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The use of vegetal extracts requires toxicological and genotoxic evaluations to establish and verify safety before being added to human cosmetic, pharmaceutical medicine, or alimentary products. Persea americana seeds have been used in traditional medicine as treatment for several diseases. In this work, the ethanolic seed extract of Persea americana was evaluated with respect to its genotoxic potential through micronucleus assay in rodents. The frequency of micronuclei in groups of animals treated with avocado seed extract showed no differences compared to the negative control (vehicle); therefore, it is considered that the avocado seed extract showed no genotoxic activity in the micronucleus test.
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e Scientic World Journal
Volume , Article ID , pages.//
Research Article
Acute Toxicity and Genotoxic Activity of Avocado Seed Extract
(Persea americana Mill., c.v. Hass)
Eduardo Padilla-Camberos, Moisés Martínez-Velázquez,
José Miguel Flores-Fernández, and Socorro Villanueva-Rodríguez
Centro de Investigaci´
on y Asistencia en Tecnolog´
ıa y Dise˜
no del Estado de Jalisco, A.C., Avenida Normalistas 800,
Colonia Colinas de la Normal, Guadalajara 44270, JAL, Mexico
Correspondence should be addressed to Eduardo Padilla-Camberos;
Received  August ; Accepted  September 
Copyright ©  Eduardo Padilla-Camberos et al. is is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons
Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is
properly cited.
e use of vegetal extracts requires toxicological and genotoxic evaluations to establish and verify safety before being added to
human cosmetic, pharmaceutical medicine, or alimentary products. Persea americana seeds have been used in traditional medicine
as treatment for several diseases. In this work, the ethanolic seed extract of Persea americana was evaluated with respect to its
genotoxic potential through micronucleus assay in rodents. e frequency of micronuclei in groups of animals treated with avocado
seed extract showed no dierences compared to the negative control (vehicle); therefore, it is considered that the avocado seed
extract showed no genotoxic activity in the micronucleus test.
1. Introduction
e fruit of Persea americana, commonly known as avocado,
is an edible fruit from Central America which is easily
adaptable in tropical regions []. e avocado has an olive-
green peel and thick pale yellow pulp that is rich in fatty
acids such as linoleic, oleic, palmitic, stearic, linolenic, capric,
and myristic acids. is fruit is normally used for human
consumption, but it also has been used as a medicinal plant
in Mexico and elsewhere in the world [].
e avocado seed represents –% of the fruit, and it
is a byproduct generally not utilized. Normally, the seed is
discarded during the processing of the pulp. e seed waste
may represent a severe ecological problem []. However,
source of bioactive compounds. Its chemical composition is
comprised of phytosterols, triterpenes, fatty acids, and two
new glucosides of abscisic acid [].
Several biological activities of the avocado seed have
been reported such as antioxidant, antihypertensive, larvi-
cidal, fungicidal, hypolipidemic, and recently amoebicidal
and giardicidal activities []. Additionally, several studies
and leaves []. Avocado leaves showed cardiotoxic eects in
mammals and birds []. Similarly, the mutagenicity of
fruit and leaves extracts in human lymphocytes has been
assessed []. However, no study has been done to examine
the possible genotoxic activity of avocado seed extract. In
this study, we evaluate the genotoxic eect of a P. americana
seed extract in vivo, by induction of micronuclei in blood
polychromatic erythrocytes of BALB/c mice.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Plant Material. Avocados were purchased from Micho-
an, Mexico. e seeds were dried at Candvacuum
packaged until use.
2.2. Avocado Seed Extract. e P. americana seed extract is an
ethanolic extract obtained through soxhlet reux equipment
and evaporated on a rotary evaporator as mentioned by
Ramos et al. in  []. Dried avocado seeds ( g) were
ground to powder in a laboratory mill, defatted with petrol
ether (–C),andmaceratedwithfreshlydistilledethanol
e Scientic World Journal
until exhaustion. Aer ltration, extracts were concentrated
under vacuum at C.
2.3. Animals. Forty-ve, eight-week-old male BALB/c mice
( ± g) were purchased from the Zooterio of the University
of Guadalajara. e mice were fed Standard Diet 
Tekland and water. ey were kept at room temperature
under a  hours of light and  hours of dark cycle at C.
mice for genotoxicity test. Animals were handled following
the animal care guidelines in accordance with regulations
enacted by the Federal Government of Mexico (NOM--
ZOO- and NOM--ZOO-).
2.4. Acute Toxicity Test. To determine the median lethal dose
(LD50)oftheP. americana seed extract, six groups of  mice
each were administered one by one by oral gavage at dierent
using an orogastric tube (Popper). Mortality was recorded 
hours aer the administration of the extract. Animals were
observed during one week to detect signs of delayed toxicity.
