regulatory agencies for
product safety assessment [].Basedontheinternational
working group that evaluates the micronucleus test, this
should be used when no signs of toxicity at maximal possible
concentration are seen [,]. Accordingly, from the acute
toxicity test, the dose of  mg/kg was selected for the
genotoxicity test [].
isistherststudyonthegenotoxicityoftheethanolic
avocado seed extract. e micronucleus induction with the
P. americana seed extract showed no statistical dierence
with regard to the negative control, but with regard to the
positive control it did. erefore, it is considered that the P.
americana seed extract showed no genotoxic activity with
the micronucleus test. ere is a study that demonstrates the
genotoxicity of the avocado fruit and leaf extracts in human
peripheral lymphocytes []; however, this study was carried
out in vitro. ere are dierent toxic eects in vitro and in
vivo, especially when it is administered orally.
Reportsofgenotoxicityhaverevealedthatmanyplants
used as food or in traditional medicine have cytotoxic,
mutagenic, and genotoxic properties []. is indicates the
need to understand the toxicological prole of substances that
are in direct or indirect contact with humans.
To complement the toxicological prole of the avocado
seed extract, it is also necessary to test for other areas of
potential damage, such as those related to the immune system
and those that alter endocrine function.
5. Conclusion
e ethanolic extract of the P. americana seed showed an
acute toxic eect at concentration starting at mg/kg. In
vivo mutagenicity on peripheral blood cells of the seed extract
was not observed. However, this study needs to be supported
with experimental toxicity studies using isolated compounds.
e lack of in vivo genotoxic activity of the extract allows us
to hope that the P. americana seedextractcouldbeusedasa
possible food, cosmetic, or pharmaceutical material.
Conflict of Interests
e authors declare that they have no nancial and commer-
cial interests. No conict of interests has been declared.
Acknowledgment
e authors would like to thank Tina Coop for helping in the
translation of this paper into English.
References
[] J. J. G. Leite, ´
E. H. S. Brito, R. A. Cordeiro et al., “Chemical
composition, toxicity and larvicidal and antifungal activities of
Persea americana (avocado) seed extracts,Revista da Sociedade
Brasileira de Medicina Tropical,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] M. L. Dreher and A. J. Davenport, “Hass avocado composition
and potential health eects,Critical Reviews in Food Science
and Nutrition,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] M.A.Ortiz,A.L.Dorantes,M.J.Gallndez,andS.E.C
´
ardenas,
“Eect of a novel oil extraction method on avocado (Persea
americana Mill) pulp microstructure,Plant Foods for Human
Nutrition,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[]M.R.Ramos,G.Jerz,S.Villanueva,F.L
´
opez-Dellamary, R.
Waibel, and P. Winterhalter, “Two glucosylated abscisic acid
derivates from avocado seeds (Persea americana Mill. L auraceae
cv. Hass),Phytochemistry, vol. , no. , pp. –, .
[] J.-G. Rodr´
ıguez-Carpena, D. Morcuende, M.-J. Andrade, P.
Kyll i , a nd M. Est e vez, “Avocado ( Persea americana Mill.) phe-
nolics, in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, and
inhibition of lipid and protein oxidation in porcine patties,”
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry,vol.,no.,pp.
–, .
[] O.N.Anaka,R.I.Ozolua,andS.O.Okpo,“Eectoftheaqueous
seed extract of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) on the blood
pressure of Sprague-Dawley rats,African Journal of Pharmacy
and Pharmacology,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] M. E. Pahua-Ramos, A. Ortiz-Moreno, G. Chamorro-Cevallos
et al., “Hypolipidemic eect of avocado (Persea americana Mill)
seed in a hypercholesterolemic mouse model,Plant Foods for
Human Nutrition,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] A. Jimenez-Arellanes, J. Luna-Herrera, R. Ruiz-Nicolas, J.
Cornejo-Garrido, A. Tapia, and L. Y´
epez-Mulia, “Antiprotozoal
and antimycobacterial activities of Persea americana seeds,
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine,vol.,article
, .
[] R. I. Ozolua, O. N. Anaka, S. O. Okpo, and S. E. Idogun,
Acute and sub-acute toxicological assessment of the aqueous
seed extract of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) in rats,
e Scientic World Journal
African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative
Medicines,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[]R.Grant,P.A.Basson,H.H.Booker,J.B.Hoerr,and
M. Anthonissen, “Cardiomyopathy caused by avocado (Persea
americana Mill) leaves,JournaloftheSouthAfricanVeterinary
Association,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] P. Stadler, I. B. van Rensburg, and T. W. Naud´
e, “Suspected
avocado (Persea americana) poisoning in goats,Journal of the
South African Veterinary Association,vol.,no.,pp.,
.
[]A.M.Hargis,E.Stauber,S.Casteel,andD.Eitner,“Avocado
(Persea americana) intoxication in caged birds,Journal of the
American Veterinary Medical Association,vol.,no.,pp.
, .
[] W.P.Burger,T.W.Naud
´
e, I. B. van Rensburg, C. J. Botha, and
A. C. Pienaar, “Cardiomyopathy in ostriches (Struthio camelus)
due to avocado (Persea americana var. guatemalensis) intoxica-
tion,Journal of the South African Veterinary Association,vol.
,no.,pp.,.
[] P.Kulkarni,R.Paul,andN.Ganesh,“In vitro e valuation of geno-
toxicity of avocado (Persea americana)fruitandleafextracts
in human peripheral lymphocytes,Journal of Environmental
Science and Health C,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] M. Hayashi and T. Sofuni, “e micronucleus assay with rodent
peripheral blood and acridine orange supravital staining,” in
Chromosomal Alterations, G. Obe and A. T. Natarajan, Eds., pp.
–, Springer, Berlin, Germany, .
[] C. Promkum, C. Butryee, S. Tuntipopipat, and P. Kupradinun,
Anticlastogenic eect of Eryngium foetidum L. assessed by
erythrocyte micronucleus assay,Asian Pacic Journal of Cancer
Prevention,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] A. G. Goodman, L. S. Goodman, and A. Gilman, “Principles
of toxicology,” in Goodman and Gilman: e Pharmacological
Basis of therapeutics, pp. –, Macmillan, New York, NY,
USA, th edition, .
[] M. A. Owolabi, S. I. Jaja, and H. A. B. Coker, “Vasorelaxant
action of aqueous extract of the leaves of Persea americana on
isolated thoracic rat aorta,Fitoterapia,vol.,no.,pp.
, .
[] J. Ojewole, D. R. Kamadyaapa, M. M. Gondwe, K. Moodley, and
C. T. Musabayane, “Cardiovascular eects of Persea americana
Mill (Lauraceae) (avocado) aqueous leaf extract in experimental
animals,Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa,vol.,no.,
pp.,.
[] S. Jyoti, S. Khan, M. Afzal, F. Naz, and Y. H. Siddique, “Evalua-
tion of micronucleus frequency by acridine orange uorescent
staining in buccal epithelial cells of oral submucosus brosis
(OSMF) patients,e Egyptian Journal of Medical Human
Genetics,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] R. Sahu, G. Divakar, and K. Divakar, “In vivo rodent micronu-
cleus assay of Gmelina arborea roxb (gambhari) extract,” Journal
of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology and Research,vol.,no.
, pp. –, .
[] M. Kirsch-Volders, T. Sofuni, M. Aardema et al., “Report
from the in vitro micronucleus assay working group,Mutation
Research,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] W. Liu, C. di Giorgio, M. Lamidi, R. Elias, E. Ollivier, and
M. P. de M´
eo, “Genotoxic and clastogenic activity of saponins
extracted from Nauclea bark as assessed by the micronucleus
and the comet assays in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells,Journal
of Ethnopharmacology, vol. , no. , pp. –, .
[] T. Vallarino-Kelly and P. Morales-Ram´
ırez, “Kinetics of
micronucleus induction and cytotoxic activity of colchicine in
murine erythroblast in vivo,” Mutation Research,vol.,no.
-, pp. –,  .
[] G.A.Asare,K.Bugyei,A.Sittieetal.,“Genotoxicity,cytotoxicity
and toxicological evaluation of whole plant extracts of the
medicinal plant Phyllanthus niruri (Phyllanthaceae),Genetics
and Molecular Research, vol. , no. , pp. –, .
... Despite all parts of the plant containing persin, the toxin concentration varies depending on which part of the fruit or plant is eaten (table 1), with the pulp containing the highest toxin concentration. 2,[4][5][6][7] . Prospective studies on rabbits fed 150g of avocado leaves showed that those who ate the Fuerte variety died within 12h. ...
... 10 Our patient ingested >10-15g of pulp, placing the consumed dose of persin between 18.5mg/kg and 107mg/kg, depending on the toxin concentration within that specifi c fruit. 2,[4][5][6][7] Standard decontamination procedures (crop lavage and charcoal therapy) were administered, however, the owner was highly invested in this parakeet and wanted to try everything possible. With decontamination, the prognosis was still determined to be poor due to the potentially large dose of avocado ingested, and due to the dull presentation, bowing head and ataxia, which in many studies have been described as end-stage clinical signs antecedent to death. ...