2.5. Genotoxicity Test. e genotoxicological study of the P.
americana seed extract was carried out using an identi-
cation and quantication on the erythrocyte micronucleus
formation test. According to the acute toxicity test results,
the most appropriate extract dose for genotoxic study was
selected. ree groups of  mice each were employed in
the experiment. e rst group was given P. americana seed
extract at a dose of  mg/kg, dissolved in  : alcohol-water
solution; the second group was given colchicine dissolved in
physiological saline at a dose of  mg/kg and was designated
as the positive control, while the third group was assigned
as the negative control and received the vehicle ( : alcohol-
water solution), all solutions in an amount of  mL/kg. At 
hours aer administration of treatments, peripheral blood
samples were collected by perforating the caudal vein, and
drops were placed at the prestained slides with acridine
orange as described by Hayashi and Sofuni,  [].
e micronucleated cells were scored under a uorescence
microscope.  peripheral reticulocytes per mouse were
analyzed, and the frequencies of micronucleated peripheral
reticulocytes were scored in three slides per animal [].
2.6. Statistical Analyses. LD50 value was determined through
Probit analysis []. One-way ANOVA multicomparisons
tests were used to identify any signicant dierence among
genotoxicity tests between animal groups, and Fishers least
signicant dierence (LSD) was used to compare signicant
dierences between groups. A 𝑃value <. was considered
statistically signicant. All data was analyzed using the
soware Statgraphics Version XVI.I.
3. Results
3.1. Acute Toxicity. e P. americana seed extract admin-
istrated at doses of , , and  mg/Kg showed a
0 125 250 500 1000 2000
Mortality (%)
Dose (mg/Kg)
F : Percentage of mortality for determining the acute toxicity
of the P. americana seed extract.
showed no mortality (Figure ). e LD50 calculated for the
avocado seed extract was . mg/kg. According to these
results, a concentration of  mg/Kg was determined for
genotoxicity testing.
3.2. Genotoxicity Test. e animal groups administered with
 mg/Kg of P. americana seed extract and the negative
control group showed a low amount of micronucleated
cells, while the positive control administered with colchicine
showed clear evidence of harm. ere is no statistically
signicant dierence between the group administered with
the extract of P. americana seed and control group; however,
there is a signicant dierence between both these groups in
regard to the positive control (Table ).
4. Discussion
e avocado (P. americana)isconsumedbyhumansbecause
of its organoleptic characteristics; furthermore, the pulp con-
tains up to % oil, rich in monounsaturated fatty acids [].
e avocado seed is discarded in the majority of countries,
although in some countries such as Niger, it is consumed
[,]. is waste may represent an ecological or human
In a study previously reported on acute and subacute
toxicity of a P. americana aqueous extract, it was not possible
to estimate the LD50 value with the doses tested (up to
 g/kg). Also, in repeated doses, toxicity tests during 
days showed no aectations in hematological and biochem-
ical parameters. erefore, the authors concluded that the
aqueous extract appears safe at least on an acute and sub-
acute basis []. We showed that the ethanolic extract of P.
americana seed presents acute toxicity with a LD50 value
e Scientic World Journal
T : Micronucleated peripheral reticulocytes (MNRET) formed by P. americana seed extract.
Samples Dose (mg/kg) MNRET/ RET
Number %
Alcohol-water solution 10.6 ± 1.1 1.06 ± 0.11
P. americana seed extract  16.4 ± 4.5 1.64 ± 0.45
Colchicine 189.2 ± 19.3 18.92 ± 1.93
e data are presented as mean standard deviation of three repetitions. Asterisks denote statistical dierences compared with control (𝑃 < 0.05).
of . mg/kg. e acute toxicity dierences found in
components obtained by dierent extraction methods used.
Micronucleus is an excellent genotoxic biomarker [,];
therefore, the staining technique with acridine orange helps
dierentiate micronucleated cells. e evaluation of micronu-
cleus frequencies in vivo is one of the primary genotoxicity
tests recommended internationally by regulatory agencies for
product safety assessment [].Basedontheinternational
working group that evaluates the micronucleus test, this
should be used when no signs of toxicity at maximal possible
concentration are seen [,]. Accordingly, from the acute
toxicity test, the dose of  mg/kg was selected for the
genotoxicity test [].
avocado seed extract. e micronucleus induction with the
P. americana seed extract showed no statistical dierence
with regard to the negative control, but with regard to the
positive control it did. erefore, it is considered that the P.
americana seed extract showed no genotoxic activity with
the micronucleus test. ere is a study that demonstrates the
genotoxicity of the avocado fruit and leaf extracts in human
peripheral lymphocytes []; however, this study was carried
out in vitro. ere are dierent toxic eects in vitro and in
vivo, especially when it is administered orally.
used as food or in traditional medicine have cytotoxic,
mutagenic, and genotoxic properties []. is indicates the
need to understand the toxicological prole of substances that
are in direct or indirect contact with humans.