... No reports exist that suggest persin toxicity is reversible or self-limiting, with mortality seen in all birds that developed myocardial necrosis. 3,4,6,[8][9][10] At this time, without histopathology, we cannot determine whether the signs were secondary to persin myocardial toxicity or by volume overload caused by the intralipid itself. 8,21 An immune reaction towards the intralipid could cause an increase in pulmonary microvascular permeability resulting in non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema, however, this would not have been responsive to furosemide therapy. ...
Article
Full-text available
Avocado ingestion by birds is a severe and possibly life-threatening toxicity. When a toxic dose is ingested, it is often challenging to perform successful decontamination, and once the toxin is absorbed, there is no known antidote or cure for persin toxicity. In the case presented here, intralipid therapy was used in the attempt to sequester the persin toxin and prevent myocardial necrosis in a 1-year-old female entire Indian Ringneck Parakeet (Psittacula Krameri), which had been fed >10-15g of Hass Avocado (Persea Americana). On initial physical examination, the patient had a reduced ability to perch, lethargy, and drooping of the neck. Crop lavage was of low yield, and charcoal was administrated before gaining IV access and administering intralipid. Throughout the hospitalisation period, the ringneck developed an arrhythmia and dyspnoea. The dyspnoea resolved with diuretic therapy, and the arrhythmia resolved within 48 hours of intralipid administration, with discharge occurring on the 5th-day post avocado ingestion. Clinical case A one-year-old female entire Indian Ringneck Parakeet presented within 30-60 minutes of ingesting >10-15g of Hass Avocado pulp. On initial visual examination, the patient was dull, mildly ataxic, was not perching and appeared to be bowing at the neck. On physical examination, the perching refl ex was reduced, the patient was mentally dull and ataxic. On further examination, the heart sounds were normal, regular with and a rate >300bpm. Air sac auscultation was unremarkable, and the respiratory rate was 52bpm. The rest of the examination was unremarkable. Due to the potentially signifi cant dose of persin ingestion and the risk of myocardial necrosis, a crop lavage was performed within 90 minutes of ingestion. The crop lavage produced a small volume of white/yellow material mixed with the instilled water. Subsequently, 1g/kg of activated charcoal was instilled using a crop needle. Subsequently, the patient was sedated using butorphanol 0.2mg/kg and midazolam 2mg/ kg intramuscular (I.M.) injection. While sedated, the feathers were removed from the axillary region and the skin was aseptically prepared. A 26g intravenous catheter was placed within the brachial vein and sutured in place with 4-0 nylon suture. Intralipid 20%, 2.5mL/kg bolus was initially given over one minute, followed by a C.R.I. running at 0.025mg/kg/min for 6.5h. 1 Concurrently, plasmalyte crystalloid IV fl uid was started at a 25mL/kg/day rate, which was increased to 75mL/ kg/day once the intralipid was discontinued. The patient was placed in a Brinsea TLC-50 incubator in I.C.U. and monitored actively throughout the treatment period. The patient's mentation did not improve overnight, and the clinical condition remained static. Later the subsequent day, the patient remained dull and increased respiratory effort and rate were noted. The veterinarian on duty auscultated an arrhythmia and found one vomit/regurgitation in the bedding. Furosemide at 4mg/kg P.O. was given as a one-off dose, improving respiratory effort and rate. Intravenous fl uids were discontinued with subcutaneous plasmalyte to be given q12h to maintain 50mL/kg/day fl uid requirement. The patient's demeanor improved throughout the second day, and a further dose of activated charcoal 1g/kg mixed with Emeraid ® omnivore 2mL was given via crop needle. The patient's mentation deteriorated on the second night, and on the morning of day 3, the parakeet was again depressed, with a small amount of vomitus dried onto the skin around the nares. Mild green staining around the vent was noted, and the urates were green-tinged. Tachypnoea with mild increased respiratory effort and harsh lung sounds were again recorded. Cardiac auscultation revealed muffl ed heart sounds with an H.R.>300bpm. TFAST was performed, which
... Avocado oil recovery from avocado rip is a mechanical extraction process, however, an additional process is required to remove seeds/ stones and pills or skins [14,15]. After removal of pills and seeds, a pulp paste is produced by grinding it and then malaxing at 45-50 C for 40-60min to obtain the oil (Fig. 1). ...
... The process of oil production from avocado fruit generates plenty of by-products like skin and seeds which may be used for animal feed through its nutritional value is minimal [16]. Among the by-products of avocado, the seed represents 13-18% of the whole fruit and have no practical use in most of the countries and disposed to landfill and cause several ecological problem or human contaminant [15][16][17]; Ezeagu et al., 2018; [18]. ...
Article
Avocado processing industries generate a significant quantity of by-products such as avocado seeds. Four million metric tonnes of avocado fruit production are estimated annually, and avocado seed constitutes 13-18% of the fruit part. Many of these by-products are currently underutilised and does incur waste disposal costs through on-site incineration, disposal to landfill and in addition, they will pollute the environment and have health concerns. The need for alternative sustainable renewable bioenergy, environmental protection and production of bioma-terial have caught the attention of researchers to study the various opportunities to generate products with greater value-adding from these wastes to promote a green economy sustainably. Avocado seed constitutes about 66.3% of starch, 4.9% of protein, 4.12% of arabinose and 3.3% of pentosanes which can be converted to high-value products. In this review, possible valorisation routes of waste avocado seeds are discussed. The recommendations made in this study could inform the possible investment areas by identifying which technologies and processes; in order to address various technical, economic and market-related barriers that may hinder R&D progress to commercialisation. Further research is required to undertake such a prioritisation exercise; followed by detailed feasibility studies on the proposed options.
... Avocado oil recovery from avocado rip is a mechanical extraction process, however, an additional process is required to remove seeds/ stones and pills or skins [14,15]. After removal of pills and seeds, a pulp paste is produced by grinding it and then malaxing at 45-50 C for 40-60min to obtain the oil (Fig. 1). ...
... The process of oil production from avocado fruit generates plenty of by-products like skin and seeds which may be used for animal feed through its nutritional value is minimal [16]. Among the by-products of avocado, the seed represents 13-18% of the whole fruit and have no practical use in most of the countries and disposed to landfill and cause several ecological problem or human contaminant [15][16][17]; Ezeagu et al., 2018; [18]. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
13 Avocado processing industries generate a significant quantity of by-products such as avocado 14 seeds. Four million metric tonnes of avocado fruit production are estimated annually, and 15 avocado seed constitutes 13-18 % of the fruit part. Many of these by-products are currently 16 underutilised and does incur waste disposal costs through on-site incineration, disposal to 17 landfill and in addition, they will pollute the environment and have health concerns. The need 18 for alternative sustainable renewable bioenergy, environmental protection and production of 19 biomaterial have caught the attention of researchers to study the various opportunities to 20 generate products with greater value-adding from these wastes to promote a green economy 21 sustainably. Avocado seed constitutes about 66.3% of starch, 4.9% of protein, 4.12% of 22 arabinose and 3.3% of pentosanes which can be converted to high-value products. In this 23 review, possible valorisation routes of waste avocado seeds are discussed. The 24 recommendations made in this study could inform the possible investment areas by identifying 25 which technologies and processes; in order to address various technical, economic and market-26 related barriers that may hinder R&D progress to commercialisation. Further research is 27 required to undertake such a prioritisation exercise; followed by detailed feasibility studies on 28 the proposed options.
... 20 wt% of the 1.6 million tons produced per year, and have become a serious environmental problem. 3 The main components of the residue, after fabrication of avocado oil and processed pulp, are the carbohydrates, such as cellulose, hemicellulose and starch. 4 The pulverized avocado seed can be incorporated as filler, into many polymeric matrices to reduce costs. ...
... Carbon 13 and phosphorous 31 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance 13 C and 31 P NMR) tests were carried out in a Bruker Ascend NMR 400 MHz instrument at 25 C. All samples were dissolved in D 2 O at a ratio of 10 mg/cm3 . The 13 C spectra were obtained using a conventional pulse and an acquisition time of 12 h, whereas the 31 P spectra were obtained using a conventional pulse with 100 scans.Thermogravimetric Analyses (TGA) were carried out in a TGA-TA Instruments Q500 at a heating rate of 10 C/min, from 30 to 600 C. Samples were examined first in a nitrogen atmosphere and then in an air atmosphere.Qualitative chemical analysis of samples was carried out in a FEI Quanta 200-3D Scanning Electron Microscope, coupled with an EDAX detector, operating at 15 kV with a working distance of 15 mm.All samples were previously coated with Au-Pd.X Rays Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) spectra were collected with a Kratos Axis Ultra DLD electron spectrometer using a monochromatic Al-Kα X-ray source operated at 150 W. ...