To complement the toxicological prole of the avocado
seed extract, it is also necessary to test for other areas of
potential damage, such as those related to the immune system
and those that alter endocrine function.
5. Conclusion
e ethanolic extract of the P. americana seed showed an
acute toxic eect at concentration starting at mg/kg. In
vivo mutagenicity on peripheral blood cells of the seed extract
was not observed. However, this study needs to be supported
with experimental toxicity studies using isolated compounds.
e lack of in vivo genotoxic activity of the extract allows us
to hope that the P. americana seedextractcouldbeusedasa
possible food, cosmetic, or pharmaceutical material.
Conflict of Interests
e authors declare that they have no nancial and commer-
cial interests. No conict of interests has been declared.
e authors would like to thank Tina Coop for helping in the
translation of this paper into English.
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... Avocado (Persea americana Mill., Lauraceae) is a fruit dispersed worldwide in tropical and subtropical regions. There are numerous varieties of avocado according to the growth climate, with Hass being the most well-known and marketed [1]. The avocado processing industry, in the production of guacamole or essential oils, generates a solid waste residue that represents 21-30% of the fruit, consisting of seeds, peels, and exhausted pulp [2]. ...
... The avocado processing industry, in the production of guacamole or essential oils, generates a solid waste residue that represents 21-30% of the fruit, consisting of seeds, peels, and exhausted pulp [2]. Usually, those residues are discarded as waste, representing an environmental problem, but they are also a prospective source of bioactive compounds [1]. The avocado seed is composed of the endocarp and the kernel. ...
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Avocado seeds, a common waste in the avocado processing industry, have been found to have several bioactivities, such as anticancer, antimicrobial, hypocholesterolemic, antioxidant, and antidiabetic activities, among others. Nowadays, this wastage is causing an environmental problem, so the use of new technologies to take advantage of it is a novel field of research. In this study, the submerged fermentation by lactic acid bacteria was used as a novel tool for improving the bioactive compound extraction from avocado seeds. Avocado seeds were fermented by different strains, their polar compounds were identified and quantified by HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS, the antioxidant activity was measured by DPPH and FRAP assays, and the antidiabetic activity was analyzed by the alpha-amylase assay. A total of 32 polar compounds were identified, with 13 of them being described in avocado seeds for the first time. Avocado seeds fermented by Pentosaceus acidilactici showed the highest sum of polar compounds (6279.63 ± 67.74 µg/g d.w.), and by extension, of hydroxytyrosol glucoside (2989.76 ± 3.64 µg/g d.w.). Lactiplantibacillus plantarum CECT 9567 showed the highest antioxidant activity measured by both DPPH and FRAP assays (6294.67 ± 19.44 and 6846.91 ± 2.13 µg TE/g d.w., respectively). Furthermore, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum CECT 748T had the highest antidiabetic activity (52.15% ± 0.67% inhibition of alpha-amylase activity), attributable to the polyphenols. According to the results, submerged fermentation by lactic acid bacteria led to an interesting increase of the polar compounds’ extractability of avocado seeds, consequently improving the bioactivities of the extracts, which could then be used for food nutraceutical or cosmetic purposes.
... The lack of commercial use of avocado seeds to date has been linked to the absence of information regarding the antinutritional compounds present therein. The presence of substances such as oxalates, some tannins, hydrocyanic acid, and cyano-genic glycosides-the well-known amygdalin and persin-have been detected in avocado seeds [10,11]. The majority of these components can be eliminated using culinary processing [9], such as soaking, cooking, roasting, fermentation, and drying [12][13][14][15][16]. Recent studies have indicated that the amygdalin content of the freeze-dried avocado seed is negligible [17,18]. ...
... However, concerns remain regarding the content of persin, which is higher in freeze-dried avocado seed than in avocado pulp [18] and is the acetogenin found in the highest amounts in some avocado varieties [19]. Although there is a lack of human studies focused on the determination of the effects of the antinutrients present in avocado seed and their health effects, animal studies on avocado seed ethanol extract have shown to have no genotoxic effects; hence, it could be used as a food, cosmetic or pharmaceutical additive [10,20]. ...