Article
Avocado seed was first washed, dehydrated, and pulverized, and thereafter, chemically modified with phosphoric acid in the presence of urea, to obtain a low density and sustainable fire retarding filler. Infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, and X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used in order to determine the resulting chemical structure and confirm the presence of the proposed functional groups. In addition, scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis were used to establish the resulting morphological changes, as well as the elements present on the modified material. Thermogravimetric analysis was also carried out in order to establish the thermal stability of the material and predict the effect on the flame retardancy due to the mentioned chemical modification. It was also determined that chemical modification greatly increased the thermal stability of the avocado seed. The flame-retardant effect of the modified avocado seed was assessed in polyethylene/ethylene-vinyl-acetate (PE/EVA) composites via cone calorimeter tests. It was observed by DSC, that the incorporation of avocado seed, does not affect the melting temperature of the PE/EVA polymer blend. The results showed that the modified avocado seed decreased the peak of the heat release rate (pHRR) by 54% and the total heat released (THR) by 15%. The UL-94 and LOI tests of the modified avocado biocomposites showed an improvement in the flame retardant properties, and reached a UL-94 V-1 classification. Tensile tests showed that the bio-composites with unmodified and modified avocado seed exhibit similar tensile strength and modulus than the LDPE/EVA blend, but a lower elongation. These results suggest that phosphorylated avocado seed could be a good option as a renewable biofiller for polymer composites with enhanced flame-retardant properties.
... Interestingly, avocado seed, a biowaste of this fruit, is considered an important raw material for the preparation of functional food and nutraceuticals. Camberos and colleagues [66] assessed the genotoxicity of Avocado seed through micronucleus tests, reporting negative results. ...
Article
Full-text available
Several pharmaceutical companies are nowadays considering the use of agri-food waste as alternative raw material for the extraction of bioactive compounds to include in nutraceuticals and food supplements. This recycling activity is encountering the support of authorities, which are alarmed by air, soil and water pollution generated by agricultural waste disposal. Waste reuse has several economic advantages: (i) its low cost; (ii) its abundance; (iii) the high content of bioactive molecule (antioxidants, minerals, fibers, fatty acids); as well as (iv) the financial support received by governments eager to promote eco-compatible and pollution-reducing practices. While nutraceuticals produced from biowaste are becoming popular, products that have been risk-assessed in terms of safety are quite rare. This despite waste biomass, in virtue of its chemical complexity, could, in many cases, mine the overall safety of the final nutraceutical product. In this review, we summarize the scientific results published on genotoxicity risk-assessment of bioactive compounds extracted from agricultural waste. The review depicts a scenario where the risk-assessment of biowaste derived products is still scarcely diffuse, but when available, it confirms the safety of these products, and lets us envisage their future inclusion in the list of botanicals allowed for formulation intended for human consumption.
... Our findings are in agreement with the previous report, indicated non-genotoxic profile of P. americana extract. [62] On the other hand, there are numerous studies reporting that genotoxic damage can be induced following exposure to different Zn and Cu nanostructures in healthy mammalian cells. [63][64][65] For instance, exposure to Zn nanoparticles, at concentrations ranging from 100 to 500 mg/mL, was shown to cause increasing DNA damage in human lymphocytes. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to evaluate the hyaluronidase and gelatinase inhibitory activities and toxicity potentials of Persea americana Mill. extract and its synthesized hybrid nanoflowers. In the first part of the study, characterization of the nanoflower structures was carried out and then, enzyme inhibitory activities of the methanol extract and hybrid nanoflowers were investigated. It was determined that the enzyme inhibitory activity of both nanoflowers was higher than the methanol extract. Zinc nanoflower was more effective in hyaluronidase enzyme inhibition, while copper nanoflower showed higher inhibitory activity on gelatinase enzyme. In the second part of the study, toxicological profiles of these compounds were investigated. Toxicological evaluations demonstrated that zinc nanoflower may be a safer therapeutic alternative than the copper nanoflower, especially at high concentrations. All these data appear to contribute to the development of effective new generation preparations including nanoflowers for skin problems using Persea ameri-cana leaves extract and its nanostructures. ARTICLE HISTORY
... Due to some antinutritional compounds present in the avocado seed, namely phytate, oxalate and cyanogenic glycosides [31], studies have been carried out in order to evaluate the effect of processing methods against the antinutritional compounds of Persea americana seed as a step towards establishing purposeful utilization in the food production area [13,32,33]. Solid-state fermentation of Hass avocado seed with A. niger GH1 led to an improved antioxidant activity [4]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The avocado seed is an underused waste resulting from the processing of pulp. Polyphenols, fibers, and carotenoids are present in the seed, which also exhibits prophylactic, fungicidal, and larvicidal effects. Developing food products with avocado seed as an ingredient or spice is highly desired for nutritional, environmental, and economic reasons. The present study proposed its valorization in a hot drink, similar to already existing coffee alternatives, obtained by infusing the roasted and grinded avocado seed. The proximate composition of the raw or conditioned avocado seed and that of the novel drink were determined. The total phenolic content was assessed using the Folin-Ciocâlteu method. The total carotenoids were extracted and assessed spectrophotometrically. Starch determination was performed by the Ewers Polarimetric method. The highest content of polyphenols, 772.90 mg GAE/100 g, was determined in the crude seed, while in the drink was as low as 17.55 mg GAE/100 g. However, the proposed drink demonstrated high antioxidant capacity, evaluated through the DPPH method. This might be due to the high content of the total carotenoid compounds determined in the roasted seed (6534.48 µg/100 g). The proposed drink demonstrated high antiproliferative activity on Hs27 and DLD-1 cell lines.