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The appropriate use of avocado seed waste after industrial processing could reduce the problem of overconsumption and food waste in accordance with the “zero waste” concept. The presented study evaluates the physicochemical and bioactive properties of avocado seed and its possible use in functional food design, for example, cereal snacks in the form of cookies. The profile of polyphenol and lutein content was determined by chromatographic methodology, and the phenolic compounds content and antioxidant properties of the avocado seed powder were determined using spectrophotometric methods. The chemical composition (content of protein, carbohydrates, fiber, fat) and physicochemical properties, i.e., water activity, water holding capacity, and solubility in water of avocado seed powder, were examined. According to the fiber content (21.6 g/100 g) and bioactive compounds present in the avocado seed powder (content of phenolic 62.1 mg GAE/1 g, antioxidant potential (122.4 mmol Trolox/100 g), and low solubility in water (16.2%), it could be considered a valuable additive to cereal snacks. Our designed cereal products with various amounts of added avocado seed powder (6%, 12%, and 18%) showed that 6% added powder promoted an almost five-fold increase in the polyphenol content and four-fold higher antioxidant potential of the snacks compared to the control samples. In addition, the lowest level addition of avocado seed powder increased the dietary fiber content of the product to 4%; hence, they adhered to the nutrition claim of “source of fiber” in accordance with Regulation (EC) No. 1924/2006.
... A similar antioxidant-mediated hepatoprotective effect for avocado pulp extract was reported against liver damage induced by potassium dichromate [29] or CCL 4 [30]. The potent antioxidant potential of AvS might be due to its contents of health-promoting constituents such as triterpenes, hydrocinnamic acid, catechin, and epicatechin [24,55]. Our HPLC data revealed the presence of numerous phenolic compounds, with abundant amounts of protocatechuic acid, catechin, and caffeic acid. ...
... Further studies are required to check whether mitigation of ER stress by AvS is associated with the induction of autophagy. AvS are also safe on healthy cells as they have no genotoxic effect [24]. A large amount of AvS is produced as waste during avocado processing, and their uncontrollable removal may lead to environmental pollution. ...
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Previous studies reported disrupted hepatic function and structure following the administration of cyclosporine A (CsA) in humans and animals. Recently, we found that avocado seeds (AvS) ameliorated CsA-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. As a continuation, herein we checked whether AvS could also attenuate CsA-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Subcutaneous injection of CsA (5 mg/kg) for 7 days triggered hepatotoxicity in rats, as indicated by liver dysfunction, redox imbalance, and histopathological changes. Oral administration of 5% AvS powder for 4 weeks ameliorated CsA-induced hepatotoxicity, as evidenced by (1) decreased levels of liver damage parameters (alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and bilirubin), (2) resumed redox balance in the liver (reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) andincreased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)), (3) downregulated hepatic expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related genes (X-box bindingprotein 1 (XBP1), binding immunoglobulin protein (BIP), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP)), and apoptosis-related genes (Bax and Casp3), (4) upregulated expression of the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl2, (5) reduced DNA damage, and (6) improved liver histology. These results highlight the ability of AvS to ameliorate CsA-induced hepatotoxicity via the inhibition of oxidative stress and proapoptotic ER stress.
... The different doses of ethanolic extract (100, 200 and 400) of avocado were chosen under the basis of the results of the work of Ozolua et al. [17] and Padilla-Camberos et al. [18] who revealed a LD50 of 1200.75 mg/kg bw in rats by administration through oral route the aqueous and phenolic extracts of avocado seed for 28 days. Indeed, after a sub-acute toxicity study, these authors concluded that the LD100 of avocado seed extracts would be above 10 mg/kg bw because at this dose they did not obtain 100% mortality. ...
... Acute toxicity was also observed in P. americana Mill. against BALB/c mice (Padilla-Camberos et al., 2013). ...
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Background Different indigenous peoples in the Philippines still utilize medicinal plants in treating gynecologic diseases. However, there is a lack of information regarding these medicinal plants used in treating gynecologic conditions in the Philippines. Hence, this systematic review compiled the available literature on medicinal plants used for gynecologic healthcare by various indigenous groups in the Philippines. Methods Ethnobotanical studies that reported medicinal plants used for gynecologic diseases were obtained from OVID Medline, Scopus, and EBSCO CINAHL. A review of titles, abstracts, and articles was done independently by four reviewers. The quality of the studies was assessed using the quality assessment tool for ethnobotanical studies. Results A total of 27 studies, including 98 different records, that cited the use of medicinal plants to treat gynecologic diseases were included in the qualitative synthesis. Most ethnobotanical studies were conducted in Northern Mindanao, Central Luzon, and Caraga, Philippines. The most common plant family, genus, and species were Fabaceae, Mimosa, and Mimosa pudica L., respectively. Leaves, roots, and stems were predominantly used, commonly prepared by decoction. Medicinal plants reported in ethnobotanical studies were widely used to treat dysmenorrhea (34 ssp.), irregular menstruation (28 spp.), myoma (four spp.), and infertility (four spp.). A significant proportion of medicinal plants used to treat gynecologic diseases in the Philippines had records of toxicologic (18 spp., 31.03%) or teratogenic (one sp., 1.72%) properties. Other species were reported as both nontoxic and toxic (five spp., 8.62%) and toxic and teratogenic (one sp., 1.72%). However, some were nontoxic or teratogenic (11 sp., 18.97%). In addition, 22 plant species had no data on toxicity or teratogenicity. Conclusion This systematic review showed that medicinal plants and traditional healing practices are crucial in gynecologic healthcare in the Philippines.
... americana têm sido utilizadas no tratamento de diabetes em países subdesenvolvidos da África e da América Latina, com algum potencial efeito anti-hiperglicemiante (Antia et al., 2005). Extratos tanto da semente quanto da folha de P. americana apresentam baixa toxicidade e genotoxicidade, permitindo que os mesmos possam ser usados para fins farmacêutico, alimentício ou cosmético (Padilla-Camberos et al., 2013). Assim, este estudo buscou fornecer uma compreensão da situação atual da pesquisa científica sobre a utilização de P. americana no controle do DM através de estudos experimentais. ...
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Introdução: Diabetes mellitus (DM) é uma doença prevalente que representa um dos grandes desafios para saúde pública. O uso de plantas medicinais vem sendo usada no controle do diabetes como a Persea americana. Desse modo, este trabalho tem como objetivo fazer a coletânea do conhecimento científico sobre a espécie vegetal P. americana no controle do DM por meio de uma revisão sistemática. Métodos: Trata-se de uma revisão sistemática de estudos in vivo e em vitro, segundo recomendações do protocolo PRISMA, nas seguintes etapas: 1) elaboração da pergunta norteadora ocorreu partir do acrônimo PICO (P – População e/ou Problema, I - Intervenção, C - Comparação e O – Outcome /desfechos) com definição dos descritores; 2) amostragem (seleção dos artigos) obedecendo critérios para inclusão/exclusão; 3) busca dos artigos nas bases de dados Scopus, PubMed/MEDLINE e BVS (BIREME); 4) amostragem (seleção dos artigos); 5) definição das informações a serem extraídas dos trabalhos revisados; 6) síntese do conhecimento evidenciado nos artigos analisados. Resultados: Dos 12 artigos selecionados, oito eram estudos experimentais in vivo e 4 estudos experimentais in vitro. Foram usados modelos de animais diabéticos como ratos Goto-Kakizaki e os modelos induzidos com estreptozocina e aloxana. Os estudos mostraram uma redução da glicemia com o uso de extratos de P. americana por diferentes vias fisiopatológicas. Conclusão: A P. americana pode contribuir para a redução do controle do DM podendo ser precursora de novas substâncias com atividade farmacológica e definida como grande potencialidade de transformação de uma futura droga antidiabética.
... Protocatechuic acid was the main phenolic compound found, followed by kaempferide and vanillic acid [21]. The seed extract possesses low toxicity [21]; however, some authors have reported that at concentrations of 500 mg/kg, the extracts display toxic and genotoxic activity in mice [17,40,41]. Studies with hypercholesterolemic mice have demonstrated the reduction of cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins by the seeds, an effect attributed to their phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and dietary and crude fiber content [21]. ...
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Agroindustrial activities generate various residues or byproducts which are inefficiently utilized, impacting the environment and increasing production costs. These byproducts contain significant amounts of bioactive compounds, including dietary fiber with associated phenolic compounds, known as antioxidant dietary fiber (ADF). Phenolic compounds are related to the prevention of diseases related to oxidative stress, such as neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. The mechanism of ADF depends on its chemical structure and the interactions between the dietary fiber and associated phenolic compounds. This work describes ADF, the main byproducts considered sources of ADF, its mechanisms of action, and its potential use in the formulation of foods destined for human consumption. ADF responds to the demand for low-cost, functional ingredients with great health benefits. A higher intake of antioxidant dietary fiber contributes to reducing the risk of diseases such as type II diabetes, colon cancer, obesity, and kidney stones, and has bile-acid retention–excretion, gastrointestinal laxative, hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic, prebiotic, and cardioprotective effects. ADF is a functional, sustainable, and profitable ingredient with different applications in agroindustry; its use can improve the technofunctional and nutritional properties of food, helping to close the cycle following the premise of the circular economy.