Article
In this study, agricultural waste of avocado (Persea americana) was proposed as a natural dye source for eco-friendly and sustainable dyeing of textiles. Woven fabrics made of cotton and wool were pre-mordanted with nontoxic metallic salts; alum and ferrous sulfate and dyed with the pigments extracted from avocado seeds and peels. All samples exhibited very good washing and rubbing fastness grades. Pre-mordanting fabrics with ferrous sulfate provided a different color, a noticeable increase in dyeability and a significant improvement in fastness to light. On the other hand, in case of using alum, only a slight change in chroma and hue was recorded. Based on findings of the study, it was concluded that the extracted pigments have strong affinity for protein fibers and a relatively lower affinity for cellulosic fibers. It was also observed that the samples dyed with peel extract have darker and more saturated colors, a more persistent hue and higher light fastness grades when compared to the corresponding samples dyed with seed extract.
Article
Full-text available
The emergence of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) that emanated from Wuhan in China in 2019 has become a global concern. The current situation warrants ethnomedicinal drug discovery and development for delivery of phytomedicines with potential for the treatment of COVID-19. The aim of this review is to provide a detailed evaluation of available information on plant species used in African traditional medicines with antiviral, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and COVID-19 symptoms relieving effects. Literature from scientific databases such as Scopus, PubMed, Google scholar, African Journals OnLine (AJOL), Science Direct, and Web of Science were used for this review. A total of 35 of the 38 reviewed plants demonstrated a wide range of antiviral activities. Bryophyllum pinnatum, Aframomum melegueta, Garcinia kola, Sphenocentrum jollyanum, Adansonia digitata, Sutherlandia frutescens, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Moringa oleifera, and Nigella sativa possess a combination of antiviral, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and COVID-19 symptoms relieving activities. Nine, 13, and 10 of the plants representing 23.7%, 34.2%, and 26.3% of the plants studied had antiviral activity with 3 other activities, antiviral activity with 2 other activities, and antiviral with one pharmacological activity alone, respectively. The plants studied were reported to be relatively safe at the subchronic toxicity level, except for 2. The study provides baseline information on the pharmacological activities , toxicity, and chemical components of 9 African medicinal plants with antiviral, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and symptoms relieving activities, thereby making the plants candidates for further investigation for effectiveness against COVID-19.
Article
Full-text available
Nutraceuticals and natural health products globally represent one of the fastest growing sectors of research and development leading to novel products intended for disease risk reduction and human health promotion. The global nutraceutical market is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate of 8.3% from 2020 to 2027 to reach USD 722.5 billion by 2027. There is a need to respond to this sector by exploring the local resources to target the production of innovative products from plant/marine biofactors with high prospects for commercial ventures. This paper explores the nutraceutical potentials enshrined in biodiversity values in a small island state in view to promote sustainable agricultural development to facilitate available resources for the development of regimen for the management of health and disease and in essence, pharmacotherapy. The reported phytochemical composition and pharmacological activities, of the terrestrial flora and marine organisms with high propensity for development and production of nutraceutical products will be discussed. Bioactive phytochemicals encompassing the immensely diverse groups of phenolic acids, flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, possess therapeutic virtues including anti-diabetic, antihypertensive, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory attributes, all of which are highly relevant to the budding nutraceutical industry.
Chapter
Full-text available
The rodent micronucleus assay has been widely used to evaluate chemical clastogenicity (Heddle et al. 1983; Mavournin et al. 1990) using bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes as the target cells. Instead of bone marrow, mouse peripheral blood was introduced for use in the micronucleus assay by MacGregor et al. (1980). Because the fraction of young erythrocytes in the peripheral blood is small, which makes micronucleus evaluation laborious, and because discrimination between young and mature erythrocytes is not easy with the usual staining technique, peripheral blood has not been used widely for screening for chemical clastogenicity. Recently, supravital staining with acridine orange (AO) was applied to the rodent peripheral blood micronucleus assay (Hayashi et al. 1990), and the advantages of the new method became evident. The reliability of the method was validated by the extended collaborative study organized by the Collaborative Study Group for the Micronucleus Test (CSGMT) of the Mammalian Mutagenesis Study Group (MMS) of the Environmental Mutagen Society of Japan (JEMS) (CSGMT, 1992).