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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a global health problem owing to its high prevalence and increased morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of DM and impaired glucose tolerance in Uganda is approximately 4.1% and 6.6%, respectively. Medicinal plants are commonly used for the management of DM, especially in developing countries, such as Uganda . According to several ethnobotanical surveys conducted in Uganda, various medicinal plants are used in DM management. Meanwhile, ethnopharmacological studies have confirmed the anti-diabetic efficacy of various plants and plant-derived formulations from Uganda. However, these information remain highly fragmented without a single repository for plants used in the management and treatment of DM in Uganda, hindering further investigations. Therefore, this study aimed to comprehensively explore plants used for DM treatment in Uganda and retrieve relevant ethnopharmacological and ethnomedicinal information that can be used for DM therapy development. English peer-reviewed articles and books were searched in scientific databases, especially PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Science Direct, SciFinder, and Medline, to retrieve information on medicinal plants used for DM treatment and management in Uganda. The databases were searched to obtain published literature on the anti-diabetic activities and safety of plants among the identified plants. The family name, plant parts used, anti-diabetic activities, dosage, and mechanisms of action of plant extracts were captured. In total, 46 species belonging to 26 families are used to treat DM in Uganda. Most species belonged to the Fabaceae (20%), Asteraceae (13%), and Solanaceae (7%) families. Anti-diabetic activities of 27 (59%) species have been scientifically investigated, whereas the rest have not been evaluated. This review indicated that various medicinal plants are used in the traditional treatment and management of DM across different regions in Uganda. Scientific investigations have revealed the anti-diabetic potential and safety of several of these plants. However, there is a need to validate the anti-diabetic potential of other unstudied plants. Additionally, isolating and characterizing active principles and elucidating the anti-diabetic mechanism of these plants and performing preclinical and clinical studies in the future could aid in the formulation of an effective and safe treatment for DM.
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People are at risk of being infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which causes COVID-19 disease. Once they develop the disease , it could be deadlier. To deal with COVID-19, any antiviral remedy is not a gift. For the invention of the latest drugs, herbal commodities with recognized safety profiles are a hopeful source. We conducted a comprehensive literature search limited to human studies using electronic databases including PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. We validated the search terms using the preselected articles. The search terms used for all five databases included terms related to food habits, mental health, viral infections, immune systems, lifestyle, and study design. This review offers an outline of herbal commodities and conventional remedy commodities, which have been believed to prevent SARS-CoV-2 contagion and control COVID-19. Knowledge about the biological mechanism of the SARS-CoV-2 infection in the human host cell, availability of disorder-specific drugs, ongoing scientific trials, latest diagnostics, and the ability to use certain Indian medicinal herbs for the powerful remedy of COVID-19 are mentioned. Double-blind and placebo-managed big systematic scientific trials are required to achieve powerful remedies to offer stable proof. At present, discovering a quick, powerful remedy for COVID-19 drug redesign is an acceptable strategy.
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Avocado by-products present a waste issue for cold-pressed avocado oil processors in New Zealand. The avocado seed contains many extractable compounds that are beneficial to health. This work aims to evaluate the effects of roasting fermented avocado seed to produce a food ingredient with beneficial antioxidant and anticancer properties. Avocado seeds were subjected to natural fermentation and inoculated fermentation with either Lactobacillus plantarum or kefir. The fermented samples were evaluated in terms of total plate count values of lactic acid bacteria acetic acid bacteria and yeasts. The number of microorganisms increased significantly ( p < 0.001) over the 7 days of fermentation for all samples. Fermentation with L. plantarum resulted in significantly ( p < 0.05) higher total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activities compared to kefir and naturally fermented samples. The fermented avocado seeds were further subjected to roasting to yield a shelf-stable dried powder. Roasted samples fermented by L. plantarum had significantly ( p < 0.001) higher total polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assays) compared to kefir and naturally fermented samples. The avocado seed powder showed the best inhibition effect on Hep G2 followed by the MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cancer cell lines. The roasting conditions for optimal antioxidant and anticancer activities were determined to be at 127°C for 24.7 min. This study demonstrated that fermentation of avocado seeds in combination with roasting yielded a powder with good antioxidant and anticancer activities, which can potentially be incorporated into food for added health benefits.
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The rodent micronucleus assay has been widely used to evaluate chemical clastogenicity (Heddle et al. 1983; Mavournin et al. 1990) using bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes as the target cells. Instead of bone marrow, mouse peripheral blood was introduced for use in the micronucleus assay by MacGregor et al. (1980). Because the fraction of young erythrocytes in the peripheral blood is small, which makes micronucleus evaluation laborious, and because discrimination between young and mature erythrocytes is not easy with the usual staining technique, peripheral blood has not been used widely for screening for chemical clastogenicity. Recently, supravital staining with acridine orange (AO) was applied to the rodent peripheral blood micronucleus assay (Hayashi et al. 1990), and the advantages of the new method became evident. The reliability of the method was validated by the extended collaborative study organized by the Collaborative Study Group for the Micronucleus Test (CSGMT) of the Mammalian Mutagenesis Study Group (MMS) of the Environmental Mutagen Society of Japan (JEMS) (CSGMT, 1992).