Article
Full-text available
Oral submucosus fibrosis (OSMF) is a collagen-related disorder seen in habitual betel quids and smokers. This is a high risk precancerous condition in which the connective tissue fibers of the lamina propria and deeper parts of the mucosa becomes stiff with restricted mouth opening. Patients with severe cases have symptoms like difficulties in chewing, swallowing and speaking. In the present study 25 individuals were gutkha chewers and 25 were OSMF patients (chewing gutkha along with smoking) and 25 individuals were taken as controls. A significant increase in the frequency of micronuclei was observed in OSMF patients (34.4 ± 1.79) as compared to gutkha chewers (14.4 ± 0.73) and controls (4.36 ± 0.27). The number of micronucleated cells in OSMF, gutkha chewers and control groups were 19.84 ± 0.69, 12.6 ± 0.51 and 4.20 ± 0.27, respectively and are significantly different at p < 0.05. Acridine orange is used due its fluorescence nature and easier visibility of the micronucleus present in the buccal epithelial cells. It is concluded that chewing gutkha along with smoking is more dangerous for human health as it hastens the incidence of OSMF.
Article
Full-text available
Background Persea americana seeds are widely used in traditional Mexican medicine to treat rheumatism, asthma, infectious processes as well as diarrhea and dysentery caused by intestinal parasites. Methods The chloroformic and ethanolic extracts of P. americana seeds were prepared by maceration and their amoebicidal, giardicidal and trichomonicidal activity was evaluated. These extracts were also tested against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, four mono-resistant and two multidrug resistant strains of M. tuberculosis as well as five non tuberculosis mycobacterium strains by MABA assay. Results The chloroformic and ethanolic extracts of P. americana seeds showed significant activity against E. histolytica, G. lamblia and T. vaginalis (IC50 <0.634 μg/ml). The chloroformic extract inhibited the growth of M. tuberculosis H37Rv, M. tuberculosis MDR SIN 4 isolate, three M. tuberculosis H37Rv mono-resistant reference strains and four non tuberculosis mycobacteria (M. fortuitum, M. avium, M. smegmatis and M. absessus) showing MIC values ≤50 μg/ml. Contrariwise, the ethanolic extract affected only the growth of two mono-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis H37Rv and M. smegmatis (MIC ≤50 μg/ml). Conclusions The CHCl3 and EtOH seed extracts from P. americana showed amoebicidal and giardicidal activity. Importantly, the CHCl3 extract inhibited the growth of a MDR M. tuberculosis isolate and three out of four mono-resistant reference strains of M. tuberculosis H37Rv, showing a MIC = 50 μg/ml. This extract was also active against the NTM strains, M. fortuitum, M. avium, M. smegmatis and M. abscessus, with MIC values <50 μg/ml.
Article
Full-text available
Hass avocados, the most common commercial avocado cultivars in the world, contain a variety of essential nutrients and important phytochemicals. Although the official avocado serving is one-fifth of a fruit (30 g), according to NHANES analysis the average consumption is one-half an avocado (68 g), which provides a nutrient and phytochemical dense food consisting of the following: dietary fiber (4.6 g), total sugar (0.2 g), potassium (345 mg), sodium (5.5 mg), magnesium (19.5 mg), vitamin A (43 μg), vitamin C (6.0 mg), vitamin E (1.3 mg), vitamin K1 (14 μg), folate (60 mg), vitamin B-6 (0.2 mg), niacin (1.3 mg), pantothenic acid (1.0 mg), riboflavin (0.1 mg), choline (10 mg), lutein/zeaxanthin (185 μg), phytosterols (57 mg), and high-monounsaturated fatty acids (6.7 g) and 114 kcals or 1.7 kcal/g. The avocado oil consists of 71% monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), 13% polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and 16% saturated fatty acids (SFA), which helps to promote healthy blood lipid profiles and enhance the bioavailability of fat soluble vitamins and phytochemicals from the avocado or other fruits and vegetables, naturally low in fat, which are consumed with avocados. There are eight preliminary clinical studies showing that avocado consumption helps support cardiovascular health. Exploratory studies suggest that avocados may support weight management and healthy aging.