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Oral submucosus fibrosis (OSMF) is a collagen-related disorder seen in habitual betel quids and smokers. This is a high risk precancerous condition in which the connective tissue fibers of the lamina propria and deeper parts of the mucosa becomes stiff with restricted mouth opening. Patients with severe cases have symptoms like difficulties in chewing, swallowing and speaking. In the present study 25 individuals were gutkha chewers and 25 were OSMF patients (chewing gutkha along with smoking) and 25 individuals were taken as controls. A significant increase in the frequency of micronuclei was observed in OSMF patients (34.4 ± 1.79) as compared to gutkha chewers (14.4 ± 0.73) and controls (4.36 ± 0.27). The number of micronucleated cells in OSMF, gutkha chewers and control groups were 19.84 ± 0.69, 12.6 ± 0.51 and 4.20 ± 0.27, respectively and are significantly different at p < 0.05. Acridine orange is used due its fluorescence nature and easier visibility of the micronucleus present in the buccal epithelial cells. It is concluded that chewing gutkha along with smoking is more dangerous for human health as it hastens the incidence of OSMF.
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Background Persea americana seeds are widely used in traditional Mexican medicine to treat rheumatism, asthma, infectious processes as well as diarrhea and dysentery caused by intestinal parasites. Methods The chloroformic and ethanolic extracts of P. americana seeds were prepared by maceration and their amoebicidal, giardicidal and trichomonicidal activity was evaluated. These extracts were also tested against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, four mono-resistant and two multidrug resistant strains of M. tuberculosis as well as five non tuberculosis mycobacterium strains by MABA assay. Results The chloroformic and ethanolic extracts of P. americana seeds showed significant activity against E. histolytica, G. lamblia and T. vaginalis (IC50 <0.634 μg/ml). The chloroformic extract inhibited the growth of M. tuberculosis H37Rv, M. tuberculosis MDR SIN 4 isolate, three M. tuberculosis H37Rv mono-resistant reference strains and four non tuberculosis mycobacteria (M. fortuitum, M. avium, M. smegmatis and M. absessus) showing MIC values ≤50 μg/ml. Contrariwise, the ethanolic extract affected only the growth of two mono-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis H37Rv and M. smegmatis (MIC ≤50 μg/ml). Conclusions The CHCl3 and EtOH seed extracts from P. americana showed amoebicidal and giardicidal activity. Importantly, the CHCl3 extract inhibited the growth of a MDR M. tuberculosis isolate and three out of four mono-resistant reference strains of M. tuberculosis H37Rv, showing a MIC = 50 μg/ml. This extract was also active against the NTM strains, M. fortuitum, M. avium, M. smegmatis and M. abscessus, with MIC values <50 μg/ml.
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Hass avocados, the most common commercial avocado cultivars in the world, contain a variety of essential nutrients and important phytochemicals. Although the official avocado serving is one-fifth of a fruit (30 g), according to NHANES analysis the average consumption is one-half an avocado (68 g), which provides a nutrient and phytochemical dense food consisting of the following: dietary fiber (4.6 g), total sugar (0.2 g), potassium (345 mg), sodium (5.5 mg), magnesium (19.5 mg), vitamin A (43 μg), vitamin C (6.0 mg), vitamin E (1.3 mg), vitamin K1 (14 μg), folate (60 mg), vitamin B-6 (0.2 mg), niacin (1.3 mg), pantothenic acid (1.0 mg), riboflavin (0.1 mg), choline (10 mg), lutein/zeaxanthin (185 μg), phytosterols (57 mg), and high-monounsaturated fatty acids (6.7 g) and 114 kcals or 1.7 kcal/g. The avocado oil consists of 71% monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), 13% polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and 16% saturated fatty acids (SFA), which helps to promote healthy blood lipid profiles and enhance the bioavailability of fat soluble vitamins and phytochemicals from the avocado or other fruits and vegetables, naturally low in fat, which are consumed with avocados. There are eight preliminary clinical studies showing that avocado consumption helps support cardiovascular health. Exploratory studies suggest that avocados may support weight management and healthy aging.
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The aqueous seed extract (AE) of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) is used by some herbal medicine practitioners in Nigeria for the treatment of hypertension. We investigated its effects on the mean arterial pressure (MAP) and Heart Rate (HR) of naïve and 260 mg/kg/day x 10 days pretreated rats. Naïve rats were given bolus injections of (a) -AE (240, 260, 280 mg/kg); (b) -2 µg/kg of acetylcholine (ACh) + 240, 260, 280 mg/kg of AE; or bolus doses of ACh (1, 2, 4 µg/kg). Results show that 10-day pretreatment significantly reduced MAP (125.7 ± 11.2 vs 92.1 ± 8.5 mm Hg) and HR (274.6 ± 39.3 vs 161.6 ± 11.6 beats/min). Also, acute AE injections significantly decreased MAP from baseline values in naïve rats. The effects of AE on MAP were comparable with those of ACh. Combination of AE with 2 µg/kg of ACh only significantly potentiated the MAP reducing effect of 240 mg/kg of AE. It is concluded that the aqueous seed extract of P. americana reduces BP and HR in normotensive rats. This observation lends credence to its use by herbalists for the management of hypertension.
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Avocado seed contains elevated levels of phenolic compounds and exhibits antioxidant properties. We investigated the effect of Avocado Seed Flour (ASF) on the lipid levels in mice on a hyperlipidemic diet. The concentration of phenols was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, antioxidant activity was evaluated using the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity method, and dietary fiber was measured using the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) method. The LD50 of ASF was determined using Lorke's method and hypolipidemic activity was evaluated in a hypercholesterolemic model in mice. Protocatechuic acid was the main phenolic compound found in ASF, followed by kaempferide and vanillic acid. The total phenolic content in the methanolic extract of ASF was 292.00 ± 9.81 mg gallic acid equivalents/g seed dry weight and the antioxidant activity resulted in 173.3 μmol Trolox equivalents/g DW. In addition, a high content of dietary fiber was found (34.8%). The oral LD50 for ASF was 1767 mg/kg body weight, and treatment with ASF significantly reduced the levels of total cholesterol, LDL-C, and prediction of the atherogenic index. Therefore, the antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds and dietary fiber in ASF may be responsible for the hypocholesterolemic activity of ASF in a hyperlipidemic model of mice.
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Phyllanthus niruri is a medicinal plant (commonly known as stone breaker) found in the tropics and other parts of the world. It is known for its capacity to block the formation of calcium oxalate crystals and kidney stone formation in urolithiasis. This plant has been used to treat hyperglycemia, hypertension, pain, and mild cases of malaria. We examined the geno-, cyto- and overall toxicity of P. niruri whole plant ethanolic extract. The extract was administered as a single dose of 30 or 300 mg/kg to laboratory rats by gavage, accompanied by negative (0.9% saline) and positive (10 mg/mL N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea) controls that were injected intramuscularly 48 h after extract administration. The ratio of polychromatic (PCE)/normochromatic erythrocytes (NCE) from femur bone marrow was scored for genotoxicity. Cytotoxicity was determined using descending concentrations (0.2-0.0125 g/mL) of the extract incubated with peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Lactate dehydrogenase release from damaged cells was determined and the CC(50) calculated. Subchronic administration of the extract at 30 or 300 mg/kg was done for 90 days to determine general toxicity. PCE:NCE (%) for the extract and negative control was 63, compared to 168 (positive control). The CC(50) was 26.3 mg/mL and hepato-renal toxicity after subchronic extract administration was nil. We conclude that ethanol extract of P. niruri is not cytotoxic or genotoxic, and is generally non-toxic on subchronic administration.
The aim of this study was to investigate the anticlastogenicity as well as the clastogenicity of Eryngium foetidum leaf (EF) using the in vivo mouse peripheral blood erythrocyte micronucleus assay. Eighty ICR male mice were fed AIN-76 diet supplemented with ground freeze-dried EF at 0.0%, 0.8%, 1.6% and 3.2% for 2 weeks prior to the administration of both direct-acting, mitomycin C (MMC), and indirect-acting, 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a) anthracene (DMBA) clastogens. Peripheral blood samples were collected from mice just before administration of clastogen and at 24 and 48 h thereafter for MMC. Blood samples were collected at the same times and after 72 h for DMBA. Then, reticulocytes in blood samples were counted using fluorescent microscopy. The results indicated that EF had no clastogenic effect in mice. All doses of diets supplemented with EF decreased the number of micronucleated peripheral reticulocytes in all the MMC-treated groups in a dose dependent manner, but significant reduction was found only at 1.6% and 3.2% EF in the DMBA-treated groups. It can be concluded that EF has no clastogenicity, but possesses anticlastogenic potential against both direct- and indirect-acting types of clastogen in mice.