Article
Full-text available
The aqueous seed extract (AE) of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) is used by some herbal medicine practitioners in Nigeria for the treatment of hypertension. We investigated its effects on the mean arterial pressure (MAP) and Heart Rate (HR) of naïve and 260 mg/kg/day x 10 days pretreated rats. Naïve rats were given bolus injections of (a) -AE (240, 260, 280 mg/kg); (b) -2 µg/kg of acetylcholine (ACh) + 240, 260, 280 mg/kg of AE; or bolus doses of ACh (1, 2, 4 µg/kg). Results show that 10-day pretreatment significantly reduced MAP (125.7 ± 11.2 vs 92.1 ± 8.5 mm Hg) and HR (274.6 ± 39.3 vs 161.6 ± 11.6 beats/min). Also, acute AE injections significantly decreased MAP from baseline values in naïve rats. The effects of AE on MAP were comparable with those of ACh. Combination of AE with 2 µg/kg of ACh only significantly potentiated the MAP reducing effect of 240 mg/kg of AE. It is concluded that the aqueous seed extract of P. americana reduces BP and HR in normotensive rats. This observation lends credence to its use by herbalists for the management of hypertension.
Article
Full-text available
Avocado seed contains elevated levels of phenolic compounds and exhibits antioxidant properties. We investigated the effect of Avocado Seed Flour (ASF) on the lipid levels in mice on a hyperlipidemic diet. The concentration of phenols was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, antioxidant activity was evaluated using the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity method, and dietary fiber was measured using the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) method. The LD50 of ASF was determined using Lorke's method and hypolipidemic activity was evaluated in a hypercholesterolemic model in mice. Protocatechuic acid was the main phenolic compound found in ASF, followed by kaempferide and vanillic acid. The total phenolic content in the methanolic extract of ASF was 292.00 ± 9.81 mg gallic acid equivalents/g seed dry weight and the antioxidant activity resulted in 173.3 μmol Trolox equivalents/g DW. In addition, a high content of dietary fiber was found (34.8%). The oral LD50 for ASF was 1767 mg/kg body weight, and treatment with ASF significantly reduced the levels of total cholesterol, LDL-C, and prediction of the atherogenic index. Therefore, the antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds and dietary fiber in ASF may be responsible for the hypocholesterolemic activity of ASF in a hyperlipidemic model of mice.
Article
Full-text available
Phyllanthus niruri is a medicinal plant (commonly known as stone breaker) found in the tropics and other parts of the world. It is known for its capacity to block the formation of calcium oxalate crystals and kidney stone formation in urolithiasis. This plant has been used to treat hyperglycemia, hypertension, pain, and mild cases of malaria. We examined the geno-, cyto- and overall toxicity of P. niruri whole plant ethanolic extract. The extract was administered as a single dose of 30 or 300 mg/kg to laboratory rats by gavage, accompanied by negative (0.9% saline) and positive (10 mg/mL N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea) controls that were injected intramuscularly 48 h after extract administration. The ratio of polychromatic (PCE)/normochromatic erythrocytes (NCE) from femur bone marrow was scored for genotoxicity. Cytotoxicity was determined using descending concentrations (0.2-0.0125 g/mL) of the extract incubated with peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Lactate dehydrogenase release from damaged cells was determined and the CC(50) calculated. Subchronic administration of the extract at 30 or 300 mg/kg was done for 90 days to determine general toxicity. PCE:NCE (%) for the extract and negative control was 63, compared to 168 (positive control). The CC(50) was 26.3 mg/mL and hepato-renal toxicity after subchronic extract administration was nil. We conclude that ethanol extract of P. niruri is not cytotoxic or genotoxic, and is generally non-toxic on subchronic administration.
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the anticlastogenicity as well as the clastogenicity of Eryngium foetidum leaf (EF) using the in vivo mouse peripheral blood erythrocyte micronucleus assay. Eighty ICR male mice were fed AIN-76 diet supplemented with ground freeze-dried EF at 0.0%, 0.8%, 1.6% and 3.2% for 2 weeks prior to the administration of both direct-acting, mitomycin C (MMC), and indirect-acting, 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a) anthracene (DMBA) clastogens. Peripheral blood samples were collected from mice just before administration of clastogen and at 24 and 48 h thereafter for MMC. Blood samples were collected at the same times and after 72 h for DMBA. Then, reticulocytes in blood samples were counted using fluorescent microscopy. The results indicated that EF had no clastogenic effect in mice. All doses of diets supplemented with EF decreased the number of micronucleated peripheral reticulocytes in all the MMC-treated groups in a dose dependent manner, but significant reduction was found only at 1.6% and 3.2% EF in the DMBA-treated groups. It can be concluded that EF has no clastogenicity, but possesses anticlastogenic potential against both direct- and indirect-acting types of clastogen in mice.